The composition of eggs draws attention to the high level of balance of biologically active components. The chemical composition of eggs is given in the table.
The amount and quality of protein in the protein and yolk are different. In egg white, mainly ovalbumin - 69.7%, conalbumin - 9.5%, ovoglobulin - 6.7%,%, ovomucoid - 12.7%, ovomucin - 1.9%, lysozyme - 3% and avidin - 0.0 5%. Of these proteins, ovoalbumin and conalbumin, which is a flavoprotein, have the highest biological value.
The presence of ovoglobulin ensures the ability of egg whites to knock foam when churning, and the presence of ovomucin stabilizes this foam. The yolk contains phosphoproteins - vitellin, livetin and phosphovitin.
The main protein of the yolk is vitellin, whose content reaches 80%. The amino acid composition of egg proteins (protein and yolk) is given in the table.
Amino acid composition of egg proteins
The composition of the latter is dominated by unsaturated fatty acids (67%), which gives all egg fats high biological properties. The egg lipids contain phospholipids, sterols and cerebrosides. The main part of phospholipids is lecithin, the amount of which in the yolk is 8.6% or 1.6 g. Up to 75% of choline is included in lecithin, and about 50% of the lecithin in yolk is associated with vitelline. In addition to lecithin, the yolk contains kefalin and sphingomyelin, which have the same biological activity as lecithin. The main sterol of the yolk of the egg is cholesterol, whose content in the egg is stable and amounts, according to some data, to 468 mg% (Sisley, 1958). According to other data in the yolk 0.3 g of cholesterol.
Cholesterol in the yolk is predominantly in the free state (84%) in a mobile, unbound form. The ratio of lecithin to cholesterol in the egg is favorable, and as in no other food product the content of lecithin exceeds that of cholesterol. The ratio of lecithin - cholesterol in the yolk of the egg is 6: 1.
Eggs are one of the important sources of choline. No other food product contains as much choline as eggs - 1700 mg%. All fat-soluble vitamins (in mg%) are represented in eggs: retinol - 0.6, vitamin D2 - 0.042-0.12, tocopherols - 20, vitamin - 0.02.
Vitamins of the Β group (in mg%) are fairly well represented: thiamine - 0.14 (in the yolk 0.35-0.48), riboflavin - 0.69, pantothenic acid in the whole egg - 1.4, in the yolk - 6, folic acid - 0.09, pyridoxine - 0.02, biotin (vitamin H): in the yolk 0.037, in the protein -0.01, in the whole egg -0.02. In raw protein, biotin is associated with avidin protein. The ability of avidin to bind biotin causes the occurrence of disorders such as food poisoning after consuming raw egg proteins. These disorders can be considered biotin avitaminosis.
The yolk of the egg contains a significant amount of carotenoids, giving it a yellow color. Among the carotenoids here are α- and β-carotene, xanthophyll, and cryptoxanthin. Xanthophyll is 3 times more than carotene.
Eggs are most important as a source.
- phosphorus (470 mg%, yolk)
- sulfur (220 mg%)
- iron (5.8 mg%)
- copper (0.4 mg%)
Eggs contain a lot of potassium and sodium and very little calcium.
In the eggshell, calcium carbonate is well represented (93% of the shell weight). There is evidence of the good digestibility of eggshell calcium salts. In some cases, fine flour from egg shells can be successfully used in the enrichment of culinary and bakery products with calcium.
The digestibility of the heat-treated egg is better than the raw one. Under the influence of heating to a temperature of 80 °, the antithyptic enzyme present in the raw egg is destroyed, and the unfavorable avidin-biotin complex is broken down. All components of the egg are heat treated and well digested: proteins - 98% and fats - 96%.
Chicken egg size
As a rule, its parameters will depend on the breed of the hen, its age, complementary foods and the conditions of detention. For example, if a hen constantly received less of any useful substances, then this fact will certainly affect the quality of the egg. The bird will be much worse to trot. If the hens are fed with natural food without the addition of antibiotics, then the eggs that they carry will be considered organic products and valued much higher.
Large eggs carry chickens from the age of eight months. Young birds give out eggs of small size. The quantity and size of this product also depend on the breed of the hen. There are so-called egg chickens, among which the following breeds are distinguished: Leggorn, Highseck Brown, Lohman Brown and Highline. As well as good large eggs are obtained from healthy birds, which are kept in favorable conditions. If the chickens are constantly freezing or starving, then all their forces will be spent searching for food or heating. In this case, you should not expect a lot of eggs from it, but be content with a small amount of product and its small size. These eggs are much less valuable.
The energy value
This product contains enough protein (12.7 g), a lot of fat (11.5 g) and a small amount of carbohydrates (less than 1 g). Eggs are fairly high in calories. So, per 100 g of the product - 157 calories. It was noted that eggs are a valuable source of energy that perfectly satisfies hunger and energizes. They are recommended to use in the morning before the start of the working day. Vegetarians replace meat with this product if they feel the lack of some elements. As already mentioned, the egg is one of the few products that is completely absorbed by the human body.
Benefit for health
The benefits of chicken eggs for the human body is as follows:
- Due to its quinine content, this product is an excellent prevention of cancer.
- Scientists have noticed that egg lovers are much less likely to suffer from osteoporosis than people who ignore this product.
- Thanks to calcium and vitamin D, eggs significantly strengthen bone tissue. Doctors recommend patients with fractures of the limbs to use daily from one to two eggs.
- Potassium contained in this product strengthens the heart muscle and contributes to the elasticity of the vessels.
- Thanks to zinc and folic acid, eggs help to improve the female reproductive system and help her carry a healthy baby.
Similarly, the product acts on a man. Fans of eggs are much less likely to suffer from prostatitis and have good potency.
How to choose eggs
Many people pay attention primarily to the size and condition of the shell. Experts advise to evaluate the product according to the grade, storage conditions and GOST. It is believed that the most useful are eggs purchased on the market from small producers. There is an opinion that large poultry farms feed layers of unhealthy food, which contains antibiotics.
In order to protect themselves and their loved ones from such a purchase, it is best to find a farmer who inspires confidence, and regularly purchase from him own products. Very often, the breeder meets the requirements of regular customers, shows clients his compound and tells in detail about the conditions of the birds.
Storage and labeling
According to GOST, a chicken egg is marked as follows: the Latin letter D means that the shelf life of the product is only seven days. This egg will be considered dietary. The table product is marked with the letter C, and its shelf life is twenty-five days. The weight of the egg of the first category should be about sixty grams, together with the shell.
What is the yolk
The chemical composition of chicken egg yolk and protein are somewhat different from each other. For example, it contains a huge amount of vitamin B12. The yolk has a rich color, due to the presence in it of vitamin A. This important element is simply necessary for healing the skin, eliminating peeling and healing wounds. The lack of this vitamin leads to premature aging and the formation of wrinkles. In addition, thanks to vitamin PP, the walls of blood vessels are strengthened and their elasticity increases. The brighter the yolk, the more it contains vitamin A, which means that its benefits are much higher.
As for the other important elements, it boasts a substance such as choline and melatonin. Moreover, the greatest amount of these substances will contain the raw egg yolk.
This unique product has absolutely no fat, but it is the most important source of protein (protein). There are a lot of trace elements, among which emit calcium, phosphorus and iron. Amino acids present in the composition of the chicken egg protein supply oxygen to the brain cells. Unlike yolk, it is undesirable to eat protein raw. In its composition is an enzyme that destroys the gastric juice. In addition, this product is quite a powerful allergen, which also adversely affects human health. It contains only forty-eight kilocalories.
Eggs and cholesterol
Very often you can hear the opinion that eggs are a supplier of a huge amount of cholesterol, which is deposited on the walls of blood vessels. In fact, this product contains beneficial cholesterol, which is a building material for the liver. However, the intake of cholesterol from foods is not at all necessary, since it is perfectly produced by the body itself. Therefore, without it, man will not remain.
Unfortunately, very often useful products along with vitamins and trace elements contain harmful substances. For example, chicken yolk, which is known to be rich in extremely important elements, has quite a lot of cholesterol. People who monitor their health, as a rule, carefully calculate the number of harmful and unwanted components. When it is not possible to completely abandon eggs, the use of other products should be minimized. Thus, if a person eats two yolks during the day, he should limit the consumption of milk or meat in order not to exceed the daily intake of cholesterol. After all, with a small amount of his body easily copes.
Unfortunately, many eggs in supermarkets contain antibiotics. They can be partially destroyed by heat treatment. In addition to antibiotics, nitrates and other poisons are also present in these products. And there is also the risk of Salmonella infection. This is a rather unpleasant disease, which is sometimes fatal. In addition, there is a category of people who are not recommended to eat eggs. These are primarily allergic people and people with digestive tract problems. With psoriasis, the eggs cause an exacerbation of the disease. Patients with cardiovascular diseases should be cautious and use this product as rarely as possible due to the presence of cholesterol in it.
The chemical composition of chicken eggs
In terms of its chemical composition, an egg represents a unique fusion of the most useful substances, trace elements, vitamins that nourish the body, saturate it with energy, and the yolk, protein and shell have their own chemical structure.
The yolk, protein and eggshells of chicken eggs have their own chemical structure.
What is in the composition of the yolk
The composition of the yolk is richer, more diverse. Unlike protein, the yolk is considered the fattest part of the egg and contains 50-55 Kcal. The main element that makes the yolk indispensable product to strengthen the immune system, is vitamin D. Vitamin growth, it is necessary, both for children and adults. Also, scientists secrete vitamins A in the egg yolk, and group B (B3-B12).
The yolk is the fattest part of the egg, it contains 50-55 Kcal.
Choline, a rare element in nature, is also in the yolk, it has a number of healing properties, in particular, it normalizes the work of the whole organism, activates the work of the internal organs and nourishes with nourishing energy. Amino acids form healthy muscle tissue, trigger the most powerful process of regeneration of healthy cells.
Shell chemical composition
It would seem that the whole value of the product should consist only in its edible part, but nature is wise, and if we talk about chicken (goose, quail, etc.) egg, then it should be noted that the composition of the shell is no less valuable than the composition of protein and yolk .
The shell contains calcium, and in large quantities. For this reason, the shell must be given to the chickens in crushed form. Few people know that in crushed to a powdery state, the shell can and should be consumed in small dosages by people. Crushed to powder, it can make an excellent natural analogue of expensive biological additives, a source of calcium.
The egg shell contains calcium in large quantities.
So, consuming a pinch of egg shell powder in the morning on an empty stomach, washing it down with a glass of warm water, you can replenish calcium reserves in the body, which will immediately positively affect the condition of hair, nails and bones.
Important. Before shredding, the shells should be thoroughly washed with warm running water (without using detergents) and dried.
What is the chicken egg protein
Protein is a clear, viscous liquid that takes up most of the product and consists of many layers. Beating it produces foam, which can be very thick. The density of the whole protein is not the same; its most dense part is located closer to the center, that is, near the yolk, thereby keeping the yolk in the center.
The protein contains in its composition a large number of trace elements, including ovalbumin and conalbumin. These substances contain many amino acids, but they are in optimal ratios. This leads to the fact that eggs are easily digestible product, that is, their digestibility is 98%.
The following elements perform different functions:
- Ovalbumin in the egg guarantees high solubility of protein in water,
- ovomucin allows you to stabilize the foam when whisking, that is, make it strong,
- ovoglobulin allows the squirrel to foam when whipping,
- Lysozyme has bactericidal properties that can disappear with the aging of eggs.
In addition to all this, protein has in its composition a variety of minerals and vitamins, such as vitamins of group B, vitamin E, D and many others. Protein contains 47 kcal per 100 grams of product.
How does the chemical composition of eggs affect people
As already noted, an egg is a storehouse of vitamins and minerals. Their effects on the human body are very diverse and sometimes, in addition to the positive effects, a negative effect can also be observed. For example, avidin is present in the chemical composition of the egg. It is a protein that binds biotin and regulates neuro-reflex activity, thereby forming an avidobiotin complex. When heat is applied to it, it begins to decompose into its constituent elements. This means that excessive use raw foods can cause H-Vitamin, and therefore, health problems may occur.
Ovomucoid, which is a protein found in eggs, can destabilize the functioning of trypsin. And this enzyme is very important for the pancreas. Accordingly, all this can lead to poor absorption of both the egg itself and other products.
Also, it should be noted that the frequent use of ovomucoid, which is not absorbed by the body, can cause allergic reactions. This is especially common in children, because their immune systems are weaker than in adults.
If ovomukoid exert thermal effects, then its properties disappear completely. When whipping only partially.
Present in squirrel lysozymewhich is an enzyme and when the storage conditions of the product are not met, it can begin to break down. This can lead to the fact that a person will have a severe food infection.
The nutritional value of chicken eggs
Egg is a high-calorie, nutritious and at the same time, healthy product. Nutritional value in one hundred grams 100-150 kcal, which is 1 / 15-1 / 20 of the daily intake of a person. Due to the contained substances it is possible to fill the body's energy need by 15% per one consumption.
The nutritional value of one hundred grams of boiled chicken eggs is 100-150 kcal.
Thirty grams contains:
- 10-13% of proteins
- 0.7-1% carbohydrates
- 80-85% water
- 1-9% of vitamins, nutrients, glucose.
The composition of the boiled egg looks like:
- 3 grams of pure protein (proteins),
- 0.6 grams of carbohydrates
- 5 grams of fat.
What are the beneficial substances found in chicken eggs
The egg is a storehouse of vitamins, trace elements, amino acids. That is why this product is included in the mandatory diet of each athlete, especially bodybuilders, whose purpose is to reduce fat and increase muscle mass.
Chicken egg is a storehouse of vitamins, trace elements, amino acids.
Magnesium, iron, phosphorus, sodium and many other substances stimulate the growth of healthy cells, preventing premature aging of the body. Калий укрепляет сердечную мышцу, фолиевая и другие кислоты активизируют обмен веществ и препятствуют ожирению.
Но, несмотря на то, что яйцо – безусловно, ценнейший, полезный для здоровья продукт, дозировка не должна превышать 100-150 грамм в день, так как богатый состав может оказаться тяжелым для печени и поджелудочной железы. Поэтому людям с проблемами печени и поджелудочной следует относиться к употреблению яиц с осторожностью.
Chicken Egg Classification
An egg is subdivided into species according to quality, category. There are five categories, each of which has its own characteristics.
There are five categories of eggs, each of which has its own characteristics.
Higher, zero or selective, first, second, third. The best eggs go into the highest and selective category, culling - in the second and third, so they are cheaper. The weight of an egg of the highest category may exceed 70 g., The mass of the selected category should not be less than 60-65 g., The first category - 50-55, the weight of the egg of the second category varies from 40 to 45 g., The third category and even less.
Also, the product is divided into dietary and table type. The first is characterized by a short-term shelf life (no more than 7 days of storage) and is considered the most beneficial to health, containing a maximum of useful substances. The table variety is universal, it is sold in stores, its shelf life is 120 days in temperature conditions + 5-0 degrees Celsius.
We disassemble the marking
Product category marking is indicated by the letters D and C followed by a number indicating the category number. The letter D means dietary egg, C - table.
Chicken eggs must be labeled with letters and numbers by category.
So, C1 marking means that you have table grade eggs of the first category. If you see the marking D1, you can be sure that you have a real storehouse of the most valuable substances. Such a product is simply necessary for the healthy growth of a child who has weakened after a person’s illness. But remember that a dietary egg is stored no more than a week.
A huge role is played by the fact that a homemade egg or from a chicken farm: the food of the chicken lays the foundation of substances in the egg. Today, there is a practice to feed poultry farms with antibiotics and hormones. Accordingly, shop eggs contain only half the benefits, whereas eggs from domestic chicken can rightly be called the most valuable gift of nature.
But still, despite the negative, this product has a large amount of vitamins, minerals and nutrients, which makes it a very valuable product for its nutritional value. Egg contains a large amount of fat. They are mostly concentrated in the yolk. Plus, they have a rather low melting point, which means that such a product is perfectly absorbed by the human body.
In addition, the yolk is concentrated unsaturated fatty acid. These are arachidonic, linoleic and oleic, which are also beneficial to humans.
But it should be noted that the egg is also a source of cholesterol. Although it is in them a bit, about 1.6%, but their regular use can cause the development of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, people in old age are better off reducing the amount of this product in their diet.
Among the useful properties can be identified and such:
- For example, regular consumption of such food can help fight depression.
- improves mood and leads to increased performance.
- Also, scientists proved that the product prevents the development of cardiovascular and even oncological diseases.
From this it follows that it is quite a useful product. After all, if we consider the composition of the chicken egg, then you can see a lot of elements in it, which will bring only benefit to the person. But, accordingly, they should be consumed in moderation.