The Vladimirskiy heavy trucks were bred by the collective farms of the Ivanovo and Vladimir regions (mainly in Gavrilovo-Posadsky, Yuryev-Polsky and Suzdal districts) on the basis of a local enlarged horse by using various breeds of horses for breeding, but mainly heavy trucks.
The creation here of a heavy horse was caused by economic factors. Nearby industrial centers and cities, such as Moscow, Leningrad, Yaroslavl, and others, showed a demand for a heavy draft horse, which increased especially in the late XIX-early XX century, and transport organizations presented a demand mainly for medium horses (for heavy trucks) power, but with good movements.
Vladimir "Opole" (where the above-mentioned areas are located) is characterized by black-earthy, heavy and quite fertile soils, for the treatment of which a weighted horse was also required. Good feeding conditions have contributed to the success of the horse in these areas.
The areas where the heavyweight trucks of Vladimir were created have long been famous for their horses. The beginning of breeding good horses here was laid in the first quarter of the 18th century, when a state-owned horse breeding factory was established in Gavrilovo-Posad, which existed until 1829, in which enlarged riding and draft horses were raised. Part of the production of this plant fell into the peasant farms and contributed to the improvement of the local horse. After the liquidation of the stud farm in its place was organized "Zemsky stable", abolished in the 60s. This stable had a significant impact on local horse breeding. Thus, in the military cavalry census of 1882, it was noted that "the horse breed of Gavrilovo-Posad in recent years comes from state-owned stallions who were in the Zemstvo stable."
According to this census, horses with a height of 142 cm and more were in Suzdal district 45.9% and in Yuryevsk 47.2%, while in European Russia such horses were on average only 11%.
In the second half of the XIX century, the Gavrilovo Posad state stable of stables, organized in 1886, had the greatest influence on the improvement of local horse breeding.
Initially, half of the stallions in its composition were of the upstream and trotting type, but in the future, the heavy trucks completely replaced the stallions of other breeds and types. The composition of the heavyweight group also gradually changed.
At first, Ardens, Percherons, Suffolks prevailed, there were also Danish draft carriers, bityugi and klevelendy, and then these rocks began to be replaced by Clydesdals, and since 1910 also Shair.
In the pedigrees of modern Vladimir heavy-duty vehicles in the immediate ranks of the ancestors there are Kleidesdali and Shire, and in the more distant ones, along with the local horse, suffolki, ardens, percherons, and trotters.
How the value of individual breeds of stallions changed in improving the local horse is clearly seen from table 24.
Table 24. Covered mares by stallions of the State factory stable in Gavrilovo-Posadsky, Yuryev-Polsky and Suzdal districts (in percent)
1 (Mainly stallions of the Vladimir breed.)
Over the past 20 years, the improvement of the local horse and the consolidation of the type of heavy truck obtained were carried out by reproductive crossing with the use of stallions raised on collective farms. This work was led by the Gavrilovo-Posad state breeding nursery organized in 1936. In those years, the new breed began to take shape, which in 1946 was given the name "Vladimir heavy breed".
Before the revolution, individual peasant farms were not able to carry out in-depth breeding work according to a certain plan, and local improved horses were mere mixtures of various breeds and were very diverse in type.
Only with the unification of individual farms into collective farms and the organization of a state breeding nursery was an opportunity to establish purposeful breeding work on the creation and consolidation of a new type of heavy horse and in a relatively short time to bring a new breed.
When breeding the Vladimir breed, the task was to combine large size, high power and good chest development of large heavy trucks with good adaptation to the climate and feed of the Vladimir and Ivanovo regions of the local horse, improved by various lighter breeds (trotters, ardens, suffolks, etc.).
Much attention was paid to the selection and selection. This took into account not only the horse's origin, but also the peculiarities of its composition: the strength of the constitution, the development of the backbone, the correct build, sufficient size and good working qualities (strength, free production movements, temperament).
Feeding was good. Thus, according to M.P. Korzenev *, on horse-breeding farms, one adult breeding mare weighing 550-600 kg was fed for an average year of 26-30 centners of clover and meadow hay, 8-10 centrs of spring straw, 10-12 centrs of oats and 3-4 centners of grain waste. They were fed individually, taking into account the state of fatness of the horses, the work they did and the period of the foal or choke.
* (See the article in Volume I of the State Studbook of the horses of the Vladimir heavy breed.)
An important role in breeding a new breed was played by the purposeful rearing of young stock, its good feeding and maintenance. According to the collective farm "Path to Socialism", Suzdal district, at birth, foals weighed about 54 kg. Mares in the first month of lactation gave about 14-15 liters of milk, and in the second - 11-12 liters. During this period, when used in field work, breeding suckling mares received 14–16 kg of bean and cereal hay, 5–6 kg of oats, 2-3 kg of bran, and 25–30 g of salt. From the second month on, foals began to be fed with flattened oats, giving them (per day):
Weaning foals produced at the age of 5-6 months. In winter, weaners were given daily 7-8 kg of hay and 3 kg (and by the end of winter 5 kg) of concentrates. In the summer, the yearlings used pasture, the best foals received additional feeding - 1-2 kg of oats per day. In the winter, they gave 6-8 kg of hay, 3-4 kg of spring straw, about 2 kg of oats and 15-20 g of salt to half tarts. In summertime, the two-year-old fillys used only pasture, but the colts were usually kept in a stable, getting freshly cut grass and 2-3 kg of oats.
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. from Cast and Galina.
The line of the capstan, sv.-gn., born. 1915, quite common in the breed. It includes about 13%. mares and 10% breed stallions. The capstan himself was a small stallion and had measurements of 157-167-191-25. The horses of this line are distinguished by body length, with a good topline, some roughness and simplicity of addition, their breasts are deep, but not very wide. The line is better represented in mares.
The best representative of the line - Stallion Commission, thief., Born. 1932, marked the second prize at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition in 1939
Chemist Line, Karak., Born 1926, measurements 156-180-25, live weight 675 kg, represented by small horses, but with well-developed bones, a deep, wide body, their legs are of medium length, often with significant dews, sometimes slightly damp. Uterine nests in the breed are less formalized than the male lines, but among the mares a number of valuable individuals emerged. In particular, it should be noted:
1) Countess, gn., Born 1927, which gave a very valuable offspring, among which producers are Granite 2, Grozny and Garus,
2) Pyshku, gn., Birth. 1925, which gave a number of elite horses, including the champion of the breed at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition of 1939, Prozit and the champion of the Gavrilovo-Posad exhibition, 1940. Pepper,
3) The tower, gn., The birth. 1931, who gave a number of elite children, including stallions of Baton and Litogo,
4) Grace, Barricade and a number of other mares.
At present, the Vladimir breed is bred mainly in collective farms. The best composition is concentrated in the following collective farms.
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1) "New Life", Gavrilovo-Posad district, Ivanovo region, in which more than 60 producers of not less than I class are grown, among them Lily of the valley, Lawn, Baton and a number of others,
2) "New Way", the same region in which champions of the breed Prozit and Pepper are grown,
3) “Atheist”, Yuryev-Polsky district, Vladimir region, in which the producers of Garus and Grozny are grown,
4) named after A. M. Gorky, Yuryev-Polsky district and
5) "The Road to Socialism", Suzdal district, Vladimir region, in which a number of valuable horses were reared.
The main task of further breeding work with the Vladimir heavy trucks is to improve the breed and consolidate its valuable qualities: high performance, sufficient power, good movements and comparative dryness of composition. To achieve this, it is necessary, in addition to the correct selection and selection, to ensure uninterrupted and sufficiently complete feeding of young and adult breeding stock, which in turn requires the organization of proper foraging on collective farms.
Vladimir heavy trucks were bred in the Vladimir and Ivanovo regions, which are located northeast of the capital of the Russian Federation, animals were bred on the basis of cledesdals. Wanting to achieve excellent quality as a result of a heavy and working horse, from Great Britain and France brought in a special way for the process of crossing with local mares, stallions of different breeds.
The agricultural industry of the beginning of the twentieth century owes its productivity to a large extent to this particular breed. Before the “iron horse that replaced the peasant horse,” the hard horse was indispensable wherever force was needed to carry heavy loads. Although in the future, the total introduction of industrial technologies and machines pushed the heavy truck from its usual leadership in cargo transportation, yet it remains fairly popular everywhere for its intended purpose.
The greatest influence on the possibility of breeding new Vladimir citizens was made by Kledes, Glen Albin, Lord James and Border Brand. As a result of the process of crossing, a rather suitable breed of horses appeared. Already in 1946, the horse breed of the Vladimir heavy truck, began to be considered a real breed. The main advantage of the Vladimir heavyweight is the fact of early maturing stallions. After all, already by three years, these beauties are fully and completely ready for the reproduction process.
And they are quite prolific, as well as they are able to conduct their main work in an excellent way. However, there is also what is considered a disadvantage of a beautiful breed. And this is exactly the incredibly long back that some horses have. It does not have any positive effect on the increase in strength. In addition, a flat ribcage from the sides, which, in contrast to a good sharp edge, capable of ensuring the functioning of the lungs, would be with the maximum level of recoil.
The Vladimir horse is the largest breed of all existing Russian heavy trucks. Interestingly, the weight of the stallions is approximately 758 kg. And in the girth of the chest, they reach as much as 207 centimeters! Mares are not so different their own parameters. Chest circumference is 196 cm, but their weight - 685 kg. The most common is exactly the bay suit. But they can also be red or black.
And they come with white markings on the head and legs. Representatives of the Vladimir heavy haulers have a hunchbacked profile, a long large head, a long and muscular neck, a pronounced withers, a long and broad back, a wide chest, a long and slanted croup, and also long legs. In 1952, two other breeds of Russian heavy trucks were honored to be registered. One of them was brought about a hundred years ago on the basis of ardens.
But the second was bred on the basis of local mares and Brabancons. The two horse breeds are distinguished by their amazing longevity and fast growth rate. They were formerly called Russian Ardens (that is, similar, with some of the best heavy trucks in the world).
The main feature of Vladimir, as a breed, is its rather large dimensions. This horse weighs about 900, but can reach 1200 kg. Height at withers (height) reaches 175 cm. Chest girth - about 2 meters. Pastern, as for a heavy truck, up to 30 cm.
Massive skull convex profile, long, full neck. The wide body with oblique shoulder blades and long legs developed is equipped with magnificent muscles, clearly standing out on the back and rump of the horse.
Among the predominant bay and red color, come across heavy brown and black suit. At the bottom of the legs, the appearance of this breed is emphasized by wide white stockings.
Among the breeders of heavy horses, the Vladimir breed of horse is very much appreciated and is considered very prestigious for breeding. The main advantage of this breed, of course, is its strength, as its impressive exterior speaks eloquently. However, the merits of the giant are not limited to this.
Having absorbed the best parameters of other breeds, the Vladimir Heavy Duty is a combination of zeal and vigor with elegance and grace. Versatile this breed makes great physical power along with the beauty of the course, worthy of elite racers.
Along with the pluses, of course, not without cons. The main ones are the soft back of a shallow body and flat ribs that will not move this breed, along with Suffolk and Shire, from the world leadership in physical condition.
Given the size, the Vladimir heavyweight would have to have such disadvantages as low speed and sluggishness. But overcoming in five minutes, with a load of 1,500 kg two kilometers, suggests otherwise.
Of course, the Vladimir heavy-duty horse breed cannot compete in speed with a purebred English or Akhal-Teke, but the combination of all its qualities makes this breed much more worthy.
Using the example of the Vladimir horse breed, we can say that the appearance of a horse should not be judged on its character. Impressive and formidable view does not reflect the calm, docile nature of that mares, that of geldings. Usually there is no difficulty in communicating with the owner or in the harness, except in cases of mistreatment of a person with a horse.
A great advantage of horse breed is quick adaptation to the living environment and working conditions. Due to the vigor of the breed, the young can sometimes show a temper, not listening to the owner, but good attitude and caress will improve the matter. Having made friends, the horse will show itself as a kind and devoted hard worker.
The time of year and the vagaries of weather do not affect the attitude of the Vladimirtse to work.
He will be equally zealous in the snow, and in the rain, and in the hot afternoon.
This unique type of horse is regularly used for breeding, as a result of which the Vladimir Heavy Draft became the ancestor of other breeds of heavy horses. He gave them his best qualities - a huge growth with a mountain of muscles, tirelessness and diligence in work, great physical strength along with energy. Breeders are thinking about breeding on the basis of Vladimirskaya - the ideal horse, which would embody the best of all breeds of purebred horses.
Nowadays, the physical and psychological characteristics of the Vladimirtz attract this horse to the most diverse fields of activity. Strength, confidence, agility allow you to use it even in the hunt.
The main point of keeping a horse of any breed is the daily care for it. This implies proper feeding, cleaning, rest. And for each breed - its own peculiarities of care.
The heavy truck, given its physical condition and the amount of work for which it was created, is in dire need of grains and vitamins, as a supplement to the basis of its menu - fresh and dried grass. In order not to harm the stomach, you need to be moderate with cereals, but even here, the Vladimir hard-training horse breed has to consume one and a half times more grain than other breeds. Also with vitamins, which in order to avoid diseases of the horse, support strong immunity and the necessary amount of necessary substances in the body. Clean air in large quantities is another important aspect of caring for a heavy truck and part of its fruitful work.
And work is his main hypostasis, therefore “Vladimirets” more often than others should be examined by a physician. At least five times a year.
As for water treatments, winter is the time when washing is taboo. The horse must be thoroughly cleaned. In the summer, after work, a moderate “shower” with cold water is simply necessary. Beauty, strength, versatility and balance - that distinguishes from a number of breeds of Vladimir heavy-load.
Tests of heavy trucks
Parfenov V., Tsyganok I.
Breeding horses of heavy breeds in Russian horse farms has always been the basis for improving the working qualities of utility farm horses. It was precisely the mixtures of heavy trucks that constituted the best, most efficient part of them for hard field and transport works. Отличные результаты давало и промышленное скрещивание тяжеловозов с рысаками.
В настоящее время актуальность использования тяжеловозов в деле производства рабочих лошадей для использования на различных видах работ в сельском хозяйстве сохраняется. Calculations show the production and economic efficiency of equestrian operations during on-farm transportation, in the maintenance of livestock farms, in field work in small and difficult-to-relief sections, in the processing of backyard plantations and in a number of other cases. The best is the presence in the village of one workhorse at 12 rural yards. In livestock, it is advisable to have one horse per 100 head of cattle. It is important not only and not so much the presence of work horses, as their performance. Only a horse of comparable power with little means of mechanization turns out to be profitable for production. And it is precisely the heavy trucks and their crossbreeds that can possess these qualities. In addition, these horses have, in contrast to trotters and their crossbreeds, a more balanced temperament and are more recoiling in their work and enduring.
Breeding horses of heavy breeds, unreasonably reduced in our stud farms in recent years, should be based on the principle of constant maintenance and improvement of their working qualities. Breeding on these grounds is extremely important and can only be done on the basis of regular trials. In our country, in the fifties, a system of versatile testing of the working qualities of draft horses was developed and successfully mastered, which fully corresponds to the tasks of selection of draft and heavy-tension breeds. For almost half a century, such tests passed about two thousand horses, many of which played a prominent role in the development of their breeds. A training scheme for these horses has been developed in the country and experienced cadres of riders have grown who are capable of unlocking the full potential of a sled horse.
To date, the testing of heavy-weight horse breeds (unfortunately, the harness breeds of the Baltic states are no longer participating in them) remains an extremely important event for this field of horse-breeding. The next such tests were held this year at the hippodrome of the Vladimir State Plant Stable. The following teams participated in them: Gavrilovo-Posadsky, Yuryev-Polsky, Pochinkovsky, Vologda, Mordovia and Oktyabrsky stud farms, as well as the Vladimir state factory stable. A total of 21 horses were put to the test, including 8 stallions and 13 mares. Competitions were held according to the traditional pattern. On the first day, participants competed in urgent cargo delivery at a trot. The distance of 2 km with a pulling force of 50 kg (corresponding to a weight of 1.5 tons) was the stallion of the Vladimir heavy draft breed, bay, born in 1994 from Graphics and Gagra, the best. This stallion, belonging to the Vladimir State Story under the control of the rider V.I. Fomin, showed high agility for the heavy sandy path - 5 minutes. 39.7 seconds The second was also the Vladimir mare Gaifi from the Yuryev-Polsky stud farm, who passed the distance 7 seconds quieter. In the third place was also a representative of the same breed stallion Hingan Gavrilovo Posad stud farm. Its result is 5 minutes. 53.8 seconds In the six of prize-winners two more Vladimir horses are noted: a stallion Intimate of the Vladimir state farm and a mare Lakomka of the Gavrilo Posad horse farm. Thereby, with full obviousness, the high performance of the lynx inherent in the Vladimir heavy trucks is manifested.
After a day of rest, the horses had to perform a more difficult exercise — walk the same distance of 2 km already with a thrust force of 150 kg (corresponding to carrying a total weight of 4.5 tons).
Here, contrary to previously established opinion, not the Soviet heavy trucks were ahead, but again the horses of Vladimir breed. Best result 13 min. 57.1 seconds showed the winner of the first day of birth, Hingan, born in 1993, from Herbarium and the Fragile Gavrilovo Posad stud farm under the control of rider A. F. Suyarko. And again, among the six winners of this type of test, we see five Vladimir citizens. In this group, taking a modest fifth place, entered only a remarkable type and exterior, like a toy, a small but extremely receding Russian heavy horse stallion of the Vologda horse factory. It should, however, be said that the Soviet heavyweight Refiner of the Pochinkovsky stud farm showed good results, worthy of his prize, but his rider in the race with the Russian Stunt violated the rules by making his opponent a cross, for which he was disqualified and lost the triathlon total. The second in this form of testing was the already named Hectograph, and the third mare Gaisha of the Vladimir breed from the host team.
After a two-day break, the hardest type of testing was carried out - traction endurance. A useful device with a load when it was moving had a resistance of 300 kg, which is tantamount to transportation on a regular road with a weight of 9 tons. The results in this type were determined by the distance that the horses were able to walk to a complete stop. If we consider that the already mentioned heavy sand path and the thirty-degree heat did not contribute to high results, one would expect surprises. So, the absolute leader after two types of tests the Vladimir stallion Hectograph here showed only the 14th result, having passed only 63.7 meters. Worse still was his co-scout Duszny, who stopped at the first ten meters and showed the penultimate result. I was rehabilitated for my unfortunate performance at the Pochinok Refiner, born in 1992, from Rafinad and Eyelash, having passed 166.8 meters relatively easily and confidently taking the first place in this form. The second was the Vladimir mare Gaifi of the Yuryev-Polsky stud farm, which had the same place in the trot competitions. The third was also the Vladimir Willow mare from the team of the Yuryev-Polsky plant.
According to the total results of the triathlon, the winner of the All-Russian tests of heavy-duty horse breeds was the Vladimir heavy-weight mare Gaifi, born in 1994 from Graphics and Gamma under the control of a young rider V. N. Kiselev. The second, in spite of the failure to test traction endurance, became the Vladimir stallion Hectograph. And in third place in the final test report, Vladimir Khingan of the Gavrilovo Posad stud farm is also listed.
A separate test was held for the horses of the Russian heavy breed, as much smaller than the rest. Both prizes went to the horses of the Vologda stud farm - the Stunt stallion and the mare Kushka. Unfortunately, no other horses of this breed were presented at the tests. To the credit of small heavy trucks, it must be said that in the overall standings with major rivals on the results of the triathlon, they took 7 and 12 places, respectively, which once again confirmed the excellent working qualities of these horses.
In the team event, the first place was taken by the friendly team of the competition hosts, the Vladimir State Factory Stable, which was the oldest and most experienced rider in Russia Vladimir Ivanovich Fomin. The second place in this standings went to the representatives of the Yuryev-Polsky stud farm, who were only two points behind the winners (225.8 and 223.1).
The third place was determined by the team of the Oktyabrsky stud farm, speaking on horses of the Percheron breed. Without taking high places, the horses of this plant performed exactly in all types of the program and proved that the Percheron breed, which had had poor results for all Russian competitions for many years, can successfully compete with domestic breeds of heavy trucks. The Soviet heavyweights of the Pochinkovsky and Mordovian stud farms, which had high rates in the past years, were relatively weak.
The tests were held at a high level, all participants noted the excellent conditions for people and horses, clear organization and refereeing, goodwill and hospitality. For all this, you need to sincerely thank the chairman of the organizing committee of testing, the general director of the joint-stock company Rosplekmonzavod, A. M. Timchenko, the director of the Vladimir Factory Stables, I. B. Simakov, and the chief judge of the competition, P. G. Menshinin.
During the tests, broods of horses and their expert evaluation by type and exterior were carried out. According to the results of this examination, the best horses were recognized as:
Soviet stallion Refiner, Russian heavy mare Kushka, Percheronian mare Quail, Vladimir heavyweight Zamashka, Lakomka and Verba.
The Council for Heavy Horse Breeds was also held here, where participants in the trials exchanged opinions on testing and spoke about the work of their farms. A report on the problems of breeding work with these breeds was made by the doctor of agricultural sciences from the All-Russian Research Institute of Horse Breeding, I. I. Sorokin.
Summing up and analyzing the results of the All-Russian tests of heavy-duty horses, I would like to share my impressions and express some thoughts about their future performance. First of all, attention is drawn to the fact that the winners and prize-winners to third place inclusive in all types of tests and in the triathlon were horses at the age of 7-9 years, not a single younger horse showed good results. Apparently, it is at this age that the working qualities of the draft carriers are fully formed, and it is not necessary to demand the full return from young horses (5-6 years). The age of maximum performance is achieved only by horses that are already in the producing structure of the horse-breeding plants and their selection for breeding is not affected by these tests. We think that, for breeding purposes, it would be advisable, along with testing older horses, to include in the program and trials horses for 3-4 years (only stallions), setting a power load for them 40-50 percent less. The predominance of the test mares significantly reduces their significance. The breeding use of stallions has an incomparably greater effect on the state of the breed, and their number in the tests should be significantly greater. We believe that no more than one mare should be taken from each farm for testing, and they should not be retested. Participation in the testing of adult stallions preferably no more than two times. It is advisable to allow stallions of Oryol trotter breed to these tests, with appropriate training. It is extremely important to increase in testing the number of Russian heavy draft horses.
In general, the Ministry of Agriculture should pay maximum attention to testing the performance of heavy-weight horses. After all, it is these tests performed once a year that reveal the true working qualities of a horse, as an improver of working farm horses. The priority of these tests, in comparison with similar ones for riding and trotting horses, experienced during whole seasons or all year round, should be clearly expressed. From our decisions, in our opinion, the progressive development of the heavy-thrust direction of domestic horse breeding will depend.
V. A. PARFENOV, Associate Professor, Horse Breeding Department, Moscow Agricultural Academy. K.A. Timiryazeva
I. B. Tsyganok, PhD student
"Horse breeding and equestrian sport" No. 5, 2001.
Heavy Duty Horse Racing
At the hippodrome of the equestrian plant "Gavrilovo-Posadsky" (Ivanovo region) the next All-Russian competition of equestrians on horsebacks of hard-training breeds took place.
They were attended by seven teams from horse factories and factory stables at the Soviet, Vladimir and Russian heavy horses of Gavrilovo Posad, Pochinok, Perevoz, YuryevPolsky and Vologda horse factories, Vladimir and Gavrilovo Posad state factory stables (GZK).
The competition program was varied and intense. Each horse had to run 2 km at a trot with a load of 1.5 tons (traction force 50 kg), walk the same distance in increments with a load of 4.5 tons (traction force 150 kg) and extend the cargo weighing 9 tons as far as possible (traction force 300 kg). The results of these three types of tests were scored in terms of time, which made it possible to evaluate the performance of horses and to identify the best of them, which was considered the absolute champion of heavy trucks in 2000.
Before the competition, a colorful parade of participants was held. In the tests for the urgent delivery of cargo at a trot in a stubborn struggle, the seven-year-old Vladimir bay stallion Password (Singer-Protoka), who, under the guidance of master trainer Vladimir SLC Vladimir I. Fomin, ran 2 km with a load of 1.5 tons in 5 minutes 21.1 with. In our country and abroad, Vladimir Ivanovich is also known as a remarkable troechnik rider.
In urgent delivery of goods in strides, the eight-year-old Vladimir stallion Glukhar (Tie - Stilt) won with the bay. Under the direction of the master coach of Gavrilovo-Posadsky SLC A.F. Suyarko, he traveled a distance of 2 km with a load of 4.5 tons in 13 minutes and 36.6 seconds.
After two types of tests, the leaders were determined, but the last, the most difficult, view was still ahead - the competition for traction endurance. The seven-year-old black Vladimir Tulyak (Lokhnach-Tinza) took priority here. Under the control of a young rider S. V. Zhiltsov, Gavrilov-Posad Tulyak drove 9 tons to a distance of 364.8 meters.
As a result of three types of tests, master-trainer A. F. Suyarko got the greatest amount of points on the stallion Glukhare - 95.72. A handsome bay, a mighty wood grouse of the Vladimir breed is recognized as a heavyweight champion in 2000. This is a major success, thanks to which the main prize of the competition received a registration in Gavrilovo Posad GZK.
The second place in the triathlon (the score is 84.95) was awarded to the Soviet heavy-weight breed stallion of the eight-year-old Refiner (Rafinad - Eyelash), which was performed by the oldest rider, master trainer M. A. Glinkin. The refiner belongs to the Pochinok horse farm, has a peculiar exterior and bright beauty. This stallion was exhibited at two exhibitions in Moscow in 1999 and in St. Petersburg in 2000, where he was recognized as a champion of the breed and won an enthusiastic welcome from many viewers.
The third place according to the results of three tests (total score 83.35) was assigned to the bay horse of Vladimir breed Hectograph, born in 1994 from Graphic and Gagra. The master trainer V.I. Fomin managed it.
The first team place was taken by Gavrilovo-Posadskaya SLC. The team of the Vladimir SLC (Vladimir region) is in the second place, the team of the Pochinok stud farm (Nizhny Novgorod region) is in the third place.
The expert commission identified the champions in each breed. The wood-grouse was recognized the champion of the Vladimir breed, the Soviet heavy-weight breed champion, the Refiner, and the brown six-year-old Stallion Trick (Kursk-Tropa) belonging to the Vologda equestrian plant became the champion of the Russian heavy-weight breed. It was the only plant that put the Russian heavy-load horses to the test. The trick under the control of the rider V. V. Smirnov was the fifth in the competition on the hard-training rocks. Nevertheless, on tests they invariably show high results and compete on a par with large heavy trucks. Therefore, I would like to see more representatives of this wonderful domestic breed on the trials. Many stud farms could not put up their horses for competition due to financial difficulties and a great distance from the competition site.
The team of the Perevoz Equestrian Plant successfully performed. Ginger stallion Bagage (Kebrik - Storm) 1993 p. Soviet heavy-duty breed under the control of the experienced rider of this farm I. A. Itsakov was the third in tests for traction endurance. And their other pet, the red mare Reconnaissance (Cup - Repression) 1995 p. Soviet heavy-duty breed, ranked third in the tests for urgent delivery of cargo.
The horses of the Yuryev-Polsky stud farm were below their capabilities. We wish the young rider V. P. Kiselev to gain more experience in working with his pets. Undoubtedly, the Vladimir heavyweights of the Yuryev-Polsky stud farm are highly efficient, and it is required to find the key to unlocking their potential.
Competitions ended with a parade and award winners. Test winners were awarded valuable gifts.
Everyone regretted the absence of the team of the October stud farm with horses of the Percheron breed (Ulyanovsk region). Percherons possess phenomenal abilities in work with large loads, have productive movements and could bring more intense heat to the competition. The record of traction endurance, set by the Percheron mare Sliva in 1976 (2138 meters, she passed with a load of 9 tons), has not yet been broken.
This year the competition has not been without curiosities. Tests for urgent delivery of cargo in steps had to be postponed the next day because of the heavy rain that hit Gavrilov-Posad. The rain was such that water streams covered the path a quarter of a meter thick. The track was very damp, the judicial and technical commissions had to carry out urgent work on its drainage. It was decided to start the horses one by one with an interval of 3-4 minutes. Из-за ошибки судейской и технической комиссий был дан фальстарт В. И. Фомину на Пароле. Жеребец уже протянул около трехсот метров груз массой 4,5 т, но судьи не успели включить секундомеры, поэтому Владимиру Ивановичу пришлось вновь стартовать, что, конечно, сказалось на результатах. Пароль в этом виде поделил 3— 4-места с гнедой кобылой Замашкой 1993 г. р. (Шанс — Загадка) из Юрьев-Польского конного завода.
Competitions on horse-heroes were held with funds allocated by the association "Rosplekkonzavod". The purpose of such competitions is to identify the economically useful qualities of heavy trucks, their universal working capacity that meets the modern requirements of mechanized agricultural production.
The history of the All-Russian (until 1991 - All-Union) competitions shows that since the beginning of their holding, performance records have been improved by representatives of all heavy breeds. Record winners, winners of competitions have, as a rule, a strong constitution and the right exterior. They receive widespread pedigree use in horse-breeding factories and, as a result, affect the performance, type and exterior of horses of heavy breeds.
Heavyweight competitions make a strong impression on the audience. Horses captivate the audience with a powerful build, strength. Despite the big growth, massive muscular body and large live weight, they surprise with their grace and temperament.
Numerous horse lovers and private horse owners, who expressed a desire to purchase animals for the purpose of preparing them for such performances, came to the competitions.
I will say about the young shift, which is growing up in Gavrilovo Posad and other stud farms. It is impossible to tell about all in a small article, I will mention only the young horsewoman of Gavrilovo Posadskaya SLC Yulia Vyshinskaya. This young, very nice, fragile girl easily copes with huge heavy loads. V. last year she won the grand prize. On trials this year, Julia performed on young horses, but did not make it to the number of winners. At this competition, Julia was awarded the Audience Award. The combination of the power of a heavy truck and a fragile young rider could not leave indifferent either the spectators or the members of the panel of judges.
The history of the horse Vladimir heavyweight
Despite the lack of a full-fledged heavy-duty breed, Tsarist Russia experienced a considerable need for such horses. In part, this demand was satisfied by universal working horses, among which animals bred in the Vladimir opolye were considered particularly strong and resilient. This natural-historical region provided all the major cities — Moscow, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, etc. — with strong hardy horses.
From the time of Ivan the Terrible here (namely in Gavrilov Posad) there was a palace stud, which at the beginning of the XVIII century was engaged in purposeful breeding of heavy horses. However, for a long time these works were reduced to simple breeding, therefore, in order to accelerate the result, in 1886, the Gavrilo-Posad state plant stable was created, which, along with the breeding of riding horses, began to create a full-fledged heavy breed. For these purposes, the stallions of foreign hard-haired breeds - French Percherons, Belgian Ardenes and English Suffolk - were purchased at the plant. In the early years of the 20th century, Scottish Clydesdalers also began to be actively used in experiments, and from the 1910s. - English shire.
The work of breeders was aimed at crossing imported stallions with local purebred mares, which, as already mentioned, also had quite good heavy qualities. The key task of such a crossing was to secure in the offspring of the powerful power and magnificent exterior of imported parents, as well as good adaptability and unpretentiousness of domestic mares.
For several decades of experimentation, the Gavrilo-Posad stud provided almost complete replacement of workhorses with improved crossbreeds in all neighboring farms, but there has not yet been a complete breed. The selection work was rather chaotic and unsystematic, and it lasted until the 1930s.
In 1936, the entire structure of the Gavrilo-Posad stud farm was reformed and transformed into the Gavrilovo Posad gosplema rassadnik. A systematization of the results obtained in long years and the typification of the hybrids derived was carried out. One of these hybrids was the Vladimir heavy truck, but a breed of horses with such a name appeared a little later. It took another decade to ensure the stability of the main characteristics of the breed. Only in 1946, the Vladimir heavyweight was officially registered as a new breed of horses in the USSR.
Although the middle of the 20th century is already a time of active mechanization of the economy and the decline of the horse era, the Vladimir heavy trucks played an important role in the post-war economic recovery of the Soviet Union. The country desperately lacked tractors and other heavy machinery, which for at least another two decades had been replaced by heavy-duty horses, which were used not only in agriculture, but also in the army.
Description of a horse Vladimir heavy truck
The best domestic breed of heavy trucks looks very much like their foreign ancestors. The horses turned out to be large and massive, considerably exceeding in size the other heavy breeds bred in Russia. Height at withers reaches an average of 165 - 167 cm with a chest girth of 198 cm and a girth of pastern 23.5 cm. The weight of the stallions is on average about 760 kg, mares - 585.
The Vladimir heavy-duty trucks have a large head with a characteristic convex profile, a powerful neck and a long oblique shoulder blade. The back is noticeably elongated, with a rather wide loin and a slightly lower croup. One of the most recognizable elements in the appearance of representatives of the breed are their strong bony legs with the correct formulation.
The most common suit of the Vladimir heavy truck is a bay, but black and red horses also sometimes come across. The coat is rather thick, although short, which is why some individuals strongly resemble a giant plush toy. Vladimir's envy of most riding horses also has a very thick mane and tail. But that's not all. As can be clearly seen in the photos and videos, the Vladimir heavy horses have lush oblylosti legs, which unequivocally suggests that British horses were actively used in breeding.
All Vladimir citizens are by nature very active and energetic, which is one of the key features of the breed, adopted from English draft carriers. However, this energy does not prevent the horses from remaining generally friendly and fully balanced.
Despite the massiveness and large size, the Vladimir heavy trucks mature early enough and are ready for reproduction by the end of the third year of life. At the same age, they are quite suitable for high-grade use on the farm: for working in the field or as horse-drawn transport.
Performance characteristics of the Vladimir heavy truck
Due to the fact that the Vladimir heavy horse was originally created for work in the field and in transport, there is no point in talking about its meat or dairy characteristics. For these purposes, they simply no one uses. The main interest is just the working qualities of the Vladimir people.
According to officially registered records, an adult workhorse of the Vladimir breed is able to overcome a 2 km trot with a weight of 1.5 tons in 5 minutes. The same distance with a load of 4.5 tons a horse overcomes in increments of 13 to 15 minutes. Of course, an ordinary horse out of competition is rarely subjected to such significant loads, but the breed's potential is obvious.
At the same time, weather conditions have no effect on the performance of the animal: in rain, snow or heat, the horse will obediently carry out the owner’s commands and do the hardest work.
Care and maintenance of horses of the breed of Vladimir heavy truck
One of the reasons why it was generally decided to create their own Russian breed of heavy trucks, instead of breeding imported ones, was the need to adapt it to extremely simple conditions of detention and low-quality feed. And the Vladimir heavy truck fully satisfied this need.
However, in any case, the care and maintenance of horses of the breed of Vladimir heavyweight still provides a certain minimum of comfort and a balanced diet. The horse must be groomed. Also, the Vladimir heavy truck likes fresh air, so he regularly needs walks. Do not forget that the breed was intentionally created very energetic, therefore, to maintain good health, this horse must be periodically subjected to physical exertion. At a minimum, you need to give her the opportunity to walk in the pen.
If an animal is in fact regularly used to perform heavy physical work, he needs increased attention from the veterinarian. After a hard day in the summer, the animal can and even needs to be bathed, that is, doused with warm water from a hose or bucket. But in the winter is allowed only dry cleaning.
As for feeding, in addition to hay and grass, which form the basis of the diet, the horse also needs a significant amount of grain feed and vitamins. Grain contains a lot of energy, so necessary for heavy duty work. But overfeeding a horse with grain should not be, as this will cause stomach problems. On average, the standard grain rate for a horse in the case of a heavy truck needs to be increased one and a half times: this will be the optimal amount.
The same applies to vitamins, without which the horse is not able to cope with hard work for a long time. And given the size of Vladimir, the rate of vitamins for them should also be increased.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Vladimir heavy truck
Among domestic heavy-duty breeds, which, by the way, are not so many, the Vladimir draft carriage is one of the best, if not the best. However, like any hard-wired rock, the Vladimir has a set of characteristic strengths and weaknesses.
The advantages include:
- Excellent performance. The transportation of heavy loads and the processing of "heavy" soils are exactly what the breed was created for. And although today technology is used for these tasks, in some situations the Vladimir horse can successfully replace it.
- Good endurance. It is difficult for a heavy truck to ride a horse in speed, but in the range of crossings with a cart or sledge he has no equal. And the Vladimir is able to work tirelessly in any weather.
- Unpretentiousness. In comparison with foreign heavy breeds, the Vladimir horse is ready to be content with elementary conditions and simple feeds.
- Gorgeous exterior. In the exterior of the Vladimir heavy truck there is in its own way a graceful and at the same time brutal beauty that many horse breeders like. A special mane and luxurious “tassels” on the legs give these horses special charm. Because of them, horses look fabulously harnessed to a carriage or a beautiful sleigh. From the photo of the horses of the Vladimir heavy trucks, wonderful postcards and posters are obtained.
The drawbacks of the breed are obvious and characteristic of all heavy trucks:
- Low riding quality. Of course, like any horse, the Vladimir can ride under a saddle without any problems. However, he cannot compete in speed with purebred horses. However, an ordinary fan of the breed is not at all necessary.
- Large size. In some situations this can create problems. People of short stature may be uncomfortable sitting astride such a massive horse.
Prospects for breeding the Vladimir heavy truck
Although in some regions of our country, even today, peasants sometimes use horses for tillage and even more often harness horses in carts, there is no need to talk about the mass need for working heavy vehicles. In such circumstances, the Vladimir horse suffered the fate of many other domestic breeds - a catastrophic decline in the number of livestock.
Although even now, breeding work continues to further improve the breed, the number of purebred breeding stock remains extremely low - about a hundred queens and a couple of dozen producers. In other words, the de facto breed is endangered.
However, the prospects for the breed are still there. Thanks to a rather elegant appearance (breeders are currently working on improving it), the Vladimir heavy truck is excellent for use in the tourism sector, in particular in the field of outdoor activities - horseback riding or sport hunting. The calm and balanced temper of these horses makes it possible to successfully use them, where tourists who are completely inexperienced in riding often act as riders.
The spectacular appearance of the Vladimir citizens allows them to be successfully used in city parks, where the townspeople willingly ride in elegant carriages drawn by these beautiful horses.
In addition, in recent years, sports have begun to come into fashion with the participation of draft carriers. Moreover, horses compete not only in hauling cargo, but also in classical equestrian disciplines, for example, in horse racing.