To the pig gained the desired net weight, farmers feed it with feed. This food product is multicomponent, due to which the animal is provided with the necessary level of useful substances. On sale there is a wide variety of this product. How to choose the right one? What should be in the feed? Can I cook it myself? About this will be this article.
First, find out what types of feeding can be found on sale. All feed options can be sorted by purpose, type and composition.
1. Purpose top dressing do depending on the age of the animal:
- suckling pigs receive feed, which is classified as a prestart,
- young animals up to 1.5 months receive a starting type of feeding,
- piglets up to 8 months have their own type of product
- for pigs who go to fat, choose growth feed,
- males-producers are assigned the finishing option,
- sows get their special feeding.
2. Feed for pigs also varies by external mind:
- dry - this kind of top dressing is very much in demand. Usually it is bought for adults, as the mixture contains little liquid. If you use such food for piglets, then you have to give them more water. The popularity of this species is due to the ease of transportation,
- granulated is a kind of dry feed. Here the mixture is pressed according to a special technology. In this way, granules are obtained.
- liquid - the moisture content of this dressing is up to 75%. This type is not very popular, as it is difficult to transport. In addition, pigs often get into trouble with drooling if they are constantly fed with such feeding,
- wet - this option of food for animals is considered optimal, as it has a balanced structure. This allows the stern to be completely digested
- concentrated - this type of feed contains the most complete range of additives and nutrients. The main focus is on high protein content. Do not feed the animal with anything else. This feed is very popular, as it gives a guaranteed high result.
3. The composition of feed for pigs may be different, depending on the purpose he pursues. But usually distinguish the following kinds:
- energetic feed, the main component of which are various cereals,
- feed from food industry waste. This refers primarily to the dairy and meat industry,
- protein variant, which is made from meal, bean and flour,
- rude - this feed contains uncut whole vegetables, bran, hay and waste.
Composition of feed according to GOST
Each dressing is made according to certain standards, which are contained in GOST. In particular, all feed must necessarily contain 6-12 components, depending on age pigs.
At the same time, the same GOST does not prohibit the use of cheaper analogues of the main elements, thus going towards manufacturers. Used additives can significantly improve the quality of feeding, but at the same time, manufacturers always adhere to the initial recommendations of GOST.
Accompanying documentation of the purchased feed must contain information on the following parameters:
- mineral composition of the product. It must necessarily consist of the following beneficial substances: K, Na, P,
- nutritional value the mixture, which is determined by the content in it of easily digestible protein, fiber and feed units,
- the size of d-granules, which varies depending on the age of the pigs. For example, for young stock it is - 8 mm, for all other groups - 10 mm,
- indicator of grinding. It can be large, medium or small. This indicator is important when buying food, as it is also chosen depending on the age of animals,
- level humidity mixes.
Below are examples of recipes for male producers according to GOST.
The first recipe PK-57-3-89 has the following composition:
- 27% - crushed barley,
- 18% - alfalfa flour,
- 26% - oats,
- 16% - meat and bone meal,
- 9% - sunflower meal,
- 2% - fodder chalk,
- 1% - salt,
- 1% is a premix.
The second recipe PK-57-4-89 will look like this:
- 39% - oats,
- 30% - barley,
- 6% - sunflower meal,
- 6% - yeast,
- 1% premix
- 1% salt
- 1% - feed chalk.
In the second recipe, which is analogous to the first, added yeast instead of meat and bone meal. Alfalfa flour is also eliminated, adding more cereal. In this case, both recipes have the desired rate of nutritional value. Main indicators there will be:
- protein - 170 g,
- fat - 55 g,
- Cellulose - 78 g,
- phosphorus - 8 g,
- Calcium - 10 g,
- nutritional value of the mixture - 11 MJ / kg.
Compound feed for piglets differs from “adult” mixes in that they have fewer components (no more than 9 ingredients), but their nutritional value is higher.
Types of feed
Compound feeds are of such species:
- dry granular. Served often and in small portions. The most suitable type of food because in the production of pellets moldy fungi that produce toxins are destroyed. The quality of feed during granulation becomes many times better,
- liquid. Homogeneous mass humidity 75% -80%. Three parts of water are taken for one part of the feed. So fed in large pig farms. Now from such a system increasingly refuse. Talking heads for sows are especially fraught with, because in order to be satisfied, a pig must eat a large amount of food. The digestive tract is overloaded, and it is dangerous when there is a fetus in the abdominal cavity (then dead piglets are born),
- wet (65% water). This form of feed is best suited for the digestive system of pigs. It is with this moisture that all the major digestive glands work evenly. Increases animal productivity,
- dry loose. It is used in only in rooms with good ventilation. To pigs it is served in bunker feeding troughs on tight system. Not quite good for animals, because its dusty parts irritate the upper respiratory tract, which can lead to lung diseases.
There is one more division of feed, based on the age characteristics of the development of animals.
- Prestarter Suitable for suckling pigs from 2-3 days of age.
- Starter. Feed this feed can be up to one and a half months.
- Growth. They are fed young animals from 1.5 to 8 months.
- Finishing. Designed for boars - manufacturers.
Special feed for sows is also available.
The composition of feed
Manufacturers of animal feed are divided by their composition:
- Complete feed (PC).
- Concentrated (QC).
Full feed - A full-fledged independent feed that does not require any more supplements, supplement. Its use provides high-quality feeding of pigs. According to GOST, it may contain 12 products (most often there are 7-9), useful vitamins and trace elements. The main products can be replaced, and this will not be a violation of GOST. The composition of the PC regulates GOST R 52255-2004. In the GOST-compliant composition of the feed PK-57-3-89 for boars-manufacturers will be:
Barley - 27%, oats - 26%, alfalfa flour - 18%, meat and bone meal -16%, sunflower meal - 9%, fodder chalk - 2%, table salt - 1%, Premix (P 57-2-89 ) - one%.
Usually, manufacturers produce a series of feeds that are different in nutritional value. In addition to products, they also contain vitamins, enzymes, antibiotics, probiotics, amino acids, flavorings. Feed must be selected directly under the animals, depending on the purpose, for example, to improve growth or reduce the excess of some substances.
By changing the ingredients (but not their quantity), the producers change the nutritional value of the feed.
Concentrated feed. It contains a large amount of protein, trace elements and minerals. Used as a supplement to another feed. Its recipe must always comply with GOST, some products cannot be replaced by others and their number is also constant. Keep in mind that the quality of feed directly affects the health and longevity of animals. Read more about how many pigs live here.
There are feed with varying composition. Equivalent Components Replacement Allowed. So do the manufacturers, if a product is too expensive or not at all. This is permissible according to GOST, if the value and quality of the mixture do not suffer. Equivalent products vary in the 1: 1 ratio. For example, you can replace the wheat corn kernels, sunflower meal - soybean. Changing the composition, be sure to recalculate the nutritional value of food.
- Nutritiousness of compound feed. The content of fiber and protein is taken into account.
- Mineral composition (presence of potassium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus).
- Grind size (large, medium, fine).
- The diameter of the granules. For small piglets, granules with a diameter of 8 mm are needed; for adult pigs, granules with a diameter of 10 mm are suitable.
Feeding pigs will be efficient and rational when standards are met. Normally, it contains the required amount of nutrients for good health, reproductive functions and animal productivity in optimal conditions of detention.
For each age - the norms of feed are different. They also depend on gender, on live weight, on the type of feed, its nutritional value, etc. Different ages require different amounts of protein and carbohydrates. Weaned suckers need to eat 100 - 200 grams per day. Gradually, the rate is increased every 10 days by about 10%. On average, feed per adult animal takes about 3 kg per day. 550 g suction is enough. Up to 3 months. - 1.5 kg per day. At 6 months. - 2 kg per day. From 8 months - 3.5 kg. Nursing sows need up to 6 kg of feed per day.
Feed the pigs strictly according to numbers, is unlikely to be correct. You need to navigate by the type of animals, selecting and combining feed most effectively.
On the diet of pigs
Suckling piglets are given lure from ground wheat, barley, corn, and peas. Gradually added and special feed with premixes. Bonemeal, chalk, charcoal can be added to the composition of household feed.
When the young are 10 days old, add carrots, pumpkin, beets to the diet. A little later - crushed boiled potatoes. It is recommended to give and liquid dressings: decoctions of oatmeal or barley flour, fish broth, milk. Domestic feed may consist of barley, wheat and pea grain (40%, 25% and 15%, respectively), sunflower oil cake - 5%, and fish and meat-bone meal at 10%.
Gradually they are allowed to sows less and less, and the number of baits increase. For small piglets, only fine grinding of cereals is suitable. For them it is better to steam feed. Then dilute with water or milk until thick porridge. You can also give a crumbly texture. Food before feeding should be heated to 30 o C.
Do not overheat feed. From hot in piglets, stomach burns can happen and then the piglets will grow very badly.
In winter, the weaned ration consists of concentrates - 70%, boiled potatoes - 15%, succulent feeds frayed or in pieces - 10%, bean flour - 5%. In the summer of pigs, you can also graze on the grass or give mowed grass (whole or chopped, steamed). Summer ration consists of 60% of the feed, and 40% - greens.
Fattening is divided into periods:
- Meat. Lasts at least three months. Intensive weight gain goes up to 10 months. For good, tasty meat it is recommended to feed pigs with beets and legumes. Ground grain (rye, wheat) is better to give steamed.
- Fatty. The final fattening period, when the weight of the pigs already exceeds 100 kg and they begin to peel. During this period, the emphasis in feeding goes to carbohydrates. It is better to feed with thick mash from mixed fodder, to give plenty of water. To make lard and meat tasty, corn, potatoes, buckwheat, soy, oats, meat and fish meal should be removed from the diet.
For the rational cultivation of pigs, it is important to adhere to the feeding schedule. To feed the piglets is very desirable at the same time. Animals will get used and food will wait quietly. If you don’t feed them in due time, they become very restless, shout strongly, lose weight. Small piglets are fed three times a day, and adults twice in the morning and evening.
Cooking feed with their own hands
Compound feed almost every pig farmer can cook at home, with the availability of equipment (kororushka) and the necessary ingredients. The basis of any feed piglets - grain. It is ground to a coarse, medium or fine grinding, so that the pigs will be easier to absorb and digest.
Composition and preparation for almost all farms can be such feed for small piglets:
- grain (wheat, corn, barley, oats) - 1 kg,
- feed yeast - 100 grams,
- feed fat - 40 grams,
- chalk - 15 grams,
- salt - 5 grams.
Grind the grain, mix with the other components, mix thoroughly, perhaps even manually. It is permissible to add boiled peas, potatoes and bread to this mixture.
For adults at home you can prepare this feed: barley - 400 g, oats - 300 g, alfalfa flour - 160 g, meat and bone meal - 120 g, sunflower oilcake - 80 g, chalk - 20 g - salt - 10 g. Grind grain to medium or coarse grinding, add the rest ingredients and mix thoroughly. Add premix to the mixture (80 g - 100 g per 1 kg of the main feed).
Different animals use differently ground grain:
- small - small,
- more mature and sows more suitable feed medium grinding,
- for adults destined for fast slaughter, it is better to give grain masks of coarse grains.
About pig breeds: a small overview of the most popular
Breeds of pigs are divided into three directions:
Meat breeds are most suitable for breeding:
- Danish Landrace.Breed Landras has proven to be an excellent daily increase in piglets (up to 700 g). Boars reach 300-350 kg of live weight, mumps - up to 280 kg. In litter there are 10-11 piglets,
- Duroc. The main characteristics of Duroc breed pigs are large in size and skin color from light golden to dark brown. The adult pig Duroc will weigh up to 250 kg, while the fat will be no thicker than 3 cm. There are no more than 10 piglets in the litter. For good results, you need to create the conditions (the room should be spacious and well ventilated, and food - balanced).
- Early Meat. Early breed is a breed because it gains weight very quickly (800 g per day). Before slaughter enough to feed for six months. The boar reaches weight up to 300-320 kg, and the sow - up to 250 kg. The breed is fertile, there may be 10-12 piglets in the litter. Its representatives are not very whimsical to the conditions of detention, they do not need spacious rooms. But food should be of high quality, varied and in will.
- Breed pigs brazier. Animals have abundant hair, which allows them to easily tolerate freezing temperatures. Braziers - active animals, they are not recommended to be kept in a closed pigsty. The weight of an adult wild boar can reach 300 kg, sows - 200 kg.
Advantages and disadvantages
Compound feed has a number of significant advantages, thanks to which it gained its popularity. The most important of them is the provision of good nutrition for pigs and guaranteed mass gain. This feed is convenient to prepare, well stored and transported.
The balanced composition allows not to resort to frequent additional feeding. In the winter, feed makes up the bulk of the pig's diet, since there is no fresh, juicy feed, and the need for energy-intensive and nutritious food with chills only increases.
Convenience also lies in the ability to adjust the weight of the pig according to the compiled feeding table based on feed, mixed feed, which can be found at this link.
The disadvantages of mixed feed include the risk of excessive weight gain and subsequent obesity of the population. With this type of food you need to be careful and give it only in the required quantities, not exceeding the norm.
The monotony of the compositions can also be considered a minus, as it is useful for any animal to periodically change food. Despite the fact that the combined feed is considered universal, it should be remembered that it is absolutely contraindicated for some animal breeds, as it can upset digestion (for example, feeding Vietnamese pigs is based on roughage, mixed feed is minimized).
In order to avoid problems with digestion of pigs and obesity, it is necessary to observe the quantitative norms of giving compound feed. How much feed you need to grow a pig is described here for comparison with the feed.
This figure depends on the age of the pig. For young animals and adults for slaughter requires 2.5-3 kg of feed per day. The same amount is needed for a pregnant sow. After the birth of offspring and during lactation, the amount of feed should be increased to 3.5 kilograms per day.
For full development, it is recommended to replace part of the daily rate of feed with other food: hay, vegetables, root crops, waste from your table. Thus, the diet of pigs is enriched with various micro and macro elements, which helps to strengthen the immune system.
Cooking your own hands
Приготовить комбикорм своими руками можно, это намного сократит Ваши расходы на прокорм. Также приготовленные вами корма будут иметь именно тот состав, который вам необходим. There are many recipes, all of them are suitable for different age groups of pigs. The cooking technology is universal:
- Rinse and dry all grains / legumes.
- Grind them with a crusher.
- Pour all required additives and components.
- Add water to make a dough-like mass.
- The resulting mixture is minced (thus formed granules, similar to the factory).
- Dry the granules and they are ready to eat.
In addition to cooking technology, it is important to know how to steam the feed properly. Steamed feed absorbed much better. For this, the required amount of feed is poured with boiling water and left for several hours, until complete swelling.
Adult pigs need food that stimulates weight gain. Their body is ready to digest any type of feed, so special preparation is not required. LThe following recipes for weight gain for slaughter are considered:
- 700 grams of barley and oats,
- 60 grams of sunflower meal,
- 150 grams of herbal flour,
- 60 grams of fodder yeast,
- tablespoon of crushed chalk
- spoon of table salt,
- spoon of premix.
Such a feed will provide the pig with a complete set of proteins, minerals, complex carbohydrates and vegetable fats. In order for the animal not to get used to the same diet (this leads to a decrease in the digestibility of nutrients), this composition must be alternated with others. Good alternative:
- 250 grams of wheat
- 150 grams of barley,
- 100 grams of oats,
- 350 g of bran,
- 100 g BMK animals,
- 20 g of lime flour,
- 5 g of premix,
- 5 g of salt.
Periodically, you can add cornmeal, peas, bone meal. As bait use root vegetables (potatoes must be boiled), hay and vegetables.
The piglet's body is not ready for the processing of coarse or coarsely ground feed, and it does not matter if it absorbs heavy protein foods. Compound feed for babies should be started on the 4-5th day after its birth, along with sow's breast milk or formula milk. (if the pig does not feed the offspring). The composition for piglets is as follows:
- dry milk (the basis of feed),
- barley flour (40% of the total feed),
- fish flour,
- feed yeast (not more than 1.5% of the total mass of the mixture),
- grass meal
- legume flour,
- calcium carbonate.
What to feed the pigs can be read at this link.
Starting from the age of 35-40 days, corn flour, bran, and alfalfa can be added to the feed mixture. Do not feed the piglets with cold mixtures. The temperature of the steamed feed (water added so that the consistency was mushy) should not be below 30 degrees.
Compound feed for sows in its composition is not much different from conventional mixtures for adults. Many farmers do not make a fundamental difference and use the same feed. The only thing that should be done is to reduce the number of legume additives.
The best option:
- 400 grams of oats,
- 400 grams of barley,
- 160 grams of alfalfa flour,
- 120 grams of meat and bone meal,
- 80 grams of sunflower meal,
- tablespoon of salt,
- 20 grams of chalk.
Pregnant sows also need vitamins, so it is necessary to increase the number of vegetables and root crops in their diet. For the period of lactation, the composition of the feed should include a large amount of fat (oil cake and oilseed meal).
This video describes how to independently prepare feed for pigs.
What is the difference between the full-grade concentrate?
With the help of the above recipes, you can prepare a complete feed or concentrate. What is the difference?
A full-fledged mixture is the daily food of an animal, which provides it with the right amount of nutrients. Concentrate however, this is an additional feeding for individuals, which is added to the basic diet of the pig. This is done with the aim of increasing the nutritional value of food and saturating it with useful substances. Very often concentrates are added in winter or early spring.
Recipes for self cooking
Purchased feed always meet certain standards according to GOST, but the price of such goods will be appropriate. For small farms it can be expensive, so the mixture is cheaper to cook yourself. It should be noted that the useful characteristics of such feed will largely depend on the quality of the raw materials used.
The phased process of preparing the mixture will look like this:
- Prepare working tools and equipment.
- Check the availability of the necessary components and their quantity.
- Prepare the work surface for the manufacturing process.
- Take the required number of elements of the mixture on the basis of the relevant tables.
- Grinding, grinding, mixing and granulating.
For adult pigs
The main element of the composition of feed for pigs is grain. Coarse cereals are used for ordinary pigs, and medium chopping is done for sows. The consistency of food is more convenient to make porridge.
Approximate recipe mixtures:
- oats - 300 g,
- barley - 400 g,
- meat and bone meal - 120 g,
- alfalfa flour - 160 g,
- sunflower cake - 80g,
- salt - 10 g,
- chalk - 30 g
All components are added to the working container, then the mixture is thoroughly mixed. Additionally you can also put a premix. Dosage its simple: 100 grams of substance are added to 1 kilogram of feed. Such a mixture can be made granular for convenience. You can feed her pigs all year round.
Mix for young stock to cook as for adults. The components of the feed are the same, but their dosage is different, which is calculated based on the age of the animal. Another difference is the finer grinding of the grain. However, many farmers advise to prepare food in the form of thick porridge, which pigs eat with pleasure, and substances are better absorbed.
Simplest recipe product consists of:
- cereals (wheat, barley, oats or corn) - 1 kg,
- fodder yeast - 100 g,
- feed fat - 40 g,
- chalk powder - 15 g,
- salt - 5 g
Preparation of feed start with fine grinding of grain or cereals, which then add other ingredients. Then the mixture is thoroughly mixed, making it the desired consistency. Additionally, you can add bread, boiled peas or potatoes. After that, the feed can be given to piglets.
Daily allowance of feed
Calculate the amount of necessary bait is easy. Adult animals need 2-4 kg per head. Nursing sows require a larger amount of food of about 6 kg each. Suckling piglets need no more than 500 grams of the mixture and pig's milk, and the grown-up young animals up to 1.5 kg of feed per individual.
Feed rate can also countusing the characteristics of the mixture, namely its nutritional value. Here, too, take into account the age of the animal, its sex and weight.
To grow a pig with the desired net weight, you must correctly choose the recipe, which is prepared feed. Using the normative table, you can calculate the right amount of bait for the animal, depending on age, gender and breed. Receiving all necessary useful and nutrients, the pig or an adult pig will not be hungry.
Types of pig feed
Physically, there are dry, liquid, wet and granulated feed. Dry feed for pigs is widespread. However, it is not one of the most optimal options, since its particles can get into the respiratory tract. As well as the movements that animals make from food to drinkers do not contribute to weight gain.
Granulated feed is slightly better, but not suitable for constant nutrition. In addition, it has an underestimated vitamin content due to its specificity. Wet feed for pigs solves all the disadvantages of the previous options. It has the most balanced composition, besides the price is relatively small. Liquid food is diluted by 80% with water, has its drawbacks (termination of salivation in pigs, etc.). In addition, there are different types of food in their functionality. These are products for increasing weight gain, reducing the cost of rearing, feeding young pigs for the purpose of their rapid development. There is also feed, which reduces the amount of time required for fattening. It is important to know that with the help of special varieties you can get good meat or bacon, or the product with a fairly large layer of lard.
Compound feed is a special balanced animal food product. Its main advantage is the presence of all those nutrients and microelements that are necessary for the proper development and growth of the pig. In addition, this food increases the immune system. Often feed includes up to 10 types of feed. The basis are cereals (oats, corn, barley, waste from the production of flour and cereals), then go legumes, pulp, meliass, fish or animal flour from the bones of animals. All combined feeds are created for a specific type of animal. Waste is also used in production, which is not very pleasant to taste and smell, but is of great value as a source of nutrients and minerals. Animals themselves refuse to use them, but in combination with other elements they eat. Additionally, the feedstuffs are enriched with vitamins; a small amount of chalk and salt is also added to the composition. Regulates the quality of GOST feed for pigs under the number P 52255-2004. In the manufacture they undergo specific heat treatment, which does not allow the development of pathogenic microflora.
Three main feeding regimes are used. The first - the animal eats in plenty, the food is always within reach. This type of food is suitable for weaners and young piglets. Troughs need to be cleaned regularly so that old feed does not accumulate there. The normalized mode is used for feeding of suckling sows, as well as piglets for their rapid growth. Food is given 2 or 3 times a day. Here a big responsibility lies with the operator, as he has to regulate the amount of feed. The latter is limited feeding. This means that the food give a little less than necessary for this type. This diet is suitable for pregnant sows, as well as for lean meat.
Grass meal as a part of compound feed
The composition of feed for pigs also includes up to 20% of grass meal. It is a source of vitamins and fiber, which is so necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive organs. Its introduction into the composition is explained by the fact that the feed for pigs contributes to a good increase in meat (due to the fact that the product is completely digested). Fiber has the ability to absorb liquid, which is why the volume of food increases, which is important to prevent diseases that may occur due to insufficient food. Pigs that feed piglets, especially in need of it: containing grass meal feed contributes to greater milk production. Make such flour from meadow grass, alfalfa. In the dry state, it is treated in the granulator together with other components in certain proportions.
You can buy feed at an agricultural enterprise, a company that is directly involved in production. The most expensive are the feed for small pigs, which can be given from the first days of life ("Starter", "Prestarter"). They cost an average of 29,000 rubles per ton. For animals aged 90-130 days, you can buy food for 15 000-17 000 rubles per ton. The cost of feed for fattening pigs - 14 000-15 000 rubles. Some manufacturers offer for an additional fee to make food according to an individual recipe, and the computer will correctly select the optimal ratio of ingredients.
Combined feed do it yourself
If you buy a ready-made meal does not allow the budget, you can cook it at home on their own. It is necessary to mix wheat (the main source of energy), oats, barley, a small amount of fish or bone meal. To ensure adequate calcium levels, you must add chalk. Also, do not do without premix. These are special supplements that include vitamins, minerals and minerals. This product will need to buy. Thus, the composition of feed for pigs will be as close to industrial as possible. All cereals must be crushed. To improve their taste can be slightly roasted. In order to enrich the feed with additional vitamins, the grain is germinated.
Therapeutic varieties of feed
Sometimes, despite all the compliance with the rules of feeding, animals have a digestive upset. When using stale, moldy or rusty combined feed, you can provoke the poisoning of a pig. In this case, you need to use more expensive varieties of dietary feed. They have a number of significant characteristics. The first is the high fiber content to normalize bowel function. Protein should be no higher than 17%, and it is better if it is easily digestible (dry whey, potato protein). Dairy components will not overload the digestive system. In order for the feed to have a healing effect, it lowers the mineral content and additionally introduces feed acids, live lacto-and bifidobacteria, extracts from medicinal herbs. Thus, dietary feed for pigs, the price of which will be higher than that of the ordinary, will be the only food during the period of the disease.
1 What is compound feed?
Compound feed - carefully balanced forage for animals, including the necessary vitamins, nutrients and microelements. Properly selected feed for pigs ensures the normal and healthy development of the pet.
Feed for pigs
When such nutrition is added to the diet, the animal's immunity improves, the increase in the live weight of the pig increases, and protection against diseases is provided. There is a huge number of plants that produce animal feed. for pigs of different composition and complexity of production. When buying you need to take into account the composition of the feed, because it is formed for different age pigs.
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1.1 Types of feed
All feed mixtures can be divided into groups by age:
- for little suckling piglets,
- for piglets, age from 1.5 months,
- for small pigs under the age of 8 months
- for pigs for slaughter,
- for productive boars.
Feeds for feeding on an industrial scale are divided into the following types:
- rough. They consist of vegetables, hay and bran,
- energy. They consist of one or more types of crops,
- protein. This food contributes to the development of muscle mass. They consist of meal, flour and legumes,
- various waste products (whey, meat production residues, fish, offal).
Food that consumes piggy, exists in different physical forms: wet, liquid, dry, loose and granular. The use of dry food requires well-ventilated premises, it is necessary to fill in such food in special bunker-type feeders.
Compound feed table for sows
Feed in pellets is fed to the pigs in metered portions in order to avoid overeating the animal and completely eating the food. Wet appearance is a smooth consistency. In its composition, the ratio of water and feed should not exceed 1: 1.15. The use of such feed is possible on small farms, as on many of them the operator has a small load. Liquid form of this feed is a homogeneous mass of moisture up to 75%.
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2 Complete feed and concentrate
Manufacturers of nursing mixes produce for sale two types of feed: compound feed concentrate (QC) and full-rational (PC). A complete ration has all the necessary trace elements and vitamins, necessary for the full growth of the animal.
When feeding a PC, no additional bait is required. The concentrate is mainly added to the food of the animal when there is a shortage of any substances, it contains a large amount of proteins, minerals and trace elements.
Standards must be observed for both types of feed. The most commonly used PC for feeding pigs.
To control the quality of both the first and second types of feed, state standards (GOST) were introduced. Based on these standards, the feed must have a permanent composition. The feed consists of six to twelve ingredients. Usually used in the production of seven or nine ingredients, the rest is supplemented with vitamins and trace elements.
There are some products that do not have a permanent composition, but meet the requirements of GOST. This may be due to the fact that the plant has run out of components or increased their value. Equivalent products can be replaced at a 1: 1 ratio, according to GOST. When buying, you should carefully consider the packaging of feed. There may be special markings on the packaging.
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2.2 the rules of feeding pigs and piglets
Choosing the right food will not be enough, you also need to know how to feed the animal every day and in what quantities. It all depends on several factors. Namely, on the age of the animal, the breed of the pig and the ultimate goal of its cultivation.
Не сложно определить дневную норму корма для поросят. На одну голову молодняка возрастом 1,5 месяцев необходимо 1,5 кг пищи в сутки. Чтобы покрыть недостаток всех витаминов и питательных веществ, для отъемышей-сосунов после откорма матерью, потребуется до 200 г в сутки на одного поросенка. Таких поросят кормят за сутки до 5 раз.
Продуктивность свиней в значительной мере зависит от уровня и полноценности кормления
Eating such babies requires special attention and care. So it is necessary to introduce even the highest-quality compound feed into their diet carefully and gradually. An adult pig eats up to 4 kg of food per day, and a nursing sow up to 6 kg. To feed adults it is necessary 2 times a day.
It is necessary to know that feeding a piglet before it feeds itself is not always correct, although this is one of the growth criteria. Not all food is suitable for food in unlimited quantities, as well as the animal can gain a lot of excess fat, and the meat will lose its taste.
Such feeding is unacceptable for meat breeds of pigs and for Vietnamese piglets that are raised for bacon direction.
You can calculate how much pig feed consumes per year. This estimate is made on the basis of calculations of the growing pig's energy and protein requirements. It is estimated that a pig eats 10.5 kg of food from 21 to 40 days of life, from 41 to 60 - to 23.5 kg.
From 61 to 90 days, the pig begins to feed more actively and eats up to 53.5 kg of feed, from 91 to 120 days about 70 kg. From 121 to 150 a day, food goes to the peak - 83 kg. And from 151 to 180 days, the amount of food eaten reaches 93 kg. If you take 180 days for the life span of a pig, you can calculate that the feed consumption will be 334 kg.
Feeding the piglets on the farm
2.3 Technology and recipes for feed preparation for pigs
Based on the cost of feed for pigs, a large percentage of pig producers buy it in finished form. This mixture is completely balanced and does not require additives. It will be more profitable to make feed for pigs at home, but this benefit is not significant and you need a constant availability of ingredients for cooking.
Before cooking you need to:
- Prepare in advance all the products, process and put in storage.
- Using a scale, calculate the required amount of ingredients.
- Prepare for cooking food dishes and place.
- Prepare all necessary foods and supplements.
For the nutrition of pigs are important grain feed. There are several types of cooking: steaming, boiling and yeast.
Learn more about yeast:
- In the dishes you need to fill 15-20 liters of warm water.
- Put the yeast, with the calculation of 100 g of yeast per 10 kg of dry food.
- In this water, pour out the food and mix thoroughly.
- Feed will be ready to eat after 6-8 hours.
Such feed can be given no more than half of the daily norm and with a break of two weeks.
Feeding piglets feed with the addition of BMVD
Cheap and nutritious food is considered to be silage. For the preparation of silage at home, there are several recipes. Here are a couple of them:
- Potatoes - 45%, vegetable waste - 50%, waste of grain - 5%.
- Sugar beet - 60%, table and feed carrots - 10%, corn stalks with cobs - 30%.
According to these recipes, food is harvested in special pits or barrels. For a start, everything the prepared mass needs to be crushed. Then it all folded in a container, it is good to tamp and cover.
All listed components for cooking are not deficient. Something you can buy on the market, and something to grow in the garden. But do not forget about adding vitamins, micro and macronutrients.
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