Perhaps there is nothing worse than losing health. A disease, especially a severe one, is always a blow, a disappointment. And if the disease touches the brain, then how to understand it? Our smaller brothers are much more likely to become infected with rabies and much less likely to recover than a person. How to save a faithful friend? How to predict the development of the disease? How to recognize signs of rabies in a dog?
If you live in an apartment and you have a small lap dog, then you are practically safe. You do not let your favorite out on the street without shoes and overalls, you buy her food in a special shop and you go to the hairdresser and manicurist once a week. Your pet lives in a happy environment that resembles an incubator. He does not see real life, he does not feel risk. Another thing, if you have a big dog. She will have to walk at least twice a day. She will have to comb and wash in the bath. She will have to buy a muzzle and a thick leash. But on walks in it will thirst for freedom. She will scamper through the fields and roads, baring at birds and trying to catch a rabbit, provided you walk away from the city. And who will protect your dog from rabid foxes, bats or rats? One bite, and a pet in danger.
What does the pet feel
The first sign of rabies in dogs is guilt. The dog becomes gloomy, lowers its head, looks at the owner with sad eyes. This behavior is noted by almost all dog lovers who are faced with a similar problem. The dog does not understand his guilt, but he clearly feels it. Therefore, he tries to retire, lies for a long time, has a constant thirst. Signs of rabies in a dog can be noticed with the naked eye, but on condition that you look at your pet, you notice changes in his behavior. Lack of appetite is an alarming bell, especially if your dog usually loves to eat. In general, any change signals something, and it is in your power to consult a doctor in time and try to save the life of the four-legged friend.
Veterinarians mark the viral origin of rabies and shrug their shoulders when asked about the curability. Alas, today medicine is powerless in treating a disease, and exceptions only confirm the rule. If you notice the signs of rabies in dogs at an early stage, then there is a tiny chance to save the animal. The trouble is that this disease has a long incubation period. The first signs of rabies infection in dogs appear much later than the time of infection. During this period, you can no longer help. The only way out can be prevention, in particular, the annual vaccine.
Carriers among us
Warm-blooded animals can be infected through blood, saliva and other contacts. Enough of a light bite or even a scratch. The most terrible is the defeat of the central nervous system, that is, a bite for the nose or ear. This is certain death for the dog. A tiny concentration on bodily harm results in a rapid defeat for the whole body and a painful death. Why is dog rabies so dangerous, signs? The initial stage is not yet characterized by increased aggressiveness on the part of the animal, a person can avoid an attack. In addition to directly physical damage from a rabid dog, a person is at risk of viral infection. Every year a huge percentage of deaths from rabies is recorded. Most commonly transmitted infections are dogs. In lines to the traumatologist are people with children, bitten on the street. Children rarely recognize the threat from the animal and try to caress the fluffy.
Stages of rabies
The first sign of rabies in a dog appears after the incubation period - it is a disheveled appearance, oddity of behavior and fear. Rarely, rabies is recognized based on these symptoms. Veterinarians identified three conditional stages of the disease, classifying them by symptoms. What are the signs of rabies in dogs at the first stage, according to the doctors? I must say that the first stage is called the precursor of the disease, or prodromal stage. As already mentioned, a change in behavior is observed. Aggression may occur or, conversely, the dog will become very affectionate. The nervous system of the animal suffers; daylight is intolerable for it. The dog hides in the shadows, avoids contacts, is afraid of noise and shadows. Wild thirst dries up the animal, but it cannot drink, as the taste of water becomes disgusting to him. From powerlessness the dog digs the ground, gnaws on objects, howls. Suddenly a sexual attraction to one's mind can manifest. A maximum of three days lasts the first stage. At its close, the animal experiences severe itching at the site of the bite and is brushing the wound.
This is the stage of riot or excitement. At this stage, the signs of rabies in a dog are obvious. The animal completely loses control of itself, experiences a sharp headache, as a result of which it tends to destroy any objects around. Games do not attract, favorite toys are torn to shreds, barking becomes rude, and behavior - aggressive and violent. The dog is more likely to bite humans and other animals nearby. Infected animals often try to escape from the pain and may not disassemble the roads, so it’s best not to stand in their way. This is the last stage, when the animal can recognize the owner and at least not cause him harm. The stage of aggression can change the state of apathy towards the world around it, complete indifference with all the ensuing consequences. In particular, the dog's jaw drops, endlessly saliva flows, his eyes are red and inflamed.
Third Stage: Paralytic
This is the final stage, which is only fatal. The nervous system of the dog is completely affected. A dog perceives the world around it in fragments, provided that it is conscious. From wild pain, an animal can bark or howl loudly. The main signs of rabies in a dog at this stage are body cramp and paralysis. The animal cannot perform full actions and movements. In general, for a person it is not dangerous at this time. Body temperature rises, eyes roll, paws involuntarily twitch. The dog can breathe, wheeze, clang his teeth. In the end, the breath is paralyzed and death from suffocation occurs.
Sometimes the cause of death can be heart failure.
Treat or warn
If you suspect signs of rabies in dogs in your home or yard, then do not hesitate, but contact a veterinarian immediately and transport the animal, if possible. The doctor will conduct a full examination and establish possible diseases. If the dog is really infected, then there is almost no hope that it will be saved, but you will be able to protect yourself, your loved ones and others from contact and further infection. As for your pet, the disease can be prevented, for which annually vaccinated. By the way, it would be good to make not only a vaccination against rabies, but also against the plague, hepatitis, parainfluenza and other not very pleasant things.
If you took a small puppy, then vaccinations should be the first item in terms of affairs. Be aware that there is not one vaccine developed and adapted for different types of domestic animals. You can take a one-month-old puppy for vaccination if he is strong and walks and eats on his own. A re-injection will need to be done on a schedule voiced by a doctor. This is the only way you can achieve 100% protection. Naturally, the vaccine is shown only to healthy animals, and an infected individual can no longer be saved with its help. The effect of the vaccine is expressed in the acquisition of persistent immunity to the rabies virus, and the effect is ensured even under the condition that the animal was highly stolen by its congeners. On average, the price of a vaccine for 1 ml ranges from 150 to 300 rubles. Private owners are charged for the vaccine itself. That is, you still have to spend money, but you will be sure of safety and will not look for signs of rabies in dogs.
Some particularly impressionable hosts are beginning to sow panic too soon. Well, of course, when your dog is clean, fed and after the walk you wash his paws with shampoo, but you must give the dog and frolic, otherwise it will become completely pampered, and then it will actually appear a risk to get sick. In apartment buildings, rodents and insects can become carriers of the infection. Bats can dwell in attics. Is your dog walking there? Then you are at risk. But how do dogs show signs of rabies in their apartments? Symptoms may be slightly different from previously voiced. The dog is bored, will start to shun the owner. He may have watery eyes and nose. Salivation will also increase. Aggression is not always a mandatory behavioral factor in infected dogs. The animal can, on the contrary, constantly hide under the protection of the owner, suffer from inattention. You can watch the game of the animal. Is he tearing apart his favorite toy? Itching teeth, it seems to you. The reasons may be much more serious.
Forms of the disease
It is conditionally possible to distinguish four forms of illness: violent, silent, returnable and abortive. The first we have already discussed above. The quiet form is characterized by the apathetic state of the animal, lack of interest in life. Appetite may persist, although there is difficulty swallowing. The dog often chokes. Throat paralysis may occur. Gait is shaky and uncertain. A dog can greedily eat absolutely inedible items.
The reflexive form of rabies is the most insidious, as it seems that the dog has fully recovered, but after two or three weeks all the symptoms of rabies return and bring the animal to death.
Finally, the abortive form of rabies is characterized by the recovery of the animal in the second stage of the disease. This is a very rare form and, of course, the most successful for a sick dog, for which proper care is provided. The atypical form is associated with signs of gastroenteritis, that is, with bloody vomiting and diarrhea. A sick dog can transmit a virus to a person, so observe hygiene and better refrain from petting the dog outside.
If you walk down the street, you can hardly watch the animals and identify obvious signs of rabies in dogs. Photos of eyewitnesses and owners of such unfortunate individuals help to identify external signs that should alert. Even during an evening walk with friends, it is better to keep an eye on the outside world in order to protect yourself and the people around you from the dangerous virus. So, a sick dog seems thinned out. She is tortured, incredibly thin, even if it is a big dog. It seems that wool is hanging on the dog, and along with it - the skin. Her tongue can fall out, and her eyes will mow. Guards a shaky gait and dull red eyes. The dog breathes very often, and you will be able to see it, since the thinner individuals have strong ribs. If you see a street dog with these symptoms, do not stay away. Consult a doctor. Thereby you can save several lives. If you suspect rabies in your own pet, do not gloss over the problem. Remember that rabies is not treated, but similar symptoms are observed in a number of other diseases. If your dog has been bitten on the street, before going to the clinic, wash the wound with a thick solution of soap, then cut the hair around and disinfect with hydrogen peroxide. The sooner you consult a doctor, the more chances your pet has.
Causes of rabies
Rabies is caused in warm-blooded animals by a special virus that enters the body when it is bitten by sick healthy animals. The virus is in the dog's saliva. There are cases of infection with this virus not only through a bite, but also during normal contact, if there are microcracks on the skin. In this case, saliva can get through them into the body of a healthy animal or person.
You should not blithely think that drooling in an animal is caused by any other factors. Working with such a dog, you should observe security measures. After all, the virus is in the salivary fluid, and it can be everywhere: on the fur, on the limbs, on the claws, and even on the floor, next to the pet.
If any abnormalities are observed in the behavior of the animal, the animal looks too aggressive or, on the contrary, apathetic, you should show it to the vet. After all, not only dogs and cats die of rabies, the death of a person and the death of a child are quite real.
No matter how the family is tied to a pet, but if he has a rabies virus, he will have to be put to sleep. Therefore, it is important to observe the recommendations of veterinarians and to make prophylactic vaccinations.
Symptoms of Rabies in Dogs
Rabies in dogs at the initial stage has hidden symptoms. The incubation period can be short (several days), and it can be quite long - several months. The average duration of a violent form - from 5 days to 2 weeks.
There are several types of the disease, each of which is distinguished by its own characteristics.
The most common form of rabies is exuberant, but the following forms exist:
The exuberant form of the disease is conventionally divided into 3 stages, we consider the signs characteristic of them:
- Prodromal stage. In the first stages after infection, symptoms remain barely noticeable to the host. It seems that the dog is tired or offended: stops running, often lies, does not try to communicate with people. The previously obedient dog stops performing commands, reacting to the sounds and voice of the host. On the other hand, the picture of the onset of the disease can be quite the opposite: the unsociable animal suddenly begins to demand increased attention to itself, licks the hands of the owner, in general, does not behave as usual. Therefore, an abrupt change of behavior should be the first alarm to which it should respond. After the 2nd, maximum on the 3rd day, there are pronounced signs of rabies in the dog, which an experienced dog breeder will not be able to miss. This is increased salivation, breathing problems. The pet is constantly yawning, there is a feeling that he lacks oxygen, frantically trying to get air with his mouth.
- Manic stage. Signs of rabies are clearly visible: the dog becomes aggressive and can suddenly attack a person, although in a healthy state the animal has always been extremely affectionate and benevolent. This stage is dangerous because the pet loses control of its emotions. Can suddenly bite any family member, child. The animal has a craving for inedible objects, it can be caught gnawing pieces of furniture, clothing, walls. In addition, a pet at certain moments may hide in dark places. At this stage, partial paralysis of the muscles of the larynx and lower jaw occurs, the dog's voice becomes unrecognizable, hoarse. Sometimes it is possible to observe convulsive seizures, accompanied by rolling of the eyes or their squint. At this moment the dog is no longer rampant. There comes a quiet phase - the animal is apathetic, breathing is heavy, there are signs of lack of air. The stage lasts a maximum of 5 days, but on the third day you can notice the transition to the next stage.
- Stage of complete paralysis, which, first of all, is accompanied by the fear of water and complete paralysis of the swallowing apparatus. Aggression almost at this stage is not noticeable. In addition to paralysis of the larynx, the muscles of the extremities also suffer. The dog can limp or completely drag its hind legs. Due to the inability to swallow saliva, there is constant drooling. On the third day, paralysis seizes the internal organs of the pet, most often the animal falls into a comatose state and no longer leaves it until death.
Other forms of rabies are also characterized by certain manifestations. These include the following:
- A long course of the disease (from 3 months to six months), the absence of aggression is characteristic of the atypical form of the disease. The dog suffers from vomiting, diarrhea that appears leads the pet to a deplorable state. The beloved of the family weakens and languishes before our eyes, it looks extremely exhausted.
- For the depressive form, which proceeds rather quickly (about 5 days), it is characteristic: a rapid deterioration of the condition, the dog coughs, its salivation increases. Death occurs on day 3 or 5, paralysis of the internal organs becomes the cause.
- Returnable form is characterized by paroxysmal course of the disease. Attacks that arise, then disappear, to arise with a vengeance. The animal perishes. It takes only a few days. However, in some cases, there is a rather long break between a few weeks between bouts of the disease.
- The abortive form is poorly understood. An animal with obvious signs of rabies suddenly recovers. It happens so rarely that one cannot hope for a miracle.
Возможно ли лечение
При подозрении на бешенство, особенно тогда, когда животное имело контакт с неизвестным (бродячим) животным или было укушено им, питомца изолируют и обращаются в ветеринарную службу. Питомца помещают в карантин. People and animals that have been in contact with an infected person are vaccinated.
There is no need to reassure yourself, an animal that exhibits clear signs of rabies is not amenable to treatment. A virus that has entered the body carries destructive power. It multiplies rapidly and damages healthy cells. Reaching the brain cells, the virus causes inflammation in it, and this leads to paralysis and death.
You can protect the dog, if you listen to the requirements of veterinarians and immunize the animal.
The disease is incurable, so it is important to try to protect your beloved dog from infection with rabies. Here are some tips for avoiding rabies:
- Rabies vaccination should be given in a timely manner. This is especially true of large dogs, which the owners take off the leash so they frolic on the lawn in the park or forest. Wild animals and their bites can be fatal to a pet.
- If the bite by an unknown animal occurred in front of the owner of the dog, immediately wash the wound with warm water and a thick solution of soap. Then process the wound edges. To do this, it is best to use a solution of brilliant green (Zelenka). Then go urgently to the veterinarian. He will make all the necessary manipulations with the wound, check the vaccination mark, tell you how to proceed. Unvaccinated dog will be isolated.
Rabies is a very fatal disease. All dog owners should be aware of this and immunize their pet in a timely manner. On this depends not only his life, but also the life of all family members!
Incubation period of rabies in dogs
The causative agent of the disease is a neurotropic virus that affects the brain. The incubation period for the development of the virus reaches three months.
Have an outwardly healthy, but already infected dog virus in saliva is determined 5-10 days before the first clinical signs. That is why it is necessary to protect your pet from contact with all stray dogs.
Prodromal stage continues up to three days.
- Animal apathy is typical, the dog may hide in secluded places, does not respond or, on the contrary, tries to caress, lick its hands.
- Noticeable grasping movements of the mouth, sometimes worsening of swallowing and drooling.
- The dog during this period releases a large number of viruses.
The manic stage also lasts up to three days.
- Apathy gives way to aggression, the animal may attack its master, furiously grabs the surrounding objects.
- The grasping movements are characterized by enormous strength, which often leads to a fracture of the jaws.
- Breaking off the leash, the dog can run a considerable distance, biting and infecting other animals along the way. It is characteristic that rabid dog attacks silently, without preliminary barking.
- There are signs of laryngeal paralysis - the animal makes sounds more like a howl.
- Noticeable strong frothy drooling.
- Attacks of violence are replaced by apathy, but any external irritation can again lead to sharp aggression.
Paralytic stage continues up to 7 days.
- For dogs it is characteristic severe difficulty swallowing, paralysis of the hind limbs develops.
- Dog falls into a coma and dies in a few days.
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Silent form refers to the atypical variant of the development of rabies.
- The dog is not aggressive, the appetite is preserved, there may be difficulty in swallowing, similar to the condition when animals are crushed with bone.
- Arises paralysis of the pharynx, lower jaw, hind limbs.
- A sick dog may experience staggering gait, sometimes with an atypical form, the animal eats completely inedible objects, and salivation develops.
Abortive form of rabies ends with the recovery of the animal in the second stage of the disease. This form of rabies is very rare and many researchers are still studying it.
Atypical rabies can also manifest signs of gastroenteritis - bloody diarrhea and vomiting. This form of the disease most often remains without proper attention and a sick dog can infect a person.
How to determine rabies
The manifestation of rabies in dogs can be determined by the fact that she it looks thin, it has salivation from the mouth, there is a noticeable fallen out tongue, strabismus and corneal clouding develops.
As the disease develops paralysis of the hind limbs, and then the heart and respiratory muscles, why the animal dies.
It is necessary to differentiate rabies with the nervous form of the distemper, with encephalitis and Aujeszky's disease. Dog distemper also manifests paralysis and epileptic seizures, but with its development, paralysis of the muscles of the mandible never occurs. And with rabies, there is no conjunctivitis and rhinitis.
Aujeszky's disease or pseudo-madness is characterized by the presence of pronounced itching and scratching, death occurs in a short period - in 2-3 days. In Aujeszky's disease, dogs have aggressiveness towards objects and oncoming animals, but there is no aggression directed at people.
Is rabies treated?
It must be remembered that rabies in dogs is not treated. If you suspect the development of the disease in your pet, it must be shown to the veterinarian and placed in quarantine. The dog must be in the aviary, where contact with other animals is excluded.
Quarantine lasts for ten days, during which time all signs of rabies usually develop or do not develop. A veterinarian can also take tests with the help of which it will be possible to identify a virus or other pathogen.
The only measure for preventing rabies is vaccinationwhich is held every year.
Resistant immunity is developed approximately after the third vaccination.Until this time, the bite of a rabid animal can lead to the development of the disease even in a vaccinated person.
What if your dog is bitten?
the main thing no need to panic, the right actions will save your pet's life and prevent your infection.
If you see that your pet has been bitten by a stray dog, then need to act as follows:
- It is necessary to bring the dog home, at the same time it is impossible to examine a wound, without using means of protection.
- Home need wear protective gloves, and a muzzle on the dog.
- The hair around the wound is cut out., and the place of injury is washed with plenty of soapy water. It is advisable to do it under pressure, that is, a thick solution of soap must be placed in the syringe and rinse all wounds under pressure.
- After pretreatment need to call the vet at home.
- If the dog is not vaccinated, then you need Immediately deliver rabies vaccine. Revaccination is repeated two weeks after the first vaccination.
- For animals you need watch carefully for at least 10 days.
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It must be remembered that if a dog is bitten by several stray animals at once, then signs of rabies can develop in her in two or three days. In the event that a dog is only scratched during a fight, there is a high probability that symptoms of rabies will appear in two or more weeks. In very rare cases, the virus in the animal's body can live up to six months and only then begins to manifest itself.
By putting the vaccine after a possible infection, you will protect yourself and your pet.
What if the dog bit the person?
Rabies, developed in humans, is also a deadly disease.
A person can recover after infection only if before the first signs of the disease can undergo a course of prophylactic vaccination.
If you are bitten by an unknown dog, as well as a fox, hedgehog or other wild animal, several steps should be taken:
- Wash abundantly in the wound or area of sediment with thick soapy water. After that, treat the skin with peroxide and apply a bandage.
- Sure to visit a doctorwho will prescribe a course of rabies vaccine.
- All treatment must be carried out to the end. A few decades ago, up to 40 injections were placed in the abdominal wall, now up to 7 vaccines are used, the shoulder area is used for their placement.
After the onset of signs of rabies will not be cured of it, therefore, dogs are only put to sleep. We can not allow a sick animal to have time to infect their relatives and nearby people.
Causes of rabies
Such a serious disease, as rabies, causes a special rhabdovirus in warm-blooded animals, which enters the body of a healthy four-legged pet when it is bitten by a sick animal. It should be noted that infection can occur even as a result of salivation, but such reasons are categorized as less frequent cases of virus entry into the animal's body. The most dangerous are the bites received in the head and limbs.
In recent decades, the main source of the deadly infection is represented by wild animals.. The high-risk group includes four-legged pets who live in close proximity to forest plantations, forests and steppes, as well as in epizootologically unfavorable areas. It must be remembered that the risk of contracting a deadly disease exists almost everywhere, and for this reason the owner of the dog should always be attentive to the health of the pet and its behavior.
Under natural conditions, many species of wild animals support not only the preservation, but also the spread of the RNA-containing rabies virus. As a result of penetration into the body, such a virus begins to move rapidly along the nerve fibers and enters the brain, as well as the spinal cord, where it multiplies and accumulates in neurons. Further, local changes of all brain tissues occur, as well as multiple edemas and hemorrhages, including degenerative cellular changes.
It is interesting! Migration of rhabdovirus in the body of a sick pet causes its relatively rapid entry into the salivary glands, as well as subsequent excretion with saliva, which becomes the main cause of the spread of rabies among animals.
Symptoms and early signs of rabies
From the time when the infection occurred, and until the first pronounced symptoms of the disease appear in a dog, it usually takes 3-7 weeks. However, there are known cases of signs of rabies in an infected animal even after six months or a year. This difference directly depends on the level of viral virulence, as well as immunity stability and other features of the affected organism.
The severity, specificity, and the intensity of the manifestation of clinical signs, allow us to classify the disease according to the forms:
- atypical form
- depressive or paralytic form
- lush shape
- remitting form.
As veterinary practice shows, a dog is most often diagnosed as wild, as well as aggressive and paralytic forms.
At the first stage after infection, the symptoms remain inconspicuous for the owner of the dog.. It may seem to the owner that the pet is tired or offended by something, so he stopped running and frolicking, often lies and avoids contact with people. Sometimes, a previously obedient animal begins to behave strangely: it does not execute commands and does not respond to external stimuli. There are cases when the first signs of infection are unusual for the pet activity and affection. For this reason, any abrupt changes in the behavior of the dog should alert the owner.
Important! The most pronounced symptoms of the disease become, most often, on the second or third day, and manifest by increased salivation, as well as noticeable breathing problems, as a result of which the dog begins to yawn and frantically pick up a large amount of air with its mouth.
Stages of rabies
The disease of rabies does not develop simultaneously, but during several main, clinically expressed stages.
Aggressive form Presented by:
- prodromal or initial stage,
- a stage of intense arousal or mania,
- depressive or fading stage.
This form is the most characteristic, and includes the symptoms presented:
- changes in the behavior of the animal, which is especially noticeable in the very early stages of the disease. Attacks of unmotivated aggression can be replaced by severe depression, and increased irritability - excessive caress,
- muscle spasms or convulsions,
- chills and fever,
- eating inedible things and objects, including land and trash,
- general weakness and discomfort,
- photophobia, which is accompanied by the search for a dark or secluded place with minimal illumination,
- hydrophobia and reluctance to swallow water and food, due to cramps in the pharyngeal muscles.
It is interesting! At a certain stage of development of the disease, an infected pet has an increased salivation, therefore it tries to constantly lick itself, and the hoarse barking gradually turns into a piercing howl.
The third stage is characterized by a change of attacks of aggression with apathy and depression. The animal stops responding to its nickname and any irritants, and also refuses to eat and looks for a secluded, darkened place for itself. At the same time, there is an increase in temperature indices of 40-41 o C. The pet, exhausted by the disease, almost completely loses its voice. There is also a well-marked clouding of the eye cornea. The final stage is the multiple pathological processes in the nervous and cardiovascular systems, which is the main cause of death of the animal.
Silent or paralytic stage is characterized by manifestations of excessive caress and unusual calm of the pet.. This behavior is quickly replaced by anxiety, minor signs of unmotivated aggression, which is accompanied by an atypical reaction to habitual stimuli, abundant salivation and the appearance of foam. The pet begins to be afraid of light and water, and also refuses to feed. The final stage of this stage is accompanied by difficulty in breathing, wheezing and paroxysmal cough, followed by the appearance of muscle spasms, convulsions, progressive paralysis of the pharynx, muscles of the limbs and torso. The animal dies around the third day.
The less common is the so-called atypical form of rabies, the symptoms of which are presented:
- minor behavioral changes
- a slight increase in body temperature
- changing taste preferences
- abandoning the usual food and treats,
- developing signs of gastroenteritis,
- bloody profuse diarrhea and debilitating vomiting,
- severe exhaustion and a sharp decrease in body weight.
Atypical form presented in several stages, but very similar in symptoms to many other infectious diseases, therefore, diagnosis is difficult.
Important! Detection of even minor deviations in the behavior of the dog should be the reason for immediate comprehensive examination of the four-legged pet by the veterinarian and detailed diagnostics.
Treatment and Prevention
At the first suspicion of infection with rabies, especially if the pet had contact with stray animals and dogs of unknown origin, or had been bitten by them, the four-legged friend should be isolated, and will be contacted by the nearest veterinary service. The pet must be quarantined, and all people and animals that have been in contact with an infected pet are vaccinated.
In order to secure a domestic dog and minimize the risk of rabies infection and the spread of this deadly contact disease, timely and competent preventive measures are mandatory. It should be remembered that the only reliable way to protect the four-legged pet and the people around him is vaccination..
Without a vaccination mark, in terms of legislation, a pet has no right to attend exhibition events or public places. Also, a dog that has not passed vaccination should not be transported around the city or taken out of the country and used in breeding. Anti-helminthic interventions are required before rabies vaccination. Only a completely healthy pet can be vaccinated.
It is interesting! The first rabies vaccine is given to the puppy before the change of teeth, at the age of about three months, or immediately after a complete change of teeth. Then such vaccination is carried out annually.
Danger to humans
Инфицирование человека происходит в результате контакта со слюной любого больного животного. Поэтому чаще всего такая ситуация происходит при укусе. Особую опасность в этом плане, представляют травмы головы и конечностей, а именно рук. With a large number of bites, the risk of human infection increases significantly. The main peak of the incidence of rabies occurs in spring and summer.
As a rule, the incubation period of such a disease is nine days, but it can be more long - almost forty days. The disease can develop almost lightning, if the entrance gate for the virus to enter the human body are injuries to the face or neck. Bites of the hands may also be extremely dangerous. In this case, the average incubation period, as a rule, does not exceed five days. This feature is due to the rapid movement of the virus along the nerve pathways with entry into the cells of the spinal cord and brain. Infection through leg bites contributes to a significant lengthening of the incubation period.
To date, the timely implementation of the vaccine allows you to save a sick person from the disease, but sometimes the patient dies from rabies, which is explained by:
- long absence of qualified medical care,
- vaccination regime violations
- self-early completion of vaccination.
Experts recommend to seek medical help not only after receiving a bite, but also when saliva hits the skin without integrity. Clinical manifestations of rabies in sick people are monotonous. In the blood there is a very pronounced increase in the level of lymphocytes, as well as the complete absence of eosinophils. When taking a smear imprint from the surface of the cornea, there is the presence of antibodies, which are produced in response to an infection in the body.
Asymptomatic existence of rhabdovirus in the human body can vary from one to three months. In particularly difficult cases, the incubation period can be reduced to ten days, and in the lungs - up to a year.
After the moment of infection with rabies, a person has three stages in the development of the disease, each of which is characterized by peculiar symptoms, but the very first signs, represented by painful sensations at the site of the bite, increased body temperature to subfebrile, headaches and general weakness, require special attention, and also nausea and vomiting.
Important! It should be noted that when a person is bitten, a person often has olfactory or visual hallucinations in the form of third-party odors and non-existent images.
At the final stage, mental disorders occur, including depression and fear, anxiety and excessive irritability. Rabies is an extremely dangerous and fatal disease. Any dog owner should be aware of this, as well as to timely immunize their pet.
What happens in the body when the virus enters?
The respiratory organs and the nervous system suffer the most. There are cases when dogs are infected from cats. The latter behave normally. If the cat is in contact with other animals, you need to carefully monitor her. Cats with the rabies virus begin to hide, then attack the person. Pay attention to this feature! If you notice strange behavior behind the cat, show it to the vet.
The carrier of a dangerous virus can be a fox. She can infect a dog through saliva. Initially, the virus gets on the mucous membranes. Rabies in animals has an incubation period. Signs of a rabid dog may be indistinguishable in the first stages. Depending on the nature and characteristics of the pet, the disease manifests itself in 3 - 12 months. The average duration of the incubation period is 45 days. After this time, the disease develops. Not to be confused with pseudo-madness.
Symptoms of rabies in animals
Pathology is divided into several stages, it proceeds in stages, moving from one stage to another. Each period has its own duration. The localization of the bite plays an important role, as well as the intensity of bleeding. Signs of rabies in a puppy appear earlier if he was bitten in the neck or head. The virus in this case quickly attacks. With a bite in the limb, the incubation period is delayed. If the bite is accompanied by bleeding, a certain amount of the virus is washed out.
The first signs of rabies in dogs are sometimes impossible to recognize. The initial stage of the disease is called prodromal; it lasts about sixteen days. The owner notices that the pet becomes sluggish. With the development of the disease, the temperature rises, chills may occur. It is important to pay attention to the jaw of the dog.
A characteristic symptom of rabies is spastic jaw movement. As the pathology progresses, the central nervous system is damaged. The disease enters the active phase. Symptoms appear differently. Some dogs continually look at one point (with the pupils dilated), others rush at others, begin to gnaw objects and clothes.
Violent stage of rabies
If the pet gnaws hard objects, his teeth break. When the disease passes into a turbulent stage, the spasming of the swallowing muscles is observed, the salivary glands begin to function poorly. The second name for rabies is hydrophobia. If the virus enters the body, the dog is afraid to drink water. Saliva flows copiously. When an animal gets freedom, it starts to run fast forward. In the third stage, the hind limbs are paralyzed. The defeat of the respiratory center leads to death.
There is an atypical form of rabies. In this case, the disease is difficult to recognize. Despite the fact that the pathology has erased signs, the animal still remains a carrier of the virus. Atypical form of the disease has symptoms similar to the manifestations of gastritis and enteritis. The dog may start bloody diarrhea. Abortive form - a rare phenomenon. In this case, the disease moves to the second stage and the animal recovers.
What if rabies is found in dogs?
If you suspect you need to take the animal to the veterinary clinic. The doctor will conduct tests that will help identify the virus. Infection occurs even if the virus has not yet penetrated the salivary glands. The symptom that rabies possesses in dogs is unbearable itching at the site of the bite. The animal may behave fussily, the mobility of the lower jaw will be developed.
It is important to remember that an infected pet's saliva contains a virus. If he is not very aggressive, the virus may spread through licking. If a person has open sores on his arm and the dog licks it, there is a big risk of infection.
As we have said, the only preventive measure is vaccination. The dog cannot be cured for rabies. Vaccination helps to avoid a deadly disease. Vaccination is carried out in a hospital. A veterinarian records vaccine data. If necessary, vaccinations against rabies and infectious pathologies are made, which are also very dangerous for animals and humans. Vaccination is inexpensive, valid - about a year.
Symptoms of rabies in humans
The virus of this disease is extremely dangerous, in most cases it is fatal. The nervous system suffers from rabies. If you are bitten by a suspicious animal, you need to go to the hospital. Treatment of rabies in humans is symptomatic. The goal of therapy is to reduce the severity of pain and spasms. If the virus got on open wounds, after a while, a chill with a fever occurs, the temperature rises to subfebrile values.
In humans, the disease manifests insomnia, irritability. A person reacts sharply to light, cannot perceive noise. Water causes intense fear. If a person tries to drink water, the muscles of the pharynx are subjected to spasms, there is a fear of choking. Human disease, like rabies in dogs, leads to paralysis, tetanus, coma, and death. About all diseases that are transmitted from dogs to humans.
Properties of the deadly virus
It is unstable to environmental conditions. If rabies in dogs gets into conditions where the air temperature is + 55 degrees, he dies that hour. Within two minutes, the virus dies in boiling water. It exhibits sensitivity to ultraviolet, ethanol. The rabies virus develops in conditions of normal and low temperature. Currently, medicine does not have a universal remedy against this pathology.
Funds with phenol ineffective. When ingested, the virus begins to infect nerve cells. As a result, peculiar little bodies that disrupt the functioning of the entire CNS are formed. Meningoencephalitis occurs when pathogens enter the brain and spinal cord. In the nervous system there are reactions of the inflammatory type, as well - degenerative-dystrophic processes.
The progression of the disease leads to asphyxiation and cardiac arrest, resulting in death. In the fifth century, scientists described the rabies virus in dogs. At that time, the names “Hydrophobia” and “Hydrophobia” appeared. These terms were used to characterize the rabies virus in humans.
It is worth noting that a person is often infected from dogs. The ancient Greek scientist Cornelius Celsus advised to cauterize the wounds in order to destroy the virus. The vaccine against a dangerous disease was developed in 1885, today it is used with rabies serum. Injections are made in areas where the wound is located. Active substances must penetrate into nearby tissues.
There are cases when a person managed to recover from a deadly disease. In identifying signs of pathology, you need to consult a doctor. The doctor will give an injection that will help alleviate the symptoms of the disease. If you hold an urgent vaccination after a bite, you can prevent the development of symptoms and cure!
Treatment at the onset of symptoms is difficult. In 2005, the first case of treatment of a deadly disease was recorded. The 15-year-old American Gina had signs of rabies, but since she promptly asked for help, she was able to undergo treatment and save her life. In 2008 and 2012, cases of recovery were reported.
The spread of the disease
On earth lives many animals that are carriers of the rabies virus. In the US, it is a skunk, fox, raccoon. In Australia, the virus is transmitted by bats. Some species of these animals inhabit and spread the virus in Europe, Asia, and America. In the territory of Sri Lanka, the virus spreads martens.
Scientists have identified 2 types of rabies. The so-called "Natural type" is distributed by wild animals, "City" is distributed by domestic animals (cats, dogs). There are many cases when a pet is infected by wild animals. In this regard, you need to constantly monitor him. In India, the virus is spread by bats. Small rodents do not spread the deadly pathology.
Rabies can be transmitted from person to person through the mucous membranes, but this type of infection is unlikely. The disease is spread all over the world, only in Antarctica there is no deadly virus. In Japan, Cyprus and Malta, as well as in New Zealand, the disease is not noted and does not receive much attention.
Pathology of unknown origin is common in South America. It leads to paralysis, convulsions, fear of water. Experts suggest that this pathology is a type of rabies tolerated by bats. Every year more than 50,000 people die of rabies. At risk in countries in Asia and Africa.
The incubation period for a person lasts from ten days to several months. Reported cases when symptoms manifested a year after infection. If a person has immunity, the incubation period lasts up to 70 days. In medicine, there are cases when the duration of the incubation period is 5 years.
During this time, the person had no signs of pathology. Rabies developed when exposed to certain factors. For example, if a person fell from a tree or survived an electric shock. It is worth noting that each disease proceeds differently.
The clinical picture depends on the species to which the animal belongs as well as on the amount of virus in the body. Important is the state of the immune system. If the animal has bitten to the head, hands, or genitals, the virus will progress rapidly. In these places a large number of nerve endings are concentrated.
Questions about vaccinations
Can I drink alcohol during the vaccination? In this case, alcohol is strictly prohibited. The fact is that alcoholic beverages destroy the immune system and weaken the impact of the vaccine. Moreover, one should not overload the body. It is important to follow the rules of nutrition, to refuse to lift weights,
How long is alcohol prohibited? You need to limit alcohol for six months after vaccination,
Can I take a shower after vaccination? In this regard, there is no prohibition. However, you can not swim in rivers, lakes, ponds. Until the wound is completely healed, it is necessary to refuse to visit the pool,
Is it possible to go out right after vaccination? There are no restrictions, but one should not allow overheating or overcooling of the body. It is not recommended to sunbathe, walk in the cold,
Is quarantine required? There are no strict prohibitions in this regard, it is necessary to visit a doctor within 2 weeks. Isolation of the patient from people is not required
If you were bitten by a dog that was vaccinated, is the vaccine needed? Vaccinations are recommended, but not required. If the animal is healthy, and the diagnosis has confirmed this, the decision on vaccination is taken by the patient,
What if the vaccination was missed? It is not recommended to interrupt the course, otherwise the method of prevention will be ineffective. If possible, you should restore the course
If the dog has bitten a child, does he need a vaccine? Vaccination is necessary if it has not been proven that the animal is healthy. Thus, you are safe and will not risk the health and life of puppies,
How long does it take to be vaccinated after a bite? It is recommended to immediately consult a doctor. If you immediately begin treatment, the odds will increase. Within five days of being bitten, you should see a doctor.
Is vaccination needed if the cat has bitten? Much depends on whether she has been in contact with other animals. Vaccination in this case is a reinsurance,
In conclusion, we once again note that a person and an animal have chances for treatment. It is necessary to identify the first signs of rabies in a dog, consult a doctor. Rabies in dogs is not common, such as in fox, raccoon, and some breeds of bats. It is important to pay attention to the behavior of a pet.
Excessive isolation should also be a cause for concern. The dog should not be let out in the field where it can meet wild animals. To protect a pet from rabies, you need to carefully monitor him and undergo a course of preventive vaccinations.