Symptoms and treatment of myxomatosis in rabbits


Rabbit breeding is done by a very large number of farmers, because their meat is very much appreciated and is a dietary product. These pets breed quickly enough, and their content does not cause many problems. The main ones are diseases that animals suffer from. The most common is myxomatosis. Every farmer must know as much as possible about this disease, which can be fatal.

Symptoms of myxomatosis in rabbits

The state of mind and behavior of rabbits must be carefully observed. If animals start behaving strangely, then maybe they are sick. Before starting treatment, you should understand what exactly the animal is sick. If the individuals become lethargic and passive, then this indicates an infection.

Main signs and symptoms of myxomatosis:

  1. Eye damage is the main symptom of the disease. First, conjunctivitis appears on the mucous membrane. After which you can notice the discharge of the milky species. At later stages, the eyes become more inflamed.
  2. Inhibited reaction. In this disease, all movements and reactions become slow. The animals become passive and lethargic.
  3. Temperature. It becomes much higher than usual. The body becomes straight fiery and the temperature can reach 42 degrees, which is not normal for these animals.
  4. Wool deterioration. It becomes pale and not so saturated. The coat gets tougher and starts to fall out.
  5. Not only the eyes, but also other parts of the face may swell. Attention should be paid to the ears and lips. Sometimes the genitals are inflamed.
  6. In the difficult stages of pets can not get up and almost all the time lie.
  7. Perhaps coma. Sometimes it is impossible to deduce from it.
  8. Fibrous knots on different parts of the body.

For the first time, it is for them that diseases of pets can be determined.

The incubation period is from 5 days to 2 weeks. It all depends on the virus that infected the animal.

It is very important to identify the disease in its early stages, although it is not always easy to do. If you do not begin to treat myxomatosis in rabbits on time, then a lethal outcome of a large number of individuals is possible. In serious condition, animals can live from 2 to 14 days.

Very often, along with myxomatosis, other diseases can occur that interfere with rapid recovery. For example, pneumonia, which often leads to the death of rabbits. In this case, it is necessary to vaccinate and treat.

How does the infection occur?

Infection with myxomatosis occurs with the help of blood-sucking insects. The main ones are: mosquitoes, ticks, flies, lice and midges. They are only carriers, but they are not sick of the disease itself.

Just a second is enough for the rabbit to become infected. The insect sits on any part of the body and so the virus is transmitted to it.

Birds can act as carriers. They carry the disease with their claws. A short contact is enough for the animals to become infected with myxomatosis.

If one individual is infected in the progeny, the virus is quickly transmitted to the entire family.

Treatment of myxomatosis at home

Is it possible to cure the disease on their own? Treatment of myxomatosis at home is a very controversial issue, because many veterinarians believe that this is not easy.

It is important to identify the disease in the early stages and start immediate treatment. In this case, it will take a short time to put the animal on its feet.

Do not forget to do vaccination, it is a good cure for myxomatosis for rabbits, because its effect lasts almost a year. In the case of infection of rabbits, which was carried out this procedure, the disease proceeds easily and quickly. Perhaps only the appearance of swelling.

  1. Children should be vaccinated from 1 month.
  2. Optimally after 1 week after weaning from the female.
  3. For efficiency, it is better to do this procedure in the third and tenth month of the year.
  4. A very important point is sterile instruments. They need to boil for 15 minutes or more.
  5. For each pet must be its own tool. To use one needle categorically impossible.
  6. The injection site must be well treated.
  7. After the procedure, observe the pets for 3 weeks.

The dose of the drug depends on the site of administration. Subcutaneous method - half of the vaccine and half of the solvent, for example, in the thigh. The intradermal method is a dose of medication and 0.2 ml of solvent injected into the ears.

Vaccinating sick individuals does not make sense.

There are several methods of treatment of folk remedies:

  1. Refried sunflower oil. They need to lubricate the affected areas on the body. You can cook it yourself. In the pan you need to pour a little crude oil and fry it for 20 minutes. With the help of a tampon swollen areas are lubricated.
  2. Camel spines. Of these, you need to prepare a solution that should be injected with a syringe. Dose for small individuals - 2 ml, for adults - 5 ml. To make it necessary to collect a glass of spines and pour boiling water. Infuse the solution with the lid closed for 2 hours. Then, use gauze to drain the liquid. Before using this method, it is better to consult with a veterinarian.
  3. Urine as medicine. It must be typed in a glass and put on a few hours in the sun. Swab with a liquid and soak the wounds. They will heal faster, and all insects are afraid of smell.

Forms of the disease

There are several forms of disease progression.

The classic form is very heavy and lasts from 4 days to 2 weeks. Very often fatal.

Signs of this form:

  1. Pretty big bumps and spots on the ears and eyelids.
  2. Conjunctivitis and severe mucosal lesions.
  3. Swelling of the eyes.
  4. Eyes do not open well and stick together.
  5. Nasal discharge.
  6. Difficulty in breathing in and out.

In this form, it is impossible to cure individuals. Rabbits that have been edematous form need to score. Their meat is unfit for consumption.

Nodular form can last 30-40 days. In this form, the disease is easy. Small nodules appear on different parts of the body. A runny nose and signs of conjunctivitis may occur.

It is best to start treatment from the first days. Antibiotics and iodine treatment help. The percentage of fatal outcomes is 30. This is a pretty good result, because 70 percent are still alive. The rabbits that have had myxomatosis have no effect on the tribe if they are left for some time in the quarantine zone.

Can I eat rabbit meat with myxomatosis? This question is very common and opinions on this matter differ considerably.

Some believe that meat can be consumed, and it does not carry any threat. But it is impossible to eat the meat of a dead animal, even if it was not after myxomatosis. It is believed that after the disease metabolism is disturbed and inflammatory processes occur. It is better to eat meat only healthy rabbits.

After the slaughter of sick pets meat is better to burn.


In order for the family of rabbits not to become infected with myxomatosis, a number of rules must be observed:

  1. In the hot period from May to June, special attention should be paid to rabbits and to protect them from the attack of blood-sucking insects. Special shelters can be made where such contact will be minimal or not at all. Such a measure will be able to protect pets from virus infection.
  2. New individuals must first be sent to quarantine and not be allowed to the whole family for two weeks.
  3. Monitor the condition of all individuals and pay special attention to wool. For small signs of the disease contact a specialist.
  4. Check fleece for lice and fleas. Even if a small amount of them is noticed, you should definitely treat the wool with a special solution.
  5. When identifying signs of disease, be sure to isolate it from the whole family as soon as possible.
  6. You need to clean the cells and process them as often as possible.
  7. Follow the right and varied diet.
  8. Add to the diet pineapple and pumpkin, which contribute to recovery.
  9. Do not forget about the vaccination, which is carried out twice a year.

Myxomatosis in rabbits is a difficult disease that can be very difficult. It is important to identify it by the first signs and start treatment.


Vaccination does not provide complete protection against the disease, but provides for its flow in a mild form and reduces the risk of its occurrence in the future. In addition, after vaccination, the survival rate of individuals increases significantly.

In rabbits that have been vaccinated, the disease manifests itself as small swelling and nodules. These symptoms disappear after a while on their own. The duration of the vaccine is 9 months.

Vaccination rules:

  1. Vaccination is done to rabbits at the age of one month, 7 days after weaning from the mother,
  2. Rabbits at the age of two months are revaccinated,
  3. Vaccination is done twice a year - in March and September,
  4. The vaccine must be administered with sterilized needles and syringes. Tool to boil for at least 15 minutes
  5. For each rabbit must use a separate needle. In no case should the vaccine be administered to all individuals with one needle,
  6. The vaccination site is treated with a medical alcohol solution,
  7. After vaccination, individuals are observed for 20 days.

If the vaccination is done by the subcutaneous method, then half of the vaccine dose and half of the solvent are used for this. 0.5 ml of the drug is injected into the thigh.

During intradermal administration, a single dose of vaccine and 0.2 ml of solvent are used. In these cases, the drug is injected into the area of ​​the ears in a volume of 0.2 ml.

Antibiotic treatment

Often this disease is treated early with antibiotics and immunomodulators. Sometimes for the treatment of open wounds using alcohol iodine solution.

Running form of myxomatosis

Home treatment methods:

  1. Daily injections are made by subcutaneous method. Gamavit is injected subcutaneously in a dosage of 0.2 ml. Injections are made until complete recovery of individuals,
  2. Subcutaneous injections - Fosprenil 1 ml. The drug is administered 1 time per day until complete recovery,
  3. Week give the rabbits to drink a solution of Baytril. This medicine should be diluted in water at a dosage of 1 ml per 10 kilograms of the individual. This solution needs to be fed to the rabbits daily,
  4. Be sure to bury your eyes with special drops, such as Ofloxacin. This drug is used as an ointment,
  5. Into the nose should be instilled drops of Aquamaris,
  6. Saline is used for washing the eyes.
  7. Open wounds are treated with an alcoholic iodine solution until they are completely healed,
  8. During the week, the rabbits are injected subcutaneously with vitamin B to strengthen the immune system,

How to treat sick rabbits with folk remedies?

In addition to drug treatment and vaccination, myxomatosis can be treated using traditional methods, namely:

  • Lubrication of the affected areas with copious amounts of sunflower oil. To do this, pour a small amount of sunflower oil on the pan (it is advisable to use unrefined or fresh oil) and heat it. As soon as it is heated, we overcook it for 15-20 minutes. Next, swab cotton swab in the oil mixture and grease all the affected areas,
  • Treatment with a solution of camel thorn. It is necessary to collect a full jar of these spines and fill them with hot water. Then close the jar lid, leave to stand for 2-3 hours. After this time, the solution must be filtered through a gauze material. This solution must be recruited into a syringe and injected into rabbits in the shin areas. The dosage for adults should be no more than 5 ml, and for small rabbits 2 ml. Before using this recipe, you should consult a veterinary specialist,
  • You can use the following recipe for wound healing.: you need to collect urine in a jar or bottle and put it in sunlight, preferably on direct rays. After 2-4 hours it will be possible to dip a cotton swab in this liquid and lubricate all affected areas in rabbits with it. The skin will heal much faster, and the smell of urine will scare away all mosquitoes and blood-sucking carriers of myxomatosis.

Edematous form

The edematous form or the classic form of myxomatosis in rabbits is considered the most severe. Its duration ranges from 4 days to 15 days. It usually ends in death.

Edematous form of myxomatosis

The main features of this form are:

  1. There are redness in the form of spots or cones on the skin surface around the eyelids and on the auricles,
  2. Affection of the mucous membrane of the eyes, manifested conjunctivitis with purulent discharge from the eyes,
  3. Severe swelling of the eyes,
  4. Bonding eyelids
  5. The appearance of liquid nasal discharge,
  6. Difficulty breathing.

Treatment of miskomatosis in the edematous form is not carried out, because it does not give results. If individuals develop myxomatosis in edematous form, they should be scored. Meat after slaughter in food can not be consumed.

Nodular form

Myxomatosis in a nodular form in rabbits runs from 30 to 40 days. This form of the disease is considered the easiest, and it is characterized by the appearance of small nodules in the greatest number on the head and on the ears. Later, there are signs of conjunctivitis and runny nose.

For the treatment of myxomatosis in this form, you must proceed immediately after the first days. Antibiotic drugs, vaccination and wound treatment with iodine solution are usually used to treat this form. The survival rate after this form is almost 70%.

Nodular form of myxomatosis

Is it possible to eat the meat of sick animals and is it dangerous for humans?

But what about the meat of a sick animal? Myxoma disease in rabbits leaves open the question of whether their meat can be consumed after or during a disease.

There is no definite answer to this question. Many experts argue that the disease does not pose a particular danger to humans and therefore, the meat of a sick rabbit can be eaten after slaughter.

After slaughter animals need to be burned. But if you are not too squeamish, then after slaughter you can leave the carcass for their further consumption. But it is advisable to prepare them before this.

Symptoms of myxomatosis, characteristic of certain types of the disease

Myxomatosis can be of two types:

  1. In edematous form.
  2. In nodular form.

The first type is a dynamic disease that almost always ends with the death of a rabbit. It is believed that the edematous form of myxomatosis is not treatable..

The disease manifests itself by inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, which develops into conjunctivitis. You can observe the formation of crusts. The nasal cavity also swells, it is difficult for the animal to breathe, wheezes break out of the throat and purulent clots come out. Tumors cover the entire body of the rabbit. They are filled with liquid. The animal itself feels very bad - it looks dull, in the eyes of pain and longing, the animal does not touch the food. Ears droop. Literally ten days later, the rabbit dies.

As soon as it becomes known about the disease, the rabbit must immediately be carried away from the rest of the individuals so that they do not become infected. If he died of myxomatosis, the body should be removed from the nursery. It is advisable to dispose of the remains.

The second type of disease - nodular - is not as dangerous for diseased animals as described above. With nodular myxomatosis, many rabbits survive (about half of the total number, as statistics show). The disease in this form is well treated.

The signs are the following: nodules (small bumps) appear in one or another place of the rabbit's body, most often on the head. They tend to disappear, and later return again. Most nodules occur in the region of the eyes and around the ears.

The second stage of the disease is characterized by conjunctivitis with pus secretions, the animal's eyelids are closed, and the rabbit is unable to open them, as a result of which he sees nothing for a while. Breathing animal with anguish. Marked rhinitis.

Often, other diseases occur on the background of myxomatosis. This may be, for example, stomatitis. In these cases, the course of the disease is much harder.

Also, rabbits are often susceptible to diseases such as coccidiosis, what kind of diseases and symptoms you see here.

No less dangerous is the disease as a viral hemorrhagic disease, read more by clicking on the link

Why do rabbits become infected, and is there a danger that a person will get sick?

Myxomatosis is easy to earn. Usually rabbits are infected with this disease from insects, which are its carriers. To infect an animal in a state of fleas and lice, often living on a rabbit's fur, numerous midges, which are always numerous in the place where animals are kept, mosquitoes, even flies, which bite the rabbit.

Infection is also possible through claws of birds of prey. The spikes can also have a dangerous myxomatosis virus. It happens that one rabbit can infect another sexually. И хотя такие случаи довольно редки, опасаться их возникновения стоит.

На людей данное заболевание не распространяется. Ему подвержены разве что мыши и крысы, но лишь определенных видов.

Treatment of rabbits for myxomatosis, is it effective?

If a sick animal does not have the necessary help in time and does not treat it, the disease can be fatal. If the treatment is carried out, but not adequately, the pet may fall ill again. The disease is activated in a short time, often killing the rabbit in a few days. In many cases, even experienced veterinarians refuse to take infected animals for treatment, believing that this will not bring any sense.

Rabbit affected by myxomatosis

If the rabbit decided to lead to recovery, the following rules should be observed. It is necessary to keep the animal in comfortable warm conditions, only in this case, the progression of myxomatosis can be stopped. In case the rabbit refuses to eat, the veterinarian resorts to the help of special medications, the action of which is aimed at delivering nutrients to the animal's body.

The most effective treatment carried out at the beginning of the development of the disease. In this case, the rabbit save immunomodulators, strong antibiotics. The wounds on the skin are moistened with a solution of iodine on alcohol. If the disease is defeated, and the animal has gone on an amendment, and even cured completely, it is necessary to keep it under quarantine conditions for three months, which will prevent possible recurrences and will give the rabbit to get stronger after a serious illness.

One of the methods of treatment carried out only by professional veterinarians, is the introduction of injections under the skin of animals. Applied in these cases, "Gamavit" (in the amount of two milliliters). If pet dehydration is observed, “Gamavit” is administered together with “Ringer” (as a solution). This is how a rabbit is treated until it finally recovers.

One milliliter per day is a sufficient dose of Fospril, which is also injected. Other medications for myxomatosis:

  • “Baytril”, which is given to the rabbit for a week, at a dose of a milliliter per 10 kilograms of animal mass a couple of times a day.
  • Drops in the nasal cavity.

Regardless of whether the host understands the methods of treating rabbits or not, if he finds the first signs of myxomatosis he should immediately contact a veterinarian.

We strongly recommend that you familiarize yourself with the most common diseases in rabbits.

Does the vaccine against myxomatosis always help?

Vaccination with myxomatosis of rabbits does not always give positive results. Sometimes the reason for this is the fact that the owner of the animals does not maintain the immunity of their pets at a sufficiently high level. The second factor influencing the development of the disease is late prophylactic vaccination: that is, if an injection is introduced after the onset of the rabbit's disease.

Vaccine for myxomatosis

If the owner took to breed fluffy animals, he should always take proper care of pets and carry out preventive measures in time, otherwise the rabbit may get sick, and the vaccine will not be needed. There is an opinion that it is impossible to vaccinate small rabbits, but this is an erroneous view. In fact, rabbits are not only possible, but they should definitely be vaccinated, since their immunity at a young age copes with the diseases even better than in adults.

The vaccine may not help the sick rabbit even if it was acquired from the hands, from unknown persons or in an underground firm. Buy medicine should be only in reputable veterinary pharmacies. It is there that the drug is stored in compliance with all the required rules and regulations. At home, the acquired vaccine should be kept only in the refrigerator - in the same room and under the light of the lamp can not be stored.

If the medicine is opened, as well as in cases when the vaccine has expired, you should immediately get rid of the medication. The medicine may not bring the expected success even when it was used without preliminary prevention of the animal from worms and coccidia. On the packaging of each vaccine contains information that tells how to vaccinate the rabbit correctly: this instruction must be followed strictly, otherwise it is possible not only not to alleviate the suffering of the rabbit, but also to completely ruin it.

Preventive measures aimed at the prevention of rabbit myxomatosis

The most important thing that needs to be done in order to prevent rabbits from getting sick with myxomatosis is to conduct a routine vaccination of all individuals every year. In addition, it is important to follow other rules aimed at maintaining animal hygiene. Rabbits should be protected from contact with people whom they do not know, because a person, like the insects mentioned above, can also carry an infection and infect a rabbit.

Cages that contain animals must be thoroughly washed, cleaned, avoiding contamination. The whole area around the room, as well as the area where the rabbits walk, should also be sanitized. To feed and feed pets, it is necessary to use proven and fresh food and clean water, periodically change old sawdust to fresh. Animals need to be treated from time to time in order to prevent infection by ectoparasites, and this should be done even in relation to those rabbits that do not go beyond the cage or yard.

In the course of veterinarians and those involved in breeding rabbits, a vaccine called B-82. This is a living natural medicine that has the ability to strengthen the immune system, making it resistant to the ailment described. It guarantees that after being introduced to rabbits, the animals will not be sick with myxomatosis for at least eight months.

Enter the drug twice in one milliliter. The course of preventive treatment ranges from one month to 45 days. Then there is a break for three months, after which the course resumes. Just a week after the introduction of the B-82 vaccine, the body of rabbits becomes stronger and can resist myxomatosis. This procedure is recommended in March of each year.

Is the meat of rabbits infected with myxomatosis dangerous?

Until now, no one has been able to give an exact answer to the question: is the consumption of meat by rabbits affected by myxomatosis allowed? If you rely on the medical point of view, this product will not bear any harm to the human body, because people can not get myxomatosis. Of course, if a decision is made to eat the meat of a sick animal, it is necessary to cut the last one before his death, and then wash and fry the meat very well. Rabbits that have died from the diagnosis of myxomatosis and have lain for several days cannot be unequivocally eaten.

However, there are other opinions on this matter, such as the opinion of many, that the meat of a sick pet should never be eaten, otherwise you could catch a terrible infection or just get poisoned. Such people usually get rid of the bodies of the dead rabbits by burning them in a flame of fire, and then they disinfect the room where the pet lived and the area next to it.

There is also a compromise option: you can eat the meat of the myxomatous rabbit, but not everyone will dare to do so. The fact is that a sick animal outwardly looks very unpleasant - it literally completely overgrows with tumors, and its eyes swim. The banal feeling of disgust prevents many people from eating even a piece of meat from a sick rabbit. Considering all three reasons, we can conclude: fried rabbit meat from myxomatosis does not infect humans with an infectiontherefore, it is theoretically allowed to eat it, but this may be hindered by disgust and aversion to the external state of an animal that has been tormented by an illness.

Myxomatosis and methods of its distribution

Myxomatosis is a viral infection affecting young animals and adult livestock of rabbits. The little rabbit has natural immunity to this disease, which he received along with his mother's milk, but since the age of two months the immunity is weakened.

Myxoma virus can be killed within half an hour by affecting it with a temperature of over 55 ° C.

It can also be treated with an alkaline solution, formalin or ether. But in the corpses of dead animals the virus can persist for several weeks, and in their dried skins - up to a year.

The main carriers of the virus are mosquitoes, bedbugs and rabbit fleas, so rabbits myxomatosis epidemics usually begin in summer. Also, the virus can be transmitted by close contact with healthy rabbit from diseased rabbits, while animals that survived after myxomatosis for a few more months are potential carriers of this virus.

Symptoms and development of the disease

The incubation period for myxomatosis, depending on its type, can last from 2 to 20 days, and at this time the signs of the disease are almost imperceptible. Only with very close examination in sick animals during this period can one notice small reddish spots on the skin or small nodules on the eyelids or ears - the first warning of a progressive infection.

With the further development of myxomatosis in rabbits, the symptoms become pronounced,

  • watery eyes, pronounced signs of conjunctivitis, accompanied by pus clots that appear on the eyes,
  • temperature jumps (at first it slowly rises, and after reaching 40-41 ° it returns abruptly to normal),
  • the appearance and development of tumors on the body: first, inconspicuous tubercles, which with the further development of myxomatosis increase in size, - in most cases - to the size of bean, and in particularly severe cases - to the size of pigeon egg
  • the eyelids, nose and ears of the rabbit swell, often swelling visible on the genitals, at least - on the anus,
  • Ears in rabbits of erect breeds descend, the scalp swells up and is bulging, looks like a lion,
  • inflammation of the oral cavity, secretion of mucus from it, which makes it difficult for animals to breathe.

In most cases, myxomatosis torments rabbits for up to 11 days. During this time, the animal either dies from exhaustion, because, because of the inflamed oral cavity, it can not only eat, but also drink normally, or, if it has good health and was properly treated, recovers.

Forms of myxomatosis

Rabbits suffer from two types of myxomatosis: edematous and nodular. The edematous form is much more dangerous than a nodular one: it lasts from 2 to 7 days, after which the animals die. The disease begins with inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes, rapidly turning into conjunctivitis, in some places a dried purulent crust appears on the mucous membrane.

Subsequently, the rabbit swells first head, then swelling captures the nasal cavity, and then spreads throughout the body. Tumors, in which a colorless liquid accumulates, sometimes can be as big as walnut in size. Because of the swollen nasopharynx, from which pus comes out from time to time, the rabbit has difficulty eating, drinking and breathing.

This type of myxomatosis is practically not treatable. After 5-7 days after the onset of the disease, the animal dies.

Experienced rabbit bosses, noticing the first symptoms of edematous myxomatosis, fight the animal, cultivating it, isolating it from the rest of the rabbits.

The nodular form of myxomatosis is more benign. At first, it manifests itself as tiny nodules that appear on the head, which often disappear by themselves, and then reappear. At the same time, the rabbit itself feeds normally, behaves as usual, and it is necessary to have considerable experience in order to examine the underlying disease during the examination.

On the 5-6th day after the onset of the disease, reddening around the eyes becomes noticeable, conjunctivitis develops, the eyelids of the animal are glued together with purulent secretions, and the rabbit almost becomes blind. Hillocks on the head increase in size, tumors appear in the places where they accumulate. The nasopharynx is also inflamed, so the animal breathes with difficulty. On day 9-10, the nodular myxomatosis actually turns into a swollen form.

But with a nodular form, if treatment is started in a timely manner, about 50% of the rabbits still experience the peak of the disease. In the future, over the course of a month, 1-2 more relapses are possible in the surviving animals, during which about 20% of the animals that had recovered die. The overall mortality of the eared livestock from the nodular form of myxomatosis is about 60%.

But the surviving animals for a long time remain carriers of the virus, potentially dangerous to other rabbits. For rabbits that have had myxomatosis, it should take at least 3-4 months until they finally become healthy.

Danger of myxomatosis for humans

Scientists have shown that myxomatosis is not transmitted from a rabbit to a person. But the question whether it is possible to eat the meat of a rabbit suffering from myxomatosis is not so straightforward. Theoretically, the meat of sick or survived animals after appropriate heat treatment can be eaten without fear.

But in practice, looking at the distorted appearance and suffering of a sick rabbit, few people will want to eat his meat. And there is almost no meat itself in an emaciated from hunger and disease, only skin, muscles and bones.

Another thing, if the disease is detected at an early stage, when the rabbit is not yet disfigured and not dried out from the inside by the disease. In this case, if you do not want to risk it, you can not treat the animal, but to score and skin it. The meat of such a rabbit can be eaten, you only need to rinse it thoroughly first, and then fry well.

Rabbit Disease Myxomatosis, Description of Pathogen

The causative agent of Myxomatosis cuniculorum belongs to the DNA viruses of the Poxviridae group. Translated from Latin into Russian, Pox is smallpox. Rabbit myxomatosis is the “cousin” of cattle nodular dermatitis virus. Residents of southern Russia have learned since 2015, this insidious disease of cows.

The name of the disease of smallpox rabbits is only the second name of myxomatosis

Viruses are intracellular parasites and each virus "prefers" to be a parasite of certain cells - this is called the tropism (attachment) of viruses to a specific cell type.

The virus outside the cell is not considered a living biological object.

To come to life, the virus is embedded in the genetic code (DNA, RNA) of cells (human, animal, plant) and is the only way to multiply, have a pathogenic effect on the body, while being under the safe protection of a living cell.

The causative agent of myxomatosis manifests tropism to the skin cells of the skin and mucous membranes of the rabbit

Consequently, the main lesions should be sought in the skin, subcutaneous tissue and rabbit mucous membranes. Being an intracellular parasite, it is impossible to kill any virus with antibacterial drugs, without damaging the cell where the pathogen lives.

Rabbit viral disease myxomatosis can only be prevented by immunomodulators (vaccines), whose action is complex and unstable. To use in the treatment of myxomatosis in rabbits, antibiotics are possible solely to eliminate secondary bacterial (purulent) events complicating viral pathology.

Pus is always bacteria that are treated with antibiotics. Antibiotic viruses do not cure!

Treatment of myxomatosis in rabbits with penicillin, more precisely with penicillin-type antibiotics, is the best choice for suppressing secondary infections with myxomatosis. Recovery from the use of antibiotics is possible if two conditions coincide:

  1. Rabbit previously vaccinated, or has innate or acquired resistance
  2. Penicillin antibiotic effectively acting on secondary purulent infection

Additionally read about penicillin and its drugs registered in the Russian Federation

Myxomatosis in rabbits, history of epizootic studies

The emergence and spread of myxomatosis is instructive. The syndrome (complex of symptoms) of fibrous seals on the skin of wild rabbits of South America has been known since time immemorial. The fact that the reason - a dangerous agent of unclear etiology was first proved already in 1896, according to the results of experiments on European rabbits, brought to Uruguay (Montevideo).

Later, in 1911, the viral nature and the participation of insects and mites in the transmission and preservation of the pathogen (natural foci) was proved. At the same time, it was established that the virus is not dangerous for the South American rabbit population and is dangerous for the European rabbit population, which by then inhabited Southern Europe and Australia.

The American wild rabbits for many millennia acquired resistance to the virus, the disease transformed into a banal syndrome, vaguely resembling fibrous formations on the skin after smallpox.

A photo. For some countries, the uncontrolled distribution of rabbits has become a national disaster. Scientists have calculated that bacteriological weapons are the best option to combat the rabbit

From 1911 to 1950 in some countries, groups of researchers were created, experiments were conducted and coordination on the use of myxomatosis virus as a biological method for controlling wild European type rabbits in Europe and Australia.

Hooray! The delighted scientists shouted, believing that biological weapons, in the form of myxomatosis virus, would lead to the total death of the wild rabbit population in Australia

Fig you - the national hut Indians, replied cunning virus. The overall world result is pitiable. Заражение кроликов миксоматозом вначале приводит к 95% гибели, а затем постепенному восстановлению популяции кроликов, но уже устойчивых к вирусу. Так миксоматоз начал свое «победное» шествие по захвату европейских стран, точнее территорий, заселенных европейским типом кроликов.

В результате, с 1978-1979 гг. миксоматоз – это карантинная болезнь в СССР и странах бывшего союза, приплыли …

Suppose independence supporters are not offended, but myxomatosis first appeared in the USSR. First, in the west of the country: in 1977 in the Latvian SSR (Republic of Latvia), then in 1980 in the Ukrainian SSR (Ukraine), and then it started ... Moldova, Belarus, etc.

Thus, for wild rabbits of the American type myxomatosis is not dangerous, and for rabbits of the European type (absolutely all domestic rabbit breeds) myxomatosis is a deadly infection.

Animals that are vaccinated or individually resistant to the virus can survive

In Europe, rabbits resistant to myxomatosis virus are slowly emerging. But it would be better if we didn’t know the disease at all, just as our fathers and grandfathers didn’t know about it until quite recently, until 1978. The Internet is full of photo and video materials, where you can see the survivors of myxomatosis rabbits. I can even argue that all the photos and videos are from stationary foci of myxomatosis.

Myxomatosis in rabbits, as transmitted

Myxomatosis in rabbits is a natural focal disease, which means that the pathogen is able to persist and circulate indefinitely in the wild, especially in regions with a warm climate, where wild rabbits are carriers of the virus, and arthropods are carriers.

In conditions of a temperate climate, natural foci are doubtful, but the reservoir is the recovered, recovered domestic rabbits. There are several options for the transmission of myxomatosis virus.

  1. Transmissible transmission path, through mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, lice, lashing. In the body of arthropods (insects, mites), the virus does not multiply, but is able to retain virulence for a long time. Insects are exclusively mechanical carriers of viruses.
  2. Infection by direct contact. Transmission of myxomatosis virus from animal to animal is possible in two ways: by airborne droplets (aerosol) and by contact when touched.
  3. Infection with indirect (indirect) contact. The virus is transmitted through the inventory, litter, feed, water, the surface of the cells, where sick animals were kept.

Myxomatosis virus kills alkali-based disinfectants, as well as formalin and ether. On objects in contact with sick rabbits with myxomatosis, the virus can retain virulence for up to three months. It is possible to isolate the causative agent of myxomatosis from the corpse of a rabbit, even six days after the death.

Rabbits got sick with myxomatosis, what to do

What is myxomatosis in rabbits, as manifested in acute and chronic forms, can be guided by the presence of swelling of the skin in the head area, given the epizootic situation of the area where your rabbits are kept. Myxomatosis is more common in summer, it is sometimes called mosquito disease, however, arthropods are not the only peddlers of the virus. What you need and how to determine that your rabbits are suspected of getting sick with myxomatosis.

The first signs of myxomatosis are red spots or micro tubercles in the area of ​​the eyelids and auricles.

The following characteristic signs of myxomatosis are considered:

  • rabbits puffy face (resembles a lion's head),
  • gelatinous swelling of the skin in the region of the decompression and genitals, ears,
  • massive purulent discharge from the eyes, inflammation of the conjunctiva and eyelids and blindness,
  • cones on the eyes of a rabbit is one of the signs of chronic (nodular) myxomatosis.

What nodules are, see below for symptoms of chronic myxomatosis

In any case, an urgent need to contact the nearest district veterinary station to combat animal diseases. Veterinarians on the basis of epizootic information, clinical symptoms, autopsy and laboratory tests, differential diagnosis can make an accurate diagnosis.

Myxomatosis in rabbits, patterns of distribution

Veterinarians constantly collect information about quarantine infections. Of course, a hypothetical outbreak of myxomatosis of rabbits, is possible at a distance of one and a half thousand or more kilometers from the nearest source. However, there is some pattern in the spread of each infection. For example, a myxomatosis, with the greatest probability, can erupt at a distance of up to 400 km from the nearest center recorded in the current year, provided that the terrain was previously safe for this infection.

Myxomatosis in rabbits, clinical symptoms

The incubation (asymptomatic) period lasts from 2 to 20 days.

During this time there is an accumulation of a critical mass of virus capable of suppressing the immune system of rabbits. Intensity of immunity ultimately determines which clinical pathway the infection will take (fulminant, acute or chronic).

Symptoms of fulminant

The sudden death of rabbits. Almost always happens in the warm season, during the massive summer of mosquitoes. In the fulminant form, myxomatosis can manifest itself as a single and massive case. Isolated cases of death inevitably turn into a mass death of rabbits. An outbreak of infection often begins with a fattening herd.

The fulminant form is characteristic of unvaccinated rabbits, less often in improperly vaccinated

The vaccine for myxomatosis is an exceptional, lively, but weakened pathogen, that is, a weak form of "paralysis." When VGBK use "killed" vaccines. Especially carefully vaccinate rabbits from the ill mothers.

Colostral specific immunity in rabbits born from recovered rabbit mothers conflicts with vaccine immunity.

Symptoms of acute form

An approximate sequence of myxomatosis in acute form (duration up to 5-6 days). This is an indicative sequence and symptoms, in each case there may be a different picture.

  1. Gel-like swelling of the skin in the head, ears, dewlap, groin area.
  2. Body temperature at first to 41 degrees, and then returns to normal.
  3. Conjunctivitis with serous exudate (similar to tears).
  4. Conjunctivitis with purulent exudate.
  5. Conjunctivitis with purulent-fibrinous exudate.
  6. Eyelid sticking due to the abundance of purulent-fibrinous exudate.
  7. Corneal eruption, rabbit blindness
  8. At all stages accompanied by nasal discharge.

Myxomatosis in acute form ends with the death of rabbits in one of the listed stages.

Symptoms of the chronic form

Vaccinated often have a chronic form of the disease. The approximate form of myxomatosis in the chronic (nodular) form. The chronic form passes from acute myxomatosis, from about 2-3 points of the acute form, the chronic form lasts about a month.

  1. Serous purulent conjunctivitis.
  2. Swelling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue in the eyelids.
  3. Mucus, sometimes pus from the eyes.
  4. Eyes sticking, possibly without blindness.
  5. Pus from nasal openings.
  6. Wheezing and shortness of breath.
  7. Nodules - solid tumors under the skin, bulging in the form of nodular swellings ranging in size from a grain of millet to a quail egg. In rabbits often over the eyes.

Nodula - a type of skin rash in the form of a hard swelling, painful

The chronic form of myxomatosis can be completed with the recovery of a rabbit, followed by a lifelong carrier of the virus. It is possible the death of rabbits in chronic form due to the depletion of the body's defenses. Treatment of ulcers at the site of nodules using ASD 2-f and other stinkers is not effective and do not die from the smell of this medicine yourself.

A photo. Nodular (chronic) myxomatosis. After some time, on the site of nodules necrosis centers are formed. If the rabbit survives, they will heal on their own, after a while

Myxomatosis, differential diagnosis

Under conditions of an average climatic band, myxomatosis is differentiated from pasteurellosis and the skin form of staphylococcus.

  • Pasteurellosis. Unlike myxomatosis, pasteurellosis - a bacterial infection manifests itself, including inflammation of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Pasteurellosis, in contrast to myxomatosis, is treated with antibiotics of the tetracycline group, taking into account toxicity to rabbits.
  • Staphylococcus. The cutaneous form of staphylococcus in the form of furunculosis may also resemble myxomatosis in rabbits, however, in contrast to the nodules, the furuncles are filled with purulent contents. Staphylococci are also treated with antibiotics.

In countries with hot climates, myxomatosis may be confused with other infections, but this is a completely different story.

Postmortem study of myxomatosis

At necropsy for dead rabbits, major pathological-anatomical changes, with a probability of 90-95%, were detected in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes, the thyroid gland, and lungs in rabbits.

  • Changes in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, localization in the head, neck, perineum, limbs. On the incision observe vascular hyperemia, gelatinous soaking (infiltrate), yellowish. The skin above the incision is hyperemic.
  • Changes in the lymph nodes. Examine the submandibular, axillary, mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. On the cut, the edges do not coincide (increase), tissue necrosis is observed.
  • Changes in the thyroid gland. Puffiness is a blurred pattern of the parenchyma gland.
  • Changes in the lungs. Foci of bronchopneumonia (compacted sites), point hemorrhages, fluid accumulation, swelling.

Myxomatosis in rabbits, laboratory research

For intravital diagnosis, nasal and conjunctival lavages are selected from the nose and eyes. For a post-mortem examination, you can send pieces of skin on the border of damaged and healthy tissue. The material is fixed in 10% formalin solution in saline. In an accredited laboratory, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is sometimes performed on a biological sample.

Samples are selected and sent to the laboratory for examination by a veterinarian of the state veterinary service. The specialist who treats your rabbits or your friend has nothing to do. In extreme cases, unauthorized veterinary specialists may take samples with the permission of the state veterinary service. Do not expose the vet in trouble.

Myxomatosis in rabbits, quarantine events

In accordance with the instructions on measures to combat ragus ixomatosis, the head of the region where the outbreak occurred, according to the proposal of the state veterinary service, places restrictions on the outbreak, the unfavorable item. See the source, not the Internet advisers. Activities may vary in different regions.

Myxomatosis in rabbits, treatment

The implementation of quarantine measures in relation to myxomatosis does not provide for therapeutic measures, moreover, they are prohibited. Myxomatosis does not occur in humans, but the main danger of infection is the unpredictability of the spread of the virus in the outbreak.

Before you begin treatment, calculate the economic feasibility and try to negotiate with the veterinary service not to impose quarantine (second joke)

Under the terms of quarantine, you will not even be asked what to do in the outbreak of myxomatosis. Numerous studies have established that the disease of rabbits myxomatosis, treatment is not economically feasible, leads to the uncontrolled spread of infection to neighboring farms.

So far, it is not known what and how to cure myxomatosis in rabbits, with a guarantee of complete recovery

The best option - treatment of rabbits with penicillin for myxomatosis is used exclusively to eliminate secondary infections.

Vaccination of animals with suspected and clinical signs of myxomatosis is prohibited.

I used to have to think. Attempts to conceal the infection and treat on their own usually end with the death of all susceptible animals in the area (settlement). Survive only in advance vaccinated. However, even the vaccine does not guarantee against infection.

The combination of antibiotic + immunomodulator for myxomatosis

Perhaps you will be interested in a new complex veterinary drug - Ribaflox in the treatment of rabbits myxomatosis.

In one bottle, an antibiotic and an immunomodulator is Ribavirin.

It consists of an immunomodulator - ribavirin (acts on viruses) and an antibiotic (acts on bacteria). It can be relatively easily found in retail or wholesale veterinary pharmacies in Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan.

Ribaflox, producer - Alpovet (Cyprus). The combined preparation contains two components. The first is the immunomodulator ribavirin, which acts on the DNA of viruses, which include myxomatosis virus. The second is the antibiotic enrofloxacin (its Baytril analogue), which affects most of the pyogenic bacteria that accompany myxomatosis. Dosage 1 ml / 10 kg mass, respectively, the rabbit weighing 3 kg dose is needed less.

Preventive treatment for myxomatosis mosquito vectors

In veterinary medicine, there are drugs to deter arthropods. They are called repellents. There are also drugs that kill insects and ticks - insectoacaricides. Separately - insecticides (flies), acaricides (mites). In the summer, for the prevention of myxomatosis, I recommend treating rabbit cells.

Combine repellent and insectoacaricide treatments

In the free circulation you can find many of these drugs. For the sample, I indicate the most affordable, produced by LLC “National Exhibition Center“ Agrovetzashchita ”, Russia.

  • Fly block The preparation with repellent properties is intended for the treatment of cows in order to scare away gadflies, pastures flies, gadflies, mosquitoes during the pasture season. Rabbits do not need to handle. In order to avoid intoxications, it is enough to process the cells where the rabbits are kept.
  • Deltsid. Insectoacaricide. For the destruction of ticks and grazing insects on animals. Also do not process rabbits, process cages.

How to breed indicated in the instructions for drugs. They are better not to mix with each other. It will seem ridiculous, but process in strips, under a zebra. Do not directly treat rabbits with drugs, sometimes when applied to delicate skin they cause severe itching. The best way to apply drugs is with a paint brush on the cell surface. The disadvantage is the complexity. It can be sprayed, but the consumption of drugs increases, part of it falls on the skin of rabbits. After drying, the drug for up to 2 weeks (in shaded places) retains its useful human properties.

Use treatments in conjunction with glue baits.

Why prevention of myxomatosis is possible only with live vaccines.

Live vaccines are essentially the causative agent of the disease. It turns out that for the prevention of rabbit myxomatosis, they inoculate the causative agent of myxomatosis. Is the rabbit "ill" with mild myxomatosis? Possible breakthrough immunity and an outbreak of infection? If the vaccination is correct, on the advice of the veterinarian epizootology, nothing will happen. The virus is weakened by multiple cultivations in living cells, usually chicken embryos.

Inoculation with fragments of myxoma (killed vaccines) does not lead to the formation of intense immunity.

In this regard, it is very important to observe the recommended timing of vaccination. See the use of different vaccines. Colostral immunity rabbits inhibits the formation of susceptibility. See the timing of vaccination for different vaccines. Otherwise, the rabbits will either die or you will do vain work.

The list of vaccines against myxomatosis registered in the Russian Federation

All of the following vaccines for myxomatosis of rabbits registered in the Russian Federation are live, attenuated (weakened). This means that the vaccine for myxomatosis contains the real virus myxomatosis, but in various ways, weakened to a non-pathogenic state. In common parlance, these vaccines are called vaccines against rabbit mosquitoes. All vaccinations can be done to pregnant rabbits.

Following the links you can read the instructions for the vaccine.

  • Vaccine against myxomatosis of rabbits dry live culture from strain B-82. Manufacturer, FGBNU FITSViM (Russia)
  • Vaccine RABBIVAK-V Vaccine against myxomatosis of rabbits attenuated. Prizvoditel, Trading House BiAgro LLC (Russia)
  • MIKSOHIPRA-N Vaccine live homologous against myxomatosis with a diluent. Manufacturer "Laboratorios Hipra, S.A." (Spain)
  • Dervaksimikso Vaccine against myxomatosis of rabbits live freeze-dried. Manufacturer, Merial (France).
  • Derkunimex Vaccine against myxomatosis and viral hemorrhagic disease of rabbits. Manufacturer, Merial, (France).
  • Czech vaccines (Biooveta SA)

Vaccines cannot completely prevent the risk of myxomatosis, but reduce the severity of pathogenesis. Vaccinations with live vaccines are a kind of mild rabbits parasitic myxomatosis.

In the instructions for different live vaccines are marked (combined and represented):

  • sukrolnost is not an obstacle to vaccination, only to fix correctly,
  • recovered rabbit transmits colostral immunity, strictly observe the timing of the first vaccination of young animals,
  • the first vaccination depends on the season, it is better to vaccinate before the onset of the warm period,
  • the vaccine is a prophylactic drug; vaccination of two, three and more times will lead to a new outbreak and death of sick and vaccinated rabbits.

Disinfection treatment of cells after myxomatosis

How to treat rabbit cells after myxomatosis? The question is very relevant. The causative agent of myxomatosis belongs to the smallpox-like viruses. Близкие родственники миксоматоза — нодулярный дерматит крупного рогатого скота, оспа мелкого рогатого скота. Для дезинфекции используют 3% горячий раствор едкого натра. Можно обрабатывать клетки современными средствами дезинфекции от нодулярного дерматита коров, широко известная болезнь животных, на юге нашей страны. Посоветуйтесь с ближайшими ветеринарами, а иначе запутаетесь из-за обилия дез.means.

The most common modern disinfectants in myxomatosis based on glutaraldehyde

Is it possible to coat rabbits with myxomatosis

The rabbit who has had myxomatosis is forever the carrier of the virus, that is, it is the reservoir of the disease that can re-erupt. Do not confuse a rabbit farm with wild fauna, where natural selection solves many of the tasks of survival and the formation of myxomatosis-resistant rabbit populations. On the farm, this principle does not work. Myxomatosis in rabbit can be transmitted with rabbit, do not take risks, or do what you want, you have been warned.

If under the terms of quarantine the veterinarians left the sick, then why not cover the rabbits? And if destroyed, then accordingly it is impossible! In short, this is not a question for Internet advisers.

Myxomatosis in rabbits, is it possible to eat meat

Very often the question is asked: - "Is it possible to eat the meat of a rabbit with a patient with myxomatosis, because people do not get sick." The answer is no, no. This requirement is not mine, but instructions for veterinary and sanitary examination of meat, approved. from 12.27.1983. A closer look at paragraph 1.3.1 of the document, the middle of the list. For other diseases of the rabbit, see section 5. It is dedicated specifically to the FSS of rabbits. People do not get sick, but do not forget about the dangerous diseases of rabbits that are not treated, and myxomatosis easily spreads not only by insects, the main way of its distribution is meat. Thus, whether it is possible to eat the meat of a rabbit patient with myxomatosis, no, it is impossible. In the market, where there is an honest veterinary and sanitary examination, none of the doctors will undertake to rabbit the carcass of a rabbit, this is a criminal offense. You can, out of ignorance, buy a rabbit carcass from a private trader who did not know or hid the infection on his farm. At home, when cutting the carcass, or during the cooking process, the hostess will determine that something is wrong with the rabbit meat. But even if you do not determine the quality yourself, myxomatosis is not lethal to a person, they just deceived you, and that’s it, and the seller got an excellent opportunity for a second outbreak of myxomatosis in himself and his neighbors. Cut rabbit meat into portions.