The Predatory Detachment unites representatives of the class Mammals, eating mostly animal food. A wolf and a fox, a tiger and a lion, a marten and a badger — these animals are known to everyone. This is not surprising, because the Predatory have adapted to dwell on all continents, except the coldest - Antarctica. Consider briefly, what information about these animals collected today biology.
First of all, they are united by the nature of the food. She is not just of animal origin. All members of the squad Predatory themselves attack their victims, killing them. Some of them feed on carrion, thereby clearing habitats from rotting organic debris.
The main characteristic of the Predatory detachment is associated precisely with the structural features that enable them to hunt. Therefore, they all have a developed brain, a strong trained body, well-developed differentiated teeth. Especially distinguished fangs, which they grab and tear prey. On each side, one molar teeth is modified into the so-called predatory ones. With their help, it is even possible to crush large bones and break powerful tendons - it is so sharp.
The highly developed nervous system, especially the brain, also distinguishes it from other mammals. This leads to complex forms of behavior of these animals.
Predatory enough diverse and has about 240 species. Therefore, in this detachment there are a number of other families.
Describing the squad of Predatory (mammals), first of all they mention the family, which received its name due to the tireless forest medic. We are talking about the wolf and his relatives: fox, jackal, arctic fox, raccoon and domestic dogs.
All of them are of medium size and fairly long limbs. The structure of the musculoskeletal system and muscular system allows them to pursue their future prey for a long time and tirelessly.
The most powerful and agile among the representatives of this group is the wolf. Animals prefer to live in large flocks, the number of individuals in which reaches forty. Wolves are not only great hunters, but also dangerous predators that can attack even humans. They are rightfully considered forest nurses, eating large amounts of carrion.
But the fox can eat not only animal food. Her favorite delicacy is the sweet and juicy fruits of forest plants. Foxes live in couples or entire families. Man especially appreciates the beautiful, warm and fluffy fur of these animals.
We continue to study the squad Predatory by example. domestic cat. What is this predator? The real! His ancestor is the forest wildcat. And modern pets are the result of their domestication.
Basically, representatives of the Feline family combine large body sizes with elongated limbs, which end in retractable sharp claws. Have everyone seen a cat hunting for a mouse? She does not catch up, but watches her prey. The same behavior is typical for larger cats: tigers, lynxes, lions.
Most of the members of this family live in the tropical and subtropical climate zone of our planet. But the Amur tiger is the master of the taiga of the Far East. This is one of the largest predators, on the mass second only to the polar bear. Within the limits of its range, it always occupies a dominant position. This also applies to food chains, as tigers hunt other predators, such as wolves.
Miracles of selection
Since the lion and tiger are the most prominent representatives of the entire animal world of the planet, geneticists have tried to create their hybrids. This experiment was completed quite successfully, because as a result of the crossing, viable individuals with new properties in comparison with the original forms were obtained. So, liger - a hybrid of a lion and a tigress, is capable of unlimited growth. In nature, this feature is characteristic of plants and fungi. Liger grows throughout life, sometimes reaching a length of up to 3 meters.
Usually interspecific hybrids are not capable of producing fertile offspring. Tigrolev is an exception to this rule. This is almost the only case in breeding. Females obtained by crossing a tiger and a lioness are capable of breeding.
We continue to consider the squad of carnivorous mammals on the example of a family that combines individuals with valuable fur-bearing fur. Otter, marten, ermine, mink, ferret - this is not a complete list of representatives of the Cunha family. Many of them climb trees beautifully, and otters are great swimmers. Another representative of the weasel is the badger. He especially appreciates meat that is eaten and fat that has healing properties.
Detachment Predatory mastered all climatic zones. Its representatives can be found even in the cold expanses of the Arctic. It is there that lives the largest representative of carnivorous mammals - the polar bear, whose mass can reach 750 kg. It swims beautifully, hunting for fish and pinnipeds.
But in the forests of the Predatory squad is another beast - a brown bear. It can eat both plant and animal food, attacking deer or boars. In winter, this species of bears hibernates, and in the summer leads an active lifestyle. He is the object of hunting thanks to the valuable meat and skin.
The Predatory Order group unites a number of mammalian class families, in the diet of which animal food predominates. These animals have well developed sharp teeth for hunting. Many species are valued by man for valuable fur, meat and fat. Therefore, at present, many species of predatory mammals need protection.
Predatory mammals are characterized by a variety of appearance, size, ways of movement and adaptation to habitat.
Sizes range from 14 cm to 3 m, and weight ranges from 100 g to 1 ton. The structure of the dental system is the main feature that unites all these animals. All predatory small incisors, canines, in contrast, are very well developed, molars with sharp tops, lumpy. All predators are distinguished by well-developed hair, forming a thick coat.
Members of the Predatory squad are widespread everywhere, with the exception of Antarctica. In the detachment of more than 240 species. Many predators are of great commercial importance, mainly due to their dense thick wool used for tailoring.
The predatory squad includes the dog, bear, raccoon, mustelle, cat hyena and wyver families.
The canids (wolf, dog) are medium-sized predators with long legs adapted to the long pursuit of the victim. On the fingers of all canine nevyazhnye claws. All canids breed once a year. Many species live in burrows, others prefer to build a den. Family wolves live in family groups - packs of 10–12 individuals. They feed mainly on ungulates, rarely hunt small mammals. The expanses of the tundra inhabit other members of the family - foxes. Arctic foxes are the only ones from the order who have seasonal dimorphism in coloring. In the summer their wool is dark, brown, in the summer it becomes snow-white. The main fox diet is made up of lemmings. Also, the fox, jackal, coyote, and raccoon dog belong to the dog family.
The largest members of the squad are in the bear family. The weight of the largest individuals can reach tons. These animals are distributed mainly in the northern hemisphere. On the territory of Russia there are 3 species of bear - the polar bear, the brown bear and the Himalayan (or, as the people call it, the white-breast).
The raccoon family includes 7 species of predatory animals with medium size, relatively short limbs, and a long tail. The natural range of the raccoon is North and South America. In the middle of the XX century. in the USSR, the raccoon was acclimatized. The only Asian-born species of raccoon is the minor panda. She lives in the bamboo forests of Myanmar, Nepal and China.
The family of weasels is very large, includes about 70 species of animals, common, with the exception of Australia. Cunhas are animals of medium and small size, with shortened limbs, many have odorous glands. Among the mustelids there are many commercial species - sable, mink, marten, ermine. Also refers to the Qunim badger - a medium-sized beast that lives in deep burrows. The largest marten is the sea otter, sea otter, inhabits the seas of the North Pacific. The length of its body, including the tail, can reach 1.5 m.
The feline family combines medium and large predators with long limbs that carry sharp retractable claws. Of the entire order, these animals are most specialized in obtaining animal food.
The hyena family combines medium-sized carnivores that feed mainly on carrion. The jaws of hyenas are powerful, adapted for crushing strong bones.
In Africa, Southern Europe and South Asia, representatives of the vivver family inhabit. Outwardly, they are a cross between a hyena and a cat. They are considered the most primitive predatory.
Mammals on the planet number over 4,000 species. There are about 380 in Russia. By the way, man is one of them. The fauna of the habitat is diverse, you can meet them in the hot desert and in the ice, in the vast depths of the ocean and high in the sky.
Mammals photos and description
You can even see them in your yard. Someone can weigh only a few grams, and someone a ton.
All of them are different in appearance, but are united by common signs. Mammals feed on milk. Feed their offspring.
No matter how the living conditions change, mammals will easily adapt to them. A developed brain helped win the battle for survival. The next feature is live birth.
The fetus develops in the womb and after a long gestation is born. This ensures a high level of survival compared to other species. Mammals teach calves. Actively engaged in their education.
They are warm-blooded, that is, their body temperature does not depend on natural conditions, be it frost or heat. The structure of the skin is unique. These are two layers of the epidermis, dermis. The epidermis functions in such a way that the old scales die off and are replaced by new ones.
In addition, mammals have hair, wool, of course, the length varies from short to thick and long. Evolution has endowed them with sweat and sebaceous glands.
mammal animal "African elephant"
This is necessary for thermoregulation. Evaporating, the liquid cools the surface of the skin. They also have claws, hair, nails, hooves, horns. The sebaceous glands of mammals secrete a substance that envelops the hair and skin, creating a protective film on the body.
Let's talk about the structure of the teeth. The lower jaw consists entirely of one bone. Teeth have a division into the root, canines and incisors. From food needs depends on the severity of one or another. Since mammals can be divided into herbivores, predators, insectivores.
All individuals have an auricle, the middle ear includes three auditory ossicles (stirrup, anvil and malleus). Heart 4-chamber. Blood bodies do not contain nuclei, which contributes to an increase in their oxygen capacity. Eyes include eyelids and eyelashes.
The cervical section of mammals consists of seven equal vertebrae. They are movable - interconnected, with the exception of the tail and the cross section. The number of ribs 12-15. The pelvis includes two pelvic bones.
mammal animal report
All of them have lungs, which allows them to breathe, the inhabitants of the reservoirs, respectively, also breathe with lungs, and not with the gills. The heart, along with them, is separated from the stomach by a muscle group - the diaphragm.
Mammals have a keen sense of smell; they can well touch objects with hairs located on the extremities. Can use memory, have prudence. It is interesting that from the Latin language, the name of the species is literally translated as chest, udder. Some are well trained.
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Are wild animals inhabiting our Planet for many millions of years?
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Insect class (lat. Insecta)
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