Animals

Turkish Angora, Breed Description, Character With Photo

Turkish Angora is one of the oldest breeds, which has been known for several centuries. Feline representatives are easily recognizable by their snow-white wool and amazing grace. The main highlight is their character.

These are descendants of cats, which in ancient times lived in Turkey. The owners of these animals at that time were only wealthy people, including the monarchs. In the Middle Ages, cats of this breed became very popular throughout Europe. Such a cat was an expensive gift for the rich. For various reasons, the representatives of this breed were almost completely extinct. The Turkish authorities, to save the animals, have developed a special program for their breeding.

Fact! In Russia, the Turkish Angoras appeared during the Russian-Turkish war.

These cats have a fluffy white wool, fluffy tail. Their eyes are blue, but it often happens that the animal's eyes differ in color from each other. According to legend, the prophet Muhammad himself, if you believe the description of the appearance, had a cat of this breed, which had eyes of different colors. Therefore, they are not driven out of the mosques.

In the 19th century in Europe, the breed became particularly popular, since in these years they were practically the only long-haired cats. When these representatives became smaller, the breeders tried to breed their cat breed, which would be similar to the Turkish Angora. They wanted to achieve this by crossing Persian and Oriental cats. As a result of such a cross, animals turned out that are not very different from the original. Their skeleton was a bit more powerful, and wool - more fluffy.

In recent years, breeders' experiments have led to the appearance of representatives of the breed not only white, but also other colors. As a result, there are often doubts about the quality of animals. White color is the business card of Turkish Angoras. If the animal is not white, then it can be confused with the Siberian cat and other breeds. For this reason, in our time, it is advisable not to breed Turkish Angor in different colors in order to preserve their original color. This is very important for breeders, since white kittens will cost much more.

In European countries you can often come across an attempt to deceive. Outbred kittens are sold as pedigree. This leads to a decrease in demand for this breed. A person who has bought a mongrel kitten instead of the original representative of the Turkish Angor, creates the wrong impression of the breed. Therefore, these cats are becoming less.

Perhaps one of the reasons for reducing the number of these cats can be considered marketing. Now the market offers British Shorthair, as well as Siamese and Persian cats. Perhaps, to revive their popularity, you just need to better inform people and use advertising for this.

Appearance

In Turkish, angor has a proportional body. These cats are very elegant and graceful, their coat is very soft. Here are the basic standards:

  1. Their body is of medium size. Slim body has a developed musculature.
  2. The legs are long and rather slender. Round paws are small.
  3. Turkish Angoras have a long tail that tapers towards the tip.
  4. They have a small head, and their cheeks are slightly convex.
  5. The muzzle is slightly elongated, and the chin is powerful.
  6. Large ears with sharp tips located close to each other. They are set high.
  7. The nose of these cats is of medium length.
  8. Representatives of this breed have a rather long and thin neck.
  9. Wool thin, soft, have an average length. A longer coat covers the tail, neck and chest of the animal.
  10. Their eyes are large, almond-shaped. They have a rich color - blue, amber or green.

Turkish Angoras are very active, they spend a lot of time in motion. Their character is mild. Most often, if the animal lives in a large family, it will bind to some one person. Angora owners say that, having become acquainted with this breed, you will not exchange it for another. They do not sit long in their arms, they love to run more.

Games are their favorite activity. The best toy for them is a mouse, real or artificial. Catching the mouse, they will throw them up, rush at it and hide. Having played, these cats can disturb the order in the house. If you do not tolerate this, it is better to choose an animal of another breed. It is unlikely that you will be able to rehabilitate the angora.

Representatives of this breed are distinguished by intelligence, decisiveness, ingenuity. To achieve the goal, they can go on various tricks. If you have hidden the thing that interested her, the animal will definitely try to get it. The cat will look for ways to get the toy, and if she doesn’t get it, she will beg for it.

Turkish Angoras will suit people of a sensitive nature, who will love and take good care of animals. They do not tolerate harsh treatment, loud cries, physical punishment. These cats are smart, their nerves are very strong, but their character is vulnerable. Basically, the representatives of the breed are very friendly, love the company of people. They become attached to the owner, participate in all household chores. If you want to have a cat for decorative purposes, then the Turkish Angora will not work for you. These sensitive animals are very fond of affection and attention.

With a lot of activity, they do not create too much noise. Playful character and curiosity are combined with elegance and pride. This breed is suitable for families with small children. The cat will be happy to play with the child. But the baby must be taught a good attitude towards the pet, not pulling his tail, and so on.

With other animals, they find a common language is not as easy as with people. Especially they do not like dogs or those cats that have a difficult character. Angora can get along with another animal only if they grew up in the same house since childhood. In another case, they see animals as competitors with which they must fight for the attention of the owner. If guests came to the house, the angora will be alert, but will show curiosity. After a while she will approach, demanding attention and caress in the address. It is very interesting to watch how these cats play.

This breed is the most unpretentious when compared to other long-haired breeds. They do not have undercoat, which most often leads to tangling. To care for wool, it will be enough to comb them every week with a comb.

It is recommended to bathe them every two months. But, if the animal has a white coat, as well as in the case of heavy pollution, it is possible more often.

If you want the animal's fur to look beautiful and well-groomed, you can comb it more often. To do this, there are special sets of scallops and brushes, designed to care for animals with long hair. When bathing it is also advisable to use products intended for long-haired pets. If they are not used, the wool may eventually turn yellow. It will spoil the look of this graceful animal.

Turkish Angoras are playful and active, so it is advisable to purchase special equipment where they can play. So the animal will have the opportunity to frolic without spoiling the wallpaper, furniture and other interior items, which will greatly please the owners.

You can walk Turkish Angoras on a leash.

Their health is strong. Immunity is developed quite well. But the necessary vaccinations and treatment against parasites still need to be done. Compared with other cats, angora can be called true long-livers. If they are properly cared for and properly fed, the animal can live up to 20 years.

Basically, representatives of the Turkish Angora breed are distinguished by good health. But some of them may suffer from cardiomyopathy. This hereditary disease affects many cats and other breeds. They can also get Ataxia Turkish Angora. This name of the disease received for the fact that it is found only in representatives of this breed. Purebred representatives, in which the wool has a white color, often suffer from deafness.

They can get sick and other diseases that are characteristic of cats. But, if they are treated in a timely manner, they do not carry the danger to the animal. There is a lot of information on how to cure a cat from depriving fleas and other parasites.

How to feed the Turkish angora

These active animals can eat up to four times a day to replenish their wasted strength. So that the animal does not become stout from overeating, you should feed them in small portions.

If it is convenient for you to feed your pet with dry feed, then it is best to give preference to high quality products. This is premium and super premium feed. Feed should consist mainly of meat products. Preservatives in it should be the minimum amount. If you prefer to feed animals with natural food, then angora is suitable meat with a small amount of fat. This is chicken, offal. You can also add to the diet of turkey or rabbit meat, beef. In addition to meat, the cat should eat cereal cereals, vegetables, dairy products. Be sure to in the diet should be fish.

Even with good nutrition, it is recommended that the animal be given vitamins in order to replenish the supply of essential nutrients.

Breeding

Knitting breeders recommend planning when the animal will be about one and a half years. The breed is quite popular in the CIS countries, so it will not be difficult to find a pair of animals. Pregnancy of a cat lasts about two months. Typically, representatives of this breed tolerate pregnancy and childbirth. She does not need the help of the owner. If he is present, it will still help the cat to be more relaxed.

Turkish Angoras are good mothers who not only care for their offspring, but also educate them. Basically, these animals have a white color, as this feature is the main distinguishing feature of the breed. But lately, more and more Angora cats of black, blue, chocolate and many other colors can be found.

How much is a kitten

The price of a purebred representative in Russia ranges from 5 to 25 thousand rubles. In Ukraine, such a kitten can be purchased from 500 UAH, but the price, depending on the characteristics, can grow 10 times. In order not to risk, it is better to get yourself a pet in the nursery. Otherwise, you can stumble on deception. Very many give out mongrel animals for purebred Angora cats.

Currently, this breed is not in great demand among cat lovers. But this does not mean that they are unworthy of attention. The merits of these cats no less than the others. Popularity, most likely, has decreased for the reason that more and more other interesting and original breeds come into fashion. Of the long-haired people, they increasingly prefer Persian or Siberian cats.

Description breed Turkish Angora with photos

  • The Turkish Angora, due to its refined appearance, calm character and considerable price, in the distant years has earned the reputation of a court cat.
  • Slim, muscular body on long paws fascinates with grace. The hind limbs are higher than the front, so the shoulder girdle is below the sacrum.
  • On the pointed muzzle there are large ears and, slightly slanted, large eyes. All parts of the body are well pubescent with silky hair, longer in the area of ​​the collar, chest, paws and tail.
  • For true representatives of the tribe monochrome milk color is characteristic, although felinologists have derived other options: red, black, blue, cream, various tabbies and smoke.

Origin of Turkish Angora

  • The oldest ancestors of cats lived in Africa. It is believed that the domestication of animals began in Egypt, where the inhabitants revered them as sacred. However, studies have shown that initial, joint relations with humans in cats were formed in Eastern Anatolia, where Turkey is now located.
  • Progenitors of modern individuals were exceptionally short-haired. Much later, a four-legged Ankara dweller had a gene mutation that increased the length of guard hair. The unusual appearance played long-haired purr "on the paw."
  • Such specimens began to be exported outside the country and crossed with other breeds. Despite the fact that a separate species of Turkish Angora stood out about five hundred years ago, its population did not grow much and even turned out to be on the verge of extinction. In 1917, the rulers of Turkey have developed a strategy for the conservation and breeding of the breed, and declared it a state treasure.

Facts about the breed

  • In the Russian Empire, thoroughbred angorkas appeared after the Russian-Turkish battles. Like in their homeland, in Petersburg and in Moscow beautiful moths were a valuable decoration of the rich interior, and the kittens were equated to an expensive gift. The animals presented to the emperor were entrenched in the court, multiplied and for many years entered the cat guard of the Hermitage and the Winter Palace.
  • Luxurious Angora Turkish woman participated in the first exhibition of cats, organized in 1871 in London. Its initiator was the artist Harrison Ware - a big fan of these animals and the first president of the club in their honor. After 17 years, his book “Our cats and all about them” was published. The felinologist devoted a number of pages to the description of the Angoras, and there he noted that this species is especially loved by the Turks and Armenians, and is most valuable in purely white specimens with heavenly eyes. However, as a result of the activities of the British club, a general standard for the longhair category was created. Angora was not included in this registry and could disappear as a full-blooded representative.
  • In the past century, when the authorities of Turkey drafted a program for the revival of the aboriginal genus, the export of animals outside the country was completely prohibited. Therefore, the modern Angor preserved purebred signs.

The character of the Turkish Angora breed

  • The temperament of an adult angora can be called phlegmatic, which could not be more consistent with an aristocratic appearance. She behaves independently, with dignity, but at the same time, nothing feline is alien to her.
  • Fluffy couch potatoes, when there is a mood, play with fur animals and balls. Country travelers in nature actively hunt for birds and mice. Their speed of reaction and high jumps up to two meters would be envied by many urban relatives.
  • Long-lived in four walls, they have not forgotten the habits of wild ancestors: they love to climb high furniture and hide in secluded places. Emotions and requirements prefer to express a quiet meow. Loud songs are not peculiar to them.
  • With all the care Angora is very friendly and affectionate creature. It gets along well with all members of the family and with the next beast. She always carefully assesses the situation. If there are no danger factors nearby: loud noises, frightening gestures, and strangers show signs of attention, then the kitten will be given pleasure in his hands and allow himself to be stroked.

Breed standard (height, weight, color, life)

In accordance with the criteria of felinological organizations, the Turkish Angora has the following characteristics:
 semi-longhair,
 average height - 30 cm,
 average weight - 4 kg (male), 3 kg (female),
 color - different, except for combinations of white with chocolate, lilac, color-point,
 life span - from 12 to 15 years.
Signs of culling: undercoat, the presence of water-repellent hair, squint, strongly stretched or stocky body, unrecognized shades.

Care and maintenance of Turkish angora

  • Due to the fact that the angora wears a silky, crumbly fur with a long nap, the main care is to regularly comb. The lack of undercoat allows the garment to always look perfect - without mats and fallen lumps. To update the fur, two treatments per week are enough. During periods of molting (autumn and spring), pets are combed two to three times more often. The procedure is carried out with an antistatic brush, in the direction from the head to the extremities.
  • Elegant beauties have another surprising property - their wool has dirt-repellent properties, it does not linger on dust and smell. In special cases, if the angora got dirty with a walk or collected dirt during the repair of an apartment, it is washed. Bathing is carried out in the pelvis with warm water (at a temperature of 35 degrees) with a special shampoo for long-haired murok.
  • It is not necessary to bathe the anchor without special need, because nature has already given her the opportunity to self-clean. In urban conditions it is undesirable to arrange baths no more often than once every three months.
  • For the care of small pets need traditional fixtures and objects: cotton pads to remove eye mucus, cotton swabs and special means for the ears, nail clippers, a claw.
  • To protect the angora from specific infectious diseases, they vaccinate. After all, living in an apartment will not protect the body from viruses and bacteria that penetrate through the dirt and air from the street, from the entrance, where a sick animal might have been. Unviable cats are not allowed to participate in exhibitions and mate for breeding offspring.

Care for a kitten

  • Since angora is of noble birth, the health of kittens must begin from the moment of birth. Оптимальный возраст для начала самостоятельного пути – от 12 до 15 недель. Раннее отлучение от матери может плохо сказаться на здоровье и развитии малыша. Для хорошего иммунитета необходимо материнское молоко.Mom will teach self-catering lessons and help you quickly adapt to the big world.
  • For three months, a small angora is completely ready for a new life. By this time, the owners should vaccinate babies from infections and viruses in the veterinary clinic, to conduct antihelminthic treatment. All information about the cub is recorded in the passport. It indicates the date of birth, name, data on vaccinations and treatments. The pedigree is drawn up on a genuine angora.
  • Angoras are very clean and tidy by nature. Compared with other relatives, kids are easily accustomed to the tray.

Angora health

  • Oriental beauties, born of healthy parents and received timely vaccination, as a rule, do not get sick. With excellent care, the seals live to old age without problems.
  • Health Risk Factors:
    • defective food,
    • sedentary lifestyle,
    • contact with contaminated contingent,
    • advanced age.
    • Overweight and genetic predisposition can trigger heart disease - cardiomyopathy.
  • The omission of vaccinations is fraught with infectious disease panleukopenia and consequences in the form of complications of the nervous system. As a result, ataxia can develop - a violation of motor functions.
  • Unfortunately, angora with classic appearance - blonde hair and cornflower-blue eyes have one important drawback. Almost 40% of kittens with a unique color have deafness.. If one of the eyes is of heavenly color, and the other is amber, then one ear remains hearing. Crossing a white representative with a colored one greatly reduces the dominance of the deaf gene. In the litter of such parents, along with the colored ones, crystal-white, absolutely healthy kittens are born.

    Pay attention when choosing a kitten

    • When meeting with cubs, one should pay attention to the smell (it should be neutral), the purity of the integuments, ears, eyes, and softness of the abdomen.
    • Too elastic, hard abdomen means the defeat of helminthiasis.
    • Hearing in babies is determined from the age of one and a half months. This fact serves as another argument in favor of a later acquisition. If you have any doubts about the good hearing of a young cat, you can check it with a sharp pop.

    What to feed the angar

    • Properly chosen, balanced diet is the basis of the Angora. With all the recommendations of specialists, different individuals may have personal food preferences. They also have to take into account. Some eaters gladly put out dry food, others are drawn to natural food, others pick and choose addictions almost every day.
      It doesn’t matter what a fluffy pet will choose, a ready-made feed or a natural diet, the basis of the menu should be proteins and carbohydrates:

    • lean beef, lamb, veal, poultry, offal,
    • an egg, preferably a quail, up to two times a week,
    • boiled, chopped vegetables (except tomatoes and eggplants), vegetable herbal fiber, dairy, dairy products - in small quantities and low-fat,
    • natural vitamins - fish oil, seaweed powder.
    • The approximate ratio of products for one day: one third of the diet - meat, two thirds - dairy products and vegetables. Always remember to drink clean water.
  • As a garnish for protein foods should not be given cereal and flour dishes. For the digestion of heavy carbohydrates in domestic predators do not have enzymes.
  • With frequent eating of egg protein in the cat's body, an important vitamin for the biotin hairline will be destroyed.
  • You can not feed the Angora salted, smoked, spicy dishes.

Useful expert advice

  • In order for the Angora hair coat to be even more beautiful, the Fitoelita shampoo for snow-white cats is perfect.
  • Combing is best done with a brush with rounded teeth. Furminator-Pukhoderka does not need an angora, as it does not have an undercoat.
  • The angora in the adult stage is the very calm. She likes to watch more than act. To stir up a tail miracle, it is enough to drop catnip on a fur toy. Activity youngster will be provided.
  • Since Angora is a representative of the elite, experts advise owners to monitor the condition of her mouth. To brush your teeth, you can buy a special brush, paste and a bactericidal solution. It is better to teach the procedures from childhood. Conduct preferably every three days.

The origin of the breed

Along with all other known breeds of domestic cats, the Turkish Angora is a descendant of a domesticated African or Middle Eastern wildcat.. From the territory of Turkey, the short-haired domesticated cats were brought to Egypt, where they were further domesticated.

As shown by recent genetic studies, all representatives of the Turkish Angora descend from domesticated ancient cats, and gene mutation has become the main cause of changes in coat length.

It is interesting! The Turkish Angora was officially registered more than forty years ago by the CFA, but in the first four years, the Angoras were exclusively white.

Breed standards

Turkish Angora is an elegant, not too large cat with a flexible body.. The head is average in length, with a very characteristic wedge-shaped form. Chin area pronounced and strong. The muzzle is medium in length, relatively narrow, with a smooth outline. The profile has a very easy and smooth transition. The eyes are almond-shaped, slightly obliquely set.

The ears are large, open, pointed, high and close enough to each other. The neck is elegant, goes into an elongated and slightly dry, flexible and well-developed body. The limbs are tall and relatively dry, ending in medium-sized and almost oval legs.

The tail is long, with a sharp point at the tip, pubescent like an ostrich feather. The coat is thin and silky, with almost no undercoat. The generally recognized animals with white, cream, tortoise, black and marble color.

Angora cat character

For the breed, the Turkish Angora is characterized by intelligence and curiosity, sufficient activity and playfulness. Such a four-legged pet tries to be always in the center of attention, therefore it is difficult for one to endure loneliness or long separation from the owner.

As practice shows, Turkish Angora cats breed in character are more like a dog, so they love to bring various items to households, and they can easily learn to open the door or turn the lights on and off.

It is interesting! The Turkish Angora cat has a very unusual, peculiar manner of speech. Quite often, an adult animal, with its mouth closed, does not mean the meowing habitual for man, but very specific purring-uterine sounds.

Lifespan

The average life expectancy of a pet of the Turkish Angora breed, as a rule, varies from 12 to 15 years. However, with the observance of all the rules of animal care and ensuring a full diet, this breed can be quite deservedly classified as long-livers, whose life expectancy is nearly two decades.

Content of angora turkish home

In ancient times, such a long-haired cat was distributed only in the territory of the Turkish state. The animal cost fabulous money, so only very influential persons or crowned personalities, including sultans and European monarchs, could afford it.

Care and hygiene

Caring for the Turkish Angora is completely easy. Such a breed completely lacks a pronounced undercoat, and the coat does not tangle and does not fall down. With proper combing of hair once a week, mats are not formed. Water procedures are required to be carried out approximately once a quarter, but more often pets with snow-white wool should be bathed. To avoid yellowing, special conditioner shampoos are used.

Pet's eyes are wiped daily with cotton pads soaked in a decoction of herbs or just clean water. Special pharmacy lotions can be used for this purpose. Also, hygiene procedures include regular cleaning of the ears and teeth, removal of tartar and occasional trimming of claws.

Diet - what to feed the Angora cat

In order for the wool of the Turkish angora not to acquire yellowness, it is necessary to exclude from the diet of such a pet products represented by sea kale, as well as liver in the form of heart and liver. Feeding the animal should not be excessively salty or spicy, saturated spices, fried or sweet foods.

It is very important to completely eliminate onion and garlic from the diet.. Meals should be complete and fully balanced, with sufficient amounts of vitamins and basic mineral components.

The best option is to feed a premium professional food. It is recommended to give preference to rations from manufacturers of Royal Canin, ProPlan and Hill’s, as well as Jams. Such feeds are made from the best varieties of selected meat and additional natural ingredients. Dyes and flavor enhancers in the composition of high-quality food are always completely absent.

Important! A clean and high-quality water should be available round-the-clock to a domestic pet, which is especially important when Turkish premium angora is used for feeding dry rations of premium class or modern holistics.

Adherents of natural pet feeding need to remember that the diet should be one third composed of protein components. You can use turkey, chicken, fillet of sea fish. Of the cereals should be preferred rice, oatmeal and buckwheat. Also, food must be supplemented with vegetables and herbs.

Diseases and breed defects

Congenital diseases of the heart and vascular system, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, are among the most common diseases of the Turkish Angora breed. Albino cats often suffer from congenital deafness.

Increased risk are animals with snow-white coat and with multi-colored eyes. Only representatives of the Turkish Angora suffer from ataxia, which causes sufficiently serious impaired coordination.

The main breed disadvantages include excessively large sizes of the animal or rough appearance. Disqualifying signs include the body of the “cobby” type, the presence of knots and creases on the tail, as well as pronounced squint. An unacceptable color for breed standards is the presence of purple and chocolate shades, as well as colors such as cinnamon and fawn.

Buy Turkish Angora - tips and tricks

As a result of numerous breeding works, it was possible to increase the number of shades of coat color, therefore, it can be very difficult for a non-professional to independently determine the quality of the breed of the animal being sold. In recent years, often unscrupulous breeders interbred pet breeds with different mongrel cats.

Where to buy and what to look for

When choosing a kitten, Turkish Angora needs to be remembered that recently, purebred individuals, as well as kittens of the Angora chinchilla breed, short-haired Turkish cat, and Anatolian or Van, are often realized under the guise of the pedigree animal. It is extremely important to choose and purchase a pet only in reputable kennels that have a good reputation.. In this case, the risk of acquiring a not purebred pet is completely absent.

It is interesting! As a rule, the standard Turkish Angora litter is represented by three or four kittens, and it is for this reason that most often animals of this breed are recorded in a queue.

Not too large litters directly affect the cost of purebred kitten. When choosing, first of all you should remember about the possible hearing problems in kittens with white fur.

To exclude congenital deafness in an animal, a hearing test should be performed by clapping hands. Also among the possible shortcomings that are sometimes inherent in Turkish Angora kittens, should be attributed water-repellent undercoat, as well as the presence of stretched and not dry top coat. An animal of the oriental type is not welcome.

Price of angora cat

For the American type of Turkish angora, the presence of pronouncedly large, extremely high ears is characteristic. Such an animal has a lightweight type, a very balanced and proportional structure, high intelligence and a good temperament.

The average cost of a kitten of the Angora breed of the American type begins with 15 thousand rubles. Prices for an average animal are largely dependent on the class of the kitten, fame and popularity of the nursery, as well as the availability of pedigree and the basic conditions of keeping pets. Not an exhibition kitten can be purchased for 7-8 thousand rubles. The cost of elite kittens often exceeds 25-30 thousand rubles.

Owner reviews

As practice shows and owners' reviews, such a pet as the Turkish Angora loves to climb interior items, furniture and carpets, therefore, only the acquisition of special claws and various cat complexes that develop motor reflexes will prevent the deterioration of household property. Ideal for practicing with such pets are various fur imitations of small animals and small balls.

It is interesting! The main pedigree virtues are represented by a calm and affectionate character, intelligence and ingenuity, affection for their owner and all the household, the ability to empathize with people, activity and sociability. Such a pet is very loyal and faithful, it is very good with other animals and small children.

However, the Turkish Angora breed is not without some drawbacks, among which it is necessary to note the presence of excessive sensitivity. The animal may suffer from congenital deafness, and in old age, oncology, tartar formation, cardiomyopathy and ataxia are often noted. It is for this reason that you should carefully consider the pet feeding ration, and the supervision of a veterinarian must always be regular.

Where to buy a Turkish Angora kitten

In Russia and Ukraine, they were so loved that all long-haired white cats were called Angoras, and today, under the guise of a Turkish woman, they can offer half-breeds only remotely resembling the original.

Are you dreaming about oriental beauty? Do not ask yourself the question and do not suffer, they say, where to buy Turkish Angora!

Nurseries will always show documents confirming the purity of the blood. The cost of kittens is no longer high, as they are not uncommon and exotic.

So how much does a Turkish Angora cat cost?

Good price from 2 000 rubles (750 UAH). Specialized nurseries of the Turkish Angora expose the price depending on the class of the animal.

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