Broiler meat can be found in the window of every grocery store. Most people who buy it, do not even realize that the broiler is not a breed of chicken. Translated from English, this name means “roasting on a spit”. A broiler can be not only chicken, but also krolatin, goose and so on. By it is meant a precocious hybrid.
The way of high-speed cultivation of domestic animals was invented by British farmers to increase their productivity and reduce the cost of cultivation. This technology has received the widest distribution for raising chickens.
How to raise a broiler at home?
The weight of such a chicken significantly exceeds the mass of an ordinary adult chicken. The big advantage of broilers is the delicate taste of its meat and its nutritional properties, which are higher in comparison with adult chicken.
Broilers are the fruit of crossing different chicken breeds. Every year, breeders derive its new productive species. The easiest way to home breeding chickens is to buy them for fattening at poultry farms. It is best to purchase a bird at 2 weeks of age. Self-breeding of a breed can take quite a long time and does not lead to the desired result.
Growing broilers requires the creation of special conditions for them. Coop must have ventilation. It helps to remove excess moisture from the room, which is detrimental to sedentary chickens. Fresh air access to birds is also necessary, as is warmth.
Until the age of two weeks, chicks are kept in a room with a temperature not lower than + 30 ° C. In the future, it can be lowered, but not more than 10 ° C. It is very important to keep the hen house clean. This will avoid the occurrence of infectious diseases in birds and deaths.
The essence of the high-speed way of growing a broiler is to limit the mobility of the bird and the special ration of its feeding. Chicken should eat around the clock, so the room for its maintenance is equipped with fluorescent lights, which are turned on all night.
Fodder preparation for chickens
It is very important to organize the nutrition of chickens from the first days of their life. Starter feeding sets the rate of bird growth. The quality and nutritional properties of meat depend on the composition of the feed. Bird feeders should never be empty. Broiler should receive enhanced nutrition.
Care should be taken to feed the chicks beforehand. Feeding birds is carried out in three stages:
- Prelaunch. It is carried out within 5 first days of life of chickens.
- Starting. Feeding period from the 5th day of bird life to 30th.
- Finishing. Produced after the 30th day before slaughter.
Adherence to the feeding technology makes it possible for the 50 day of a chicken’s life to fatten it to a mass of more than 3 kg. At each stage of feeding, food is used with a different composition of ingredients. The main components of poultry feed include:
- cereals (corn, wheat, barley, oats),
- fish and bone meal,
- fat feed,
- rock salt and chalk.
The ratio of ingredients in the preparation of feed varies depending on the age of the chickens. At feed mills you can find ready-made, balanced for different periods of feed life. The most popular of them are “Start”, “Growth” and “Finish”. They may be designated PC 6-1, 2 or 3. Figures 1, 2 and 3 indicate the stage of feeding the chicken for which the mixture is intended.
Some farmers use for feeding broiler pork feed. Such nutrition, intended for chickens, needs some work. It is necessary to add calcium and a special vitamin complex.
Feeding rates for broilers of various ages
Feeding broilers is carried out according to a special scheme. It is very different from that used in the cultivation of other meat and egg breeds of poultry. As the broiler grows, not only the amount of feed given to it, but also the composition of the nutrient mixture changes. In the first two weeks of life, the chicken should eat from 10 to 25 g of feed.
From the 14th to the 30th day, the norm gradually increases from 50 g to 120 g, and at the finishing stage the bird should consume at least 150 g per day of food prepared for it. To monitor the composition of the mixture and its amount must be very strictly. The slightest deviation from the feeding pattern can lead to a slowdown in the growth of a bird or its death.
From the first days up to 2 weeks of age
Start feeding the chicks need already 12 hours after they hatch from the egg. Weak chicks are fed from a pipette with a special mixture. It consists of egg yolk and milk. Healthy and strong chickens are fed with a mixture of boiled eggs, millet, small corn and wheat cereals. On the second day of life, chickens are added to the feed mixture with chopped nettles or dandelion leaves and grated carrots.
On the fifth day of feeding, you can begin to add chalk, crushed shell rock or eggshell to the mixture. It is recommended to include 2-3 grams of flour, bread crumbs or crushed crackers, as well as pounded boiled potatoes in the feeding ration during this period. It is very good to give chicks fresh dairy products.
Properly formed diet is very important for the rapid growth and health of the bird, which is laid in the first days of life.
The ratio of feed for chicks and water should be 1: 1.7. This means that for 1 kg of the nutritional mixture, chickens should be given 1.7 liters of pure water to drink.
Recipe for a balanced feed for broilers under the age of 2 weeks:
- 50% of the total composition of the ingredients of ground corn,
- 16% wheat
- 14% meal or meal,
- 12% low-fat yogurt,
- 8% barley.
Other homemade feed recipes can be used to feed chickens.
From 2nd to 4th week
This feeding period refers to the starting phase. From the second week of life, chickens begin to process almost any fresh greens and boiled fish, liver and other ingredients begin to be included in their diet. The basis of the feeding ration can be taken feed or self-prepared mixture.
Recipe for a balanced feed for broilers aged 14 to 24 days:
- 48% of the total mass of the corn mixture,
- 19% of meal or meal,
- 13% wheat
- 7% fish meal or bone meal,
- 5% feed yeast,
- 3% dry grass and grass
- 1% fat feed.
The inclusion of a large amount of corn in the broiler feeding ration is explained by the content of vitamins and microelements necessary for poultry. They stimulate the immunity of birds, which increases their resistance to infectious diseases. Due to its nutritional value, corn gives good results in weight gain of chickens.
It is necessary to give at this time to broilers germinated barley. It can be up to 5% in their diet.
In 1-2 months
The main food for poultry at this age becomes crushed grain. It can be wheat, oats, peas or corn with barley. Some farmers use different types of grains for the preparation of the feed mixture, in which they add whey, cottage cheese or meat broth. It is very important to give the boilers fish oil during this period.
Be sure to include in the food fresh greens. Very well suited for feeding chickens tops of radish, beets, as well as green onions, lettuce and cabbage leaves.
Recipe for a balanced feed for broilers aged 1 to 2 months:
- 45% of the total mass of the feed mixture of corn,
- 17% cake and fish meal or bone meal,
- 13% wheat
- 8% barley,
- 5% feed yeast,
- 3% fat feed,
- 1% chalk and fresh grass.
The amount of fodder yeast in the mixture can be brought at this age to 10%. From the age of one month, part of the ground grain can be replaced with whole grain. Do not forget to add crushed shell rock or egg shell to the feed. In the broiler feeder, you can begin to add zucchini, pumpkin or food waste.
The goal of finishing feeding is intensive weight gain. And this should not take place at the expense of increasing fat mass. Excellent results are shown by feeding chickens with mixtures consisting of various types of grain and makuha.
The recipe of a balanced mixture for finishing feeding broilers:
- 46% of the total mass of the feed mixture of corn,
- 9% barley,
- 15% wheat
- 18% makuhi
- 4% bone or fish meal,
- 3% feed yeast,
- 1% chalk, feed fat and greens.
Such feeding schemes allow for 50 days to grow a chicken weighing from 3 kg with tender meat.
What you need to pay attention when feeding broilers?
Broiler is grown exclusively for meat. The rapid growth of the poultry and the tenderness of its meat can be achieved using only a balanced diet for feeding. There is a large list of ingredients and products that should not be given to boilers. Among them are stale food waste and sand of small fractions. Harmful to the digestion of chickens soaked bread and boiled potatoes, if it is given as an independent dish.
It is very important that broiler feeders allow birds to have free access to food. Chickens should not crowd each other when eating. Omnivorous broiler can peck anything. It is necessary to ensure that together with food waste, melons and gourds, sausage rind, chocolate, citrus fruits, cheeses and fresh milk do not fall into the feeder of the chickens. Do not give birds fermented foods, as well as jam, butter and vegetable oil.
Incubation and edible eggs have different shelf life. Read more about this in our article.
Lice in young chickens are a serious problem. How to remove the parasites, you will learn by reading our material.
Broiler Diseases Caused by Malnutrition
Improper feeding of chickens can cause them various diseases. In the first days of a broiler’s life, dyspepsia may occur. As a rule, it causes the death of a bird. The cause of the disease in the lack of broiler some minerals or vitamins, as well as the rapid transition from one type of feed to another. Very carefully, fresh grass, protein feed and silage should be introduced into the diet of young chickens.
Atrophy of the stomach, leading to constipation in poultry, may be caused by an excess in the diet of flour ingredients and the lack of crushed shell rock. The slow passage of food in poultry leads to death and can be triggered not only by poor feed, but also by overcooling or overheating of chickens.
The lack of retinol in chickens causes hypovitaminosis in broilers. It is characterized by the weakness of birds. They may come on night blindness or fall out of the rectum. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to add grated carrots or grass meal to the bird feed.
Hypovitaminosis A is caused in poultry by the lack of phosphorus and calcium in the body. It leads to rickets, softening of the bones, diarrhea, and loss of appetite by the broiler. To prevent disease, vitamin D is included in the ration of feeding chickens. A sufficient amount of sprouted oats in the feed, herbal flour and vitamin E prevents birds from developing hypovitaminosis E. Meat, bone and grass meal can prevent the onset of hypovitaminosis in poultry B.
Features of growing broilers
A bird that has just hatched needs heat and light. In the manger should be 30 C, the light should be on around the clock, there should be a drinking bowl with some water and food in the form of egg yolk crumbs, millet. In the first two weeks, the chicks continuously peck on food and grow rapidly. In the dark food is not visible.
The enclosure for chicks should be bright, soft litter and clean. Broilers do not need space. While the chickens are small on one square meter there will fit 18 pieces, adult birds on this patch will remain up to 10. But at the same time there should be good ventilation. Gradually, with the maturing of the birds, the pen is expanded. Broiler chickens do not need walks, they are not allowed into the yard, the effectiveness of weight gain is reduced.
Another way is the cellular content of broilers for fattening for meat at home. Then in a small area you can place many more individuals. The slaughter of birds begins after 8 weeks. The commodity carcass by this time weighs about 2 kg, the meat is tender, dietary. After five months, keeping poultry for meat is unprofitable. Dietary properties are lost, fattening does not give quick weight gain.
If it’s possible to purchase chickens, no, a few chickens and a rooster are left to lay eggs for breeding. For a good survival it is better to buy ten-day broilers.
Proper feeding of broiler chickens at home
The owner of broilers in the subsidiary farm always has a choice, to feed the bird with fodder from the farmstead and vegetable garden or use compound feed of factory production. In poultry farms, livestock feeding is carried out only in feed, in which growth hormones and antibiotics are added to prevent diseases. Therefore, it’s up to the owner to feed broilers at home with mixtures based on the recommended ration or compound feeds. Only tastier and healthier will be the meat, which is fed on green grass, dairy, cereal products, cooked by yourself.
There are stages in the development of the bird, for each of which a feeding ration is chosen:
- what to feed broiler chickens from birth,
- feeding ration after 20 days,
- the second and subsequent months of broiler feeding.
For quick weight gaining chickens are intensively fed and watered. The fattening period is accompanied by watering. For every kilogram of food eaten should be drunk 1, 7 liters of clean warm water. Every week a pink solution of potassium permanganate is added to the morning portion of the water.
When broilers are fed, the grass is mown and finely chopped for them. Celandine should not be collected, it is poisonous. During the day, young chickens in total eat 1 kg of feed per flock per day. Every day consumption increases and is about 6 kg per feeding. At the same time 7 days chickens are fed 8 times, then a week - 6 times, up to 20 days - 5 times, monthly - in the morning and in the evening. However, at home, food in the form of chops and boiled vegetables can be given more often, its caloric content is lower than the feed.
When the chicks grow plumage, they should include in the diet fresh cabbage leaves. They contain the element sulfur, which chicks need during this period.
If you do not follow the rules than feed broilers at home, time and money will be wasted. Therefore, you need to follow the recommendations of experts.
How to reduce feed consumption when feeding broilers
In the household there is always food waste, roots, green grass and cereals, chops from them, in pharmacies you can buy the necessary vitamins and supplements. How to feed broilers for rapid growth at home?
Five recipes for growing healthy stock:
- Use fermented cereal mixtures. To do this, add 200-300 g of pressed Baker's yeast to the cereal mixture, dilute everything in 15 liters of water, warm for 6 hours to improve the fermentation. After add greens and boiled root vegetables up to 30 kg of total weight. Feed to use fresh, not allowing souring. The proportions can be reduced, depending on the number of fattening heads. You can give a mixture of yeast cereals without greens, but add crushed potatoes.
- Wet mash is made from crushed grain, small cereals, bread crushed and soaked crumbs and crusts, cereals, greens and boiled potatoes. The more diverse the composition, the better it is eaten. Is it possible to feed broilers with one boiled potato? Occasionally you can indulge chicks, making the menu varied.
- For feeding at home, you must use dairy products. Milk is poured fresh, not soured. It is also good to add reverse, cottage cheese, buttermilk, whey, but not mixing it with milk. At the same time you can give cereals.
- Fresh greens can be fed not only in the cut form. So that the bird does not throw it out of the feeder, or trample it, you can hang fresh brooms from greenery: dandelion, thistle, clover, alfalfa. Is it possible to give spurge to broilers? For them, this is a treat. With the winter content of green fodder will be the seedlings of cereals - wheat, barley.
- Observance of cleanliness. Do not give soured feed to birds. Feeders need to be scalded often. Food should not be available for eating by wild birds or rodents. They can be carriers of disease.
Feeding Chicks Up to Monthly
At the nursery age, laying and broiler chickens develop on the same feed. At this time, make up a mix of millet, egg yolk of eggs with the addition of crushed krupki type "" Artek ". Grain mixture is 60% of the total composition. The box should be water and a temperature of about 30 degrees.
When kept in cages, the temperature must be kept higher, since chicks do not have the opportunity to choose a place. A sign of cold is when chickens form a heap-bit. If it's hot, chicks lie with wings spread. The temperature from 34 degrees gradually decreases to 18.
On the third day, chopped greens, sprouts, and grass meal of 5 g per head are added to the feed. From the fifth day cottage cheese and dairy products appear in the menu. Недельных цыплят начинают подкармливать натёртой морковью и тыквой. Тыква нужна как антигельминтное средство, но не более 5 г на птенца.
С третьего по двадцатый день при вскармливании бройлеров необходимо использовать комбикорм «Стартовый», в нём содержатся сбалансированные и легко усваиваемые витамины для птенцов.
In broiler feeding, from 20 days, it is necessary to add unmilled grasses and mineral supplements in the form of shell rock, shells, bone meal. Once a week, pebbles are added to the mash to grind food in the stomach. Birds greedily pounce on food at every feeding.
At the same time they seek out tidbits, part of the feed, throwing out of the feeder. It is better to fill the feeder by one third, gradually filling up the portion. If the chicks are fed properly, by the month they should weigh 500-700 grams.
Lighting should be in the first week round the clock, but dim. The lamp can be painted in green, red color. Bright lighting can cause sticking
Monthly chickens are not picky, the time is coming fattening. How to feed broiler chickens in 1 month? Now, 20% of cereals can be replaced with crushed potatoes. Grain mixture consists of whole grains:
- corn, soybean and sunflower flour - 20% each,
- barley - 10%,
- wheat - 25%,
- peas - 5%.
A prerequisite for rapid weight gain will be the use of the five tips published above. It is quite possible to grow about a hundred kilograms of dietary meat in the country for the winter.
For breeding broilers do not need special specific knowledge. If you decide to start growing broilers at home, you must keep the bird in certain conditions. Broiler care is different from the content of ordinary breeds of chickens.
A place. From the first day of life chicks need to arrange a place. Broilers can be kept on litter or in cages. The litter (sawdust or other dry, friable mass) should be no more than 10 cm. A maximum of 18 heads are allowed per square meter.
Temperature conditions it is important to maintain at the level of 26 - 33 ° С in the first 5 - 7 days of life, after - gradually reduce the temperature to 19 - 18 ° С.
Lighting premises must be carried out around the clock. The light is dim, in the first seven days the lamp power should be 1.8 W per square meter, then up to 7 weeks of growth - 1.2 W and the lamp at 0.6 W can be placed at the finish. Too bright light can cause biting. Lamp lamp can be painted in green or red.
Broilers need cleanliness and constant care.
Maintain cleanliness. It is necessary to constantly monitor the cleanliness of the room where broilers grow. Regularly clean, change the litter. To avoid gastrointestinal infections in poultry, wash troughs and feeders should be washed with hot water.
Care and treatment. In order for the bird not to be sick, it needs daily care and inspection, a proper balanced diet, a clean habitat, and a sufficient amount of light and oxygen. Sluggish or fallen chickens should be removed from the total number and nursed.
Feeding birds is subject to a special structure. For a quick weight gain, chickens should be provided with constant feeding and otpaivanie according to the “pre-start-start-fattening-finish” scheme. We should not forget that the ratio of feed: water for broilers should be 1: 1.7. Water is always fresh, clean, at room temperature, not higher than 18 - 22 ° C.
What to feed broilers? The answer is simple, you want a rapid increase in meat - feed the feed.
Compound feed - the best option for broilers
How much and what kind of feed can you feed? Below is a table of the average daily growth and feed consumption by age.
The structure of the feed also depends on the age of the hens, on the readiness of the intestines to digest one or another feed. See table 2:
How often to feed?
The number of feedings varies with the age of the bird. In the phase of start-up and start-up, the young growth rapidly gains weight, the backbone is formed. Therefore, you should feed often.
- The first week of growth - 8 times a day.
- The second week - 6 times feeding.
- The third week - fattening 4 times.
- From the fourth week to the finish line - feed 2 times a day.
The diet of broilers varies with the age of the bird.
Feeding the first half of the month
In the first five days, feeding broiler chicks is especially important. Due to an improper diet, the entire litter may die. Food for chickens should be easily soluble. They are fed with millet, oatmeal, finely shredded wheat, barley, oats, boiled eggs.
From the 5th day fresh chopped greens are added at the rate of 5 g per chicken per day. Eat foods rich in protein: cottage cheese, yogurt, milk.
Weekly chickens are added to the food coarsely grated carrots or pumpkin.
Fattening broilers and slaughtering at the finish
Grown up chicks are already able to digest different foods. From the 20th day of life in the diet, 20% of millet is replaced with boiled potatoes. On the basis of broth or clabber make mash, in which they add bread yeast, fresh fish.
After the broilers are one month old, you can feed whole grains, not crushed.
At the finish, broiler feeding remains virtually unchanged, but more juicy feed is introduced. The slaughter can be carried out after three months of cultivation.
Broilers older than a month can be given whole grain feeds.
How to cook the feed yourself?
In order to provide the broilers with active growth at home, it is necessary to introduce compound feed into their diet.
Food for broilers should contain vitamins and minerals. On only one "grass" feed, no matter how much a bird eats it, it will not be possible to grow meat breed. Therefore, the cultivation of healthy broilers is impossible without feed.
Prepare the feed with their own hands - simply, adhering to certain proportions.
Weekly chickens are prepared with a mix of milk or whey, which consists of the following components: cereal from barley, wheat, oatmeal, corn flour, sunflower cake, fish meal, cottage cheese.
Feed can be cooked with your own hands
An example of the composition of the feed at the fattening stage, prepared by yourself:
- wheat, 25-30%
- barley, 15%
- peas, 10-15%
- corn, 20-25%
- soybean, 10%
- sunflower cake, 5%
- fish meal, chalk, yeast, vitamins - 5%
The composition of the finishing feed mixtures include:
- corn, 45%
- wheat, 15%
- barley, 10%
- make-up, 15%
- bone (fish) flour, 5%
- feed yeast, 5%
- greens, chalk, vitamins - 5%
What should not feed?
When adding fish, make sure that it is exceptionally fresh in order to avoid an upset stomach. Do not use beets, as it weakens the broiler's stomach.
Beets can not be given to broilers
Feeding broilers at home is possible without feed
Many farmers for the cultivation of poultry meat breed use ready-made complex "meals" - feed. These are usually high-calorie combined mixtures containing everything necessary for the full development of poultry: cereals, vegetable, animal proteins, mineral components, vitamin supplements. With their help, birds develop immunity against various diseases, the backbone is formed without deviations, and muscle mass builds up quickly. Thanks to a convenient granular form, nutritional composition and the lack of need for preparation, chicken farms cannot do without it. But in the household, where the production volumes are smaller, instead of them, as well as with them, one can and should use own feeds.
Wet mash and yeast feed as an alternative to dry
Monotonous dry food quickly annoys even chickens. To increase the appetite, fragrant yeast mash is added to the everyday menu. Ground grain mixes which then are diluted with animals, and also mineral forages are subject to yeast. At first, fresh pressed yeast is diluted with warm water (200–300 g per 10 kg of dry matter). Then pour the remaining ingredients so that the layer of mass does not exceed 30 cm.
To prepare 10 kg of the mixture will need 15 liters of water. The resulting mass is well stirred, put in the sun or on the battery, stirring every 2 hours. After 6 hours the mash is ready for use. "Sweeten" it can be a handful of boiled potatoes or grated carrots. Leftovers from the feeders are removed immediately after the meal in order to keep them from souring. In addition to the yeast, ordinary wet mash are prepared. From the first days, chickens willingly eat millet, small wheat and corn flour, boiled eggs, fresh greens. Over time, cereals can be mixed with the remnants of bread: crumbs, crusts, soaked breadcrumbs.
Boiled potatoes will gladden the “children”, provided that they are not green. As a vitamin doping, grated carrots and yellow pumpkin (5 g per head) are mixed in from 5 days of age, which is also used as a prophylactic anthelmintic agent. Gradually, the food is enriched with mineral components - bone meal, shell, chalk. For better performance of the muscular system of the stomach, gravel is poured into it once a week (0.5 kg per 100 heads).
At the time of plumage stock up cabbage - it contains sulfur, necessary for the formation of the "fur" part of the bird.