When growing cows, knowing the weight of each animal is not only useful, but extremely necessary. This indicator allows you to determine the productivity of the animal, to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the selected diet, select the appropriate price when selling animals. But the scales of the desired configuration are far from being in every household; moreover, it is quite difficult to weigh an adult cow by yourself. In this case, the breeder will be useful to have information on how to find out the weight of cattle by measurements and a special table without using measuring instruments.
Average cow and bull weight
It is rather difficult to determine the general average values of mass for cows and bulls, but in this question there are several features characteristic of all living creatures of this species. The first of these suggests the dependence of the weight of livestock on the direction of productivity to which the breed belongs. There are 2 main areas:
- Meat Cows and bulls, which are bred for beef, are distinguished by well-developed muscular tissue. This is reflected in the weight of the animal. On average, one Burenka meat breed weighs from 400 to 700 kg. The bull in this regard is superior to the female. Its weight can vary from 800 to 1500 kg. Record holders in this parameter are representatives of the Hereford breed.
- Dairy. The weight of dairy cattle is significantly less. Adult bulls are gaining an average of from 700 to 1100 kg. The mass of a cow is 400–600 kg. Only representatives of the Holstein-Friesian breed can reach a mass of 720-750 kg.
The second feature is that, regardless of the breed, bulls always weigh more than a cow. Also, the weight of the animal is largely influenced by the conditions of detention, the composition of the diet, age.
Depending on the listed factors, even within the same breed, several weight categories of living creatures are distinguished:
- Selective. This group includes all cows whose weight exceeds the mark of 450-500 kg.
- First grade. The category includes animals with a weight of 400-450 kg.
- Second class. Poultry weighs from 380 to 400 kg.
- Third class. The group includes all members of the breed weighing up to 380 kg.
Attention! The indicated average livestock weights make it possible to compare the prescribed breed standard with those obtained during weighing. This approach makes it possible to determine the effectiveness of the implemented method of keeping animals.
Weight of cattle measured, weight table
In the absence of measuring instruments, pre-made measurements and a special table for determining the weight of cattle can be used to find out the cow's weight. It gives an idea of the approximate weight of the animal with an accuracy of 20-30 kg. For verification it is necessary to make the following measurements with the help of a tailoring tape or a tape measure:
- Body circumference in the sternum. To measure the tape is held behind the shoulder blades of the animal and connects to the chest.
- Oblique body length. The tape is pulled from the shoulder of the cow to the sciatic hill (a special protrusion on it).
Cattle weight measurement
Obtained during the measurement data is substituted into a special table. Such tables are developed by experienced breeders and exist in several versions.
Using the regression equation
If there is a measurement of the girth of the animal’s chest, the weight can be determined on the spot without using the table. In this case, use a special regression equation, which has the following form:
In this formula, "Y" means the weight of the cow, "x" is the exact value of the chest girth of the animal, "X" is a special coefficient, implying one of three values:
- with a girth of 170–180 cm - 507,
- with an indicator of 181–191 cm - 486,
- if girth is 192 or more - 465.
Reference. To determine the mass, all values are substituted into the formula. The resulting value indicates the approximate weight of the animal and also approximately corresponds to the numbers shown in the table.
The Froiven method is designed to determine the weight of young stock from measurements made. In this case, the circumference of the chest and the slanting body length of the calf are also measured, but the figures obtained during the measurement are substituted in the table below:
Determination of the weight of young animals by the method of Frauven
The rules for using the table here are quite simple and actually repeat other versions of the tables that are in the network. But the numbers in the list are adjusted to the characteristics of the proportions of the body and the growth of the young. The weight value is in a cell located at the intersection of the desired column and row.
Kluwer Strauch Method
Another popular measurement method is the Kluwer Strauch method. The table is also used here, but the values presented in it are applicable only for adult cattle. The list of Kluwer Strauch suggests the following form:
Determination of weight of cattle by the Kluwer-Strauch method
The table is used in the same way as the Froiven variant. In accordance with the values of girth and slanting body length of the cows, the intersection point corresponding to them is chosen. In it the mass of living creatures will be indicated.
Important! This method allows you to track the growth rate of the cow and their compliance with the recommended standards. In addition, many breeders use it to control the weight of chicks during pregnancy.
You can get the approximate calf weight values using the Trukhanovsky method. It involves the use of a mathematical formula:
In it, "Y", as in the regression equation, means the mass of the animal. The number "A" indicates the circumference of the chest of the baby, "B" - slanting body length of the calf, indicated in centimeters. The letter "K" indicates a special coefficient, which is influenced by the pedigree affiliation of the animal. If the calf belongs to the breed of meat direction, then K = 2.5. In the case when the breed is milky, K = 2.
In addition to all the numbers, for a more accurate result, you should also pay attention to the fatness. If the calf is too well fed, another 5-10% is added to the result. If the baby is thin, then the indicator of its weight, on the contrary, is reduced to the specified proportion.
With a special tape
For those breeders who are too lazy to carry out calculations and verification with the table, there is the option of measuring the weight of cattle using a special tape. On it, instead of units of length, weight units are immediately marked. In this case, the measurement is carried out strictly behind the front legs of the cow.
It is worth noting that this method involves the greatest error. Therefore, in the measurement should follow several rules:
- The tape is wrapped as tightly as possible, checking that it lies strictly perpendicular to the body of the cow and squeezes its sides a little.
- The measurements are repeated at least three times. The results obtained summarize and look for the average.
- The weight value is compared with the fatness of the cows, after which 5-10% of the result is added or reduced.
How to find out the weight of black and motley cows?
These methods of measurement are suitable for most cattle breeds, but among them there are exceptions. These include the black-and-white pedigree line of cows. To measure them, a separate table is used:
The table of measurement of weight of black-and-white pedigree line of cows
In this case, measurements differ from those indicated above. To determine the weight of such cows, the girth of the chest and belly of the animal is measured at the widest point. The remaining rules for using the table are completely similar to other methods.
Not every breeder has expensive weights suitable for weighing cattle. But to know the exact weight of the cow is extremely necessary to control the weight gain of the animal, the choice of suitable individuals for mating or selling. In this case, it is useful to determine the weight of living creatures without weights, based on body measurements and special tables.
Weight classification of cattle
Several factors influence the weight of the cow.
- Type of breed - dairy, meat or meat and dairy. Representatives of the latter are heavier than individuals of the dairy variety.
- Breed characteristics. For example, representatives of the breed Steppe Red weigh 450 kg, Golshtinskoy - 550 kg, Kholmogorskoy - 500 kg.
- Age features and gender. A cow always weighs 350-500 kg less than a bull.
- Diet and maintenance of conditions. By fatness, cattle are divided into 4 weight categories:
- selective - large breeds of cows, whose mass is about 500 kg,
- first class - cows weighing 400-450 kg each
- the second class is medium-grown cows gaining 350-400 kg each,
- the third class is small breeds, in which adult individuals gain 300-350 kg of live weight.
Attention! The average weight of cows belonging to medium and large-sized breeds is 350-450 kg.
The percentage of muscle mass, adipose, bone and connective tissue characterize the degree of fatness of cattle. It can be below average, if the volume of muscle mass is 60% of the total weight of the animal, the average is 59%, and above the average 56.6%.
Calculation of weight indicators of cattle
As mentioned above, it is possible to find out how much an animal weighs by using a special measuring device for this purpose. In its absence, how much a KRG weighs can be determined:
- Measurement method. Using a special formula and a total of 2 measurements, made with a measuring tape, you can easily calculate the live weight of any representative of the cattle - be it a cow, a bull or a calf. The first measurement - the chest girth (FG) is performed on the animal behind the shoulder blades, the second measurement is the length of the body from the neck to the coccyx (DS). The most convenient way to conduct measurements together. It is good if the measurements will be taken by people who regularly care for animals and therefore are familiar with it. When performing them, care should be taken not to fall under the random blow of horns or hoofs. Then, depending on the degree of fatness of the cow, the data obtained increase or decrease by another 10%.
- According to the Kluwer Strauch formula. The mass in this case is determined using the table, which indicates the ratio of exhaust gas and oblique body length (KD). To do this, the cow is measured, and the figures obtained are compared with the data in the table.
- Using the regression equation. This method is applicable only to cows that fully comply with typical breed parameters. To calculate the weight of the animal will need to measure the OG. If it is less than 180 cm, then the cow's mass will be equal to 5.3 × ОГ - 507. If the exhaust gas in the range of 181-191 cm, then the cow's weight is calculated as follows: 5.3 × OG - 486. If the exhaust gas exceeds 192, then the weight of the individual calculated by the formula - 5.3 × Exhaust –465.
- Less accurate indicators - with an error of up to 50 kg, demonstrates the method of measurement and the ratio of chest girth and belly. The obtained measurement indicators correlate with the data shown in the table.
Knowing how to determine the weight without weighing, allows you to judge the state of the animal, its compliance with the characteristics of the breed. In addition, using the tables with cattle mass indicators, it is easy to calculate the diet, both of an individual and a whole herd.
Determination of the mass of cattle without using weights
In private households and small farms, scales are not always available. In such situations, the assessment of live weight is performed indirectly: based on measurements of the animal.
The essence of the method is that body weight is proportional to volume, and the latter, in turn, is directly dependent on certain parameters. To determine body weight with a flexible measuring tape or stick, measure:
- slanting body length (from the protrusion of the humerus to the edge of the ischial tuberosity),
- chest girth for the shoulder blades.
For greater accuracy of measurements, a simple rule should be taken into account: the animal should stand exactly (when looking at the cow, lateral limbs should close the hind limbs), and the head should be in a normal position (not to be overly lowered or raised up).
If obtaining reliable data is extremely important, each measurement should be done several times, after which the arithmetic average should be derived.
These two measurement parameters are sufficient to calculate the weight of the animal using special formulas. In order to simplify the livestock livestock, the results of the calculations are summarized in special tables with a small step of the measurement results. It is enough to simply substitute the data to get the desired result of the mass of cattle. Intermediate values are determined by the usual linear interpolation method.
Table 2. Determination of calf live weight measured
So on the example of an adult cow with a chest girth of 180 cm and the same slanting body length, it is easy to determine that it will weigh approximately 515 kg, and a calf with parameters of 120 cm - 153 kg.
There are other measurement methods covering a larger number of measurements. However, as practice shows, the evaluation of the two main parameters gives a fairly reliable result and, importantly, is extremely simple to use.
What to look for when measuring
Due to inaccurate measurements, "rounding" of the calculated data, as well as individual features of the body structure of cattle, the error in estimating the weight by measuring two parameters can give an error of up to 20-30 kg (about 5%).
You also need to remember that, depending on the characteristics of the content and climatic conditions, daily variations in mass can be up to 5-7% or 30-40 kg of mass.
Equipment for breeding cattle and products for the care of cows look on the site of Horoshun and Co.!
How much is the average weight of a cow?
Today, it is customary to buy pets at the price of live weight, so knowing its exact figure is extremely necessary. Also, this knowledge will be necessary for the preparation of the correct diet in the process of growth of the animal. The average weight of a cow, of course, depends on its type, breed and age.
However, do not forget about the conditions of its content. With normal growth and proper feeding, the mass of an adult individual is 350-450 kilograms. Small breed animals reach about 300 kilograms, large ones - up to 800 kilograms.
Also, body weight depends on the sex of the animal. Gobies are a little more cows, as a rule, one and a half times. The average weight of a live bull ranges from 500 to 700 kilograms. Males of large meat breeds by the age of five recruit over 1 ton.
If you are going to purchase a cow, you should know to which weight category it belongs. This will help to properly assess the state of health and proper care of the animal. Among the young cows distinguish:
- selective - about 450-500 kilograms,
- first class - 400-450,
- second class - 380-400,
- third grade - 300-380.
Interesting to know
Today, champions in heavy weight among the bulls are representatives of the porcelain-white breed. These males on average reach a mass of at least 800 kilograms. As for the female, the record breakers are the cows of Mount Katadin. One of these cows weighed 2270 kilograms. Of course, such a result is a long-term work of specialists and the achievement of global selection.
Methods for measuring the weight of an adult cow
You do not have scales, but you need to know the dimensions of the animal, then the following methods will help you determine the weight. It is necessary to have only a measuring tape, several formulas and tables. You will find them right here. Of course, all these methods allow us to determine the approximate data, that is, integers without taking into account grams. But even this will be enough for you in personal practice. For example, such knowledge will help to make up the diet of the animal.
By body measurement or Trukhanov method
This method is considered the most popular and easiest. To calculate the mass you need to use the tape and measure the animal. For cattle, we need to know only two parameters: the chest girth, which is measured behind the shoulder blades, and the straight length of the body. Then the data obtained is calculated by the formula. See figure 1 for more details on how to take measurements.
Point for taking measurements by definition live weight of adult cattle, according to the Trukhanov method
If you use this method, you should also add the percentage of fatness to the number received. If it is higher than average fatness, then add 5-10%, if lower - subtract 5-10%.
The formula for calculating the mass of adult livestock
This method is also used to determine the mass of an adult individual. This is done by the following method: measurements of chest girth and oblique body length are measured. To get the first number, you need to cut the measuring tape under the chest at the distance of the palm width from the elbow joint of the front leg of the cow. See Figure 2 for more details.
To obtain the second number, the tape should be fixed at the level of the anterior protrusion of the shoulder joint and tensioned to the sciatic hill. Then we verify the data in a special table. For example, if the girth of an animal's chest is 160 centimeters, and the slanting body length is 145 centimeters, then at the intersection of these figures in the table we find a figure of 324 kilograms.
Table for determining the live weight of adult cattle (according to Kluwer-Strauch)
Largest chest girth and belly
After calculating and analyzing a large amount of biometric data, scientists managed to create a special table for determining the live weight of cows by belly volume. Initially, this method was provided only for the black-and-white breed. Для определения нужно измерять обхват груди и брюха в наибольшей по объему его части. Данные сверить по таблице.
Определение живой массы коров черно-пестрой породы по промерам, кг
По уровню регрессии
To determine the weight in this way, you need to measure the chest girth: take a measuring tape and circle it around the body of the animal so that it lies under the breast. Next, we calculate the data by the equation. In this case, the first formula is applied in the event that the chest girth is about 170-180 centimeters, the second one - at 181-191 centimeters, the third - more than 192 centimeters.
Y is the live weight of the cow in kilograms,
X - chest girth of the shoulder blades in centimeters.
Calf weight measurement method
In order to find out the weight of the calf, you also need to use a special table created by Forever. To do this, there is one simple way, as in the same way as in the Kluver-Strauch method, you must first measure the circumference of the animal’s chest and the oblique body length (see Figure 2). Then we look for the resulting figure in the table.
For example, if the oblique body length is 100 centimeters and the chest girth is 110, then at the intersection of these figures in the table we find a figure of 112 kilograms. Now we know the weight of our baby.
Weightwheel Calves Weight Measurement Table
Remember that the live weight of a cow in this case is an average and approximate figure. Of course, the exact weight of the animal can only be determined on the scales.
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How to measure weight without weights?
It is possible to determine how much a cow weighs even without a scale. To do this, you need to have a flexible tape measure or measuring tape. Determination of mass measurements gives a very accurate indicator with a small error in one direction or another. To calculate the weight a lot of time is not needed, since it takes only two indicators.
First, the chest circumference of the cow is measured. The tape is applied behind the shoulder blades. For maximum accuracy, three measurements are taken at a distance of about two centimeters from each other. The average is taken into account. It is most convenient to take these measurements together. It is better if people who care for animals do this so that the cow lets them go. This precaution is necessary because you will have to bend down and skip the tape measure under the cow’s bosom, and at that moment it can hit the person with its head or foot.
Butting an animal can happen by chance, at the moment when it drives away insects.
Therefore, when measuring the chest girth should be as careful as possible. If the work is carried out in the summer in the open, then it is necessary to drive the bloodsuckers from the body of the cow.
Next is the measurement of the length of the body along the back. It is measured with a stick from the base of the tail to the beginning of the neck. When using a roulette, an error will be obtained, since its bending is possible due to bending of the back. All measurements must be recorded in centimeters. Further calculations are carried out using a simple formula. Multiply each other and chest girth, the resulting number is divided by 100 and multiplied by a factor of 2 or 2.5. The coefficient 2 is taken for dairy breeds, and 2.5 for meat and meat and dairy.
This method makes it possible to determine the weight of cows on average, but the tolerance in both directions is large enough. So if the animal is of normal fatness, then 5% should be added to the resulting mass, and if it is very thick, then 10%. When a cow, on the contrary, is thin, it is necessary to subtract 5-10%, depending on the degree of her condition. It is impossible to push off the data obtained when selling a cow, since it is possible to lose profit, but it is quite realistic to make measurements for approximate orientation.
Facing the question of how to determine the weight of a cow, most people use this method, because it is the easiest. But there are several more accurate methods for measuring weight by comparing the measurement parameters for the body. Their only drawback is the impossibility of independent comparison of the parameters obtained. It is necessary to use the table and based on our own measurements to determine the mass of the cow.
Such a table is not always at hand, but the formula for calculating with the help of the coefficient can be used at any time, the main thing is to have a tape measure.