The big wax moth, or fire bee (Latin Galleria mellonella) is an animal of the genus Galleria, of the Fire Eagle family (True fire), of the Pyraloidea superfamily, suborder Hobotkovye, order Flakewing or butterfly squad, Winged Wings, of the Insect class, such as Argus.
Author: admin · Published 07/05/2018 · Last modified 11/28/2018
The hawk moth is a butterfly that belongs to the type of arthropods, the class of insects, the order Lepidoptera, the silkworm superfamily, the family of hawk moths, or sphinxes (Latin Sphingidae). Popular names: "Northern Hummingbird" or "Hummingbird Butterfly".
Author: admin · Published 12/10/2017 · Last modified 11/08/2018
The firefly is an insect that belongs to the order of the beetle (or beetles), the suborder of the raznivorynye beetles, and the family of fireflies (lampirida) (Latin Lampyridae). Fireflies get their name from the fact that their eggs, larvae and adults are able to glow.
Author: admin · Published 11/10/2017 · Last modified 11/13/2018
Lice are arthropod insects, which belong to the subclass of winged insects, the infraclass new-winged insects, the order of louseflies and lice, a suborder of lice (Latin Anoplura).
Author: admin · Published 08/10/2017 · Last modified 11/28/2018
Medvedka (aka kapustyanka, cricket-mole) is an arthropod insect, which belongs to the order Orthoptera, suborder long-stemmed, cricket superfamily, the family Medvedka (Latin Gryllotalpidae), the subfamily Medvedka (Latin Gryllotalpinae).
Author: admin · Published 07/05/2017 · Last modified 07/11/2017
The peacock-eye pear (Saturnia pear, large night peacock eye) (Lat. Saturnia pyri) is an insect of the order Lepidoptera, the family of peacock-eyes, a genus of Saturnia.
Author: admin · Published 06/14/2017 · Last modified 01/22/2018
A bumblebee is an arthropod insect that belongs to the subclass of winged insects, the infraclass new-winged insects, above-order insects with full transformation, a group of hymenoptera, suborder stalk, a family of bees, a family of bumblebees (Latin Bombus).
Author: admin · Published 05/17/2017 · Last modified 11/28/2018
Hornet (lat Vespa.) - arthropods, which refers to a subclass winged insects infraclass neoptera, superorders endopterygota, detachment Hymenoptera, suborder apocrita, osoobraznye superfamily, a family vespidae, vespinae subfamily, genus hornets.
Author: admin · Published 05/05/2017 · Last modified 08/02/2018
The midges are arthropod insects, which belong to the order Diptera, long-clawed sub-order, the midge family (Latin Simuliidae).
Author: admin · Published 04/12/2017 · Last modified 06/29/2017
Gadfly - is a blood-sucking arthropod insect, which belongs to the order Diptera, suborder is short-eared, to the family of gadflies (Latin Tabanidae).
The smallest and most giant beetles
The smallest - only 0.2 mm is the perkrylka beetle. In size, it is a little bit more of the ciliates-slipper. And the largest specimens are a woodcutter-titan and a hercules beetle. Their length is up to 20 cm. And among the European beetles the stag beetle takes the leading position. Interestingly, the largest representatives of the class can surpass their smallest counterparts in a thousand and a half times!
The names of insects often originate from the appearance of animals. This beetle was given the name beautiful and large horns, which are located in the upper part of the body of the male. Throughout life, this arthropod makes a complete transformation. And the length of its existence at the larva stage significantly exceeds the stay as an adult individual of the finally formed specimen. In the final image - just a few weeks. Before that, for 5–7 years, they can be in the form of a larva — a fat, sedentary worm, living mainly in rotten trees and in size a superior adult beetle.
Many probably have heard about the sad fate of the male mantis: after mating it eats its own spouse. But, by the way, this information is not entirely correct. According to researchers, insidious deeds occur in about 50% of cases. The praying mantis have a very original look: so often they depict newcomers from far space. The head is in the shape of a triangle, huge faceted eyes, long front limbs, folded in a characteristic "prayer" position (and here the names of insects exactly coincide with the appearance of strange creatures). By the way, in ancient times, the Muslims were convinced that this mystical animal turned towards Mecca, performing namaz. Like it or not - the exact data is not presented. But the fact that the mantis is a master of camouflage and camouflage is obvious. And owning a similar mimicry, he turns, sitting in ambush and waiting for his prey, into various objects: a branch, a blade of grass, a stone or a flower. By the way, this creature, a truly unearthly species, is a frightening predator: beetles and spiders are its main food. And at females even small lizards and snakes are used. The so-called posture of the praying mantis is widely known, exactly repeated in Chinese kung fu.
These insects (the photo and the names of some of them are below) are spent most of their lives in the unsightly guise of a caterpillar. Only a few days given to them, to hit all their unimaginable colors with wings and beauty. The caterpillar of the peacock eye, for example, does not look too aesthetically pleasing, and even disgusts many with its appearance. Whether the matter is an adult individual: a butterfly that lives and delights the eye for only about seven days. And here the names of insects are often given according to their appearance. On the wings of the butterfly - the stunning beauty of the "eyes", resembling the coloring of the tail of a peacock.
It is characteristic that butterflies can be very small sizes, and can be very, very large. For example, the scoop of Agrippina reaches a wingspan of up to 28 centimeters!
But in fact, the largest insect currently existing is considered to be stick insects. Such specimens from Kalimantan reach a body length of more than 30 centimeters, and with elongated limbs more than half a meter. Some beetles are also famous for their giant size - up to 20 centimeters.
The names of insects are various and diverse. Among them, we have not yet mentioned flies and ants, grasshoppers, for example, the wealth of forms and types of which is amazing. Many of them harm people; some turn out to be neutral. But the bees are insects that bring us great benefits. And it's not just honey, but even their poison and by-products are healing.
And the sounds (buzz) made by a swarm of bees, according to modern insect researchers, have positive energy and cure the body of many diseases. Not by chance, the night spent next to the bees in the apiary gives strength and vitality, strengthens health and immunity. And in modern medicine, a whole industry has emerged that deals with treatment and rehabilitation with the help of beekeeping products.
In order to produce only one kilogram of honey, these insects fly thousands of kilometers, moving from one flower to another, laboring from dawn to sunset. In addition, along the way, they pollinate a multitude of plants that, thanks to bees, have the ability to multiply.
Are insects animals or not?
These are ancient animals that make up one of the largest classes of the animal kingdom. In nature, there are numerous species of insects. Some have wings, and someone in the process of evolution has lost the ability to fly. In some, the size is only a few mm, while in others it can reach 10 cm.
Insect species are combined by the number of limbs, antenok, wings, the structure of the respiratory system, eyes and body parts.
There are many types of these creatures, their total number is estimated at 940 thousand, but some researchers give a large number - 1.5 million. It is impossible to find out the real number. So who are the insects?
The largest is the chobber Phobaeticus chani, its length is 35.7 cm, and if you stretch the limbs, then 56.7 cm.
The smallest are the males of the parasitic Dicopomorpha echmepterygis. Their dimensions barely reach 0, 138mm.
The exoskeleton has a cuticle, hypoderm and a huge amount of hairs. It protects the insect from heat, damage, poisons and forms the body. A special substance is formed from the hypodermis cells that forms the cuticle. It is durable and consists of chitin (a nitrogenous polysaccharide).
Coloring is created by the cuticle, in which the pigments are deposited. Green color is created due to hemolymph (insect blood) and cuticle pigments.
Thanks to the chitinous shell and moving body segments, they have a strong exoskeleton. All segments are combined in three sections: head, chest and abdomen.
On the head are the eyes, antennas and mouthparts. There are two types of head setting:
- Hypognathic - mouth organ goes down (beetles, bugs, cockroaches).
- Prognathic - mouthpieces are directed forward (medvedka).
- Opistognathic - mouth turned back, and close to the front legs (aphid, verdigris).
Depending on the food intake, the following types of oral apparatus are distinguished:
- mosquito - mosquitoes,
- cutting-sucking - horse blind,
- sucking - butterflies,
- gnawing-licking - bees, wasps,
- gnawing - scorpion, bear,
- licking - flies.
The gnawing type of apparatus is the oldest in the class. It belongs to most beetles, caterpillars and orthoptera. The oral apparatus contains the mandibles (upper and lower lips). The lower lip and maxilla bear palpi. The upper jaws move toward each other like forceps, snacking on food.
Other types of mouthpieces are types of gnawing. For example, in the gnawing lice, the maxillae turned into a proboscis. A tongue appeared in the lower lip, and the upper jaws looked like spatulas. Due to this structure, insects began to build honeycombs and care for them. But in the butterflies, the mouth became simply unrecognizable: the upper jaws disappeared, the lower ones formed a proboscis, which can twist, the lower lip disappeared.
Best adapted to life are flies, which can use various food sources. With their proboscis, they can suck up liquid or bite food from hard surfaces.
It has three large segments: front, middle and rear. Each of them is equipped with a pair of legs, and the middle and back additionally has wings. In this regard, the main function of the breast - movement.
Have a large number of segments: coxa, trochanter, hip, tibia, paws. They are mobile, which provides freedom of movement. Depending on the type of movements, there are several types of legs:
The wing is a body fold at the side. They differ in veins: reticular (dragonfly), webbed (butterfly). In beetles, wings cover the body, providing additional protection. Some individuals lost their wings (lice and fleas).
The abdomen has 11 segments and the tail section is Telson. The eighth segment has external genital appendages, which are very diverse. The structure of the genitalia is an important feature for describing the species.
On the skin there are a variety of glands, they can consist of 1-2 cells or sets. There are wax, odorous, spinning, glands that secrete substances that attract the opposite sex.
Insect respiratory tract is a system of trachea. Insects already have a heart with cameras, blood - hemolymph. Hemolymph does not carry oxygen, but only exchanges nutrients.
The nervous system consists of the head ganglion, the abdominal nervous chain. There are sense organs: smell, touch, sight, hearing. Most of all they have developed a sense of smell, due to which they transmit a huge amount of information to each other about food, danger, readiness for mating.
The arthropod class has the greatest biological diversity. Their type is descended from a worm-shaped ancestor, which was similar with annelids. His body consisted of identical sized segments, his mouth was on the ventral side. As it progressed, limbs formed near each individual segment, and the segments themselves merged with each other.
What kind of insects are the nature of food:
- The herbivorous (bark beetles, locusts, caterpillars) absorb the tissues of living plants. They are often pests of garden crops, and in some cases represent a natural disaster.
- Carnivores (fly larvae, ground beetles, swimming beetle) feed on small insects.
- Saprophages (stag beetles, woodflies) feed on dead animals and plants.
- Coprophagous (dung beetles) - feed on excrement and humus.
- Bloodsuckers are already clear by their name - they suck the blood of warm-blooded animals, including humans (mosquito, gadfly).
- Pollen and nectar suckers are pleasant creatures. They feed on nectar, pollen of flowers (these include most butterflies).
The development cycle takes place in 3-4 phases.
An incomplete cycle is considered when an individual passes through 3 phases: egg-larva-imago. This cycle is characterized by external similarity of descendants and parents. There is a slight difference in size and structure (bug, grasshopper, aphid).
The complete development cycle consists of 4 stages of insect development: the egg-larva-pupa-imago. An adult individual differs from a larva in its way of life and nutrition. A bright and beautiful representative of the complete transformation phase is the butterfly.
The larva is mostly a fatty body that accumulates substances for further metamorphosis. After a few molts, it freezes, ceasing to eat and drink, sometimes it can create a cradle, soon it turns into a pupa.
The pupa is tightly packed in a chitinous shell; it can breathe, but is inactive. Sometimes it moves its abdomen (butterflies), but some species of pupae move very actively in the ground (flies) or in water (mosquitoes).
The imago is an adult insect. Butterflies after exiting the cocoon must spread their wings to complete their transformation.
Lifestyle and protection
Insects are forced to adapt and protect themselves. They use active scaring, mimicry and crypticism. Bees, wasps, scorpions actively defend themselves with the help of a sting. Butterfly "Peacock eye" scares all the spots on the wings. Ladybugs scare coloring.
Mimicking animals resemble dangerous insects, but in fact they are harmless (glass windows look like wasps), or merge with the surrounding nature (the praying mantis has a green color hiding it among the foliage).
Crypticism - the ability to merge with the environment (some types of caterpillars, grasshoppers).
In the way of life, insects also differ in diversity: they can live as a social group (ants, termites), they can live alone (many butterflies, beetles).
It is interesting that insects in a social group differ both externally and according to the work performed (workers, guards, queen).
Insects have inhabited the entire planet. They live in Antarctica (bell-bellied mosquito) at extremely low temperatures, some individuals can survive at +60 in hot springs (mosquito bell from Nigeria).
Insects are taken and high in the mountains. A species of butterfly Red Apollo lives in the Everest region at an altitude of about 6000 km above sea level.
Insects have adapted to the conditions of life and places of residence. They have changed, adjusted to the conditions of the environment and continue to evolve, as they develop resistance to pesticides that people use to combat them. It is believed that even after the nuclear some insects (cockroach) will survive.
Role in nature
In nature, insects perform many positive functions:
- Pollinate plants - bees, butterflies.
- Participate in soil formation - termites and ants, who arrange entire labyrinths underground, loosening the soil.
- The circulation of substances is an important link in the food chain, they are eaten by birds, animals, fish, and they absorb other insects.
- Some species of insects are pests for nature: the locust destroys vast areas of harvest, bugs are ectoparasites of animals and humans.
The economic importance of insects for humans is difficult to overestimate. They can be annoying pests, eating agricultural plants: caterpillars, Colorado potato beetle, aphid.
Insects pollinate most cultivated plants and trees, contributing to good yields.
Drosophila flies are valuable and non-replaceable helpers of geneticists. Some insects - carriers of infections, can be carriers of biological weapons: lice - a carrier of bacteria that causes typhus.
What types do you know?
Before you start, you can talk with your child about domestic insects. The guys know about them much more than about the wild. Domestic insects surround us everywhere: in the apartment, in the house, in the apiary. Bees are also domestic animals, as they are tamed by people and are used for purposes useful to humanity. Ask what insects can live in the apartment of the baby. It does not have to be cockroaches (the most expected answer): they are now actively being taken out, and they practically do not settle in new well-kept houses. The apartment can also live spiders, which often descend on their web. How the insects living in the apartment look can be seen in the photo on our website.
В отличие от домашних насекомых, паразиты могут жить в шерсти животных и даже в самом человеке. Паразиты – наши враги, и от них необходимо избавляться. Для этого нужно тщательно соблюдать гигиену. Паразиты, живущие в животных и человеке, — это блохи, вши. Комары – тоже паразиты, так как питаются за счет человека. Такие насекомые могут жить не только на улице, но и в квартире. Посмотрите на фото, как они выглядят.
Задания для детей
Чтобы познакомить Вашего ребенка с видами насекомых, предлагаю распечатать карточки и плакат с фото, посвященные теме насекомых для детей. Among them are habitual to us, and rare, endangered species.
Your child will get acquainted with such insects as a butterfly, a fly, a grasshopper, a mantis, a dragonfly, a spider (is not an insect), a locust, a caterpillar (an insect larva, you cannot call it a full-fledged insect), beetle, bee, ant, ladybug, bumblebee, worm, woodlouse, centipede, wasp, rhinoceros beetle, big black beetle and others.
You can print a poster with a photo of insects, hang it in a prominent place for the child, occasionally approach it and introduce the child to various types of insects.
The kid will get acquainted with different types of insects, expand his horizons, memory, attentiveness, develop fine motor skills of the fingers.
Games with cards and photos of insect species will help the child to remember the main insects, bring a lot of positive moments. With their help, you can train the visual memory. Learn the names of insects with your child, and then select a few cards and arrange them in random order. Ask your child to try to remember the order in which the images are arranged. Then turn the cards over and ask the baby to name which card the insect is drawn on. Such an exercise perfectly develops visual memory. In addition, the baby quickly learn the names of representatives of the fauna.
Insects with names in English.
How to play with them?
- Print the file, cut into cards.
- Show the child a card and speak the name of this or that insect. Can you tell a few words about the insect baby.
- When the child learns the names of all insects, ask him to choose from 2 options. For example, show 2 cards - a butterfly and a fly and ask where the butterfly is, if the child does not know how to talk, let him show with his finger.
- Next, a more complex option - add more cards and offer to find, for example, a ladybug.
- Memory development game - print 2 copies of insect cards. Turn them upside down and look for pairs for each insect in turn. Start with a few pairs of insect species, then add more.
Such games are suitable for kids from 1 year and older.
Why does the child need it?
Man is a part of nature. But nature also belongs to insects. Today, a person mostly spends time in an apartment, seeks to restore order there, and perceives insects as unwanted visitors to his home. Hence the hostility arising in us, which we experience when looking at these little inhabitants of the planet. Even if we are asked to look at a photo of an insect, it is likely that unpleasant goosebumps will run down the back.
Of course, not all insects may be acceptable to us, but children must understand that there are rare species listed in the Red Book. They can not be destroyed. Show the children photos of these insects so that preschoolers can imagine what they look like. Perhaps children will never meet with these representatives of the fauna in their lives, but it will remain an understanding that nature should be protected.
The tasks presented on our website with photos are very colorful, bright. They will interest the child, which gives you an opportunity for the development of creative abilities, memory and thinking of children.
So, insects can be rare, wild, living in an apartment or house. Thanks to the cards, poster and photo, children will be able to meet them. Guys need to understand that they do not need to be afraid. Having met an insect in the apartment, it is not necessary to strive to kill them. Let him go, let him go his way. Tasks that are on our site will contribute to the development of memory and creative abilities. Thanks to them, children will understand that insects are the same inhabitants of the planet as we are.