The brook trout lives in Western Europe, from the coast of Murmansk to the Mediterranean Sea, in mountain brooks. It is also found in the Balkan Peninsula, Algeria, Morocco, Asia Minor. In Russia, it is found on the Kola Peninsula, in the basins of the Caspian, White, Baltic, Azov and Black Seas. But in the rivers of the Far East it is not.
The brook trout prefers brooks and flat rivers with sandy or pebble soil, in which pure and cold water, rich in oxygen, flows.
The brook trout, as we have said, belongs to the Salmon family. The length of her body is 25-55 centimeters, and the weight reaches two kilograms (it largely depends on living conditions). At the age of twelve years, its weight can be 10-12 kilograms.
The fish has a thin elongated body that covers small dense scales. Its color varies from dark brown to yellow, the back is usually dark or brown green, the head is black with golden gill covers, the belly is whitish. The whole body of the trout is usually dotted with a variety of red and dark specks, which are bordered with light circles. Therefore, in many regions, fish are called pestrus. Brown trout are never silver, unlike their relatives. In general, it should be noted that its color depends on the color of the soil and water, food, time of year and many other factors.
Even meat of fish inhabiting different conditions has a different shade: white or pink.
Mountain trout leads a sedentary lifestyle and does not make major migrations. After the fall and winter spawning, older individuals go to deep-water areas, closer to spring keys, where they feed on small fish for the whole winter period. The trout leaves its refuge only with the arrival of spring, when, with high water, muddy thawed waters come into the river. However, as soon as the first greenery appears, the fish immediately occupy their summer places. Large individuals live alone, taking places near waterfalls, on steep banks, at the mouth of streams and rivers. Small young trout prefers small rifts. She is going to the flock and wanders all summer from one place to another. As a rule, they can be seen behind large stones or in the bottom thickets, where the flow is insignificant and small turbulence is formed.
Streaming Trout Breeding
Trout reaches sexual maturity by the third year of life. Fish spawn from November to December in shallow areas of the river, preferring to rocky or pebble bottom and fast current. Trout roe is large enough (up to three millimeters in diameter), its fish are laid in special pits, which are pulled out by females after fertilization. They bury it with vigorous tail movements. This method of spawning protects the eggs from eating by other individuals. I must say that the brown trout is not very fertile.
The larvae are all winter in the shelter, they begin to hatch only with the arrival of spring. For a long time they remain in the same place, feeding on the substances of their yolk sac. And only after four weeks they leave their home and begin to feed on insect larvae. At this point, the rapid growth of fish begins - in the first year of life, it reaches a length of ten centimeters.
Trout is characterized by rapid development, but it depends on habitat conditions. I must say that in a large river there is much more food than in a small stream. In the environment where there is more food, the fish grows faster and reaches larger sizes.
In streams there are few chances to meet large individuals. But they are quite a lot in the forest rivers, where a huge number of insects and small fish. With good conditions at the age of two, fish can weigh up to half a kilo. But in small reservoirs, even at the age of four, it barely reaches one hundred grams.
The food for trout is small crustaceans, as well as insect larvae, small mollusks, fish, insects caught in water, tadpoles, even small mammals and frogs. Feeding occurs in the morning or in the evening, with the trout often jumping out of the pond after the flying insects. A fish likes to eat caviar, even its own caviar, if it is not well hidden.
Large individuals sin because they can eat their own young. A trout gets a large amount of food during thunderstorms and winds, when due to bad weather there are a large number of insects in the water. It is during such periods that fish show particular activity and swim near the surface. Apparently, for the same reason, trout prefers reservoirs with dense vegetation on the banks. In the summer heat, fish try to keep close to their keys. Not finding them, they can climb into the holes, falling into a thermal stupor, then they can be caught almost with their bare hands. And at other times they are very agile and cunning, trying to go to the shelter at the slightest danger.
The brook trout are a special fish. That is why it is also necessary to approach her fishing wisely. First of all, you need to decide where it is best caught. Do not rely on good fishing in quiet waters. Fish does not like such places. It is best caught in reservoirs with an intense current, with whirlpools, where the waters are highly enriched with oxygen.
In winter, fish are more passive, as their metabolic processes slow down. The ideal fishing time is early spring, when the trout is already active, and the waters are clear and transparent. But this period will not be long - just a couple of weeks.
Trout fishing is possible in many ways. Orientation should be on the season, type of fishing and bottom relief. Usually they fish from a boat or froze.
It is difficult to say how best trout is caught. Spinning is used when standing in the water or on the beach. You can also use a wobbler. In the normal state, it floats on the surface of the water and sinks only during a pull-up. As a rule, it is thrown along the river, pulling up from time to time. Such tactics are good in areas where there is no strong flow. Trout are caught on livestock.
A fishing rod with a float is quite suitable for fishing. In this case, the bait is located near the surface of the water. Only in this way she can get into the field of view of the fish. Periodically, the float is tightened, but it does not pay attention to the demolition of its wind.
There is another option for trout fishing - float fishing rod. Its essence lies in the fact that the bait with a float is fused along the stream for the entire length of the fishing line. In this case, the bait may touch the bottom. Such a method is called "fishing". It is good for use in places where rivers flow into lakes.
Types and subspecies
Trout can be sea, river, lake and brook. The largest is considered Pacific. Sea view is more saturated red, its meat is fatter and tastier than others.
Types and subspecies of sea trout:
- Clark salmon,
- trout letnitsa,
- flat headed
- silver char,
- American Palia.
Habitat, spawning and feeding
The trout lives in seas, lakes, rivers and large streams. Widely distributed in Norway and the USA. In Europe, it is found in forest and mountain rivers and streams with fast currents, as well as in the Baltic countries. In Russia, this fish lives in the Ladoga and Onega lakes, on the Kola Peninsula. In Armenia, a unique species of trout is found on the highland lake Sevan, which cannot be found anywhere else.
Habitat may expand or change, as the trout are bred artificially.
During spawning, the fish lives on the surface of the reservoir where mating games take place: individuals splash, swim at very high speed. After them, the youngest fish return to their habitat, and the rest remains to increase the offspring.
The fecundity of females is small. Maturity occurs only in the 3rd year of life, when an individual weighs 2 kg.
Spawning occurs in spring or autumn once a year. At first, the fry are immobile, remain in the sac from which they feed. Only 1.5 months later they start to get out, grow quickly. They feed at this time the larvae of small insects. Over the year, individuals grow over 12 cm in length. The growth rate depends on the reservoir.
When they reach large fry, they switch to eating fish, they begin to hunt fry of other species of fish and frogs. There are individuals who are engaged in cannibalism. But the basis of food are insects and their larvae, fish, tadpoles, beetles, mollusks, crustaceans, meat waste and fish offal. During spawning prefers moths.
The larger the reservoir, therefore, the more food it contains. So, the fish will grow faster.
Trout bred for industrial purposes for the food industry. They grow it in ponds, cages on large ponds. River (stream) and rainbow individuals are best suited for cultivation.
In nature, fish can be caught only with a fishing rod and in a certain amount. And cultivation promotes catch in large volumes.
It takes 1.5 years to get 500 grams of commercial weight. In the artificial environment, a larger specimen is found when grown as a parent flock or for obtaining roe for sale. The value of caviar is very high due to the nature of spawning.
Trout is allowed to catch throughout the year, except for the spawning period. In summer, the fish goes to the depth and waits for the sun to go down, and the water will begin to cool. Therefore, the best time for fishing in the summer is evening, night, morning. To catch in the afternoon is a waste of time. Trout is caught only in clear water.
In the spring, with the first melt waters, the first activity of the individual begins. The fish have not yet spread in the reservoir and are kept in winter stands (in the bottom pits, on the borders of fast and slow currents). It is difficult to detect trout in thawed snow.
In the spring, it is better to fish in the afternoon, and in the autumn they bite around the clock.
Fish always stands head against the current. In this regard, during spinning fishing it is necessary to move towards the current. This will allow the angler to remain inconspicuous longer. Clothing should be dim, better camouflage color. In the place of catching it is impossible to tune the float fishing rod, as this may for a long time scare off the future catch.
Since the trout is found in rivers and lakes, you can use any gear depending on the place of fishing.
When fishing for float fishing, the following baits are used:
- earthworm or dung-worm,
- bloodworm, maggot, insect larvae,
- live fish
- Red caviar,
- dead fish
When spinning catching excellent results allows such a bait as a "castemaster." Also well caught fish on the "shakes" and spinners. The main thing is to choose the lure by size and color. Suitable "popper", "wobbler." Fly fishing is very effective, which involves the use of artificial flies, which mimic the insects.
Trout meat has high nutritional value, contains vitamins and amino acids. It helps to fight depressive conditions, improves metabolism and memory, reduces cholesterol. It also prevents cancer, restores protein and fat metabolism.
The fish is quite fat, therefore it is not recommended to use for people with liver diseases, duodenal ulcers, stomach ulcers.
Sea trout has a pleasant and delicate taste, without a strong odor. It goes well with side dishes, can act as a separate dish. Fresh and frozen carcasses are used for cooking.
Repeated freezing is not recommended, as the taste is reduced.
You can consume with white semi-dry wine, as well as grape or pomegranate juice.
Steak with cream sauce
To prepare you need:
- two steaks of trout, weighing about 600-700 g,
- 2 oranges,
- salt, sugar to taste,
- a pinch of black pepper,
- 50 g sour cream,
- fresh dill,
- 2 tsp. horseradish (sauce),
- 1 tbsp. l orange juice or 0.5 tsp. apple cider vinegar,
- salt to taste
Remove the zest from the oranges (you can grater), then mix it with sugar, salt, pepper, mix thoroughly and spread steaks on this mixture. Next, you need to put the fish on the rack and put in the refrigerator for an hour.
After which it must be removed, rinsed and dried. Then heat the grill pan, sprinkle with oil (optional), put the fish out and fry for 2−3 minutes on each side. After that, preheat the oven, put the steaks in a baking dish, sprinkle them with fat from frying. Bake at 200 degrees for ten minutes.
To prepare the sauce, finely chop the dill, then mix it with sour cream and horseradish, salt. Next you should squeeze orange juice. Mix everything thoroughly.
If you use apple cider vinegar, then the sauce will be sour.
Rainbow trout in the oven
- 1 kg of fresh fish,
- 1 tbsp. l vegetable oil
- 70 g butter,
- 1 lemon,
- bunch of parsley,
- a pinch of black pepper,
- 1 tsp. salt.
Wash the fish, clean, remove the insides, cut off the fins and tail. Then rinse and dry with paper towels. Then you need to mix the salt with pepper and rub this mixture with the carcass outside and inside.
Cut lemon into four parts. From one quarter cut into thin slices, and from the other squeeze out the juice and mix with vegetable oil. Grab the fish with this mixture.
Next, lay the baking sheet with foil, lay the fish. From one side of the carcass, you need to make cuts and put lemon slices and a small piece of butter in them. Chop the parsley, mix with the remaining lemon slices and fill it with fish. Then the trout must be tightly wrapped in foil.
Preheat oven to 200 degrees and bake fish for 30–40 minutes. Five minutes before the pan is ready, you need to take out and unfold the foil so that the dish will brown.
- 700 g of trout,
- 5 potatoes
- 1 pc. carrots and onions,
- 0.5 liters of 20% cream,
- bay leaf, salt, black peppercorns, dill.
Pour head and belly and fins with water and cook over medium heat. Just before the readiness, you need to add salt, pepper and bay leaf. After that, the broth must be filtered. Then cut the potatoes, chop the onions and carrots, add to the broth and cook over low heat. Peel the fish fillet from the skin and bones, cut into small pieces. After the potatoes are ready, add the fish and cream pieces, boil for a couple of minutes. Sprinkle with dill before serving.
Baked Dish with Vegetables
- 600 g fillets,
- 1 pc. carrots and onions,
- 200 ml white wine,
- half a lemon,
- 3 tomatoes,
- salt and spices (rosemary, oregano, savory, mustard seeds, paprika).
Fillet cut into pieces. Mix salt and spices, rub the fish with this and overlay lemon rings. Leave for 30 minutes to soak the marinade. Then you need to prepare the vegetables. Carrots cut into strips, sliced tomatoes, and onions into rings.
Preheat the oven, cover the baking sheet with foil and put vegetables on it, and above are pieces of trout and a slice of lemon. To prevent the marinade from pouring out, and the fish to bake in its own juice, the edges of the foil need to be tweaked. In the resulting pockets add wine. Bake in the oven for half an hour.
- 2 kg of trout,
- 1 kg of yeast dough,
- 2 onions,
- 50 g butter,
- bunch of parsley,
- bay leaf, peppercorns and salt.
The dough is divided into three parts. The first two need to join and roll out the oval in 1 cm, and from the 3rd part to make a small circle.
Wash the fish, cut into pieces, salt and pepper. Cut greens and mix with fish pieces. Onions cut into rings.
In the baking dish put the dough, on top of the fish with greens, and then onions. Edge lift "side". Grate the butter and add to the filling. Next you need to close the cake in a small circle, zaschipnut edges. In the center make the holes with a fork.
Bake in a preheated oven (up to 180 degrees) for an hour.
Trout is a valuable and healthy fish. Knowing how to cook this fish will allow you to enjoy its delicate flavor and get the necessary nutrients for the body..
What feeds on
Trout is a predatory fish. At the beginning of her life, her young feed mainly on plankton, but when growing up, they switch to a more varied diet, which consists of:
- shallow bottom invertebrates (mollusks and worms),
- insect larvae,
- beetles, butterflies, grasshoppers and other insects falling into the water,
- small fish.
Large individuals even attack small mammals, which carelessly swim over the water body. Trout can also eat vegetable food. At many paid ponds it is caught on canned corn, dough, bread and others.
The brook trout loves cool places, so it tries to stick to the places where the keys are beaten, and the water temperature does not rise. She can stand for various shelters on the shallows, as well as in areas with slow flow: before or after them.
The behavior of rainbow trout differs little from the brook lifestyle. She likes to stand in the area of any shelters. Это могут быть крупные камни или коряги на дне, различные неровности рельефа. В солнечные дни рыба обычно малоподвижна, но с наступлением пасмурной погоды ее поведение кардинально меняется, и хищник становится активным.
Озерная форель населяет глубокие озера, где держится на глубинах 50–100 метров. Рыба может находиться у дна либо перемещается в толще воды. In the summer, it is often suitable in the coastal zone.
Brown Trout - Who's Who?
The brook trout or pied salmon (Salmo trutta fario) is a freshwater form of trout, belonging to the salmon family.
The term "trout" - generally called many different species of fish of the salmon family, consisting of three genera. A large number of seemingly similar and close to each other species of this family contributes to confusion in the systematization of these animals.
Confusion on the issue of kinship of brook, lake and migratory (sea) trout was resolved only in recent years. It has been established that all three forms belong to the same type ─ kumzhe. And it is easy to move from one to another.
The brook trout, acclimatized in the lower reaches of the sea rivers, can easily slip into the sea, having reborn into transient trout, and also easily adapts to lake-type reservoirs.
Living conditions and sizes of trout
The maximum length of adult pestlings varies from 20 cm to 70 cm, with a weight ranging from 300 g to 6-7 kg, respectively, the life expectancy is no more than 15-18 years. The size of the brook trout depends on the size of the reservoir inhabited by it and the food supply in it.
So in small mountain streams that did not have time to merge together, trout rarely grows more than 25 cm, but in the foothills, where they carry their waters already in a single stream, its dimensions reach 70 cm.
Streaming trout refers to the inhabitants of cold rivers, originating on the slopes of the mountains and feeding on glaciers and spring waters.
It is in such a cold and flowing water saturated with oxygen that this very beautiful and strong fish lives, able to withstand the rapid flow and even climb through waterfalls. The optimal water temperature for its normal life is in the range of 5 to 12˚C.
The particular physique of the pied duck provides its ideal hydrodynamics, allowing the predator to exist where other fish could not live for even an hour. An important role is played by the torpedo-shaped hull shape, which helps our heroine to overcome the resistance of a dense aquatic environment and develop a high speed. What also contributes to a well-developed caudal stem, endowed with solid and rigid plumage.
The narrow and elongated dorsal ridge, along with almost the same anal fin, functions as the upper and lower carinae, reliably stabilizing the body of the fish in any position.
The required number and combination of hard and soft rays in the fins of the river predator, provide them with proper stiffness, facilitating body control in a furious flow of mountain rivers.
Behind the dorsal ridge there is a small fold of skin, called the adipose fin, the purpose of which is not yet fully understood. The head is small, proportional to the body, the snout is truncated, the mouth is terminal, small bristle teeth are located on the jaws, tongue and palate.
Coloring river trout
The color of river trout is very variable and largely depends on the composition of water, soil, food supply, time of year and other factors.
The colors in the pest's outfit are more diverse and richer on a bright sunny day, during spawning the fish darken, briefly losing their beauty.
The back of the river trout, most often, is greenish-brown, the sides are slightly yellowish with a slight copper tint, sometimes acquiring purple and hot pink tones. The grayish-white abdomen of the fish, closer to the tail, is cast in lemon color. Only it remains untouched by a scattering of multi-colored dots, surrounded by a bright halo, covering the whole body, head and fins of the fish.
The color of the spots on the body of the trout is not typical, they can be either monophonic or multi-colored: red, black, purple, etc.
How does the trout see
The river-predator's large eyes have very sharp focal vision, and the sensitive cells of the retina allow them to see well in the dark, although only in a black and white image and to distinguish ultraviolet light.
Worst of all, they perceive the green spectrum, the best - the other blue, especially accurately providing color reproduction in good light ─ on sunny days.
In bad weather, the color of the color fades in the eyes of the trout, who use night vision in dim light, turning the underwater world into a black and white kingdom.
The main territory of the brook trout range is concentrated in Western Europe. Reservoirs of this part of the continent are inhabited by it everywhere, except for large slow-flowing rivers.
The harsh climate of most regions of Russia limits the distribution of trout unsuitable for sudden changes in temperature.
Premature and prolonged freezing-up of Russian water bodies in middle and northern latitudes, prevents its reproduction occurring in late autumn and early winter.
In addition, the abundance of fertile river predators in them, such as burbot, pike, and perch, which constitute a serious food competition for trout, will not allow it to survive in the vicinity of them.
For these reasons, brook trout is found in Russia only in certain regions: in key rivers of the Baltic Sea basin, in the mountain rivers of the Black Sea and Caspian basins.
The highest abundance of this predatory fish is observed in non-freezing flowing waters of the Caucasus and Crimea.
Streaming trout's reproductive functions appear at the 3rd year of life. It spawns once every two years at a water temperature of 5─7˚C, spawning begins in the southernmost latitudes in the second decade of November and lasts for 35-40 days, in other areas 1-1.5 months earlier. For spawning, the trout rises upstream, choosing shallow areas with weak currents and stony ground on the shallows.
Its preference for the rocky bottom is not accidental, it is explained by an unusual way of spawning.
The trout, with the help of the tail and paired fins, digs in the soil a recess into which they spawn.
After the male fertilizes her, she falls asleep with pebbles, thereby protecting the eggs, which quickly lose their stickiness, from being washed and eaten by other fish.
The spawning of trout, seemingly grouped at first glance, due to the large number of males surrounding the roe, is in fact ─ paired.
In the process of fertilization, only one male takes part, who, at the most crucial moment, drives away all the other applicants for the "main role".
Despite all the precautions, most of the caviar dies, becoming prey of representatives of the same species and other fish, constantly experiencing the feeling of hunger associated with a lack of food at this time.
By making considerable efforts, hungry fish manage to search for and dig out the nests of trout, eat caviar, whose long development period, from 1.5 to 3 months, contributes to such a sad scenario.
The few offspring of brook trout, which emerged from the surviving eggs, remains in the larval stage for a month, leading an almost motionless lifestyle, hiding under stones and other shelters.
All this time, they feed on the mother yolk, enclosed in a bag on their tiny little body. In spring, the young fry roll downstream, settling in places with calm water, convenient for self-feeding with small living organisms.
Where and how does common trout feed
The main food of small and medium-sized trout are insects and their larvae: beetles, grasshoppers, flies, caddisflies, scuds, dragonflies, etc., that fall randomly into the water and also inhabit it.
Reached puberty trout becomes a real predator. Now, its main food is minnows ─ a genus of small freshwater fish, as well as other young and own species, and insects and worms supplement the diet.
The main source of food for our heroine are coastal shrubs and trees, especially during strong winds. For this reason, the trout tries to keep on the river sites, the banks of which are rich in greenery, as well as near whirlpools, tightening to themselves all the food floating downstream.
The pest feeds most actively in the morning and evening hours - the time when she is experiencing a heightened sense of hunger.
On hot days, at a water temperature of more than 15˚C, the pestle almost does not eat, hides in shaded places and rises to the springs.
In general, brook trout eats all year round, except for the spawning period, and is considered one of the most voracious fish in freshwater bodies of water.
On the habits and methods of catching river trout, read the following article. >>
Composition and useful properties
Trout meat contains many nutrients for human nutrition - vitamins, trace elements, fatty acids, essential amino acids, high-quality protein. Depending on the type and habitat conditions, the chemical composition of the trout can vary somewhat, but on average, the energy value of the fish is 88 kcal per 100 grams. It is rich in such components as: proteins, fats, vitamins A, D, E, B, macronutrients: iron, calcium, zinc, chlorine, chromium, phosphorus, selenium, nickel, fluorine, Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids.
Trout is rich in fatty acids useful for the heart and blood vessels, their regular consumption prevents the formation of cholesterol plaques. Calorie content is two times lower than that of salmon, so it is recommended to use it even with a dietary ration.
Use in cooking
Trout is loved by cooks all over the world. The smell of freshly caught fish slightly resembles fresh cucumbers, and for the tenderness of taste, it can compete with eel or sterlet. Trout can be used in a variety of forms - dried, fried, boiled, salted, cooked on a grill, barbecue or kebab, pickled in spices and vinegar. In the Caucasus, traditionally served with pomegranate sauce, and in Japan they are used to make sushi, rolls, sashimi, and other oriental dishes. Smoked trout goes well with beer and dry wines, and salted - with strong drinks.
Trout belongs to the order salmon, family salmon. Her body is elongated, slightly compressed from the sides, covered with small scales. A remarkable feature of this fish is that it takes on the color of the site on which it lives. The same peculiarity has fish of the flounder family. The dorsal fin of the trout is short, the lateral line is well defined. Males differ from females in large head size and number of teeth. The common length of a trout is 40–50 cm, weight - 1 kg.
Trout inhabits rivers, streams, streams, especially loves mountain, with cool water. She feels good in water enriched with oxygen, fast, with a sufficient number of shelters. Prefers hard bottom, stony or pebble.
Trout lays caviar directly on the ground, where it plucks a small hole with its tail. The deferred calf fertilizes the male almost immediately. Then the female buries the nest. And after 6 weeks fry begin to appear from the eggs.
Trout usually hides in grooves, pits, in the shade cast by plants. She is very shy and cautious.
The color of trout meat is different: white, yellowish, pink. It is likely that it depends on the nutrition of the fish. Trout meat contains many vitamins (A, D, B12) and essential amino acids. This fish is quite fat, so it is especially tasty when grilled.
Choosing fillets you need to remember that fresh salmon does not have a pronounced fishy smell. In addition, high-quality fillet has an elastic structure.
Dangerous properties of trout
Despite all the beneficial properties of trout, doctors do not advise her to use pregnant and lactating mothers, because in some species of this fish there is mercury. This substance, even in small quantities that are harmless to an adult, will be harmful to the embryo or baby.
In addition, this fatty fish should not be carried away by people with liver diseases, ulcers and various complex gastrointestinal diseases, which recommend a low-fat diet.
It is worth knowing that the head of a trout can not be consumed, as it has harmful components that have accumulated in the habitat.
Trout spawn should be used with extreme caution by those suffering from coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and hypertension.
Serge Markovich shares his recipe for baked trout.
Trout is a generic name for several species of salmon fish that inhabit various bodies of water and are found throughout our country. It represents commercial value, as well as interest for amateur anglers and athletes. It is considered a noble underwater inhabitant, catching which is not easy, requires considerable skill and experience.
This representative salmon has the highest culinary value. Its meat contains many vitamins and trace elements that promote health. From it you can cook the most diverse dishes. This fish is smoked, fried, stewed, salted, boiled and even consumed raw. Her caviar is considered a delicacy. In some regions, the so-called amber trout baked in the oven is popular.
In our conditions, there are three main types of this fish:
- Karelian trout or lake trout,
The Karelian trout inhabits mainly deep reservoirs with cold water of Karelia and the Kola Peninsula, it is massively found in Lake Ladoga and Onega. This is a large schooling fish that can live at depths of under 100 meters. It grows up to a meter in length.
The brook trout is a freshwater form of the sea trout, which is a passing fish. But unlike it leads a sedentary lifestyle, prefers streams and rivers with cold clear water and a strong stream. Usually it grows up to 1–2 kg, but there is information about individuals weighing 10–12 kg.
Rainbow trout is considered a freshwater form of marine steelhead Pacific salmon. The most common species in our country. Many fisheries are engaged in its purposeful breeding. This predator is stocked with paid ponds, where its spin fishing is especially popular.
Trout fish: properties
How much does a Trout Fish (average price per 1 kg.)?
Moscow and Moscow region. 518 p.
Trout belongs to the fish of the order salmon-type salmon family. Her body is elongated and slightly compressed from the sides, while the scales of the fish is quite small. Body color fish trout directly depends on the habitat of this beauty. Some species of trout are distinguished by a beautiful rainbow-colored color, which plays in the sun and shimmers with all the colors of the rainbow. On average, by weight it reaches one kilogram, and in length it can be up to half a meter.
Most often, trout fish lives in the cool water of rivers and streams, mainly mountainous ones. It is desirable that the water was saturated with oxygen and there was a sufficient number of secluded places where it could hide.
Interestingly, the meat of this fish may differ in its color: sometimes there is a flesh of yellow color, but it can also be white or pink. There is an opinion that the color of trout fish meat depends on its diet.
In cooking, trout is very much appreciated due to the high taste qualities of its fatty meat. Grilling is considered the best cooking option, as almost all the healthy properties of this fish are preserved. In addition, it is suitable for frying or baking. When choosing a trout fish, first of all, you should pay attention to the smell, which is almost absent in the fresh individual. In addition, high-quality fish fillets should be elastic and elastic, and when pressed spring.
The meat of this fish is truly an excellent product that brings benefits to human health. This is due to the composition of trout, which contains many important substances.
In terms of calorie content, trout, unfortunately, is inferior to some valuable commercial fish. For example, the nutritional value of this aquatic inhabitant is almost half the calorie content of salmon.
Regular consumption of the meat of this fish has a beneficial effect on the human condition. The benefits of trout are manifested in the ability to reduce the level of bad cholesterol in the blood, and even strengthen the arteries and stimulate the brain, so doctors recommend eating this product as often as possible with Alzheimer's disease and some heart diseases.
Abuse of this product will certainly not bring any benefit - on the contrary, it will be possible to talk about the possible harm of trout. So, it concerns cases of individual intolerance to fish, as well as in the presence of certain diseases of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Do not advise often indulge yourself with dishes of trout and people who should follow a diet low in fat.
The nutritional value
Trout is an incredibly amazing fish. It freely changes its appearance and lifestyle, and feels equally good in fresh and salty water. In addition, its meat is tender and can be red or white, but its taste always remains unique and exquisite.
Trout is a commercial fish, but along with the prey in natural conditions, trout are often bred in fish farms. It is grown both in marine conditions in cages along the shores of Canada, Chile and Norway, and in fresh waters (rainbow trout, brown trout, lake and brook trout).
Trout meat is considered a delicacy and is present in recipes of many national dishes. Его цвет может быть как молочно-кремовый, так и ярко-красный, а великолепный аромат и нежный вкус ему придают прослойка жира между мышцами. Кроме того, полезные свойства форели были признаны многими учёными и докторами с мировым именем. So чем же полезна форель?
Чем полезна форель?
Пищевая ценность форели обусловлена наличием в её мясе кислот Омега-3, которые нашим организмом не вырабатываются, но жизненно нам необходимы.
Мясо форели - важнейший компонент любой сбалансированной диеты.
Мясо форели содержит в себе витамины А, Е, В, D, важнейшие аминокислоты микроэлементы.
Regular consumption of trout in food prevents the formation of cholesterol plaques on the vessel walls and has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system.
Trout has a beneficial effect on the body and relieves its condition in case of cancer, osteoporosis, allergies, psoriasis and diabetes.
Also, omega-3 acid does not allow slag to accumulate in the body, leading to stress.
Trout is rich in phosphorus, and he is known to be very useful for normal brain function.
It is believed that the trout is especially useful for melancholic, as it easily copes with any, even the most neglected depression.
Several species of fish from the salmon family (Salmonidae) are called trout. These beautiful and rare fish live in beautiful places, and the real angler knows that primitive nature should be treated carefully. Exactly as with rare species of fish. Abroad have long been living on the principle: caught - let go.
Trout can have several coloring options. Most often, the back of the fish is olive-green, the sides are yellow-green with black (sometimes with a bluish border), white or red oval patches. The abdomen is white-gray, sometimes has a copper-yellow glow. The dorsal fins are dotted, and the ventral fins are yellow. There are darker fish, with a color that goes to black tones. As a rule, the color saturation is determined by the color of the bottom, water, food, and even the time of year, so the color of the trout becomes darker during spawning. Light silver trout is found in limestone water, and darker in rivers with peat or muddy bottom. When moving fish from a natural reservoir to an artificial reservoir and vice versa, a change in the color of the fish can also be observed.
Trout can be sea and river (freshwater). They differ not only in their size, but also in the color of meat. Thus, the color of meat in sea trout is almost red, and in the river - pink.
Freshwater trout is divided into brook and lake. The lake trout is larger, but the brook is much smaller, it is also sometimes called pestrus. This is a very agile and shy fish. You can meet her in the rapids of rocky rivers, and fleeting streams with cold and clean water. As a rule, grayling is also found in rivers where trout live. To taste one can note lake trout from Lake Sevan (Armenia) and sea and rainbow Norwegian trout.
How to cook a trout
Trout dishes can be found in national cuisines from around the world. It is often used to prepare diet meals.
It is best to take for cooking not frozen, but fresh or chilled fish. Trout can be fried, baked and salted. Since it is fat, the trout are especially good, grilled. Ginger, lemon and greens are perfectly combined with trout.
In order to boil the trout, it needs to be cut into portions, pour boiling water and cook for 10-15 minutes.
Trout composition and beneficial properties
Trout meat contains many vitamins (A, D, B12) and amino acids. One way or another, but all its components affect the body. They are involved in the formation of red blood cells, glucose uptake, protein and fat metabolism. And also contribute to the normalization of cholesterol in the blood.
Since trout is a red fish, it has an advantage over many other fish. Its main advantage is the high content of omega-3 fatty acids. If these acids are enough in food, then the vessels will remain elastic and strong, the cholesterol level is always normal, and the nervous system and brain will work without failures.
According to studies, people who often use red fish are three times less likely to suffer from various cancers and hypertension, they have a good memory, and they are barely familiar with depression.
More recently, scientists have found that the frequent consumption of red fish allows you not to be afraid of sunburn, and, without worrying, expose your body to the sun.
100 grams of trout contains 17.5 grams. proteins, 2 gr. fat and 0 gr. carbohydrates. Calorie fish is 88 kcal.
Since trout is a fat fish, it cannot be eaten by people suffering from chronic liver diseases, stomach ulcers, severe diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the duodenum.
Trout is a fish of the salmon family. There are quite a few species of trout; therefore, there are often certain difficulties in classifying its species. The appearance of the fish may vary depending on where it lives. And she can live not only in rivers, but also in streams, usually mountainous. Trout prefers pure water saturated with oxygen. Because of this, fish is valuable to humans. The ecological conditions of the habitat of this fish determine its nutritional value and excellent delicate taste.
Trout is a fish that is specially bred in ponds for sale, fillets and caviar. This fish is a predator and feeds on worms, larvae, fry of other families of fish. Sometimes the trout can eat even frogs or smaller fish.
The color of the fish may vary depending on external conditions. So, the fish can be light or dark depending on the color of the bottom of the reservoir and the water itself, the food consumed and even the time of year. The number of spots on the sides can vary depending on how rich the fish is.
The size of the fish affects its habitat. On average, its length is 30 cm, and its weight is 300 g, less often 500 g. If you grow fish in artificial conditions, you can get larger fish weighing up to two kilograms.
The color of fish fillets may vary depending on their habitat. So, freshwater fish fillet has a pinkish color, but sea fish fillet is almost red.
Calorie fish is relatively small and is about 90 kcal per 100 g.
Fish farms of the Minsk region with a good catch
In trout, there is animal protein, which is easily digestible. It also contains a large number of amino acids, due to which the benefits of trout are determined. It is recommended to use in such diseases as anemia, heart disease and blood vessels. Trout is also useful for patients suffering from debilitating diseases.
As part of the trout there is a large amount of vitamins and miners that make the fish useful and necessary for the diet of each person. It contains vitamins of group B, and also vitamins A and D, minerals: phosphorus, selenium, iodine, potassium, etc.
There are many unsaturated fatty acids in trout. These substances are very useful for people with excess bad cholesterol in the blood. They help remove excess cholesterol, prevent the development of atherosclerosis, which is dangerous including complications - ischemic disease, stroke or heart attack.
With regular use of trout, you can reduce the risk of getting cancer, hypertension, and even prevent the development of depression. This fish has a positive effect on the nervous and digestive systems, as well as on the liver, improving their work.
It is recommended to eat trout in case of bad mood, lethargy and severe physical fatigue. It also makes the body more resistant to all kinds of infections. Due to its low calorie content, trout is considered a good dietary product and will be useful not only for losing weight, but also for all people who observe proper nutrition. It is worth noting that the minimum number of calories is contained in boiled fish or steamed fish. Roasted or dried trout, of course, will not be a dietary product.
Trout can be consumed in all the same ways as other fish. It is perfect for cooking fish soup, roasting, steaming. You can also bake it in the oven, cook steak or cutlets from it, fry salted. It goes well with vegetables and potatoes.
Before frying fish, it is better to salt it (15-20 min), so that the trout is less crumbled. Since it has a specific smell, it is better to season it with lemon juice before processing.
The healing properties of trout
The natural habitat of the trout is very wide due to its high adaptability - trout are found in cool lakes and lakes of North America and Eurasia, mountain streams of North Africa, as well as in the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean. And in the 19th century, certain species of trout were brought to New Zealand and Australia, where they also got accustomed perfectly.
Like all salmonids, trout originated from freshwater fish; therefore, trout spawning occurs exclusively in clear waters of streams and rivers. Some species of trout are migratory (anadromous) - born in fresh water, they live in rivers for several years, and leave for the sea only a few years later to return to their freshwater to spawn again.
The color of the trout is different and depends on such factors as the transparency and composition of the water, the season, the color of the soil, the type of food consumed and even whether the fish are hungry or not. But the colors are still dominated by shades of green, yellow and olive colors of different saturation, with dots and spots on the body and fins.
In rivers with an oozy and friable bottom, the fish color of the fish becomes dark, and in water, which is saturated with calcium ions, it is silvery. It is also known that fish that are not deficient in food lose part of their spots.
Trout: beneficial properties, calorie and contraindications. Trout roe: useful composition, indications and contraindications. Recipes
The salmon family is rich in species and genera. These fish are united by the fact that they are found mainly in cold waters, therefore they contain a large amount of fats necessary for life support in harsh conditions. Salmon and its relatives are very valuable fish, they have excellent taste and can be cooked by any of the methods known to culinary specialists.
Salmon fishes are said to be especially useful for melancholic, because they are able to relieve a person from depression and stress. Well, and from melancholy at the same time. They even calculated the number of percentages of getting rid of mental ills: the one who eats fish has a chance to get into stress only in 12% of cases, unlike those who do not eat it. Moreover, salmon fish not only relieves stress, but also prevents its occurrence. Why this fish has such properties, let's look at the example of one representative of the species - trout.
Trout - oily fish . However, we know that fat and fat are different, and those contained in salmon are good for the body. Therefore, no effect on the accumulation of extra pounds trout will not have - because 100g of the product contains only 208 kcal. But there is a protein - more than 20g, and fat about 14g. If you serve this fish with lemon, vegetables and herbs, you can absolutely not worry about the figure.
Trout for weight loss
The nutritional value of this fish depends on its type. In freshwater trout, most often sold in our supermarkets, it is:
- proteins - 20.48 g,
- fats - 3.45 g,
- carbohydrates - 0.
It should be understood that fat and fat strife. The one that comes, for example, with meat sauce, is absorbed by the body worse than the fat of fish. The latter, entering the body, becomes a catalyst for the breakdown of fats. Therefore, it is not only not deposited in the form of extra pounds, but also contributes to weight loss.
Good to know
Trout has always been a festive table decoration. Today, the hostess also want to please the guests with a delicious dish of this fish. It should be said that nothing can spoil its taste. Even if cooking is a novice cook.
Russian royal cuisine abounded with trout recipes. And the caviar of this fish has always been considered a symbol of prosperity. By the way, you can check the quality of caviar in several simple ways:
- This product does not melt immediately in the mouth, but when pressed with the tongue it is easy to choke
- when blown on the egg, it rolls easily, although in this fish it is somewhat lipkovat.
Since trout caviar is salty enough, it is best to combine it with cream products: butter, cream cheese, and even mayonnaise.
And now a few tips hostesses.
How to clean the trout
The most unpleasant stage in the preparation of fish - cutting the carcass. And, above all, the removal of scales and viscera. It will be much easier to do this if you listen to our advice.
If you are cooking small fish (200-300 g), then you do not need to divide it into pieces. In this case:
- Wash the fish in cold water.
- Make an incision from the anus to the pectoral fins and remove the insides.
- Use a sharp fish knife to make incisions on the side of the gill plates from the pectoral fins, as well as down below the jaw, so that you can open the gill plates and remove the gills.
- Cut out the remaining fins.
- Take the fish by the head, pull back to break the back. With a thin special knife make cuts around the head and remove the skin with a stocking.
- Wash the carcass, remove the remnants of the skin.
If the fish is large, then after removing the viscera, fins and gills, it should be divided into two side parts, the head and the tail. For this fish knife make a cut from the abdomen to the ridge along the gill plates. Turning the carcass, continue to cut along the ridge to the tail. Now one part of the fish is a flank, and the second is the same, but with the head and tail. Separate the latter.
After that, lay the resulting pieces on the board with skin downwards and remove large rib bones with tweezers or a thin knife. Without turning, but only slightly lifting, we cut off the skin. The fish is ready to cook. From the tail skin is removed with a knife on the principle of stocking.
How to distinguish salmon from trout
An uninformed person to distinguish between trout and salmon is quite problematic. After all, these are two subspecies of salmon fishes and outwardly they are very similar. But still worth a try. At least for the reason that in the wholesale purchase of trout is more expensive than salmon by about 1.5 dollars. If we take into account the costs of delivery, customs clearance (often it is a product of imported production), retail margins, the difference will be 3-4 dollars. Agree, a lot. Here are some guidelines to help you at first:
- Color This is the first and the most correct difference. Trout has a lighter skin with pinkish sides. On the sides of the carcass salmon there is no strip characteristic of trout.
- The scales of trout are smaller than those of salmon.
- The shape of the carcass. The trout is more rounded, the head is truncated, the tail is square. The head of a salmon is larger, looks like a torpedo, there are no teeth on the vomer, the tail is triangular.
- The shape of the fins. In salmon, they are more elongated.
- Weight. Salmon is fed on average up to 6 kg, and trout up to 3-4 kg.
- Trout meat is much richer in color and brighter in pattern. Salmon is more pink than red.
- The taste of the trout is more tender, but it is difficult to determine for a person who rarely allows himself this expensive pleasure. But still, salmon, especially if it has been frozen, has a specific greasy odor when cooking. By the way, good chefs advise you to clean it with fresh orange juice.
There are products that by all their indicators correspond to the class of luxury: utility, taste, price. The ability to allow them to themselves indicates a certain status of a person. At least in our country. Their list is small. But the trout rightfully occupies top positions in this list. Therefore, at least rarely, but still it is worth pampering yourself with this delicacy, the benefits to the body from which will fully justify the cost of it.
Pestle, pestruha, pestrika, trout, in Narvashy teat, according to Pallas, also - gravy, groshitsa, on the river. Tikshe and Sarka, flowing into Oyat: large - tarpinki, small - bluish. Pestlet is very beautiful, and this name was given to her very successfully: it is all covered with red, black and white specks, so it is generally much more colorful than taimen.
In addition, it is much more densely folded and seems to be wider and flatter than the latter, its nose is blunt, and only very large males, distinguished by their more elongated snout and brighter body color, form a small cartilaginous hook on the tip of the lower jaw, the paired fins are noticeably more rounded than taimen, and scales always have a roundish shape.
Finally, the pied pest never loses its teeth, lives constantly in the rivers and, despite countless changes in color, is always darker than taimen: its back is mostly brown or brownish-green, its sides are yellowish or yellowish, its fins are yellowish-gray, the red spots are on the trunk is most often located along the lateral line or on the sides of it, and often have a blue rim.
However, it sometimes happens that red spots are completely lacking or, on the contrary, there are no black spots and only red specks remain. The dorsal fin is also almost always littered with black and red spots. This fish has a much greater distribution in European Russia than the previous species.
However, the distribution of trout is noticeably narrowing: the growing population little by little ousts it, and it has already disappeared from many rivers, where it has not been long enough before, or has retired to the upper reaches. In general, the color of the trout is very much dependent on the color of water and soil, on food and even on the season, as it is much darker during spawning.
Замечено, что в известковой воде форели всегда светлее и серебристее*, а в речках, текущих по илистому или торфяному дну, они бывают очень темного цвета. Первые у немцев известны под названием каменной форели (Steinforelle), к этой разновидности принадлежит, напр., известная гатчинская форель (из р. Ижоры), светлая, почти совершенно серебряная, с светло-коричневой спиной и белым, слегка желтоватым брюхом.
Мясо этих форелей почти совершенно белое, только у крупных светло-розовое, тогда как у ямбургских темное, а у мелких розовое. Yamburg trout are much darker in color, and there are fewer spots on it, and they are located incorrectly. According to the observations of English fish farmers, trout feeding on insects have reddish fins and more red spots, and trout feeding on small fish have a greater number of black spots.
It is also considered to be the rule that the more satisfying the trout, the more monotonous it is, the spots are less noticeable, the back becomes thicker, the head is smaller, and the meat takes on a yellowish or reddish tint. From the experiments it is known that meat (trout reddens with a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the water. In one of the peaty Scottish lakes even trout are found with dark red meat.
Males differ from females in the relative size of the head and a large number of teeth; in old males, the end of the lower jaw sometimes bends upward, like in salmon. In addition, females are always relatively larger. In some brooks of Central Europe, flowing under the land, even completely colorless trout were seen.
As for the size of the trout, although the latter never reaches the size of salmon and talmenya, but under extremely favorable conditions it grows to 1 1/2-arshin length and 30, even more, pounds of weight. However, in many mountain streams and in streams that flow at high altitude, trout are no more than 20 cm tall, so there is hardly another breed of fish with such significant fluctuations in growth.
In most cases, the trout is about 6-8 inches in length and weighs 1-2 pounds. In general, the size of the trout depends on the size of the basin inhabited by it, which determines the abundance of food. In Western Europe, the largest trout are found in the mountain lakes of Switzerland and Tyrol (up to 15 k-log.) And in England in the Thames (up to 7 kg.).
In Russia, in our country, large pestrus were seen in Ropshinsky ponds, near St. Petersburg (up to 10 lbs.), Where I caught them about 30 years ago back to pieces of meat, in Izhora (8-10 lbs. And near arshin's length), in tributaries of the Kama (for example, in the Ireni River, which flows into the Sylva, up to 15 lbs. and in one of the rivers of the Bugulma district, up to 1 1/2 arshin in height), as well as in tributaries of the Kuban (up to 18 verkh. length).
The life expectancy of this fish should be very significant, since it is known a reliable case that one trout lived more than 60 years. Under favorable conditions, i.e. with an abundance of food, the trout grows very quickly and reaches puberty for 2 years. The native seat of trout is Western Europe. Here it is found almost everywhere, except for large rivers.
In our country, trout has a relatively very limited distribution and is found, one may say, sporadically, that is, in some places. It is most commonly found in Northwestern Russia, in the spring rivers of the Baltic Sea basin, in the Black Sea basin, it is found in a few brooks of the Podolsk and Volyn provinces (for example, in the brook flowing into the Ushitsa River at the village of Kuzhelev) and in all the Crimean and Caucasian rivers.
In the Caspian basin (except for the Caucasian and Persian rivers), trout is most famous in the tributaries of the Kama and very rare in the tributaries of the Volga itself. In Northern Russia, that is, in the rivers flowing into the White and Arctic Seas, as well as throughout Siberia, there is no trout at all, and it appears only in Central Asia, beginning from the headwaters of the Amu Darya.
Trout is found in many rivers and flowing lakes of Finland, St. Petersburg Province, precisely in the vicinity of Gatchina (Izhora River, Oredezh, Vereva) and in the rivers of the Yamburg district, in pp. Tiksha and Sarna, flowing into Oyat, in Olonetsky lips. (and in some others), in many rivers of the Novgorod province., in pp. White and Shcheberikhe Tverskaya lips.
Trout is quite common in the Ostsee and Northwestern lips, for example, in the Kovno Province. (Telyiev u., Small river Bobrunka and Miniya, for example), Grodno (Slonim and Kobrin counties). Also, apparently, and in Vitebsk (p. Dalysytsa Nevelskogo u). It seems to be found in forest streams of the Poshekhonsky district of the Yaroslavl Province, in the small tributaries of Kostroma, in the Nerekha River of the Vladimir Province, and undoubtedly found in the spring forest rivers of the Kazan Province, flowing into the Kama River, in the upper reaches of some tributaries of Sviyagi, in Sengiley county.
In Gorodishchensky y. Penza lips. In the river. Aive and Vishnyanga and other rivers of the upper Sura, in Ardatovsky district, in the r. Zheltushka, where her name is royal fish, also in the upper reaches of the Syzran tributaries and other rivers that flow into the Volga on the right side, in the Simbirsk and Sengiley counties, finally, in the r. Khmelevka Saratov Province. In the basins of the Oka, Dnieper and Don rivers, trout have hardly been found before.
I know only two districts in which the trout live, bred there in a very recent time. This is a key pond in s. Bobriki Tula lips. (near the headwaters of the Don) and ponds in the estate of Count Orlov - Davydov near Art. Lopasni Serpukhov district, Moscow province. The way of life of the trout, due to its importance for fish farming and for fishing, as well as the transparency of the waters inhabited by it, has been rather well studied.
In winter, after spawning, the trout rolls down and keeps nearby springs, in deep places of the river - bochagah, at the very bottom, and, apparently, eats more small fish, it is minnows - its constant companions, together with the char and the stone stalker. However, small trout, which did not reach a pound weight, rarely - sometimes predatory and, it seems, like individuals that have not reached maturity, feed on ikroy, swept away by adult fish, searching for it in cartilage and on shallows.
The muddy spring water, as well as the floods, makes the trout cling to the steep bank and even slaughter it, at this time the main food is earthworms washed out of the soil by streams. But barely dressed forest, winged insects appear, trout take their summer places. The largest specimens are kept under waterfalls, in pools, under mill wheels, or in mottochkakh, lying on the bends of the river, where the current hits the bank, forming a whirlpool, also near the confluence of the streams.
These trout live here sedentary sometimes until late autumn, moreover, alone and feed mainly on small fish, waiting for it under some kind of cover: snag, stone, under the roots of trees. Small trout keep stony shallows, standing here in small flocks, they constantly wander from one place to another, most of them going upstream, especially after heavy rain and, consequently, high water. In order not to tire, the trout stands here sometimes behind a large rock, where the flow is less strong.
The reason for the limited distribution of trout in Russia, in my opinion, is that the trout is, in fact, a resident of the mountainous, and almost non-freezing rivers with cold water, where no other predators can live with which it can not compete in any way. Our Russian rivers and small rivers flow slowly, their waters are muddy and spill over into a huge space in the spring, carrying young, not yet strong enough to hatch, and in winter, when the trout are just starting to spawn, they are covered with ice.
Burbot and pike are found almost in streams, so for trout there are only the upper reaches of the few purely spring, never freezing rivers, where there are no pike and perch yet. With such prolific predators, trout cannot fight for existence. And since we have very few such waters, where there would be no pike, burbot and perch, this should be borne in mind and not particularly fond of the culture of trout, that is, not to breed it in vain, as an expensive feed for cheap fish.
Although Western European fish farmers assure that the trout is completely insensitive to water turbidity, it can even live in spring pits filled with slurry, that they tolerate very warm water (up to 26 ° R), but nevertheless, perhaps due to in the above competition, this fish can live in our country either in the upper reaches of spring rivers, or on purpose for it dug out spring ponds.
Similarly, everyone abroad knows that trout is more abundant in a given river than the latter is richer in keys, therefore the rivers flowing in chalk and limestone formations that are rich in groundwater are always richer in trout, according to the observations of English fishermen, only in such rivers reduction of trout is not noticed. Very cold water, enclosing a little food, namely worms and insects, however, strongly retards the growth of trout, but they are here at least in perfect security.
American fish farmers consider the temperature (summer) at 9 ° unfavorable for the growth of trout, and the most favorable for it is a temperature up to 16 ° and not more than 18 °. In any case, the trout does not like sudden changes in temperature, and this, together with the duration of our winters, is one of the reasons for its rarity in Russian waters. Early winter causes the trout to spawn earlier than in Western Europe - in October, even September, so that the development of caviar slows down and inevitably decreases the percentage of well-hatched juveniles.
The main food of the trout is winged insects: midges, various beetles, flies and grasshoppers falling into the water, as well as larvae. The agility and dexterity with which they catch insects are worthy of surprise: they often grab them on the fly before they fall into the water. This fishing lasts almost all day, except in the middle of the day and in the middle of the night. Trout are fed mainly in the early morning and in the evening, or rather, at this time they are the most hungry.
The most abundant food is provided by the wind, which shakes off a lot of insects from coastal trees and bushes. For the same reason, the trout, usually holding in the elbows, always swim on the surface in a thunderstorm. Only hail makes her go into the depths, lie down on the bottom and stay out of her refuge for several hours after the hail of clouds passes. For trout, more than for any other fish, it is necessary that the river does not flow in bare banks, especially since the trees provide them with much-needed shadow and coolness.
In strong heat, if the water heats up above 15 °, all the trout are kept near the keys, fontanelles and at the mouths of small streams or are killed under the roots, stones, in holes, coming to some kind of stupor. At this time, it is not difficult to catch them with their hands, like a burbot and so forth. Fish, they even say that she loves being petted with her hand, and makes no attempt to escape.
In this weather, the trout, apparently, does not eat anything: they say that it also does not ferment and does not feed on moonlit nights, but this still needs confirmation. In the Caucasian mountain streams flowing into the Black Sea, according to Glushanin, trout feeds mainly on some special kind of water grasshopper (?) Living in the water between the stones, the color of this grasshopper is dark gray, the hind legs are longer than the front ones runs pretty fast, but jumps pretty weak.
The Caucasian trout, apparently, very rarely eats fish. At least, no one catches her live bait here, although she takes excellently on the guts of birds and on various meats. In general, it eats almost all year round and can be counted among the most voracious and fast-growing fish with the fastest digestion. One of the idle French fish farmers calculated, it is not known by what method, that in order to reach the weight of one kilogram, the trout should eat 10 kg of small fish.
Meanwhile, it is authentically known that a trout, under favorable conditions, eats a quantity of food equal to 2/3 of its body weight per day. During spawning, minnows, trout eat them in such a large number that they seem to be stuffed with them. Jourdeuil says that they caught a minnow trout, a little more than a half pound, in the stomach of which 47 were found, some of which were already digested, minnows!
Recent studies by American fish farmers have shown, however, that trout grow most rapidly, feeding on flies, generally flying insects, rather than fish, in abundance. By the end of the summer, and in strong heat, when the water is heated, and in Petrovka, the trout, especially small ones, begin to gradually rise higher and higher along the river. In the tributaries of the Kuban, the beginning of the ascent, apparently, coincides with the grouping of trout in the beak in mid-August.
They lead social life here until the middle of October, i.e., probably before the end of spawning. During its rise, these strong fish easily overcome such obstacles and rapids that are completely beyond the strength of any other fish, except salmon and taimen. They jump up to 2 arshins, bent over in an arc and leaning their tails on a stone or some other solid object, trout in several tricks, choosing a place on the side, quieter, climbing up waterfalls up to 2 sazhen in height, with a fall of 45 °.
At the same time, they show amazing perseverance and, in the case of an unsuccessful attempt, renew it several times. At this time, they are so busy with their task that they lose their usual caution and are easy to catch with a simple net. Spawning time is different, depending on the latitude of the area, the absolute height above sea level and water temperature. In general, the north of the terrain and the colder the water, the spawning begins earlier, sometimes in the middle of September.
In Western Europe, it sometimes slows to winter, to the end of January, even (in France) to the end of February (new style). We have trout in the tributaries of the Kuban spawn b. h. in October, in Petersburg Province. t. n. Gatchina trout spawn from mid September to late October, while the Yamburg trout much later in December and to mid January (Liberich).
In the same specific area, all the trout, both small and large, spawn in the course of a month and a little, and each individual spawns in several stages over a period of 7-8 days or more. It has been observed that trout trophy mainly from sunset to perfect darkness, then in the morning before dawn, but not so vigorously. According to some observations, trout choose mainly moon nights for spawning.
Sexual maturity is achieved by trout usually upon reaching the age of 3 years, but very often two-year-old males contain mature milt, and the eggs of this age are found only under extremely favorable conditions of growth and nutrition. Recent studies have shown that pied paws spawn not every year, as they had previously thought, and a year later, apparently, single molesters are less common than unmarried ikryanik.
Single trout should not be mixed with barren, i.e. juvenile trout, which are distinguished by a greatly shortened body and small head. The number of caviar in trout is relatively insignificant, and only in very large specimens reaches several thousand. The common 2-pound, i.e., 4-5 years old, ikryanik contains up to 1000 eggs, 3-year-old - about 500, 2-year-old - 200.
In the mountain, low-feeding rivers, which are at a high altitude, there are trout, probably 3-year-old, 12 centimeters in length and with 80 eggs. During spawning and, it seems, before its occurrence, pied brushes largely lose their beauty, they get a dark, dirty-gray color, not excluding the abdomen, and red ’spots lose their brightness and even disappear from others.
The spawning itself takes place on shallows, sometimes so small that the backs of rubbing fishes are visible, but not at the storm itself, but where the current is weaker, that is, most of them closer to the shore. At the same time, trout choose rolling with a stony bottom, namely, studded with gravel - shingles from hazelnut to chicken eggs, they rarely spawn in large stones or limestone, also on a gravelly, and especially on a fine sandy bottom. The most complete information about fish burbot is -
This preference of gravel is determined by the very method of spawning, almost the same as that of salmon. The female with a tail and part of the pectoral fins digs a previously shallow oblong fossa, raking off the youngs, and with this turning, she clears the latter of dirt and algae harmful to caviar. In the rivers with limestone the work of the female consists only in this cleaning of grass and mold.
In the Izhora river, for example, trout spawning grounds are therefore recognizable by the large white spot, arshin 2, with a diameter that stands out sharply against a dark background. In places where there are no pebbles, it is also useful to dump several carriages of nudes on shallows in order to avoid long-distance raising of fish to places more convenient for spawning, thus arranging artificial spawns without spending money on various instruments, devices and devices for artificially producing caviar.
Although each female is followed by several males, generally more numerous, and at sites convenient for spawning, whole flocks of these fish are noticed, but fertilization is always performed with one miloshnik with the most mature sex products, and other males are distilled. As soon as the female folds several dozen eggs, as the male fertilizes them, after that the female floods the fossa, or rather, the rytvinka, naked, covering their eggs, thus protecting the latter from predators and from the danger of being carried by the current.
It is remarkable that at first the eggs firmly stick to the bottom and lose their stickiness after 30 minutes, i.e. when they are covered. Their size is very significant - with a small pea, which they resemble and color. However, trout with a reddish meat eggs are orange or reddish. Despite the fact that caviar is so well protected, most of it disappears fruitlessly.
It is mainly exterminated by the same fishes that diligently search for it, its most dangerous enemies are burbot and grayling, as well as trout themselves, mostly young, not yet mature, although spawning trout do not take any food at all (i.e., about a week) но еще не выметавшие или уже выметавшие икру рыбы также охотно подбирают икру других форелей, нередко разгребая гальку, ее прикрывающую.
Всего губительнее продолжительность срока развития икры, из которой молодь выклевывается не ранее как через 40 дней, а иногда через 2, даже 3 месяца. Кроме того, молодая форелька, обремененная громадным желточным мешком, который заменяет ей недостаток корма раннею весною, в течение 3-5 недель почти не двигается и избегает опасности только тем, что прячется между камнями.
The young leave their shelters, only having got a little stronger, it seems, in the middle or at the end of spring, it slides down to more stern and quieter places. Its food consists mainly of mosquitoes, small larvae falling into the water and then mayfly. Under favorable conditions, in late fall, trout grows to l-2 / 3-2 versca, and a year, that is, in the spring, 2-3 versca, sometimes five-tip two-year-old trout come across.
Nevertheless, the latter will never acquire our full citizenship right and will never be as necessary as abroad, primarily because trout and salmon are rare and are found in few localities, and secondly, because large fish in general less frightened and lives in strong places, where without clearing, getting married with a coil is unthinkable. Thirdly, because English-made good gear is expensive and difficult to get.
The bad ones can only strengthen the prejudice of the majority of Russian fishermen in their complete unsuitability and inexpediency. The main purpose of the coil is at the critical moment when the fishing line is close to breaking, to give the fish at least a few arshin - in most cases we have a flexible natural fishing rod, a hair line, which has, if it is fresh, at least ten times more stretch than non tarry, the more gummy silk fishing lines, exclusively used for cozying with the coil.
Moskvoretsky fishermen, perhaps the most skillful in Russia, catch on four hairs, for example, shereshperov, up to 8, even 10 pounds, i.e., that could tear off a low-stretchable one, on their improved Russian gear with excellent hair lines. silk fishing line that can withstand three times more dead weight.
Silk fishing lines, of course, are irreplaceable only with a coil, while getting along without it, they are good when they are very strong and not confused. For night fishing on the bottom with a short hook, it is well and properly twisted or woven, and therefore non-spinning hair line, undoubtedly, is more suitable than silk. Trout relative to growth is undoubtedly the strongest and most brisk of our freshwater fish, and therefore its production requires great skill and skill.
It can be positively said that the strength and caution of this fish, caution, depending, however, on the transparency of the waters inhabited by trout, served to the invention of the coil with the coil and in general to all the many improvements in the fishing sport. There is no doubt that large and even medium trout can not be caught on a fly and an insect except on a thin fishing line, which determines the coil, which makes it possible, with more or less resistance, to release a quantity of fishing line to the fish, sufficient for fatigue.
But even with other methods of fishing that require a bit more coarse and sturdy gear, the reel is also not useless. That is why, where the trout and salmon are ordinary fish, the coil, although sometimes in a very simplified form, is used not only by intelligent hunters-fishermen, but also commoners. Finnish people, for example, catch salmon, and sometimes trout, attaching a wooden reel to an integral (birch) rod with rings.
In Russia, in fact, it is also impossible to say that the reel was not at all known and was unconditionally rejected by simple anglers, since the blocks attached to the boat (on the Don) for catching large catfish are the same reel. Regardless of the high quality of the hair line we use, we have another, very ingenious, device that partly replaces the coil and is remarkable in its simplicity and expediency and still awaiting development - this is the vent, or rather, the veneer flyer, completely unknown in Western Europe.
Although this flyer is not yet used for fishing, but its principle has already been applied in moths - short winter udilnikah, when fishing under the ice in a plumb. As we saw, the fisherman, if he caught a large fish, gradually removes from the hooks of a moth a stock of fishing line wound by a figure eight. All known methods of fishing trout can be divided into three main types: 1) fishing for a worm, 2) fishing for fish and, finally, 3) fishing for insects.
Getting a worm is the easiest, the most handy and, in particular, the most common way. Depending on the circumstances, they catch with a float, but more often without it, since most of them have to be caught in small and fast places. Fishing for a worm, where the river does not freeze, can be done for almost a whole year, except for the spawning time, but it is most successful in the cold season, in spring and autumn.
In the summer, the trout takes the worm well only to muddy water, after the rains, but not at the time of the arrival of the water, but when it starts to clear and market. But before proceeding to the description of trout fishing on a worm, consider the gear, while used. The rod can be solid, natural or collapsible, but in any case it must be strong and flexible with a small weight (no more than a pound), since it is necessary to transfer the nozzle every minute.
Therefore, long rods try to avoid, using them only in the extreme, for example, when fishing in wider rivers, with open banks. In France, they usually fish for solid reed rods, from 5 to 9 arshin lengths that are glued with a very thin ribbon for greater strength and for the sake of protection from longitudinal cracks.
It is better, of course, if the fish hook, solid or folding, is provided with rings and a device for attaching the coil, but if there is no large trout in the area, then you can do without these improvements and complications. When it comes from trees and bushes, it is enough if the fishing rod is 3-4 arshin in length. In any case, it should not be liquid, and the whip-like fishing rods used to fly the same trout for fly fishing are not suitable here.
When fishing without a reel, the fishing line usually, for ease of casting, should not exceed the length of the rod much and can be hairy, but abroad only silk is used, mostly braided, very thin when fishing with a reel and rather thick when caught without it. To the fishing line is tied an ordinary way leash with a hook imposed on it.
This leash is made from a single vein, sometimes a thick selective one, the so-called. family ,. and where large trout are found and are caught without a coil, even out of three, it is better, sometimes it is even necessary that it be colored the color of water, that is, in blue-gray when it is transparent. The size of the hooks usually depends on the size of the fish and the nozzle, in this respect, as in the form of hooks, there is a great disagreement: some advise to use large (No. 00) Kirby hooks, and other medium (No. 5 and 6) Limerick without bend, recognized as the first unfit.
Recently, for trout fishing began to use tinned (or silver-plated), as well as bronze hooks, less noticeable in clear water than ordinary ones. In all likelihood, large hooks of all are most expedient when fishing for vypolzka, and medium - when fishing for dung-worm. Not so long ago in England they began to catch trout on the so-called. Stuart gear from 2 small hooks (No. 9-10), tied on one leash, a short distance from one another.
The leash from the Basque, in spite of the trout teeth, is completely unnecessary, since these teeth, by their size, cannot have a bite, or, rather, grind, the leash. The float, as has been said, is convenient only in deeper and quieter water or in whirlpools, under sluices. In any case, with caution trout and transparency of the water, it should not be large and painted in bright colors, it is better if it is a piece of cork with rounded corners or even reeds and sticks than a handsome selling float.
In all likelihood, the trout in the shallows can be caught with great success with a self-unloading float, as chubs (see below), or (especially in very rocky places where the hook will continually touch the hook without a float) with a very light float, almost without load (see . "Ide", catching the cork), so that the nozzle goes along the bottom far ahead of the float.
In ordinary fishing, the float becomes so that the nozzle, i.e. the worm, swims slightly higher than the bottom, in deep places where the trout keeps half of their heads, sometimes on the arshin from it. A load can be of different weights, depending on how you catch, and according to the depth of the water and the power of the current. When fishing with a float, it must, of course, correspond to the latter.
If fishing is done at shallow and fast places and, therefore, without a float, then, as it seems, it is most convenient to catch it with a small load on a sandy, cartilaginous or small stone bed and with a heavy cross-cutting (bullet or ordinary olive-shaped drilled sinker) when at the bottom there are large stones and generally hitting, not allowing catching with a moving nozzle. Worms for nozzles are selected depending on the area.
Sometimes a trout takes better at a small worm, sometimes at a large one, but in general it should be noted that on deaf rivers it is better to catch on an ordinary earthworm that lives right there in the banks and is well-known to fish, which here does not know red dung, and especially large worm (worm, worm, creep, bertyl, dew, earthworm), which is found mainly in gardens and vegetable gardens.
There are areas where no fish almost takes a slope. A worm is planted on hooks of a corresponding size, large at number 0 or 1-2, and simple earthen and dung - at 3-6 number №, lower the head, releasing a long tail, if the trout do not eat around the worm. In the latter case, it is more convenient to fit the worm on a Stuart gear of 2-3 small hooks. The worm is preferred to be peeled, that is, stale and with empty entrails, since it sits on a hook more tightly and the fish take it more readily.
In muddy water, however, according to many foreign authors, it is better to stick a fresh, unrefined, and more smelly worm, because it seems that the trout can smell it further. The sense of smell in fish is generally much more developed than it is commonly thought. In Russia, in Russia, most trout fish are harvested as a worm, and only a small part is harvested. In the Caucasus, it is in the tributaries of the Kuban, and almost throughout the Black Sea coast, the Cossacks catch trout mainly on chicken intestines (or various game), usually in muddy water, almost due to the lack of worms.
The intestines can probably serve as a good attachment in other places. In Western Europe, in some places, exactly where trout are fed (in trout ponds) with all sorts of things, these fish are made as omnivorous as carpia or barbel miron, and are excellent for potatoes, lard, etc. Last time in Germany and Belgium quickly spread one type of American trout, the so-called. iridescent (arc-en-ciel), which, excellently getting along in warm pond water, prefers plant food to worms and insects and is excellently caught on various grains.
The general rules for trout fishing on a worm are the same as for fishing. The main thing is to try to hide behind bushes or some kind of protection, in any case, avoid brightly colored suits and not become so that the shadow falls on the water, that is, with your back to the sun, and also not to knock and not make noise while walking along the shore. We must always keep in mind that every fish hears the sound of footsteps better through the shaking of the shore than the voice and other noise.
It is clear that when the water is very turbid, there is no need to hide, and in windy weather - to observe unconditional silence. Since the trout fish is shy and not schooling, then, having caught several pieces in one place, sometimes 2-3, it is necessary to move to another place, so this catch is almost the same chassis, as well as fishing with fly fishing: directions, if there were no bites, you need to go down the river.
They catch almost always from the shore, almost never from a boat and rarely from bridges, dams of sluices under which trout, however, love to hold and are the most numerous. It is always necessary to throw a nozzle a little above the place where the presence of fish is noticed or assumed. As a matter of fact, there are three ways of trout fishing on a worm: without a float with a light sinker, so that the nozzle drags along the bottom or floats close to it.
Without a float, lowering and lifting the nozzle, and with a float. The first method is used in shallows, the other two - in deeper and quieter water - in pits, under sluices and in beds in the river meanders. When fishing from the shore and in a shallow place, they throw the worm with a wave of the brush, holding the hook with the nozzle with the fingers of the left hand, a little higher than the place where they are standing, the plunge is done mostly by bushes (see “Chub”) and in small rivers or even in streams.
In the lakes at the worm (with a float) you should not catch trout, as for successful fishing it is necessary to throw it very far from the shore. As for the time of fishing, here in Russia, trout takes on a worm almost all year round, except for the spawning period and the opening of rivers. Abroad, on the contrary, the bite of a trout on a worm almost completely stops in the summer, and at that time it is caught only on a fly (natural or artificial).
Best of all, trout goes everywhere in a worm in April and May, then in late autumn after spawning. In Petersburg Province at the end of August, the trout gathers in fights, on rapids, and stops taking. In some places, the trout is well caught in the winter, from the ice-holes (in the pits), but its winter prune is little known and not very common. It seems to be better caught at night, with a lantern, in a plumb and from the bottom. In England, trout are caught in late autumn and in winter on salmon eggs, impaled on a small hook.
In early spring and late autumn, trout also takes better from the bottom and in deeper and quieter places, why it is more convenient to catch it with a float. As you would expect, the best time to catch trout in our worm is early morning before sunrise and twilight after sunset. Abroad and in the south in general, where summer twilight is very short, the evening tour is short and starts about two hours before sunset, just as the morning bite sometimes lasts until 10:00. afternoon
In the north of Russia in May and June, the trout seems to take all night except midnight. The weather and the condition of the water, as always, are very important when fishing for trout. The most successful is on cloudy, quiet days, as well as after the rains, but when the dregs are already beginning to pass. In general, you can only catch muddy water with a worm or a fish, and you should not go fishing for a fly on top. During heavy rain, when the water is very muddy, the trout keeps under the very shore, in the backwaters, and takes bad.
When hail comes, it falls into a stupor, gets hammered into holes and under stones, and it can be caught by hand. It is quite possible that this happens with her even with very strong thunderbolts, but I note by the way that during a thunderstorm it mostly floats on the surface, having an abundant harvest in insects blown down on the water. According to the observations of Western European fishermen, when the winds are dry and cold, the trout keeps on the bottom, while on wet and warm ones - on the surface.
Trout bite at a worm is transmitted differently, depending on the area and time of year. On shallows and bystrina, also where the trout is not scared and hungry, she grabs a worm right away, and drowns the float, and when fishing without it, gives the hand a pretty strong push, so it should be cut right away. With a more sluggish kleve, the hand is transmitted more or less sharply at first, then 2-3 blows and a pull follow, with the first push the rod must be pushed forward or lowered, hooked better without waiting for the pull, because the latter means that the trout has completely swallowed the worm.
When fishing on a Stuart gear, you need to hook it at the first bite. A well-fed and frightened trout, especially in river beds and in ponds, takes much more care than on the river, and grabs a nozzle from the side, often, especially with a heavy float, eating it around. Undercut then it is best as soon as the float falters. Hooking, when fishing on the float, should be quite energetic, while snoring without a float, especially on the bystrin, a small movement of the brush is enough, and with sharper hooking, you can also tear off a strong line.
It should not be forgotten that the trout is the strongest of our fish and that even a semi-pound pest has very strong resistance. Some believe that a semi-pound trout walks on a fishing rod as smartly as a 3-pound grayling, that is, six times as strong as fish is also not weak. Truncated trout rushes swiftly to the opposite side and jumps out of the water. These maneuvers are especially dangerous on the shallows, and therefore fishing even medium trout, about a pound, on the fast, without a coil, requires great skill and skill.
It is necessary to completely replace the coil with its feet, that is, to run after the fish, and sometimes even enter the water. Often, in addition, the caught trout is hammered under a stone or entangled in the grass, and then the trouble with it is even more. When fishing on a rocky bystrin, the hook, touching the stones, becomes dull very quickly, and therefore it is necessary to erode it from time to time and for this, take the smallest underfill (sentry) or cubes, in pencil width, from apse.
Fishing on salmon eggs is very mined and now seems to be prohibited in England. This method was most commonly used in Scotland. Stoddart (and von dem Borne in the extract) has a very detailed description of trout fishing for salmon caviar. Автор советует заготовлять лососевую икру заблаговременно и впрок (солить), вырезывая ее осенью из самок лососей незадолго до нереста и очищая от пленок.
Из раздавленной икры делается также нечто вроде теста, на которое форель идет очень хорошо, отчасти благодаря содержанию соли, которую очень любят все рыбы. Такая смесь вместе с тем служит превосходной притравой, на которую форель приходит с очень больших расстояний. Тесто это (величиною с конский боб) насаживается на небольшой крючок (№ 6-8), и так как оно плохо на нем держится, то закидывать его надо весьма осторожно.
Fish fishing - live, especially artificial, is widespread here, perhaps even less than fishing with insects. Besides, trout is not everywhere and takes on this nozzle. Small rarely predatory, and large trout are not found everywhere and are always rare. But where there are a lot of them, and there is little food, for example, in the Ropshinsky ponds, they take excellently even to pieces of fish.
Trout comes across an artificial or dead fish even more rarely and only if the bait is in a strong rotational or oscillatory motion, i.e., or in a very strong current, for example. under the locks, or when they throw it away from themselves at a depth and then attract to it with light jolts, i.e. the method called spinning described above (see "Salmon").
The fishing of a trout on an artificial metal fish from sluices is carried out in the same way as the fishing of a sheresper (see "Sheresper"). Therefore, I will add only that in most cases the trout comes across to an artificial fish in the spring and autumn (late and, moreover, to muddy water, or when it is completely dark, even at night). In addition, the trout takes only small artificial fish, no more than 2 inches, and moreover on the lungs better than on metal ones.
All the more greedy she grabs variegated silk fishes depicting minnows. According to the old Petersburg hunters, anglers, trout in the river. Izhore does not go to an artificial fish at all, whereas in r. Oredez takes great. The most successful fishing is for trout fishing on artificial fish in the vicinity of Imatra and Saima Lake, in the r. Boxing
It is best to take the trout here in the winter, after spawning, in December and January, and very many locals catch it. Their artificial fish is sewn from a motley calico cloth and has the appearance of a large worm a little longer than the tip, the hook (single) sticks out from the back third of the fish. Catching on it is always done on a boat, together, one throws, and the other rules the boat, which bystrin requires great skill.
In Geneva anglers, there is an original way of fishing, somewhat resembling the experience of Shereresper from the locks: they are caught from a bridge (probably at the headwaters of Rhone from Lake Geneva), having only a large block on which 300-400 meters are wound <т. е.="" до="" 560="" аршин)="" бечевки.="" насадку="" (искусственную="" рыбку="" или="" живца)="" спускают="" по="" течению,="" затем="" снова="" наматывают="" бечевку="" и="" т.="" д.="" по="" всей="" вероятности,="" ловят="" с="" поплавком.="" впрочем,="" женевские="" форели="" отличаются="" от="" обыкновенной="" ручьевой="" своей="" огромною="" величиною="" и="" другими="">т.>