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Animals listed in the Red Book in Crimea: their types and causes of extinction


First of all, the diversity and uniqueness of the fauna and flora of the peninsula is determined by geographic location. The small territory, about 27,000 km², is divided into three climatic zones: the mountain belt and subtropics on the southern coast, as well as the temperate continental steppe climate. These territories belong to the Black Sea basin and are located at the intersection of migratory routes of fauna representatives. Another interesting fact is that there are fifty saline lakes and two hundred and fifty-seven rivers in this area. Specialists have noticed that due to significant rates of genetic erosion in recent decades, some species of plants have been burned.

Red Book

On the peninsula there are a huge number of exceptional animals that are on the verge of extinction. It was decided to create a document on such inhabitants.

The Red Book applies an eight-point scale to determine the degree of rarity. The animals of the Crimea in the Red Book of Russia are a three-color and sharp-eared moth, an ordinary long-winged bird, a small and large horseshoe, a black-headed gull, a large curlew.

Peninsula fauna

It is known from history that ostriches and giraffes used to live on the peninsula before, and because of climate change, people noticed Arctic foxes and reindeer. In addition to animals, about two hundred species of fish inhabit the waters of the Crimea. Forty-six of them are in freshwater lakes and rivers, fourteen of which are aboriginal. The rest were brought to the peninsula and perfectly adapted there.

In Crimea, there are fourteen species of reptiles, with only one poisonous - a steppe viper, as well as six species of lizards. Among the turtles, only the marsh lives, which can be found in mountain reservoirs. About two hundred species of birds live here, living mainly in mountainous areas. Of these, seventeen species arrive for wintering. There are more than sixty species of mammals, they live in mountainous areas, as well as in nature reserves. There are foxes, badgers, martens on the peninsula, and predatory animals can also be found here. Hares and ferrets are found in forests and steppes. Wolves lived here, but at the beginning of the twentieth century, their populations became completely extinct. There are monk seals and three species of dolphins in the waters.

Rare animals of the Crimea listed in the Red Book

Among rare mammals, it is possible to distinguish the steppe ferret and common shrew, their number is decreasing at a rapid pace. And also protected wild sheep - mouflon. This is the only herd in all of eastern Europe. The lizard of the family Veretenitse or it is also called the yellow-willow, belongs to the protected species that are on the verge of extinction. The lizard has a large head and large eyelids. Yellowfish has a sandy yellow color with a dark pattern in the upper body. Rare animals of the Red Book of Crimea: Mediterranean gecko, golden eagle, bat-pygmy, monk seal belobryukhy.

Sea dwellers

Crimean bottlenose dolphins are also under protection. They are able to reach speeds of up to forty km / h and emerge from under the water to a height of five meters. The white-seal or monk seal is on the verge of extinction, only 600 representatives of this species are left on our planet. For the desire for solitude, as well as their short hair, they were called monks. These rare animals of the Crimea, listed in the Red Book, are rather awkward on land, but they feel great in the water. In search of food, seals can sail far from the coast and dive to a depth of five hundred meters. Animals reach a length of about two meters and weigh about three hundred pounds. Males are usually covered with thick black fur, and females are noticeably lighter. Because of the bright lower part of the body, the seal has received another name - white-bellied.

Steppe and mountain fox

In the Crimean mountains you can meet mountain foxes, and in the steppes - their subspecies are steppe. They feed mainly on hamsters, gophers, mice, and in rare cases even wild rabbits.

In starvation time, foxes eat lizards, insects and frogs. Due to the fact that these animals of the Red Book of Crimea are prone to rabies, tourists should be careful. Previously, they were vaccinated, but now this does not happen. Frequent meetings with these animals does not happen, because they are very careful and shy.

At first glance it may seem that this is a very small and peaceful animal, but even wolves are no match for the bloodthirstiness of affection. Nevertheless, she is often tamed, and she becomes a rather tender pet.

Weasel quickly make friends with other domestic inhabitants. In the house in which this animal lives, insects and rodents will never appear. However, in captivity, weasels barely live to the age of five.

This name is stone marten, in which the chest and throat is covered with white wool. Belodushka very mobile and voracious predator. However, stone marten can eat vegetarian food. In the summer and autumn seasons belovedki are animals listed in the Red Book, in the Crimea they eat pears, grapes, hawthorn. If it gets into the chicken coop, it will rather quickly strangle all the chickens.

The peaceful representative of the wildlife of the Crimea family Kunih. The badger brothers are considered sables, otters. These animals are very brave and energetic representatives of the fauna. Their burrows look like caves consisting of several floors, and can be as long as twenty meters. Each floor has its own purpose. This is a pretty neat animal, so the house is cleaned daily. The floor in the burrows is littered with fragrant weed, which changes twice a year. Constant expansion and improvement of the burrow. After a certain amount of time has passed, burrows turn into entire badger underground cities. These animals listed in the Red Book in the Crimea feed mainly on mushrooms, wild berries, acorns, as well as gophers, snails and mice. In addition, badgers love honey. These are peaceful animals, but if it comes to their brethren or dwelling, then they stand to the end.

This is a wild animal belonging to the artiodactyls, a genus of rams. Mouflon dwell on wooded mountain slopes, and in winter they go a little lower. Male individuals weigh about 50 kg, and female weighs 35 kg. Male representatives have horns. Mouflons are very careful animals and try to live away from people.

Wild boar

These animals lived in the Crimea since ancient times, but in the nineteenth century they were completely destroyed. Since 1957, one wild boar and thirty-four females from Primorsky Krai were brought from the Chernihiv region. In the future, the number of individuals increased significantly. Wild boar - the animal of the Red Book of Crimea, whose photo can be seen in the article, feeds on different roots, mushrooms, nuts or acorns. In rare cases, they can feed on insects, eggs of birds and rodents.

Crimean red deer

The deer is the largest animal on the peninsula. Its weight can reach 260 kg, and in height they grow up to 140 cm. In general, the life span of Crimean deer is 60–70 years. Horns are considered their main weapon. In Crimea, only hunters are considered enemies of deer. Thus, they use their horns during battles for the female, which, as a rule, take place in September. At the beginning of the twentieth century, deer - animals listed in the Red Book in the Crimea almost completely disappeared. Beginning in 1923, the ban on the shooting of deer came into effect. And in 1943 the number of individuals increased to two thousand.

There was a time when these animals lived in the steppes of the Crimea. Now deer live on the slopes of the Main mountain range, in addition, they can be found in the forests. When meeting people, the animal freezes for a few seconds, then finding that it was noticed, disappears into the forest thickets with great speed. Roes are like deer. These animals listed in the Red Book in the Crimea feed on tree buds, bark, and herbaceous plants. Male animals have horns that they fold at the beginning of the autumn period. In the spring, the horns grow back. Foxes and martens are considered enemies of roe deer. Animals have excellent hearing. As soon as they feel the danger, they immediately warn their fellows. Their cry is heard at a distance of three kilometers.

What animals are listed in the Red Book of Crimea?

  • Common shrew is considered one of the rarest species of mammals. Mostly lives in the mountain forest part of Crimea.
  • Steppe polecat is the representative of predators. These animals feed on small vertebrates as well as mouse-like rodents.
  • Bat leather-shaped leads mainly sedentary lifestyle. It feeds on small insects.
  • Badger common is active in twilight-night time. The length of the body is 60 to 90 cm, the tail is 20 cm long. The head is small, with powerful claws on its paws.
  • Small gopher lives in burrows, which reach almost two meters in depth, and their length is more than four meters. Distributed in wormwood and grass-feathering steppes.

The animals of the Crimea, listed in the Red Book of Russia, are gigantic greyhound, gray shrike, eagle-owl, small tern, chegrava, steppe jerk.

Gray Crane is protected by law, hunting is prohibited everywhere. On the peninsula, the animal lives exclusively in swampy meadows and reed beds. The pink starling is also listed in the Red Book. He lives on Mount Opuk. Korolek redhead, common in the mountainous regions of the Crimea. The eagle owl is a rare bird in Crimea. It is active, as a rule, at night, it hunts small animals and vertebrates.

The Crimean peninsula is a small universe, which combines a diverse climate, unique nature and diverse flora and fauna. The Red Book contains animals that need protection, as well as endangered species. In 2015, the first edition was published. The first volume describes the animal world. Here are some of the names of animals listed in the Red Book of Crimea: steppe polecat, common common shrew, badger ordinary, leather-eared bat, small gopher. The second volume is devoted to plants, mushrooms and algae. In total, four hundred and five species of plants and fungi are included, as well as three hundred and seventy animal species. The Red Book is considered an official document containing information about wild animals, plants and mushrooms that constantly or temporarily live (grow) on the territory of the Crimean peninsula.

Work on the Red Book

This process became possible due to the integration of Crimea to Russia, where Red Books were created for each region. Although the list with the names of rare and endangered animals has already been compiled, a lot of work remains to be done. It is necessary to monitor the number of individuals of rare species and determine their habitats.

Animals listed in the Red Book in the Crimea will be designated by a special eight-point scale, which determines the degree of rarity. The smaller the number - the less common this or that species in nature. As it turned out, from the entire list of applicants there is not one with a mark above five. The first position was taken by the beluga as an almost extinct species. In total, it is planned to include 893 representatives of the fauna in the Red Book.

Today on the Crimean peninsula, the protection of wildlife has increased in accordance with the legal field of Russia. Administrative, and sometimes criminal, liability threatens not only in cases where animals listed in the Red Book in the Crimea are destroyed, but also when they are kept in captivity.

Limiting factors

The characteristics of the flora and fauna on the Crimea peninsula are determined by its geographical location. Vast territories adjacent to the Black Sea basin are located almost at the intersection of migration routes of various representatives of flora and fauna.

According to the observations of scientists, very high rates of genetic erosion are observed in the Crimea, due to which several plant species have disappeared in recent decades. In addition, the rare animals of the Crimea, listed in the Red Book, suffer from anxiety, environmental pollution and human activities.

Protected animals of Crimea

Rare mammals, inhabitants of the Crimea, are the common shrew, a steppe pole ferret, whose numbers are rapidly decreasing. Under constant protection are mouflon - wild sheep from the horned family. In the whole of Eastern Europe, the only herd of these beautiful animals remained and it was formed in the Crimea from livestock, which was kept in the Chuchel'e menagerie, which once belonged to the royal family.

An amazing lizard, belonging to the family of the worms, with the unusual name Yellowfoot, also belongs to the endangered species. Because of the resemblance to the snake, she often loses her life. Although, if you look closely, except for missing legs, these reptiles have nothing in common. Zheltopuzik has a large head and quite noticeable eyelids. Its color is yellowish-sandy with a bright dark pattern in the upper part of the body. Like all other animals of the Crimea listed in the Red Book (photos can be found in this article), this lizard is strictly protected by law.

Birds under protection

In the list of legally protected birds is a gray crane. Hunting is banned everywhere today. In Crimea, this bird lives mainly in swampy meadows, reed beds and lakes.

The owl is a very rare bird on the peninsula. Active life leads at night, feeding on small vertebrates and animals.

The pink starling is also listed in the Red Book. Only one place of its nesting in Crimea is known - it is the mountain Opuk.

Today it is under protection and the red-headed beetle inhabiting the mountainous regions of the peninsula.

In many countries, the list of animals listed in the Red Book is growing from year to year. In Crimea, the adoption of measures to preserve the population of rare and endangered species today is of particular importance for Russia.

On land and in water

Almost 400 species of animals are listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Crimea. Of these, more than fifty are under threat of extinction, 16 subspecies are recognized as almost extinct.

List of some animals from the Red Book of Crimea:

Steppe trotter - endangered group.

He lives on plains, forest plantations and even in small towns. It feeds on small rodents. Females are fertilized in spring, giving birth at the age of 10 to 16 puppies at a time. At the end of the summer, puppies leave their mothers, live alone, and by next year become mature individuals. No special protection measures are proposed. The population size depends on the number of rats that are the main food.

Afalina is a shrinking species.

In Crimea, lives in the Black Sea and the Kerch Strait. It feeds on fish, lives on average for 20 to 30 years; they become sexually mature at the age of 7, bring progeny once every 3 years. Suffers from illegal catching for commercial dolphinariums, dies from collisions with vessels. In captivity breeds, but the offspring gives a weak, not capable of full reproduction. As a measure of conservation, the reduction is called, and subsequently - the closure of dolphinariums.

Small gopher - a steppe group diminishing in numbers.

Lives in colonies in the steppes and semi-deserts. Digs long, with moves, burrows. It feeds mainly on cereals. In the cold season for 3-4 months hibernates. Upon leaving the hibernation begin the cycle of reproduction, in the litter from five to ten cubs. At the beginning of summer, they come out of their burrows, and other groups of animals settle in the burrows, including those listed in the Red Book in the Crimea, which makes gophers an ecologically valuable ecological species. A threat to them is plowing up steppes and predators.

The large jerboa is a threatened species.

It prefers meadows and dry shores of water bodies. He lives in burrows, equipping nesting chamber. In winter, hibernates. It feeds on bulbs, seeds, leaves and insects. A threat to them is the plowing of meadows, grazing. It also suffers from predators: gulls, owls, ferrets.

A complete list of which animals are listed in the Red Book of Crimea can be found in the publication itself, in print or electronic form.

The birds listed in the Red Book in the Republic of Crimea are striking in their diversity. Let's look at some of them:

The color of this bird is actually pink, with the exception of a small crest, wings and tail — they are black with a metallic sheen. This is a rare subspecies. To places of nesting arrives in May. Over the past 30 years, the number of incoming birds has decreased by three times. Builds nests in shelters - rock crevices, under slate roofs. Откладывает около 5 яиц, которые высиживают оба родителя. Через месяц после рождения птенцы уже хорошо летают. Питается скворец, в основном, насекомыми, летом в рацион добавляются сочные плоды.

Находится под угрозой исчезновения. Гнездится у моря или солёных озёр, на удалении от воды, колониями. В семидесятых годах прошлого века была обычной птицей, сейчас встречается крайне редко. Arrives in early May, uses a small hole in the ground as a nest, laying up to 5 eggs. Hatch parents together, flying away in the afternoon for feeding. Other birds of the colony look after the nest left for this time. At the beginning of September tirkushki with young growth fly to Africa for wintering.

Yellow Heron - a rare subspecies.

It nests on the banks of brackish and freshwater reservoirs, next to other bird colonies. Arrives in April, laying makes in early May. By July the youngsters are already flying away from the colony. Adult birds fly away by the end of September. It feeds on insects, amphibians and small fish in shallow water.

Many species of migratory birds in recent years have reduced their numbers and those that are listed in the Red Book are under state protection.

Representatives of insects require no less protection. Let's look at some of them:

Crimean ground beetle (another name “Ground beetle rough”) is a rare subspecies.

He lives on rocky slopes, in gardens, vineyards, parks and forests. This is a predator eating snails, insects and their larvae. It reproduces from the beginning of April to the end of September. The life span is three years, the larvae of different ages winter. There are noticeable fluctuations in numbers.

Bumblebee flywheel - a subspecies that is endangered.

It occurs alone, rarely. It prefers shores and water meadows. Nests do on the ground, under last year's foliage or moss. Active from late spring to late summer. It feeds on pollen and nectar of the legume family. The burning of dry grass and the depletion of feeding places are recognized as a threat.

Swallowtail - a rare species. Large, beautiful butterfly.

The wingspan reaches 10 cm. It lives in steppes, but flies over long distances, flying into villages on vegetable gardens and laying eggs there. Males dance mating dances before mating. The female lays 1 to 3 eggs. Caterpillars feed on an umbrella, preferring their flowers. Develop within a month, then make a pupa. The threat of the population is plowing steppes, uncontrolled grazing.

All these and many other animals of the Crimea listed in the Red Book are under the protection of the law of the Russian Federation.

Its representatives play an invaluable role in the development of the planet. The state cares about the conservation of useful species. Endangered plants of the Crimea, listed in the Red Book - rare plants, they are also listed in the CC of Russia and Ukraine.

The introduction of the publication gives a story about the nature of the peninsula with colorful photographs and illustrations of landscapes. A list of regulations. The descriptions themselves include the following sections:

  1. species name in Russian and Latin languages ​​with synonyms,
  2. photo or illustration
  3. taxon status
  4. area of ​​growth and cartogram with designation of places of growth in the territory of the Crimean Republic,
  5. morphological and biological features,
  6. possible threats and accepted methods of protection,
  7. references to sources of information and authors of illustrations and photographs.

Nearly 300 species of vascular, about 40 bryophytes, a little less than 20 algae and 55 lichens and fungi are under the protection of the law. The plants of the Red Book express a loud call for the protection of not only rare subspecies that are included in the KK list, but also all other equally important species growing on the peninsula.

Crocus Crimean. In addition to the peninsula, is found in Novorossiysk

On the peninsula, depending on the distance from the coast, there are different types of forests.
In the foothills, this is a forest-steppe consisting of juniper, pear, oaks, wild rose and other trees. Oaks appear to the south - these are light and not dense forests. Higher in the mountains, they change to beech (trees over two hundred years). It is very twilight, the grass under the crowns does not grow. The higher, the more gnarled and undersized trees become. Closer to the sea are pine and beech forests. Further south, a mixed forest appears, consisting of oak, pistachio, juniper and other drought-resistant plants.

For example, the Crimean juniper is a shrinking species. It is an evergreen tree up to 15 meters high. Prefers steep southern slopes, wind-pollinated, propagated by seeds. The threat is construction, quarrying, forest fires. Protected in reserves.

Juniper grows in the Crimea in many places, but everywhere it is few

These representatives of the flora are represented in an incredible number of species. Many of them are endangered. Here are some of them:

    Mountain violet, another name Crimean violet,

fragrant tulip

tuberous geranium,

brown cornflower.

And many others. All of them need protection and law protection.

The publication is widely represented mushroom kingdom. These are various subspecies of amanitas, champignons, also boletus mushrooms, oyster mushrooms and truffles. These organisms play a large role in the ecological system of the region. Therefore, they are protected by the state.

Floccularia yellow green


Summing up, we can say that the publication “The Red Book of the Republic of Crimea. Animals and Plants. ”Was published on time. This work plays a big, positive role in protecting the environment. All plants and animals of the Red Book of Crimea are included in the CC of Russia. The whole world should strive to preserve the natural wealth of the Crimea, so as not to lose the beauty and uniqueness of the region, stored by generations.

Juniper high

Summer on the southern coast of Crimea is always associated with the rustling of the waves, dry hot air, the chatter of cicadas and the scent of pine needles spilled throughout the district. What not to say - aromatherapy in the flesh! The usefulness of phytoncides, which produce plants, has long been proven, and on the peninsula grows many plants, the storehouse of these healing particles. Among them, of course, juniper is high.

It is a drought-resistant, thermophilic species that appeared on the planet more than 50 million years ago. This relic! The juniper does not aspire to heavenly heights - usually it does not exceed 15 meters in height, the crown is round, with needles of blue-green color and a scattering of small pine cones.

In the Middle Ages, the inhabitants of the peninsula used juniper wood during construction, as it is extremely resistant to decay and is relatively simple in processing.
Modernity has prepared for the beautiful, fragrant wood severe tests. A rare tourist did not come across an abundance of souvenirs made from juniper wood. Combs, chopping boards, hot coasters, decorative figures, napkin holders - souvenir stalls burst with such memorable gifts, and juniper is cut down for the sake of demand ...

Today thickets of relict plants are protected from the encroachments of "poachers", and without juniper Red Book of Crimea does not cost. Eog status in it - "view, reducing in number." The area of ​​its distribution is the Southern coast of Crimea and the Main ridge of the Crimean Mountains.

Yew berry

Another relic of the preglacial period is the berry yew, which grows today mainly in the mountainous part of the peninsula. So, on the slope of the mountain Chatyr-Dag, known for its equipped caves (Marble and Emine-Bair-Khosar), there is the so-called Yew gorge. This narrow rock cleft was completely overgrown with old yews, mixed with young trees. And on the path leading to the famous Ai-Petri teeth, you can meet a kind of Methuselah in the world of yews. Despite the squat look and low growth, according to botanists, the age of this tree is more than 1200 years old!

Yew can take both tree and shrub forms. Its height is rarely more than 10 meters. The leaves are narrow, fairly dense, have a noble shine. At first glance, you can confuse them with wide needles. Cones are hidden in reddish prisemyaniki, appetizing berries like. However, trying them out is a very bad idea.

Yew berry poisonous. The flesh of the berries is dangerous, the needles and bark are poisonous. Here and prussic acid, and alkaloids, causing choking and heart attack. However, this feature of the yew did not interfere with its widespread fishing. Beautiful wood of a red color was valued in shipbuilding, yew beams strengthened the foundations of houses, made excellent bows out of it. They say that some kings had whole “sets” of yew goblets in their bins, in which they presented their drink to objectionable interlocutors. We remember that the yew is poisonous, and the wine poured into such a cup "with a secret", during the meal itself turned into poison, elegantly solving the problem of the person in power who treated him.

The yew was listed in the Red Book then by the USSR in 1971, and today it “migrated” to the Red Book of Crimea with the status “rare species”.

Folded snowdrop

Plants of the Red Book of Crimea would not be complete without a snowdrop. This "resident" needs no introduction. It has long been no secret, and the situation that has developed around a delicate, beautiful flower, bravely making its way through the thickness of snow, barely springs to come in spring ...

Already in early February, crowds of “hunters” rush to the foothill meadows or into the broad-leaf wet forests of the South Coast, sweeping snow-white carpets of flowers under the net and subsequently realizing them as touching bouquets. The struggle of environmentalists with sellers of the red book type has been conducted, it seems, from the beginning of time, but, as they say, it is still there. The main problem lies not so much in the fact of collecting snowdrops for sale, as in the ineptitude thereof. Often, mountain-pickers damage bulbs, thereby, in effect, destroying this perennial plant.

Folded snowdrop is marked as a kind of “dwindling”, and current generations may well be the last ones who have the opportunity in spring to admire fragile flowers growing in the snow of mountain fields.

Chamber of crimean

The Crimean lumbago or sleep-grass is considered to be a misfortune of the hero of the previous section. Although, unlike the folded snowdrop, the chamber “climbed” higher into the mountains, rarely growing below the middle belt of the Mountain Crimea, hapless florists also go to his soul.

The chamber of flowers blooms in February and May, forming the most beautiful "bunches" of lilac "bluebells", gazing up bright yellow midpoint. The flowers rest on funny, fleshy shoots covered with silvery fluff. Well, how not to break such a handsome man?

However, as we have already noted, sleep-grass mainly pleases the eye of backpackers, because it grows on the ridges and tops of the Crimean mountains, where, fortunately, spontaneous collectors do not always get. However, the dream-grass, nevertheless, is listed in the Red Book of Crimea as a rare species.

Thin-leaved peony

Like the Crimean chamber, the thin-leaf peony (a relative of a decorative flower, a frequent component of gift bouquets) grows in the mountains. Bright maroon flashes of flowers, drowning in the emerald green of fluffy leaves, resembling dill thickets, invariably attract the attention of hikers who went for a walk in the mountains on the May holidays.

There are areas of peony growth in the steppe, where, unfortunately, it is destroyed (cattle grazing, plowing fields). Tear him and the memorable bouquets, because of the high decoration.

You can meet a thin-leaved peony in the Crimean Natural, Karadag and Yalta reserves, on Cape Tarkhankut.

Entered in the Red Book as a “shrinking species”.

Small strawberry

If you happen to be in the smallest nature reserve of the Crimea, which is on Cape Martian, then you will certainly become acquainted with another relic of the peninsula - small strawberry strawberry. This is a beautiful, evergreen multi-stemmed tree with strong branches and glossy foliage. The bark is thin, smooth, to the touch resembling an expensive fabric with a deep dark coral shade. In the summer, however, begins a kind of "molt" of the tree. The bark comes off, folding, like the old parchment, exposing the light green layer of the young bark. It seems like a tree took off clothes and stands naked.

Because of this property, strawberry is popularly called “shameless”. In these days of "nudism" the fruits are ripening - small, wrinkled berries of orange, mother-like strawberries. By the way, these berries are quite edible, but they don’t carry much gastronomic value, therefore they gained popularity only among birds. The latter, eating berries, contribute to the spread of strawberries.

The conservation status of strawberry small-fruited is a “rare species”. One of the main threats is the destruction of growing places, which is not surprising. The tree, to its misfortune, chose the house as a house, from the point of view of developers, resort pieces of fertile Crimean land ...

Pistachio stupid

Together with juniper high, yew berry and small-fruited strawberry, pistachio stupid is considered a guest from the distant preglacial past of our peninsula. The area of ​​distribution of this tertiary relic of the Mediterranean extends from the Balkans to Central Asia. Pistachio also feels comfortable in the Crimea.

This deciduous, often multi-stemmed tree does not climb above 400 meters above sea level, and stretches no higher than 10 meters. Often has a shrub form. The leaves have an elliptical shape, with blunt tips (hence the name). The flowers are collected in racemes resembling motley panicles.

Pistachio stupid without problems survives on dry stony soils, it is resistant to heat and lack of water. The most powerful root system of the tree allows it to extract water from the bowels of the earth, even in the most unfavorable growing areas.

The tree easily reaches its venerable age - 4-5 centuries for pistachios is not the limit. Near 900-year-old living specimens are found near the medieval Crimean settlements, and, most likely, planted by man.

The tree was valued for its heavy, dense wood and turpentine (liquid resin) saturated with essential oils. The resin was often used in the then medicine. She was a member of various healing and antirhematoid ointments, chewing gum, firming gums and teeth. The healing properties of pistachio gum were known to Avicenna, and modern pharmacy uses this raw material in the manufacture of medicines for wounds, burns, bedsores.

The fruits of this species are inedible, but the pistachio pistachio itself is used as a stock for the cultural pistachio, whose “nuts” are widely used in the food industry.

Red Book of the Republic of Crimea includes 405 species of plants, algae and fungi, and in the next article we will continue our acquaintance with the most remarkable representatives of the Red Book of the Crimean flora.