The decrease in temperature and the absence of the usual food makes the birds leave their usual places of life in winter, for this reason many species of birds are migratory.
The list of such birds is huge, but one must clearly know which ones are migratory birds, which can be called conditionally migratory, and which are always sedentary.
Pictures with names for children, which depict birds flying away to the south in winter, most often represent cranes. But a huge number of birds leaves the habitat, except for these birds, and they do not immediately, but each species at a certain time.
Some migratory birds: pictures with names and an indication of the sequence of flights to the south
Before all leave the place of residence of the bird, whose food - only insects. This is logical, because it is insects that begin to hide or die with the onset of cold weather.
Migratory Wagtail, photo
Behind them, feathers rush to the southern edges, the food of which is flowers, seeds, fruits. They do it somewhat later than the insectivorous; this is understandable: fruits and seeds are available for food for a very long time, until it is completely cold and there is no solid snow cover on the ground.
Among the birds that feed on plant or “live” food on land, conditional migration can also be observed. For example, these are jays and waxwings: the more south they live, the less often they leave their habitat in winter.
Famous migratory birds: pictures, names, main wintering sites
Common cuckoo. From Central Asia and Siberia, these birds rush into the southern part of the Sahara in Africa. From England and northern Europe, the cuckoos fly to southern Africa, even reaching South Africa.
Starlings Russian, Ukrainian and Scandinavian fly to the south of Europe. Sometimes they cause great inconvenience to residents of southern European countries in the winter. For example, in Italy in the winter months they are so noisy that they block the hum of transport in cities.
If speak about cranestheir flight range is very wide. The Caucasus, the Nile Valley, the north and west of India, Iraq - these are not all wintering places for cranes.
Nightingales almost all of them fly to Africa for the winter, mostly to western, but they try to stop in countries south of the equator.
Swan - the largest feathery living on the water, and the largest migratory bird. In winter, Russian swans fly to the Mediterranean and Caspian seas, to the south of the Asian coasts.
Swallowand all their varieties are migratory. From the West, they fly to spend the winter in sub-Saharan Africa, the eastern - in China and the zones adjacent to the Himalayas.
The rooksinhabiting virtually all of Eurasia from Scandinavia to the Pacific coast, fly in the winter is relatively close. Russian rooks rush to Turkey, from Europe - to Italy and France, the Volga region - mainly to Kazakhstan.
Watch the video about migratory birds.
Famous migratory birds. Names for children of different ages
So, only those that migrate to warm countries for the winter period should be referred to migratory birds. The fact is that these creatures are warm-blooded (41 degrees - the average temperature of their body). Therefore, they can freely maintain active positions in winter. But the problem is that not all of them are able to get food in the cold season, because the cover of the earth's surface freezes, and the sky inhabitants need to eat a lot, because the energy they spend is much higher than the level allowed in the warm season. This is the reason for the farewell to the Motherland and the flight to countries with warm climates.
Representatives of the considered group include: swallow, lapwing, song thrush, lark, robin, oriole, forest horse, redstart, black-headed warbler, and many others. In addition to migratory birds, there are also settled (it remains to winter in their native lands) and nomadic (make a flight depending on the severity of the season) inhabitants of the sky. Below will be described and presented photos of migratory birds with names for children.
In what order do the birds fly away?
It should be noted that the birds leave their homelands gradually. In society, it was found that migratory birds (the names for children are presented below), which feed on insects (insectivorous), are the very first to open wings. It is important to note that such creatures tend to sing very well.
In the course of many years of research, it was noted that migratory birds (see the names for children, see the list of birds below), such as Swift and Swallow, become the initial link in the opening of the farewell season with native edges. Then waterfowl (for example, swans) fly to southern countries. And this is not surprising, because all water bodies, without exception, are covered with ice cover immediately after the negative temperature indicators become relevant. The next is a crane flying away (this happens at the beginning of the first autumn month), followed by a rook.
The final link in this list are geese and ducks (the latter leave the edges later than others). There are many cases when ducks chose not to fly to southern countries, but to stay in their native places. But this phenomenon occurs only in the case of the exclusion of the freezing of their dwelling, pond. Therefore, it has become popular among people that ducks carry frosts and winter on their tails.
The principal differences between migratory and wandering birds
Migratory birds (names for children (medium group): rook, swan, duck, nightingale, lark and others) are considered in great detail. It remains only to draw a line of differences between them and wandering living creatures. So, migratory birds in any case prefer to leave their homeland with the onset of cold weather, regardless of different circumstances. They have a flight at the gene level, so it’s impossible to contradict nature in this case.
Migratory birds (names for children) are wood grouse, pika, woodpecker, hazel grouse, black grouse, spike, jay, titmouse and many others.
Nomadic birds themselves determine whether they will fly to southern countries or not. This decision depends on the weather conditions in the native lands. If the winter promises to be warm, then the jackdaws, sisces, shuras, bullfinches, nuthatches and other representatives of the group in question will be happy to spend the winter in the homeland. And if they feel the severity of the approaching time of the year, they will undoubtedly fly away to warm lands (for example, the sparrow will most likely remain on its territory if its place of residence is the European part of Russia, in the case of Central Asia it will fly to distant India) .
The flight principles of the birds in question
Thanks to the development of science, a considerable amount of information on the flight of birds has been collected. In this section, you should find out how birds are oriented and how flocks are formed during the flight.
For absolute navigation of the creatures in question during long-haul flights, the magnetic field of the earth is guided. That is, the starling can return from the southern countries to its homeland only due to the awareness of the direction of the north magnetic pole, in addition, it is able to freely determine its location, as well as the direction needed to return.
The formation of the pack takes place in a very interesting way, since the dynamics of its light and dark elements play a central role in this process. The fact is that the birds thus maintain a certain level of density, which is necessary to collect the necessary information from their neighbors through signs and actions developed at the gene level.
Migratory birds. Names for children. Rook as the most famous inhabitant of the sky of this group
Of the huge number of migratory birds, the rook occupies a special place. That is why the people call him the herald of winter. This inhabitant of the sky arrives by mid-March, and they leave their homelands only in late autumn (late October or early November).
An interesting feature of rooks is the ability to imitate a person’s speech, and this is one of the reasons why he is so revered in society. The length of an adult bird is about 45 centimeters, but your weight varies from 310 to 490 grams. Visually, the rook resembles a crow, but its difference is in the relative slimness and surface of the feathers, which is endowed not only with a black color, but also with a purple tint.
The bird's beak is very thin, but straight. Such a device allows him to easily get food from all sorts of places (for example, they can easily afford to get food from the ground). In feeding, the rooks are completely picky, they eat earthworms, rodents, and so on.
As for the benefits to society, which bring the birds in question, it is undoubtedly great, because the rooks are active eaters of pests of the flora. Among such caterpillars, bugs, rodents and others. And this is another reason why people are crazy about rooks.
Swallow as one of the most common migratory birds
Most likely, in the absence of evidence, no one would have thought that such a small and fragile bird is capable of covering great distances. But this is true, in addition, the swallow process performs this process twice a year. Although it should be noted that the flight represents a great danger for her, that is why the swallow often does not reach the destination (the whole flock may die). As a rule, this situation happens in adverse weather conditions.
The bird in question looks truly flawless, because its elongated wings and a clear tail cut do their job. It is important to note that the swallow is a perfect inhabitant of the sky, because this bird is rarely seen on the ground. It is interesting that during the flight she can sleep, eat and even mate.
The species diversity of the swallows is very wide: there are about 120 species in nature. These inhabitants of the sky quickly get used to the new conditions, which is why they can be found everywhere except in Australia and Antarctica. Swallows feed exclusively on insects, taking them out of the ground or finding them in the bark of trees.
Nightingale and the nature of his life
As can be seen from the article, all migratory birds (names for children can be found in the process of reading) have fundamental differences. The last candidate for consideration is the nightingale, popularly known as a great singer.
Why does a nightingale sing? The fact is that directly during this process the bird completely forgets about all the dangers threatening it. She just drops her wings down and enjoys her art (great if a person could get a similar result from singing!).
In winter, this sky dweller flies in the direction of North Africa, and returns in the spring. As a rule, in the middle of April it is already possible to watch the nightingale, because it is at this time that the first insects appear - and the bird can fully eat. The nightingale weighs quite a bit, only 25 grams, and its color is very dark with a brownish-gray tint. That is why the bird looks miniature, and it is not even believed that it is capable of carrying out long-distance flights.
Who stays with us?
Many birds do not fly anywhere and remain with us to winter. These include those that, apart from insects, can peck seeds, grains, berries and bread crumbs. Among such hibernating birds are the well-known sparrows and magpies, pigeons and crows, bullfinches and tits.
In the winter in the forest you can hear how hard the woodpecker knocks on the trunk. He is not afraid of cold weather, but he gets food in the form of larvae and insects harmful to the tree from under the bark. In addition to being a nurse of the forest, he also does a good deed for other birds and small animals, hollowing hollows - houses in which new tenants later settle.
The wood-grouse does not leave its land, because he has a lot of food in the winter forest - he eats pine needles.
Black grouse and hazel grouses, for which the food is juniper berries and buds, as well as alder earrings, will not be left hungry.
Did you know?! Klest not only feels good in the winter, feeding on fir cones from the cones. He still manages to nest himself in the cold and raise offspring.
No matter how the wintering birds are adapted for the winter, our and you task is to help them survive the cold season. Arrange dining for birds can be using the feeders. If you pour grain and bread crumbs there every day, the birds will get used to the place of feeding and will delight you with their appearance, arriving for lunch.
There is even a special day in the year, when when the feeder or birdhouse must be hung necessarily. After all, on this day all the birds celebrate their holiday. When exactly is it celebrated? Find out about it here.
This is how you can briefly and interestingly tell about feathered friends. And I propose to finish the project with a poem in the topic:
Feed the birds in winter.
Let from all
They will fly to you like home
Flocks on the porch.
Teach the birds in the cold
That did not have to without songs
We meet the spring.
At this I say goodbye to the wishes of new discoveries.
Russian migratory birds
Non-migratory birds are a large group that includes subgroups of nomadic and sedentary animals. All of them do not leave the country in winter. For better feeding, only nomadic birds can fly over short distances. But this is not a seasonal change of residence, but only a temporary relocation. In Russia, tits, nuthatches, jays, bullfinches, sisces, waxwing, crosshairs, etc., are referred to the migrating unplayed migrants.
Sedentary birds are more interesting, since they almost never fly from their habitable place in their lives. Of course, such representatives are rare in the northern or temperate zones, as it is difficult to get food there. Most often they live in a tropical or subtropical climate.
Russia is grouse, wood grouse, black grouse, some species of forty. Many of them may also be migratory (depending on climate). So, the gray crow, living mainly in the north of Russia, flies to the south in winter. But in some southern countries, it is a sedentary bird and does not fly anywhere. The same can be said about the blackbird that leaves Russia for the winter, and in Western Europe it is among the migratory birds. Russia’s sparrow can be called the “true patriot” of Russia: it never leaves the country’s borders. But his brothers, who inhabit Central Asia, fly for the winter to India. They never leave their place of residence of the bird owl unit (syeks, owls, owls, tawny owls).
The migratory birds of Russia in the summer make food stocks for the winter. For example, tits hide collected insects and seeds in the bark of trees and in lichens. These stocks will help to survive in the cold season and not think about the flight.
Since the end of winter, non-migratory birds are preparing for breeding and often forget about food, so they lose weight during the mating season. All spring, as well as the beginning of summer, non-migratory birds build new nests, hatch eggs and feed hatched chicks. Such hard work affects the diet of "young parents", and they again lose weight. Therefore, from mid-summer and all autumn, sedentary birds feed on food and collect supplies for the winter. An exception is the crossbill: its food is the seeds of spruce and pine, which are no longer in the end of summer. Therefore, this representative of the non-migratory birds of Russia by the fall loses mass and begins to eat their harvested reserves, and in the winter enjoys fresh food.
Thus, the “air patriots” of our country never leave its borders and are engaged all year round in collecting food and raising a new generation.
In search of heat
Birds are considered the most mobile creatures in the world. This is due to the peculiarities of the structure of their body, in particular, the presence of wings. Of course, the statement about mobility does not apply to all species of birds. (Remember the penguins and poultry).
All birds are divided into two broad categories: sedentary and migratory. Species belonging to the first group do not need to migrate, because they live year-round in comfortable conditions for themselves. We are talking about warm countries where food and heat sources are abundant.
Another thing is the inhabitants of countries whose climate is favorable for birds for only a few months. Among them is our country. That is why, from year to year, we observe how, with the onset of autumn, birds gather in flocks and leave their homes. To return with the first warmth, marking the onset of the long-awaited spring.
Migratory birds live in two countries. To this they are forced to find a comfortable place for wintering. Depending on the species, birds migrate at different times. So, before all, namely, in August, nightingales, swifts, orioles leave their homeland. Waterfowl (ducks and swans) fly away only after the onset of the first frost.
The full list of names of migratory birds, whose birthplace is our country, is very wide.
Among them are urban:
- wild ducks,
- the orioles
- mountain ash and others.
It is noteworthy that during the wintering, all traveling birds are waiting for their return home without creating families. And only at home they form pairs and acquire offspring.
Migratory and nomadic
There are fundamental differences between migratory and migratory species. The first group, without fail, will leave their homeland with the onset of cold weather. Что касается кочевых стай, у них всегда есть выбор, улететь или остаться. Он зависит от уровня комфорта времени года, погодных условий и пропитания. Теплой зимой грачи, галки, чижи, снегири, поползни и другие кочевники остаются в насиженных местах.
As for the rooks, swans, nightingales, ducks, larks, they have no choice and therefore belong to the migratory. For this reason, you will never see them in the cold months, even if the winter was mild.
Wintering spots that birds of Russia choose: Southern regions of Asia, Africa, as well as warm regions of the European continent.
Types of nomadic
Nomadic birds are divided into three types: insectivorous, granivorous and weather. It is these factors that form the propensity to leave the homeland at one time or another. Birds, in which insects predominate in their diet, fly away earlier, as soon as they feel that daylight has decreased noticeably. The weather group is birds, whose type of food includes insects and grain food. When weather conditions deteriorate, they leave their homeland, but, as a rule, do not migrate too far.
Interestingly, porridge, acquired the status of a migratory bird recently. Previously, she comfortably wintered in the countryside (in the hay in the stables), but now, with the extinction of the villages, she has moved to warm countries for the winter. As for the ducks, with them the situation is reversed. Now many ducks overwinter in the waters of cities, where people provide them with food.
Reasons for returning
Unanimous answer to the question of what motivates the birds to return to their homeland, scientists can not. But there are several hypotheses about this.
First: migratory birds feel discomfort while reducing daylight hours and return to their homeland, where spring begins at this time of year.
The second: high humidity and heat of warm countries. Despite the abundance of various foods, birds suffer from high temperatures and attacks of insect-parasites.
Third: in tropical forests, birds of middle latitudes cannot find a habitual nesting place.
Externally, migratory birds do not differ from domestic (sedentary). Neither the plumage, nor the type of wings, or the structure of the head will tell you this. The only exceptions are flightless and domesticated birds (chickens, domestic ducks, turkeys).
Traveling individuals differ in type of food and sensitivity to reducing the duration of daylight hours. Sensing the discomfort associated with the negative changes in these factors, birds form flocks and go to the continent where the reverse trend occurs at this time of year.
Even such birds are distinguished by the ability of an unmistakable orientation in space and endurance during prolonged stay in flight. For example, sparrows, well-known sedentary birds, do not stand in the air for more than 15 minutes. As for travelers, they are not afraid of harassing flights that last for days.
Basic principles of the implementation of the flight
Many people are interested in how the birds navigate during the long journey and how their internal navigator works. This helps them interact with the northern magnetic field of our planet. He points the birds to their homeland and contributes to the unmistakable determination of the location on a particular segment of their path.
There are two types of flight: active (flapping) in swifts, swallows. And passive (soaring) in swans, storks.
Flocks are formed according to a number of principles developed at the gene level.
The strategic features of the flight of different species of birds differ depending on the size of individuals, their weight and body structure. In particular, small birds (starling or quail) from the first seconds of flight develop about 90% of their entire speed. Large birds increase speed by getting into the necessary wind flows.
Swallows - brave travelers
Birdies are forced to leave their nests due to lack of food, as they feed exclusively on insects.
These birds, despite their modest size and apparent fragility, are very hardy and strong.
It is worth noting that the physical structure of the swallow has an impeccable shape, which is designed for flight: a streamlined body, a long forked tail, pointed wings and good navigation. In addition, birds quickly become accustomed to changing weather and adapt to its conditions.
They make their flights to warm countries twice a year, each time overcoming tremendous distances. This process is risky. Many individuals, without having reached, die from exhaustion, hunger and temperature drops. Under adverse weather conditions, entire flocks of these migratory birds sometimes die. Even more information in the article "Bird swallow: village, city and others."
About migratory birds for children
Speaking about the nature of migratory feathered babies, mention the names of the most common species. Children easily remember the swallows that they associate with the spring, wild ducks, flying even and correct key. Think of swans, storks and herons, whose majestic wings in flight is impossible not to know.
For children, it is interesting to know where the migratory birds live, while it is snowing in our latitudes. Tell them about sunny and hot Asia, Africa, Greece, Turkey, India.
Mention that chicks in traveling birds appear only at home. And the trills and chants of these creatures are especially pronounced at home, since the creation of a family is preceded by the search for a couple. Males sing and chirp. In this way, they attract the attention of a potential partner.
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