When keeping cows in livestock farms in unnatural conditions for them, that is, in a confined space, they often have problems with metabolism, which leads to various pathologies. And one of the most common is ketosis in cows. What symptoms indicate the appearance of ketosis in cows, and how to cope with this disease?
High-fever cows are susceptible to ketosis in the first two months after calving, and the incidence rate can range from 12 to 80%. Much less often this illness occurs during periods of dryness when the balance of their nutrition is disturbed.
Ketosis loss is significant:
- milk yield reduced by 10-15%
- reduced period of use of highly productive livestock,
- cattle is culled for meat,
- adult individuals and unborn calves are dying.
Causes of the disease
A cow, like a ruminant, is predisposed to this disease. This is due to the fact that carbohydrates penetrate into the bloodstream from the rumen in the form of volatile acids (acetic, propionic and butyric), and not glucose.
Of these, only propionic is endowed with glucogenic qualities, the oil gets into the body from low-quality feed, and it becomes the source of ketones. Therefore, for cattle it is very important to follow the optimal proportions of these acids in the diet.
The main causes of ketosis in cows can be considered:
- Surplus of concentrated feed with an insufficient volume of hay and root crops.
- The use of poor-quality food, which significantly exceeded the content of butyric acid.
- When a cow is bred, there is an overfeeding of protein food, while energy is not enough.
- During periods of dryness and lactation reduction, animals overfeed with protein and energy components.
- Lack of trace elements and vitamins.
Attention! The situation is aggravated by sedentary keeping of animals (the number of active walks is reduced or there are none at all), obesity and insufficient sun exposure.
These factors lead to an excess of ketone compounds in the body of cows. And if you miss the onset of the disease, it will turn into an acute form, even death.
Why does he strike just the calving cow? Stress, hormonal leaps, and the onset of lactation prevent them from eating so much food to fill the enormous energy costs and their growing needs. Therefore, it begins to actively split its own fat, and the cow loses weight.
Excessive amounts of ketone compounds also impair appetite, which further aggravates the situation. They negatively affect the liver cells, they die in large numbers, as a result the whole body suffers.
- In acute currents, cows are characterized by nervous disorders, their muscles are trembling, the animal is too mobile, and excessive salivation is observed. Over time, things can come to paralysis of the legs, lack of response to light and sound stimuli, and even coma.
- In the subacute phase, the cow may surprise with the ingestion of unusual food, for example, dirty hay from the litter, the milk yield decreases or stops altogether, and because of the increase in acetone in the blood, the air exhaled by the cow and the milk itself begins to give them.
- In protracted forms, symptoms of both groups are observed, but not in such a pronounced form. The degree of damage to ketones is determined by analysis of blood and urine.
By betting attentively to their cows, ketosis can be recognized independently by the behavior of the animal, the decrease in fat content and frothiness of the milk, its unpleasant smell and taste. And for treatment, you need to contact a veterinarian and review the diet and composition of feed.
What treatment is recommended?
The popular methods of treatment include, first of all, the elimination of provoking factors. It is necessary to ensure the maximum nutrition of the diseased cows, adding 8-10 kg of high-quality hay and root crops. If the latter is not, you can replace them with molasses.
The silage in which a significant amount of butyric acid is contained is completely excluded. Cows are transferred to the same diet for preventive purposes. In the midst of illness, the cow immediately begins to enter 20-40% glucose solution of 300-600 ml 1-2 times a day. If you give it molasses (from 100 to 500 grams per day), then the ketone bodies in the blood will be 3-4 times less.
So that toxins can be removed from the body of an animal more quickly, cows can be given an enema with boiled water or 5% baking soda solution. You can give it inside, diluting with water 2 times a day, 80-150 g. Of the drugs in the treatment of ketosis in cows make injections of vitamins and salts of polyminerals. For heart problems, caffeine is subcutaneously; atony of the preventricles is treated with tincture of a white hellebore (for 1 liter of water - 10-15 ml).
For the treatment of a weak form of ketosis, cows are poured in by feeding in sugar, dissolving 150-500 g in water. Vitamin deficiency can be compensated with the help of premixes for cattle, up to 1 kg of freshly chopped needles can be given.
It is easier to prevent the disease than to treat it and then calculate the losses. The main thing is to remember about proper nutrition and take the cows to active walks for 2-3 km. Natural food, sun and fresh air - a guarantee that ketosis does not appear in your barn.
What is ketosis?
Diseases of animals with impaired protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism are called ketosis. A lot of ketone bodies accumulate in the tissues and blood of the body of females and bulls. These are acetone, acetoacetic and beta-hydroxybutyric acids.
During this period, the cattle is experiencing a serious lack of glucose. When in feed, most often after calving, it is not enough, the body begins to take fats from the body, which leads to an increase in the production of ketone bodies. Malfunctions in the scar are marked by increased levels of volatile fatty acids.
In the rumen (the largest of the stomachs), the pH is reduced, it is incorrectly reduced, the gum and salivation are disturbed. A cow is forced to donate a lot of glucose due to milk production, and in return does not receive her proper quantity.
For healthy livestock, ketone bodies are a store of energy. But in excessive amounts they cause harm. As a result, cow ketosis develops with negative consequences:
- milk yield is halved
- body weight decreases
- high risk of loss of reproductive functions
- the probability of death of newborn calves is almost one hundred percent.
Most often, the disease in a cow manifests itself in the last months of pregnancy and almost immediately after calving. This happens due to the feeding of protein-rich foods and low-carbohydrate foods. A similar result is achieved with an excess of silage eating. Related factors lack of exercise and lack of fresh air.
In most cases, ketosis of dairy cows occurs between the ages of five and eight years. This age range is characterized by high productivity of cows. Around the fifth calving or even earlier, they give the most impressive amounts of milk.
During the beginning of lactation - in the first three months - the cow gives the most product. Weight is up to forty percent of the total volume of milk production for the entire period of milk yield. Therefore, the animal needs a lot of strength and energy. Including the need for glucose increases several times. Without good quality food, the cow remains hungry and the diet is unbalanced.
Symptoms of ketosis in cattle
Ketosis in cows begins with the depression of the animal. His appetite is gone, there is a weakness. Burenka prefers to lie, and rises with reluctance and difficulty.
Sometimes this condition portends a strong excitement, trembling in the muscles and even gnashing of teeth. From the mouth saliva flows copiously. All these symptoms depend on the form of the disease:
- subclinical appearance is most common. It is detected when collecting urine for analysis. It contains acetone and acetoacetic acid. Also found in the blood ketone bodies. Since the external symptoms are not pronounced, you can drop some milk or urine into the Lestrada sample glass. When the liquid turns purple, you can talk about the presence of the disease. This stage is the earliest and easier to treat at home,
- acute form is stronger than the others. The cow has a fever, a nervous breakdown, she is marking time, trying to go forward. The skin becomes very sensitive. Then this state suddenly replaces lethargy. The cow lies down, slumbers, the body temperature drops, a sharp smell of acetone is felt from the mouth, the same in urine and milk. It is more difficult to treat such a form than the previous one.
- subacute appearance is characterized by glitches in appetite, indigestion. Burenka prefers to chew dirty litter rather than fresh hay. Often there is not only a decrease in milk yields, but also the cessation of milk flow,
- the chronic form may also be noticeable in the appearance of livestock, but not so clearly. It is possible to determine the disease by lowered yields, weight loss. If ketosis in cows has developed before calving, symptoms are noticeable and treatment does not occur, then postpartum complications are possible. These are metritis, ovarian cysts, post-mortem retention and other pathologies.
During the delivery of milk, the owner of the animal may notice the changes that have occurred. The product almost does not foam, the cream layer is too thin. Milk takes on bitterness and smells like acetone.
It is recommended to establish a reliable diagnosis after examining urine, blood and milk on kenotovy bodies. Also studied the diet of the animal and the conditions of detention.
How to treat ketosis?
Treatment of ketosis in cows should be started by providing rest and comfortable conditions for the animal. Indoors should receive fresh air, but without drafts. Water should be given clean and warm. It is advisable to change the old litter to a new one. After that, you need to take care of the diet:
- introduce high-quality hay, haylage up to ten kilograms, root vegetables, molasses,
- exclusion of concentrates, putrid feeds, silage with a surplus of butyric acid,
- one by one, they are given sugar and protein intake to compensate for the lack of glucose.
In parallel, you need to start drug therapy, using proven drugs with an appropriate shelf life:
- intramuscular administration of trivitamin, polysols of microelements with a lack of vitamins in the body, sometimes they are replaced by freshly chopped needles to one kilogram,
- intravenous injection of glucose solution twice a day, if the disease is severe, this should help in reducing the amount of ketone bodies,
- along with glucose, insulin is administered intramuscularly,
- Under the skin, an injection of sodium cofenium benzoate is used to work the heart,
- in the absence of cuts in the scar, a white hellebore tincture is given,
- if a burenka shows aggression, then sedatives are prescribed.
A livestock owner with a specialist should decide how best to treat ketosis in a cow. When a farmer has the opportunity to invite an experienced veterinarian, this is one thing. But in some cases this is not possible. Therefore, you have to treat the animal with folk remedies along with medications:
Causes of illness
Ketosis (or acetonemia) is a disease of highly productive cows with a severe course. Most of all, it affects animals aged 5-8 years. The peak of the disease occurs in the spring.
It so happens that a few weeks after calving, the dairy cow suddenly loses its appetite, becomes lethargic and reduces milk yield. Most likely, the animal developed ketosis.
Ketosis itself is a metabolic disorder in which the cow is deficient in glucose. For example, a chick with a productivity of 50 kg of milk has a need for 3.6 kg of glucose per day. Usually this amount is formed in the process of glucose neogenesis, for which propionic acid from the rumen of an animal acts as a basis. But in the period of calving, feed intake is reduced due to the release of estrogen and a sharp load on the body. As a result, the cow uses bodily reserves (body fats), which are broken down into fatty acids. They, in turn, are converted by the liver into an energy source by means of propionic acid, and ketone bodies accumulate in the blood.
As a result of ketosis, milk production decreases by half, cows lose weight, and often reproductive functions. Calves are born dead or weak. As a rule, animals get sick in the last months of pregnancy and within a month after calving. The main cause of the disease is giving large amounts of protein-rich and low-carbohydrate food to the animal. Also, ketosis can occur with an abundance of silage in the diet (this food is high in buty acid). The second reason is the low mobility of cows and the lack of fresh air.
In a healthy body, ketone bodies serve as a store of energy, but with an excess they begin to cause harm.
In acute ketosis, the cow becomes nervous, you can notice the trembling of individual muscles of the body, excessive saliva flow and gnashing of teeth in the animal. Later, the excitement is replaced by a sharp weakness, up to a coma. The animal more and more lies, the body temperature decreases.
Subacute form of the disease is characterized by impaired appetite. Instead of fresh hay and concentrates, the cow begins to eat spoiled food. In the exhaled air of the cow, the smell of acetone is trapped (it can also be heard in milk and urine). In this form, the yield of the cow decreases sharply, and sometimes there is a complete cessation of lactation.
The chronic form is reminiscent of an acute, but with weaker symptoms. In any form of the disease, an animal has a high content of ketone bodies in the blood, milk and urine.
If ketosis is suspected, the host must first assess the change in the quality of milk - it foams a little, acquires the bitter taste and smell of acetone. One of the constant symptoms is a disorder of the sexual cycle of a cow. Animals move a little, hair grows dull and fatness is lost.
Ketosis prevention is achieved by balanced nutrition of the animal. In the diet should be at least 8 kg of fresh hay, about 15% of root crops, 30% of concentrates. In the near-hotel period, try to increase the energy content of the feed. Approximately 3 weeks before calving, feed a cow a kilogram of concentrates per day, increasing the portion by kilogram every week. By the time of calving, the portion must be at least 3 kg. Active exercise - one of the best preventive. Both summer and winter walks for a kilometer distance enhance muscle absorption of ketone bodies from the circulatory system.
A cow infected with ketosis is transferred to preventive nutrition. In the diet, the proportion of concentrated feed decreases, and the amount of hay, root crops and haylage increase. Hay must be of good quality. Also in the diet is introduced molasses. You can not feed the animal silage due to, as mentioned above, the high content of butyric acid in it.
The ratio of sugar and protein in the diet is adjusted to 1: 1. If the animal lacks vitamins, it is permissible to inject intramuscularly with 15 ml of tetravit. In the midst of ketosis, it is necessary to inject intravenously glucose solution (500 ml of 30% solution) once or twice a day.
With a weak form of ketosis in cows, households usually use sugar feeding, an hour after which 100 IU of insulin is injected intramuscularly.
At the initial stage of ketosis, effective methods are applied at the discretion of the host:
- With the help of a plastic bottle, propylene glycol (500 g) is introduced over several days,
- sodium lactate (450 g) is also injected,
- The animal is given a mixture of equal parts of calcium lactate and sodium lactate.
Ketosis treatment should be aimed at restoring the correct level of glycogen and glucose in the body, normalizing the acid-base balance, replenishing the body with vitamins.
Video “Treatment of ketosis in a cow”
In the video, a veterinarian talks about the symptoms of ketosis and describes in detail how to treat this disease.
Causes of ketosis
Due to the characteristics of cicatricial digestion, the body accumulates ketone bodies, which cause damage to the internal glands, liver, heart, and several other organs. Most often other animals are subject to the disease individuals with milk production of about 4000 kg. Ketosis also occurs when overfeeding concentrated feeds with a lack of hay and root crops. Excessive feeding with food, which contains proteins and butyric acid, lack of energy during intense lactation time. Butyric acid itself is the primary source of ketone bodies. Ketosis occurs after the female calves for three months. Because in the period of intensive lactation, the body spends a lot of energy on the formation of milk. Accordingly, the need for glucose increases by almost three times.
Symptoms of the disease
The clinical picture of the state of the cow is directly related to the intensity and time of the influence of ketone bodies on the individual, the overall immune function and the characteristics of the organism. The disease is characterized by a whole set of symptoms.
Температура тела не повышается, зато наблюдается ряд нарушений в пищеварительной, сердечно-сосудистой и нервной системах.
Меняются показатели в крови, моче и молоке. Животное постепенно становится неактивным, вяло реагирует на разные раздражители, возникает мышечные спазмы. For quite a long time lie long, hard to rise.
A cow with ketosis becomes lethargic and often lies down.
Farmers observe arrhythmia. Painful region of the liver. The animal loses weight due to decreased appetite. As a result, the productive capacity of the individual decreases. The sexual cycle gets off. In the chronic form of the disease, infertility occurs. The disease is serious and has a difficult outcome, both for cows and for farmer production. After all, productivity can hardly be adjusted only to the next calving. Therefore, when the first symptoms of ketosis appear in cows, all necessary measures should be taken to avoid irreparable consequences. Depending on the amount of accumulated ketone bodies and the level of metabolic disorders, the symptoms of ketosis are determined. Disease exercise in acute, subacute and chronic forms in cows. The acute course is characterized by irritation of the nervous system, overexcitement, loss of appetite, milk gives off the smell of acetone. In the subacute stage, the formation of milk will be completed, a malfunction of the intestinal digestive tract occurs. With the chronic course of the disease, there are problems with reproductive functions, which is fraught with the appearance of cysts in the ovaries.
Diagnosis of the disease in cows
In order to make an accurate diagnosis of the state of the animal with ketosis, a comprehensive analysis should be carried out. Analyze the food, the conditions under which livestock are kept, and make blood, urine and milk tests in the laboratory. You can check the quality of milk at home. The product from a sick cow practically does not foam, the bitter taste and the cream layer are thin.
In order to obtain an accurate diagnosis in a clinical laboratory, Lestrade uses the reagent, and in a short time it manifests violations.
In case when mixing 10 ml of milk and reagent in the flask, the liquid becomes purple due to a large accumulation of ketone bodies. In the same way, they check the urine of animals that are also at risk.
Milk sick with ketosis of a cow bitter to taste
Ketosis treatment in animals
For effective treatment it is necessary to eradicate the source of the disease. Farmers should balance energy and protein nutrition, reduce the concentration of high-protein, carbohydrate foods and vice versa increase the consumption of high-quality hay and root crops. It is important to get rid of poor-quality food in the diet, such as: silage, feed with a high content of butyric and acetic acids. The infected individuals with ketosis need special healthy nutrition and diet. Drug therapy is used to reduce the content of ketone bodies in the body, normalization of blood glucose, glycogen, acid-base balance. Also to improve the work of the gastrointestinal tract, heart, liver and other organs, to fill the body with a deficiency of vitamins and trace elements. Glucose is administered intravenously 1-2 times a day for three days. They put sodium bicarbonate, ammonium lactate, propylene glycol, vitamins. Farmers need to consult a veterinarian in order to get an accurate and comprehensive treatment prescription.
The vet will prescribe the necessary medicines and their dosage.
It is necessary to focus on feeding livestock on feed products, including succulent and highly concentrated feed. It is extremely important to provide a balanced diet for the cow during pregnancy and direct calving. Food should be fresh, high quality and in sufficient quantity. Diet and feeding include:
- cleanliness of feeders with new meals,
- free access to the drinker,
- getting about two kg of fresh hay per day,
- energy and easily digestible products.
Ketosis prevention is achieved by balanced nutrition of the animal. In the diet should be at least 8 kg of fresh hay, about 15% of root crops, 30% of concentrates. In the near-hotel period, try to increase the energy content of the feed.
Approximately 3 weeks before calving, feed a cow a kilogram of concentrates per day, increasing the portion by kilogram every week. By the time of calving, the portion must be at least 3 kg.
Active exercise - one of the best preventive. Both summer and winter walks for a kilometer distance enhance muscle absorption of ketone bodies from the circulatory system.
For good livestock performance, be sure to monitor the balance of animal nutrition. Provide proper care and maintenance. If you experience the first symptoms of the disease, you need to contact a specialist for testing.
What is ketosis, the causes of the disease
Cow ketosis is a failure in the carbohydrate, protein and fat balance, which results in incomplete completion of the oxidative processes of butyric acid. In the body of the cow, ketone substances begin to accumulate, including acetone, acetoacetic acid and beta-hydroxybutyric acid. In the most severe cases, animals show an increased concentration of ketone bodies in the blood, as well as the presence of ketone substances in the urine. Such an acute form of the disease can provoke:
- weight loss of cattle,
- increased risk of abortion,
- increasing the number of stillborn offspring,
- shorten the period of high milk productivity.
Reduced high milk production period
The main causes of ketosis include unbalanced nutrition and endocrine disruption. The disease is widespread in farms where animals are fed by silage, cake, spoiled feed, affected by mold. In the diet of animals there is a shortage of carbohydrates, while protein food comes in excess. At the cellular level, such a diet, together with impaired functioning of the internal organs, leads to a decrease in the level of sugar and a decrease in the alkaline reserve in the blood. Cows that have diseases of the reproductive system or anesthesia are more prone to manifestations of ketosis.
Another serious threat that ketosis poses is hypoglycemia. The lack of carbohydrates contributes to the excess glycogen present in the liver, which worsens the general condition of cattle.
Symptoms and diagnosis of ketosis
Very often, the disease affects cows aged 4 to 7 years. Depending on the nature of the course of the disease, an acute and chronic form is diagnosed:
- Acute ketosis occurs in the form of acetonemia, which is manifested by nervous disorders of varying intensity. The animal reacts strongly to external stimuli, becomes fearful, often licks the skin, grits its teeth, trembles, constantly makes chewing movements. The hyperactivity phase is subsequently replaced by oppression. Acute ketosis is also characterized by impaired digestion, poor sleep, reduced skin elasticity, yellowness of the mucous membranes and skin, enlarged liver, a weak arrhythmic pulse, and the appearance of a thick stool with a rare bowel movement. The animal has a smell of acetone from the mouth. Milk of an animal can have a similar smell.
- In the chronic course of the disease, the animal is lethargic, has a reduced appetite, dystrophic changes in the liver and heart muscle. Also in the diagnosis of detected ketonuria and ketonolaktiya.
For the disease is characterized by a disorder of sexual function, the appearance of ovarian cysts, the detention of the placenta. All this adversely affects the reproducibility of the population.
For the diagnosis of ketosis in veterinary medicine, complex methods are used, which consist in the overall assessment of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests of blood, urine and milk. The main research method involves the use of Lestard's reagent, which allows you to identify ketone bodies in the milk and urine of a cow. If, when adding a reagent to milk, it acquires a purple color, it means that there is a significant amount of ketone bodies in it.
Treatment and prevention of disease
Treatment of ketosis in cows provides a number of measures that must be taken immediately after the detection of the disease. The treatment complex includes the following actions:
- exclusion from the scheme of food feed concentrates, acidic components,
- an increase in the share of fresh grass, selected hay, vegetables in the diet of cattle,
- intravenous shots of novocaine at a dosage of 0.25 g of the drug per 100 kg of live weight (dissolved in 20% glucose),
- intravenous injection of 3% sodium bicarbonate at a dosage of 200 to 250 ml or 80 to 120 g of solution per day with drinking water,
- the mixture according to I. G. Sharabrin and M. Kh. Shayhamanov in the amount of 1.5-2 liters intraperitoneally,
- adrenocorticotropic hormone in a dosage of 150 units. intramuscularly, together with intravenous injections of 40% glucose solution,
- Oxytocin at a dosage of 40 units.
Timely prevention of ketosis avoids the economic losses associated with the disease. The main measure for this is a complete feeding: in the diet should be balanced proteins, fats and carbohydrates from food. It is especially important to observe the recommendations of veterinarians when keeping pregnant individuals.