Goura fishes are freshwater labyrinth fishes, which include several families, including gum, trikhogastrovye, chelostomy, colise. Aquarium species are known under the names "trichogasters" and "nitropods". The homeland of these tropical fish is the islands of Southeast Asia. They live mainly in Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java, the Malay and Indochina peninsulas. The best known types of gourami are pearl, kissing and moon. Breeding breeding allowed to achieve brilliant results and bring new interesting breeds, like yellow and red gourami.
Nitophores have a flat and elongated body. In the male, the anal and dorsal fins are elongated and pointed; in the female, the dorsal fin is much shorter and less sharp. Males are larger and brighter, a sign of their health is a long and large dorsal fin and the intensity of their color. In length, all aquarium species do not exceed 12–15 cm, individuals up to 25 cm can be found in nature. In addition to the labyrinth nadzhabernogo organ, fish are distinguished by the presence of special threadlike antennae, which serve as a tactile organ. These threads grow if they break or tear. How long these fish can live depends on proper care. These aquarium pets live in a comfortable environment for up to 5-7 years.
Almost all types of medium sizes up to 12 cm. But there are also larger varieties, like snake-like gourami, in nature reaching up to 25 cm.
Lunar gourami was first seen in the clear waters of Thailand and Cambodia. In the aquarium, their body reaches up to 12 cm. The color is silver-bluish, the whole body is covered with shiny scales. The male is larger, the anal fin is marked with an orange edge and abdominal filaments. Lunar gourami is considered a peace-loving pet, in the aquarium these species easily get along with other fish.
The pearly appearance has a milky body color with light pearl spots resembling a scattering of pearls. The pearly male has a red abdomen, the dorsal fin is elongated and sharp, and the anal is large with pronounced rays. A dark strip runs from the head to the tail along the body. Pearl view is one of the most beautiful and memorable species among all the others, in the aquarium shy and fearful. Pearl nitropod reaches 11 cm.
Gourami nagging differs in small sizes, reaching up to 8 cm. The main body tone is golden with a greenish belly and light striped sides. Gourami grumbling has beautiful long translucent fins with dots of olive shade casting reddish. The ventral, dorsal and anal fins are pointed at the end. The male gurus grumbling differs from the female in the length of the fins and their elongation. His name gurus grumbling is obliged to the special sounds made during the excited state that occurs during spawning.
Gorami kisses from the chelostomy family belong to larger representatives, their content in an aquarium requires a capacity of at least 50 liters per individual. Gourami kissing got his nickname due to unusual manners. Fish, regardless of gender, kiss each other on the lips and hang so for some time. There are several versions of this behavior, perhaps as a gurus kissing helps his fellow to brush his teeth. In addition, gurus kissing is able to very cleverly tumble while cleaning the territory.
There are 2 main color variations: Thai chelostomy is gray-green, and Javanese fish are pink-golden. Fins are yellow-green, ventral, anal and dorsal fins with spiny rays. Gourami kissing is considered a peaceful fish, but can actively protect personal territory.
Gourami blue is a deduced color form from the spotted look. It is often confused with the ordinary appearance, but when reflected in gurami light blue has a pure blue body color. Males have a particular difference in manners in relation to the weaker sex; fish breeding occurs to the detriment of the health of the females, which after the cruel treatment of the males usually die. Gourami blue has strong immunity and rarely undergoes diseases.
Honey gourami is the best option for beginning aquarists, because the content of these unpretentious fish is quite simple. The main color is silver yellow with a light brown stripe that lies in the middle of the body. Their reproduction is accompanied by increased color in males. The head and abdomen become dark blue, and the sides and fins are honey. Honey gourami is slow by nature, so it should not be planted with mobile neighbors who can take food from him.
Gourami gold was bred from the spotted, has a golden body color with transverse dark spots on the back. Gourami golden grows up to 15 cm, lives up to 6 years. Their spawning is possible to achieve their 7cm. After sexual maturity by gourays, gold may conflict with its neighbors.
Gourami chocolate has a dark brown body with light vertical lines of various widths. During the breeding season, the tail fin darkens in males, and the anal fin becomes dark scarlet. Gourami chocolate grows up to 6 cm, is considered a peaceful neighbor in the general aquarium.
There are also other natural and artificial breeds. Dwarf gourami usually lives in rice fields, up to 4 cm. Marble goura was selected from the moon, spotted and blue species. The tiger gourae also belongs to hybrids as a result of the crossing of gold and marble species.
Keeping fish at home requires a container about half a meter long with a lid. The soil is dark, small-leaved plants. You need free space for swimming and shelter in the form of snags and caves. Fish live comfortably at a temperature of 23-26 ° C, hardness up to 18 °, acidity 7.
On the surface of the water, you can lay out bunches of floating plants: reach, water fern, pistis. They will be useful for the construction of a foamy nest by the male when spawning is in the general aquarium.
No matter how many feed these fish, they will all be small. Therefore, it is better to underfeed than to feed more gurami needed. In nature, trichogasters feed on insect larvae, food waste, and invertebrates. In the aquarium fish eat live and dry food. Since their mouth is rather small, the feed should be shallow. Suitable bloodworm, Tubber, Daphnia.
Breeding nitrophores at home is a popular process. Spawning fish is very interesting and exciting. Nitophores reach sexual maturity by 8 months and multiply before the age of 1 year. After 14-15 months of life, their reproduction stops, no matter how much effort is applied. The female is usually able to spawn up to 5 times in an interval of 10-14 days. Fish breeding can occur in the general aquarium or in spawning. In order to spawn successfully, the producers are seated in advance and provide good care. In spawning water is poured to a level of about 14 cm, laid out floating plants. Reproduction occurs when changing water parameters, which will affect the successful spawning: hardness 4-11 °, acidity 6-7, the temperature rises to 26-30 ° C (gradually).
First, a male is planted, which will have to prepare a nest on the surface of the water. After construction, spawning begins with mating dances. The male presses against her friend and twists her in her arms, after which the female throws up to 500 eggs. How much of the eggs will turn out during the spawning period depends on the health and age of the female. Having given all the eggs, the female is no longer required for the further nursing of the offspring. The male provides excellent care for the larvae, going through the healthy and the dead, blowing bubbles. Fry appear on day 3, and the male is removed. You can turn on weak aeration and lower the water level to 10 cm. The starting food is ciliates and rotifers.
Aquarium stanchions have good compatibility with many fish. They can be contained with macropods, short-tailed cockerels, scalars, apistogram, haracin, catfish.
Negative compatibility gourami with such fish as cichlids, goldfish and viviparous fishes. Pearl and lunar gourami may be aggressive to lalius or labiosis smaller than themselves. But with other colises fish get along quite acceptable.
These aquarium fish are famous for their attractive appearance and peaceful nature. The maintenance and their cultivation in an aquarium does not represent special difficulties, it is possible for the beginning fans.
This is a beautiful freshwater fish, rarely found at home. It can live in ditches, small streams, slow flowing rivers, on rice fields. Small sizes do not exceed four centimeters, hence the name. The color is brown, small red, blue or green scales may occur. In the world they shimmer beautifully. The eyes are blue, the fins are transparent, the fin on the belly is small with a threadlike process. In captivity can live no more than five years. Sexual dimorphism is not very pronounced. It is believed that males have a brighter and more attractive color.
The species is divided into two subspecies: spotted and Sumatran (blue). In length can be 11-13 centimeters. Both subspecies have a pointed snout, large reddish eyes located in front of the head.
The color is silver-olive, bluish or purple with darker transverse stripes of the same color and two large spots in the middle of the body and at the base of the tail. The fins are almost transparent, with yellowish inclusions, anal has a reddish border. During breeding colors gourami become more intense. The spotted appearance is divided into three color types: marble, gold, silver.
The color is light blue, on its background black irregular-shaped spots are scattered. On the green-blue fins - white-yellow dots, anal - orange border. The name was due to the color, similar to marble.
This species was first discovered by a Dutch biologist. He has a karyotype of four chromosomes, like a human. Nurus gourami possess some intellectual abilities. They have organized a hierarchical structure in the pack, they are non-aggressive and curious.
In length, these fish can reach twelve centimeters. They are similar in structure with spotted gouras, but unpaired fins are more magnificent, with elongated soft rays that accentuate protruding beyond the blade of the fin. Color silver-purple, can be cream. The background is scattered with lots of glowing spots like pearls. From the snout through the eyes to the tail is a strip of black. Color smoothly goes to the fins.
Pearl gourami females are smaller than males. In males, the dorsal fin is longer, the chest and the front of the anal are orange, red, or red-violet. In females, the edge of the anal fin is slightly reddish.
Individuals can be up to 18 centimeters in length. In appearance it looks like a spotted one, but the back and forehead are stretched more strongly. Snout slightly bent up, lips large. The fin on the back is rounded and shorter. The filaments of the ventral fins stretch to the tail edge. The body is covered with small scales. Gourami male has a longer and sharp fin than the female. The edge of the anal fin is orange, the threads are orange-red. In female individuals only threads are colored in yellow-orange color.
Sexual maturity reaches about nine to twelve months. Reproduction differs gourami. Fish species perform this process in different ways.
Spotted gourami in the general aquarium do not spawn. To do this, they need a separate container with a volume of up to fifty liters. They should be set off in pairs. Water should be between 26 and 28 degrees. There must be plants, the female will hide in their midst if she is not fully ready to spawn. The male at this time creates a nest about eight centimeters in size and drives the female to him. She throws up to 2000 eggs, after it is deposited. And the male remains to protect the spawn. When the larvae begin to swim, it should also be transplanted. During the season, spotted gourami spawn up to four times.
For breeding pearl species requires maintaining a temperature range from 29 to 30 degrees. The nest is made by males from foam and pieces of plants. During the spawning period, the male embraces the female and turns its belly upward toward the nest. Caviar with a high content of fat pops up, but the male collects it and puts it in the allotted place. At one time, the female lays up to 200 eggs.
When spawning the lunar gourami, the temperature must also be raised to 30 degrees. A male individual creates a nest of foam up to a width of 25 and a height of up to 15 centimeters. Fecundity - up to 5,000 eggs.
Brown gourami build nests about eight in size, up to one centimeter in height. Fertility is the same as that of the lunar species. The larvae glue out after 36 hours, begin to eat on the third day.
For effective breeding of the dwarf species, it is better to purchase in pairs gourami. The price depends on the type of fish and place of purchase and ranges from $ 0.4 to $ 3. You can take one male to two females.
As it was already written, in gourami the lower fins are equipped with a filiform mustache. This is one of the features of these fish. The whiskers are a tactile organ. With it, the fish feel objects and navigate in space. This body appeared in gourami because of the natural habitat, because they usually live in muddy water, in which it is difficult to see something. Another amazing feature is also related to the habitat. The gourams have a labyrinth organ, which allows the fish to remain without water for up to eight hours. They live in places deprived of oxygen, and therefore could not do without the ability to breathe air.
The breeders did not immediately learn how to transport the fish, since at first they used not the right way to transport gourami. Care was not so difficult. It is believed that these fish are among the most picky among aquarium inhabitants. If habitat conditions are created correctly, then they can live up to 12 years. Regardless of the type of care gurami similar.
Optimal conditions for habitat nitrophores
It is easy to create the necessary conditions, as the nitrians are unpretentious. It is only important to adhere to the minimum requirements:
1. The fish are mobile and curious, they need to have free space. Therefore, the aquarium should be of appropriate size.
2. Gourami able to jump high enough over the water. So that they do not hurt themselves, you should cover the aquarium lid with holes for air.
3. Tropical countries are a natural habitat for them, therefore, there is a need for bright light. To do this, the aquarium should be located next to the window or use a special additional lighting. The better the illumination, the more saturated the color of the nitropods.
4. It is important the presence of living algae for timid gourami. Green island is a great haven. And the males in the right period will create nests there.
5. For gourami, it is not necessary to have a filter and aeration, as they know how to breathe air. If you equip them with an aquarium, then there will be no harm from the absence of an aerator. Only there should not be strong currents, small fishes prefer standing water.
6. It is necessary once a week to change the water in the aquarium at 1/3. Do not forget to maintain the desired temperature.
The choice of inhabitants of the aquarium
Beautiful creation gourami-nitriform. The content does not cause any particular difficulties for the owners. However, many people prefer to combine different species of fish in one aquarium. Nitophores are peaceful, therefore it is not recommended to place them together with those who have aggressive behavior.
Do not fit as neighbors:
Experts also do not advise keeping viviparous fish in the same aquarium with them, as the fry can be easy prey for the nitrogens.
- soma (antsitrusy, corridors),
Even an inexperienced aquarist can take care of nitrophores. Fish not only have an unusual attractive appearance, but also it is always interesting to watch them.
When purchasing a nitropod in your own aquarium, it is important to make the right choice. Faded color does not indicate illness or stress. When the fish lives in a permanent home, it will get used to the environment, and the bright color will return to it.
It is worth paying attention to the fins and mustaches, they must be in good condition, not torn, not battered and well opened. Before you put the fish in the general aquarium, you must first settle it in a separate tank for a week in quarantine.
This is done for the safety of other inhabitants, as if the new nitodoneza is the carrier of the disease, others may become infected. During the quarantine period, the fish are bath every day for 15 minutes. After the procedure, it is placed back in its clean and warm container with fresh water.
Nitophores are usually quite hardy. They can get sick from sick fish or due to poor nutrition. Больных особей необходимо изолировать от здоровых.
Наиболее часто встречаются:
1. Лимфоцитоз. Проявляется в виде ранок, узелков и припухлостей. Появляются затемненные пятна и мучнистый налет.
2. Псевдомоноз. Сначала появляются затемненные пятна, которые в дальнейшем преобразовываются в язвы.
3. Аэромоноз. Появляется из-за смены аквариума. Признаки: отказ от еды, уход на дно, раздутое и кровоточащее брюшко.
Гурами-нитеносцы - красивые рыбы. Чем объемнее аквариум, тем они крупнее. Their peculiarity is that broken pectoral fins can grow back from gourami. Photos will help to see their attractiveness and uniqueness.
Gourami are simple in maintenance and care, beautiful and interesting in behavior. With their presence, they decorate any aquatic environment, because when creating suitable conditions, they look bright and original. And the most important thing is that even a novice aquarist can take care of them.
It is found throughout the entire Ganges and Brahmaputra river basin in modern eastern India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan. The habitat is unstable, during the monsoon season (July-September) there is abundant rainfall, significantly raising the level of water in rivers and changing their hydrochemical composition.
- The volume of the aquarium - from 100 liters.
- Temperature - 15–25 ° C
- PH value - 5.0–7.5
- Water hardness - soft (1–12 dGH)
- Substrate type - any soft
- Lighting - muffled
- Brackish water - no
- Water movement - weak or absent
- Fish size - up to 10 cm.
- Food - any feed
- Temperament - conditionally peaceful
- Contents in a pair of male / female or small group by harem type
Adults reach a length of about 10 cm. The head is pointed, the lower jaw is somewhat longer than the upper. The body pattern consists of a combination of brown and silver markings of irregular shape, the patterns are individual for each fish. At the base of the caudal fin there is a dark point. In males, the tail has a red border.
In the wild, they feed on small crustaceans, insects and their larvae, worms and other zooplankton, so live or frozen foods (bloodworm, daphnia, artemia) should be present in the diet, along with dry food.
Temperature: In accordance with seasonal variations in temperature in nature and comfortably between 15 - 25 ° C with even greater extremes, time is transferred for short periods. In many countries / well-insulated houses, artificial heating is not required, but if you want to keep it at a constant temperature somewhere in the middle of the range suggested above should be enough. An increase in temperature can lead to an increase in aggressive behavior, or the fish may even stop feeding.
Behavior and Compatibility
Males are aggressively adjusted to each other and arrange fierce fights for the territory. In respect of other species are kept, except for breeding periods. Also noted is a change in behavior for the better at high temperatures (above 25 ° C). As for the females, they are quite peaceful.
To avoid conflicts, it is recommended to keep one male in the company of several females; as neighbors, choose peaceful schooling fish of similar size from among carp.
The main cause of most diseases is inadequate housing conditions and poor-quality feed. If the first symptoms are found, check the water parameters and the presence of high concentrations of hazardous substances (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates, etc.), bring the values back to normal if necessary, and only then proceed to treatment. Read more about the symptoms and methods of treatment in the section "Diseases of aquarium fish."
Gourami in nature
Freshwater bodies of Southeast Asia with a slow current or stagnant water are considered the birthplace of these fish. They can be found on the Indochina peninsula, Malay, the islands of Kalimantan, Java, Sumatra, in South Vietnam. And in different parts of the range, different forms of life live, which differ in color.
A bit of history
From Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia to Europe gourami did not get right away. At that time, all the fish were transported in wooden barrels filled to the top with water. The same ones died during transportation without having lived even a day. They could not find out the reason for a long time, because the water in which they were caught by gourams was very dirty and muddy. After numerous unsuccessful attempts at transportation, the traders considered the fish problematic and abandoned this occupation.
And only at the end of the 19th century, 20 years later, one observant European noticed that the fish regularly rise to the surface of the water and swallow air. This time the barrels of water were filled to the top and did not seal. So the fish finally overcame the ocean and got to Europe without loss. These were spotted gourami.
In Russia, they were only in 1912-1915. Today, the former popularity of gourami has faded, but they are still in demand. Perhaps due to the fact that breeders do not forget about them and bring new color variations.
What do gurus look like?
These macropods have an oblong oval-shaped body. In length it is elongated, flattened at the sides. The pectoral fins are filiform. From them to the tail is a solid anal fin. Dorsal fins differ in different sexes: in males they are sharp and elongated, and in females they are short and rounded.
The color may be different, but spots and stripes are necessarily present. Natural color - light silver. The brighter the fish, the better its health.
As for the sizes of gourami, there are small individuals (4-5 cm) and there are small fish of medium size (about 10 cm). In the aquarium, the maximum size of these labyrinths can reach 15 cm. There is even a record - 35 cm!
Under good conditions, can live 5-7 years. There are also old-timers who have pleased their owners for 12 years.
These fish have amazing features that have emerged in the process of evolution: a maze and an unusual organ of touch.
Labyrinth - this is an additional respiratory organ to the gills. It is located in the cavity above them and consists of the thinnest bone plates covered with a mucous membrane penetrated by a network of vessels. It develops only 2-3 weeks after hatching of larvae from caviar.
Abdominal fins in the form of threads that gourami use for touch. In muddy and overgrown reservoirs, they can navigate easily.
All gourami belong to the family of the Guramiyevs (lat. Osphronemidae), and only the kisses belonging to the gourav belong to the family of Helostomovs (lat. Helostomatidae). The real gourami are huge fishes, the length of which is 40-50 cm. They are practically not used in decorative aquaristics.
In aquariums lovers can be found goura-nitrophets from the genus Trichogaster (lat. Trichogaster) and Trichopodus (lat. Trichopodus). The latter include 4 types of gourami, and all of them are habitable inhabitants of home aquariums:
- Brown gourami (Latin Trichopodus pectoralis). The largest representative of the genus, growing up to 15 cm. In the aquarium, it is peaceful even during the spawning period. Brown goura can hardly be called a bright fish - the background color is brown-olive with many bright vertical stripes. Along the body there is a horizontal black broken strip.
- Lunar gourami (Latin Trichopodus microlepis). Peaceful silver-white fish growing up to 14 cm. It is with great pleasure that it eats plants with soft leaves.
- Gourami ordinary or spotted (lat. Trichopodus trichopterus). This species has one more subspecies - the blue gourami, which freely interbreed with the ordinary. The color of the ordinary gourami is silver-white with light gray stripes. In the middle of the body and at the stem of the stem there are uneven black stripes. The blue gourams are silver with blue tint, and there are practically no stripes. In addition, it differs from the usual more aggression to the female during the spawning period.
It is the ordinary gourami that have a lot of color variations, obtained through selection and hybridization: marble, brindle, golden, lemon, etc.
- Pearl gourami(lat. Trichopodus leerii). The brightest representative of the genus. Seeing this fish, it is difficult to forget. White specks are scattered all over the body and on the fins of the pearl gouram. The background color is olive, and the belly is red, the intensity of which increases during spawning.
- Honey gourami (Latin Trichogaster chuna) belongs to the genus Trichogaster, and significantly less than the fish described above. They have a more shy character, smaller sizes, warmth and increased demands on the purity of water. As the name implies, these yellow fish, shades of which really resemble honey. A very close relative of Lyalius, and can interbreed with him, giving a fertile offspring.
- Chocolate gourami (lat. Sphaerichthys osphromenoides). One of the representatives of the genus Chocolate gourami (lat. Sphaerichthys). Beautiful, but extremely demanding fish, bearing offspring in the mouth. It does not tolerate sharp drops in water parameters, and is also susceptible to various diseases. The body of this goura is colored chocolate, on top of which there are 3 coffee-colored stripes.
- Kissing gourami (lat. Helostoma temminkii). A large fish that grows up to 30 cm. Its lips have many small teeth and resemble sandpaper. With the help of them gourami scrapes microscopic algae from various surfaces.
- Nagging gourami (lat. Trichopsis vittata). A fish that looks more like a rooster than a gourami. Her background color is olive, along the body there are 2 dark stripes. Around the body there are blotches of turquoise, the brightest on the fins and iris of the eye. The peculiarity lies in the fact that the males during the showdown relationships produce peculiar cracking sounds.
Description and types of fish gourami
Occur gourami from the island of Indonesia and from the south of Vietnam. In natural waters, they grow up to 15 cm, in aquariums - mostly up to 10. They are omnivores, in nature they like to hunt for insects flying low over water. They can track down prey for a long time, and noticing it, emerge and knock them down with a stream of water.
These fish are characterized by filiform, pectoral fins, which help them to explore the surrounding space. Inhalation of air above the water contributes to a special breathing apparatus - a labyrinth, due to which such fish are labyrinth.
Gourami have a flat oval body, similar in shape to a leaf. Their characteristic feature is a small mouth.
Body color is different and, at times, very intricate. During reproduction, its intensity, especially in males, increases, the stripes become brighter, and the eyes turn red.
Golden or sunny
Breeders spent a lot of time to achieve a sustainable color of this species.
The fish is a golden orange color. On the side there are two dark spots - in the middle and closer to the tail. The body and fins are full of blue spots.
The female honey gourami has a lighter shade, it does not have a brown band on the abdomen
One of the most interesting species. These are small (up to 5 cm) nitrides of yellow color, and on the abdomen of males there is a dark brown band. In the mating season, the males change color to an orange with a reddish tinge.
This species was first obtained in 1950
Characteristic poses of these fish, similar to kisses, are helping each other in cleaning the teeth that are outside. They are quite large, reaching 15 centimeters. The body of the fish is gray with a greenish sheen or pink, the fins are transparent with small scales. They are much more aggressive than their relatives, so it is undesirable to lodge this species with others. In nature, they grow up to a third of a meter, they live in Thailand and Indonesia, where they are considered edible.
In the wild, fish live in streams and roadside ditches.
One of the most common varieties, its name received for the characteristic sounds made during courtship. This kind of golden-blue color will decorate any aquarium. Along their body passes a few black stripes. Plavnichki they shimmer with all the rainbow shades, where there are red, yellow, blue and green colors, and even crimson and greenish specks.
In Russia, pearl gouram appeared in 1947
A charming view of almost 10-centimeter goura with an orange-red body with a dark longitudinal stripe and white dots-pearls. During the period of egg laying due to special movements of the fins, expressive sounds are heard. Red coloring of males at this time becomes fiery.
These fish have an unusual ability - they can recognize their owner. They belong to endangered species and are included in the Red Book.
These fish have bright reddish-orange eyes.
Fish with fluorescent bluish-silvery and compressed body on the sides. In the wild, these peace-loving, fearful nitropheriums grow up to 15 cm, in the aquarium - a little less.
This species is a type of spotted gourami.
Males grow up to 10 cm, they have a bright orange-blue body with diagonal stripes and specks on a pointed tail and fins. Less showy females are smaller.
Advantages and disadvantages
Aquarium content of mobile fish of interesting color with a peace-loving disposition has its advantages and disadvantages. Although most of the owners gourami noted only undoubted advantages of their breeding, not noticing the minuses.
- they are quite large, very charming and lovely,
- thanks to labyrinth breathing, they can even live in a small aquarium,
- picky about feed
- long live with good care
- easy to breed.
- they do not know how to stand up for themselves, often they are victims of snooty neighbors,
- immoderate in food
- reach normal sizes only in fairly large aquariums,
- after spawning, the female should be immediately removed for safety,
- males are fighting for a female, so for each you need 2 "ladies".
Care and maintenance
Even an easy-to-keep fish is easy to ruin, if you do not follow simple requirements for the aquarium, water and food.
Although the content gourami easy, but there are specific features. On the main aspects of their content and will be discussed.
Gourami love a variety of food, eat everything that they offer. Food should be balanced. They prefer live food, namely:
- crushed bloodworm,
- chopped tubule.
Given the small size of their mouth, the feed must be thoroughly crushed. They feed on fish twice a day. To avoid overeating and diseases, you need to give food in small portions. The fish themselves are not aware of this, and can eat continuously. During spawning, the volume of food increases, the emphasis is on animal feed.
Diseases and treatment
Gourami are quite strong fish, but diseases still do not avoid them, and in most cases this is due to improper maintenance. The most frequent diseases:
- Dropsy. It happens because of the lack of oxygen - the sick fish swells like a ball. Eliminate the causes of the disease can be improved aeration aquarium.
- Parasitic. This is gesamitoz and ichtiosporidosis. Sick fish become restless, rub against various objects, lose weight, and even if they are severely affected, they change color. If you quickly do not take action, then all the inhabitants of the aquarium will die.
- Lymphocystic. Infection with parasites or injury, a relatively mild disease that does not require special treatment. After recovery, the fish acquire immunity.
- Fin rot. Destruction and deformation of the fins, causing impaired coordination of fish movements. The disease is very dangerous, difficult to treat, often leads to death.
- Ligulose Carriers of infection, which often ends in death, are daphnia. In sick individuals the abdomen swells, falls, and then the appetite disappears completely.
- Pseudomonosis. This disease appears as black spots, which then turn into red ulcers. And through them the secondary infection already penetrates.
- Aeromonosis. The disease is mainly pearl gurus, caused by poor-quality food. The weak individuals are the first to suffer, most often this occurs when there is a large accumulation of aquatic inhabitants in a small aquarium. In sick fish, scales stand on end, they refuse to eat and fall to the ground, and then die.
In any case, only specialists should be involved in the treatment of fish.
Conditions of detention
It is important to ensure that these fish access to atmospheric oxygen.
For gourami, the following mandatory conditions are needed regarding aquarium, soil, vegetation and other components:
The minimum volume is 50 liters, so many fish can be placed in it so that they can move freely. It is better that the adult fish are in the stolitrovoy capacity, where they have the opportunity to grow to normal sizes. This volume is enough for six adults, and there should be 2-3 female animals per male. Given that these fish are able to jump, you need to close the aquarium cover or glass. To ensure normal breathing of aquatic inhabitants between the cover and water there should be an air gap of at least 5 cm.
Water and oxygen
Oxygen is a necessary condition for the life of hardware fish. To saturate water with it, aeration devices are used, but without strong currents, because under normal conditions goura live in the upper and middle layers of standing reservoirs.
The water temperature should not be below 23 degrees, it is desirable that it had a neutral or slightly acidic reaction. It is important that it coincides with the atmospheric temperature - if the air is cold, then there is a likelihood of a failure of the hardware mechanism and the development of diseases in the fish. Filtering water is not necessary, but you should change a third of its volume every one and a half weeks.
How to distinguish the female from the male
In order to determine the sex gourami, just look at the dorsal fin fish
Sex differences in gourami are visible when comparing the structure of their body and fins. У самок плавники короче и круглее, у самцов они заострённые. Мужской верхний спинной плавник настолько длинный, что иногда достигает хвоста.
Тело у самочек округлое и широкое, а у самцов оно длиннее и имеет заострённую форму. Кроме того, женские особи довольно невзрачные, а мужские — яркие, во время нереста они становятся ещё эффектнее.
Considering the fish against the light, it is easy to notice yellow ovaries in the translucent body of the female for the bladder; the males do not have them.
Mating and spawning
For spawning aquarium using a volume of 20-30 liters, the water temperature in it should be at the level of 27-28 degrees. Sexual maturity in these species of fish occurs by 8–10 months. A suitable pair is deposited in a separate container and fed with animal food for 2 weeks, the water in the aquarium is constantly refreshed. To facilitate the construction of the nest by the male, small floating algae (duckweed) are placed in the spawner; besides, there must be a hatchling in which, after spawning, the female will hide from the male.
The male builds a nest of foam in floating plants, its size is not more than 7 cm. It is important to leave room in the aquarium so that the male can swallow air from time to time.
He teases a female with rounded barrels, then swimming, then sailing, by this he invites her to the nest. During spawning, which lasts 4 hours, it lays about 2000 eggs. After that, the male becomes aggressive towards the female, and she has to hide from him in the water thickets. At this point, it must be removed from the male.
From the moment of throwing caviar to the emergence of fry from it, it takes two days. At this time it is very important to comply with all the necessary conditions: bright lighting and the temperature of water and air is not lower than 25 degrees. If they are not complied with, then the “dad” caviar who looks after the fertilized caviar can eat everything. After the appearance of the fry (in order to avoid their eating by a hungry male), it is transplanted.
Fry are fed with infusoria, and then with zooplankton, feeding food in small portions 6 times a day. After 2 months, they grow up so that they can be transplanted into a common aquarium.
How many live at home
In order for the pet to continue to please the owner’s eye for many years, it is enough to follow simple rules of care and maintenance with gourami
In aquarium conditions with good care, these fish live for quite a long time - 5–7 years, for different species the indicator varies within 2–3 years. There is a case when one individual lived to 88 years, but this is a rare instance.
The size of the aquarium especially affects the life span, it decreases in crowded conditions, and with free keeping it can reach maximum limits of 10 years.
Gourami - cheerful, active aquarium fish of medium size. They are unpretentious, even a novice aquarist can cope with their maintenance and breeding. Fishes are very beautiful and graceful, peaceful and livable. It is important to maintain stable conditions in a spacious aquarium and feed them moderately and with good quality food only.
Whom to choose in neighbors?
When choosing companions for gourami, it is necessary to take into account their rather big size and temperament, namely, non-aggressiveness, slowness, inability to stand up for themselves and curiosity. With their tendril threads, they feel not only the objects around, but also other fish, which can react very nervously to such actions. Frisky and playful neighbors can simply pull and pull them for these mustaches, which causes serious injuries.
Compatibility of all fish can be divided into three groups:
- Nimble, carnivorous, viviparous and too small individuals: cichlids, a parrot, a goldfish, a barb, a swordtail, a cockerel, an astronhotus, etc., are categorically inappropriate.
- There may be difficulties and conflicts with guppies, shrimps, discus.
- Excellent neighbors - neon, scalar, catfish, rasbor, minor, antsistrus, danios, tetra, etc.
What to look for when buying?
You should not refuse to buy if the fish has a faded color. This is not about the disease, but about stress. As soon as the gourams acquire a permanent home and get used to it, the brightness will return to it.
But special attention should be paid to the fins (they should not be torn, not battered and well-straightened) and whiskers (should not be shorter than the body or broken off).
Before replanting into the general aquarium with gourami (as well as other fish) it is advisable to place them in quarantine for a week. Without this procedure, if suddenly the fish is a carrier of the disease, it can infect the rest of the inhabitants of the domestic pond. Baths (biomitsin + brilliant green + rivanol) are held daily for about 15 minutes this week. After the bath, the fish is placed back into clean, warm and fresh water.
Aquarium. Concerning the choice of the size of capacity in sources it is possible to meet contradictory recommendations. Some authors recommend taking a vessel with a volume of 100 liters and consider that the bigger it is, the better. Others claim that 40 liters for 2-3 fish will suffice. I adhere to the golden mean and consider as the most optimal aquarium of 70 liters (for a flock of one male and three females). To protect against cold air and drafts from above, the aquarium should have a cover, but not glass! It does not allow air, which is vital for gourami.
Water. To the water, these labyrinth undemanding. There is an opinion that any water will suit them, the main thing is not to pour it right from the tap, but to defend it a little. But still, the optimum conditions are considered to be 24-27 degrees (they can withstand short-term temperature drops without compromising health), pH 6.0-7.0 and hardness not more than 16. During the week it is advisable to make frequent but not abundant substitutions, since too massive are poorly tolerated by fish or can provoke their sexual behavior, increasing the level of aggression.
Filtration and aeration desirable but not necessary. Aeration should not create a strong flow.
Lighting better bright. In the morning you can use the natural. But if it is not enough, then you can replace the artificial. Round-the-clock is not required.
Priming better to choose the dark. Well suitable river pebbles and stones.
WITH flora You should not overdo it, there should be space for swimming. Three types of plants can be used:
- those that float on the surface, for example, duckweed or riccia,
- those that grow on the bottom, for example, Javanese moss,
- those that require rooting in the soil, for example, cabomb, cryptocoryn.
Decor. Decorate the aquarium can be snags. They are not only beautiful, but also provide water with humic substances, creating an environment close to natural, and maintaining the health of fish.
What to feed gourami?
These macropod omnivores. Dry, live, vegetable and frozen types of food take without problems. There are even cases when they have tasted cottage cheese, melted cheese, scalded with semolina, crushed canned green peas and scrape meat, but it is not recommended to pamper them with this treat, as it is poorly absorbed by the fish body and can cause abdominal swelling and constipation. Especially gourami like bloodworm, tube maker or daphnia, rich in amino acids and protein.
Basic rules for feeding:
- gourami has a small mouth, so food pieces should be small,
- it is necessary to diversify the diet,
- can not overfeed
- it is worth remembering that these fish can endure a hunger strike for 1-2 weeks without damage to their health.
What are sick gourami?
This happens rarely. They can become infected from already sick fish or suffer from poor nutrition. Patients need to be isolated. The most common diseases are:
- Lymphocytosis. Open wounds, nodules and swelling appear on the body, a floury patina is formed.
- Pseudomonosis. It appears dark spots, gradually turning into ulcers.
- Aeromonosis. The reason is the overpopulation of the aquarium. Signs: refusal to eat, care to the bottom, disheveled scales, swollen and bleeding abdomen.
A couple of interesting facts.
The larger the volume of the aquarium, the more gurus grow.
If the so-called mustache of these labyrinth, or rather pectoral fins, for some reason break off, they are able to grow back.
As we see, gourams are simple in content, beautiful and it is interesting to observe their habits. I think that they are able to decorate any home pond, especially an amateur fish lover's aquarium.
Video story about breeding gourami: