Despite the increased cleanliness of cats, they are not insured against various diseases, including the most dangerous, which can cost them their lives if misdiagnosed and treated. One of these diseases is panleukopenia or feline plague, another name for viral enteritis. The symptoms and treatment of panleukopenia in cats should be known to every owner of a fluffy pet, only this will save the cat from unnecessary suffering and torment. Timely prevention of the disease is better than treatment.
Panleukopetics - what is
According to experts, this disease causes a virus that affects the gastrointestinal tract of an animal. After that, a decrease or complete disappearance of white blood cells can be observed. Most often, kittens and non-vaccinated adult cats are ill with panleukopenia. Also affects the respiratory tract and heart muscle. The result of the disease often becomes severe dehydration, followed by death of the animal. Only timely vaccination can reduce the increase in the incidence of this disease. As well as timely diagnosis and properly selected treatment.
How does the infection occur?
The most dangerous time of the year is spring and summer. When cat weddings take place and offspring appears, of course, we are talking about stray animals. But at risk are domestic cats, which walk without supervision and can contact their homeless brethren. Panleukopenia virus in cats is considered extremely dangerous, since its preservation in the environment can last for a long time, up to a year. Infected animals can from each other. Infection is transmitted from a sick animal to a healthy one, this is the main cause of infection.
Infection through a common bowl and tray is possible. Even a person who has been in contact with a sick animal can become a carrier of the disease to a healthy cat. Fleas can become carriers of the virus, and infection also occurs from a sick cat to kittens. Infection can occur through saliva, especially when cats lick each other.
Once in the cat's body, the panleukopenia virus begins to appear actively. The lymphoid tissue is primarily affected. The incubation period lasts up to 7 days. Under the influence of the virus occurs:
- reduced immunity
- damage to blood cells and bone marrow,
- the gastrointestinal tract suffers,
- dehydration can occur in the body at any time,
- there is intoxication of the body.
Panleukopenia is dangerous because the immunity is sharply reduced and the animal becomes susceptible to the defeat of other infections. With him, the cat's body simply does not have the strength to fight. All this can be fatal. A particularly high percentage of mortality from this disease is recorded in kittens, up to 90%. In adults, the percentage is slightly lower, but also quite high - up to 70%.
Symptoms of panleukopenia in cats
The first signs of panleukopenia in cats should alert even inexperienced owners. Realizing that something strange is happening to the pet, you need to show it to the veterinarian as soon as possible. And even if you yourself often find it difficult to make an accurate diagnosis of panleukopenia, a specialist will come to the rescue, explaining what actions are required from the owner and how you can help the cat in this situation.
These symptoms indicate the presence of a disease.:
- the cat becomes lethargic and apathetic, she has little interest,
- body temperature changes, it rises,
- with panleukopenia, the need for food decreases, to the point of completely abandoning it,
- the cat may be thirsty or vice versa the animal stops drinking completely,
- breathing becomes heavy and quickens,
- a cat might be in a fever
- sometimes the skin becomes covered with ulcers.
As already mentioned, with panleukopenia, the cat's behavior changes, and it is simply impossible to notice this. The animal tries to hide away in a corner from people and avoids communication with other pets. Not before now. Her fever, and body temperature can reach 41 ° C, at a rate of 38 ° C. In some cases, the cat may appear vomiting with mucus, the color is yellow-green. Urine with panleukopenia can change the color bright orange. And since the disease affects the gastrointestinal tract, the animal often suffers from diarrhea. There may even be blood in the stool.
The disease can occur in one of 3 stages.:
- Extremely acute, the course of the disease is lightning.
The most dangerous is the disease in its fulminant course. Kittens under one year old and lactating cats are most susceptible. Most often, in this form, treatment of panleukopenia in cats is impossible even if it is timely and correctly prescribed.
Adults most often suffer from the acute form. For the subacute form of panleukopenia, the same symptoms are characteristic as for acute, the only difference is that they are not so pronounced. Cats with good, strong immunity usually endure this form, and in some cases animals that have been vaccinated in a timely manner. In most cases, panleukopenia in cats with this form of the disease has a favorable prognosis, with timely referral to a specialist.
Complications with panleukopenia
The incubation period of the disease lasts 7 days, much depends on the age of the cat, its state of health, and immunity. But the first signs of panleukopenia in cats can be seen during this period and seek medical help.
If the course of the disease turns into an acute form, then the cat may experience convulsions. This is a very crucial moment, if you let everything run free, the animal will not live longer than 2 days. If a specialist intervenes at this time, then most often the cat can still be saved. The first 4 days of the disease occurring in acute form can be called critical. Most often having survived these 4 days, the animal is recovering.
Since the cat's immunity at this time is very much reduced, it will usually join the panleukopenia virus and other diseases, most often it is rhinitis or conjunctivitis. And now let's think, is it worth worrying all this, or can it be better to make a panleukopenia vaccination to your pet?
If the correct therapy is started in time and the cat is recovering it is important not to forget such moments: the animal is still a carrier of panleukopenia. The virus continues to live in its feces, and we can talk about complete recovery no earlier than 2 weeks have passed.
In fact, in order to carry out accurate diagnostics, it will take quite a long time, which is often not available, since the therapy must be started immediately for a favorable prognosis. But all the same, it is necessary to pass tests, thus the specialist will be able to exclude diseases with similar symptoms, namely:
- banal poisoning
Be sure to tell all about the cat's behavior in recent days and its state of health, the veterinarian will also be able to analyze all this for a diagnosis. We'll have to take a blood test, urine, feces. This will determine the presence of inflammation in the tissues of the cat.
How is the treatment?
Immediately it should be noted that there is no single treatment for panleukopenia virus for all pets. Each case is individual, it should be studied by a veterinarian, analyze the symptoms and develop a treatment regimen that will be suitable for this particular case, but may not be effective for other pets. Therefore, it is not necessary to listen to neighbors and relatives who have encountered this problem and who know everything about the disease. Only a trip to the vet will accelerate the treatment of panleukopenia in cats and contribute to a favorable course of the disease.
The course of treatment can last from one to two weeks, depending on the severity of the disease. But even with a visible improvement, it is impossible to stop the prescribed course, in order to avoid possible relapses, this panleukopenia is dangerous.
For the treatment most often prescribed such drugs:
- In case of severe dehydration and intoxication of the feline organism, saline solutions will be prescribed.
- Antiviral drugs.
- If a bacterial infection has joined - antibiotics.
Having assessed the condition of the animal, the doctor can additionally prescribe medications for edema, antipyretic, cardiac, painkillers and immunity enhancing drugs. During treatment, it will be necessary to show the cat several times to a specialist, it is necessary to adjust the prescribed drugs depending on the result of the treatment. Usually the doctor himself tells the scheme of his visit.
Pet care during treatment
Cats, like people, understand everything and feel especially keenly when a person wants to help them, especially when they feel unwell and during a dangerous illness. Their gratitude is no limit. However, the cat is not able to do many things by herself and she needs the help of the owner. Which is about her and take care. So, what a loving owner should do first.
- The place where the pet will live during the treatment should be dry, warm and well ventilated. While the room is ventilated, it is better to endure the cat so that the weakened animal does not catch a cold.
- The place where the cat lives must be disinfected several times a week. A wet cleaning is desirable to carry out daily.
- If the cat refuses to eat, forcing her to force is not worth it. But the drink should always be freely available.
- Every time the cat goes to the toilet, it is necessary to change the filler and disinfect the tray, as the panleukopenia virus remains in the feces for a long time.
How does a cat become infected with panleukopenia?
Feline panleukopenia is an extremely robust infection. In the environment, the virus can survive from several months to a year. This virus is easily transmitted through a person who comes in contact with sick animals to a healthy cat. In addition, the cat may become infected through a common bowl or toilet tray. The virus is transmitted through fleas, as well as in utero - from an infected animal to offspring. Panleukopenia cats transmitted through saliva, during mutual licking.
When a virus enters the body of an animal, infection of the lymphoid tissue begins. For the next few days, the pet's entire body is attacking the panleukopenia virus. The incubation period of infection lasts from 3 days to a week. The virus reduces immunity, affects blood cells, bone marrow and gastrointestinal cells. During illness, the animal is very sensitive to other infections.
How does a virus act on an animal?
The plague is one of the most dangerous diseases for cats. After infection with an infection, a strong decrease in leukocytes occurs in the blood. The animal develops heart failure, dehydration, digestive upset, intoxication of the body. In 90% of cases, panleukopenia in kittens is fatal; among adults, this percentage is lower - 40-70%. As described above, distemper in cats weakens the immune system and makes them defenseless against other infections. The death of an animal can occur in case of infection with another infection, due to cardiovascular insufficiency or due to dehydration.
How is panleukopenia manifested? Symptoms
If you notice any symptoms in your animal, you should contact your veterinarian, even if it is not a panleukopenia. Signs of this disease are accompanied by a rise in temperature to 41 ° C and even higher. The complete lack of appetite, the animal refuses water and tries to find a dark secluded place where it will not be disturbed. Usually, the cat is lying on its stomach with its legs extended or sitting with its head lowered. A sick animal may develop yellow-green vomiting with mucus, and sometimes even with blood. Urine acquires a light orange color, diarrhea appears with a sharp fetid odor, with the presence of blood. The animal languishes before our eyes.
In the acute form of the disease the animal manifests convulsions. If a veterinarian does not intervene at this stage, the pet will die in 1-2 days. The incubation period of the disease is 10 days, at which time the first symptoms are observed. How they appear depends on the age of the animal and its immunity. If the pet survived the first 4 days, then the probability of its recovery increases significantly. This is especially true for adult cats. The acute form of the disease lasts up to 10 days. During the distemper, diseases such as conjunctivitis and rhinitis may additionally develop.
Even after the animal has begun to recover, do not forget that it is a carrier. Panleukopenia virus is contained in the feces of the cat, and full recovery occurs only after 2 weeks.
Forms of the disease
There are three forms of leakage of feline distemper: lightning (supersharp), acute and subacute.
The most dangerous lightning form. Most often, it catches animals up to a year and kittens feeding on a cat. If they are only a few weeks old, when infected with a panleukopenia, they begin to eat poorly or stop drinking milk completely, lie in one place and do not move, publish a mournful squeak. With such a course of the disease, babies die in 1-2 days; even timely treatment will not help here. There are cases when kittens die without any seemingly good reason; there are no signs of indisposition or illness.
In individuals that have reached 3-7 months, distemper affects the nervous system. Kittens become fearful, hide in dark corners, do not sleep and squeal for fear. Symptoms are the same as in adults. Kittens' hair becomes dull in color, feels dirty and tousled to the touch. The animal completely refuses to eat and water, and without medical intervention dies in a couple of days.
The acute form of panleukopenia affects adult pets. The first signs of the disease: loss of appetite, the cat is inactive and refuses even a rare delicacy. No response to the call, does not respond to its name, does not respond to touch. Marked breathing is noticeable, sometimes even with wheezing. After 1-2 days, foam appears at the mouth, vomiting of yellowish-green color opens, rarely with blood. There is diarrhea. The body temperature of the animal increases markedly. After another couple of days, vomiting with mucus appears. The animal completely refuses to drink. At high temperatures, rapid dehydration occurs.
With a lung virus, the cat tries to cough, while it flows from the nose and eyes. The nose is hot and dry. Such symptoms indicate the possible presence of other infections that act as a catalyst for panleukopenia. Defeat of the heart virus causes heart failure and tachycardia.
All these symptoms occur in the first 1-2 days. In the absence of complications and when properly prescribed treatment, the animal recovers within a week. If nothing is done, the animal will die in 1-2 days. Cats that conquer this infection have been its carrier for a long time. They excrete the virus with feces and urine. Having been ill, animals receive strong immunity from this affliction, practically for a lifetime.
Panleukopenia cats, proceeding in a subacute form, has the same symptoms as in acute. The only difference is that the symptoms are not so pronounced. This form of the disease is characteristic of cats with strong immunity, for animals that have been vaccinated against panleukopenia. The disease develops within three weeks. Turning to a veterinarian makes recovery quick. With this form of the disease, the prognosis for the animal is favorable.
What category of cats is most susceptible to plague infection?
As mentioned above, among kittens, the mortality rate from this disease is more than 90%. In 3 months of unvaccinated offspring, the disease can cause serious complications, even death. The incubation period of the virus at this age is 4-5 days, after which the first symptoms described above appear. They appear suddenly, and often the owners of the pet confuse them with poisoning. If nothing is done, the animal may fall into a coma. At this time, cats are not at all protected from other infections. If an animal has survived the first four days of the disease, then, as mentioned above, the probability of a favorable outcome increases significantly. But there are exceptions, when the animal becomes a little easier, and then his condition worsens dramatically.
In adult vaccinated cats, the disease may be asymptomatic or with mild symptoms.
Panleukopenia threatens pregnant cats with miscarriages or the birth of a dead litter. Sometimes live kittens are born, but with a violation of the coordination apparatus. This is due to the fact that the virus affects the brain, in particular the cerebellum, which is responsible for coordination. Over time, this defect can be smoothed down in kittens, and babies will be able to exist normally. There is still a risk of retinal damage, kittens can be completely or partially blinded.
Feline distemper treatment
After the tests confirm the panleukopenia virus disease, treatment begins immediately. Это болезнь имеет высокие показатели смертности, к сожалению, биологи еще не придумали единого лекарства. Поэтому лечение заключается в поддерживающей терапии, во время которой организм кошки выработает необходимое количество антител. Первые антитела начинают образовывать в первые три дня болезни. Животному нужно помочь бороться с симптомами заболевания.Eliminate dehydration with special preparations, prick vitamin supplements, provide parenteral nutrition and control diarrhea and vomiting. In particularly difficult cases, blood transfusions are used. With an unfavorable outcome, the death of the animal occurs in the first 4-5 days, if the cat has survived this line, then, most likely, it will recover.
Pets who overcome this disease, get some immunity from this disease in the future.
During rehabilitation therapy, the cat needs the care and care of the owner. So she will not lose the will to live and will be able to quickly cope with the virus.
IMPORTANT! This virus may exist in the environment for several years, so if the sick cat is not your only pet, be sure to vaccinate the rest.
Vaccinations and other means of preventing cat litter
The most dangerous disease in cats is panleukopenia. Its symptoms are easily confused with signs of another disease or simple poisoning. So that you do not have to take your pet to the vet in serious condition, take care of his health in advance.
There are certain preventative measures against this dangerous virus. It is known that if mother-cat is immune to this disease, then she provides her offspring with antibodies for the first ten weeks of their life. Then you need to take the babies to the vet and get them vaccinated. Often used complex vaccines that protect not only from panleukopenia, but also from feline herpes or calcivirus. After the first vaccination after 28 days, you need to re-inoculate.
Adult cats need to be vaccinated annually.
IMPORTANT! Vaccination can only be done to a healthy animal. You can not vaccinate a pregnant cat, sick or weakened, as well as kittens during the change of teeth.
For your pet's well-being, it is necessary to provide him with good nutrition, a clean and warm room, and also not to forget to regularly visit the vet for preventive procedures.
Preventing a new outbreak
The panleukopenia virus is very hardy and can long exist in the environment. After your animal has recovered, you must thoroughly disinfect the room where the infected cat lived. Especially carefully disinfect the food bowls, the toilet tray and the animal's bed, since the virus is transmitted through saliva and after recovery it is excreted for several days with the animal feces.
So, what you need to remember:
- immediate isolation of an infected animal,
- keeping cat litter, bowls and toilet trays clean,
- good pet food
- regular vaccination
- treatment of animals from parasites that can tolerate the disease.
These rules will protect your animals from this disease.
Remember! Treatment of this disease with folk remedies is not only ineffective, but can also harm the animal. If you resort to drinking alcohol on an animal, you only aggravate the situation, increasing dehydration and intoxication.
Although it is a very dangerous disease, timely vaccination and cleanliness will save your pet from danger.
What is panleukopenia?
Panleukopenia is an acute infectious disease with an acute nature of the course.
It is accompanied by gastroenteritis, bone marrow damage, fever, leukopenia (decrease in the number of white blood cells). The animal quickly develop dehydration, general intoxication of the body.
The causative agent of panleukopenia is a virus panleukopenia feline, a member of the parvovirus group. The virus is widely distributed in nature, because it has a high viability.
Panleukopenia can hurt all feline and some related species (raccoons, mink). The disease is difficult to treat and has a high mortality rate, therefore, at the slightest suspicion of infection, it is important to show the animal as soon as possible to the veterinarian.
The main reason for panleukopenia is virus infection.
The pathogen is transmitted in the following ways:
- direct contact with a sick animal,
- infected flea bite,
- contact with the faeces of the diseased animal,
- non-observance of hygiene (use of a bowl, other objects of an infected individual).
Kittens become infected at the end of the antibodies produced with mother cat's milk. In the absence of vaccination, adults can also hurt.
Once in the cat's body, the virus may not manifest itself, but the pet becomes a source of infection for other animals. The average incubation period lasts 2-8 days.
The virus enters the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, then through the blood enters the intestine and causes enteritis (inflammation of the small intestine).
The pathogen also affects the lymphoid tissue and bone marrow. Leukopenia develops, in which the number of leukocytes in the blood that are responsible for immunity decreases. As a result, the protective function of the body is significantly weakened.
How to treat panleukopenia in cats?
Treatment of panleukopenia is performed after final confirmation of the diagnosis.
Drug therapy includes:
- antiviral drugs (for example Fosprenil),
- antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins),
- injections of vitamins B, ascorbic acid,
Antibiotics with panleukopenia do not kill the virus, but they inhibit the growth and reproduction of pathogenic microflora caused by a weakened immune system. In the first days of the disease, a good effect is given by injections of hyperimmune serum based on the blood of the animal that had been ill.
The tool contains ready-made antibodies to feline plague.
Medical measures are being taken to eliminate the effects of dehydration. To restore the water-salt balance in the body, prescribed droppers with saline. At home, you can feed the cat Regidron solution or other drugs containing soda, salt, glucose, potassium, sodium.
Sometimes a good therapeutic effect gives enemas, gastric lavage. Perform symptomatic treatment aimed at eliminating intoxication, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract and other systems. In difficult cases, the cat prescribed blood transfusion. The general course of therapy lasts 7-14 days.
With an unfavorable course of infection, death occurs in the first 4-5 days. If the pet has lived longer, most likely, its body will cope with the virus.
After recovery, the cat becomes a virus carrier for a period of several months to a year and can infect other animals. In every 10th case, the virus carrier is lifelong.
To shorten the period of illness and alleviate the condition of the nursery, it is recommended to follow a few care rules:
- Place the cat in a dry, warm and darkened room. Airing is obligatory (1 time per day), for this time transfer the cat to another room.
- Do wet cleaning of the room daily, and disinfect 2 times a week.
- Keep the pet calm.
- If the discharge from the eyes and nose is removed, remove them with a cotton swab moistened with special solutions (2 times a day).
- Bowls, tray, toys should be next to the cat.
- Clean the cat toilet immediately after use. Carefully remove the vomit. The excreta contain viruses that contribute to reinfection.
If there are other cats in the house, isolate them or temporarily give them to your friends. The minimum quarantine period is 1 month. Pre-show pets to the veterinarian to check for the presence or absence of panleukopenia virus.
Do not force the cat to feed, just leave a bowl with a small amount of food next to the bedding. In another bowl there should be warm boiled water. You can add a decoction of medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory, expectorant properties.
During the period of treatment is necessary diet. In the first two days, give the cat broths (meat, fish). On the 3rd day, try feeding porridge (rice or oatmeal) in water, meat broth. Portions should be small.
With good tolerance (no vomiting, diarrhea), gradually increase the amount of food, the frequency of feeding. Add boiled mince (beef, chicken, fish) to porridge, at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 100-200 g of porridge. At 4-5 days you can feed 1-2 boiled eggs.
Starting from 5-7 days, you can gradually transfer the cat to the usual diet.
In the recovery period, include the following products in the cats menu:
- low-fat cottage cheese,
- boiled lean meat
- boiled fish.
In some cases, the veterinarian may prescribe a vegetable oil that prevents the absorption of toxins in the digestive tract. To speed up recovery, vitamin supplements are added to the diet. It is not recommended to give milk.
During the period of illness and the next 2 months you can not feed the cat vegetables, fruits, herbs.
Is panleukopenia transmitted to humans, dogs?
Panleukopenia virus is specific and not dangerous for humans.
A sick cat can be safely treated without fear of infection. However, there is a strain of the plague virus that can affect the human body.
It is called “parvovirus B19”; when infected, a person develops short-term anemia. It is easily cured and not dangerous to health.
Feline plague virus is safe for dogs. When the pathogen enters the body, immune system cells immediately suppress the infection. Likewise, dog distemper is not transmitted to cats.
The main measure of prevention of infection by the panleukopenia virus is vaccination. Kittens are vaccinated from the age of 8 weeks. Revaccination is carried out in 2-4 weeks, and then - once a year.
Other preventive measures:
- a two-week quarantine for newly arrived animals,
- proper nutrition
- disinfection of rooms, bedding, bowls,
- immediate isolation of diseased individuals.
A cat who has had panleukopenia should be regularly shown to a veterinarian for the purpose of a routine examination.
Panleukopenia risk group
All domestic cats are subject to panleukopenia, regardless of gender. The disease is most dangerous for cats up to a year. Chances of recovery are minimal. For the person does not represent danger.
Feline distemper (panleukopenia in cats)
Newborn kittens die within 24 hours after infection, in pregnant cats miscarriages, fading of pregnancy, mummification or maceration of fetuses. Kittens can be transmitted from the mother.
Causes of the disease in cats
The term pan means everything and leukopenia means the absence of white cells, hence the name of the disease. Panleukopenia provokes a virus from the genus parvovirus. The pathogen enters the body through blood or food. The incubation period lasts 2-10 days.
The virus is excreted in the vomit and feces of a sick animal.
Where does the virus in the cat's body come from:
- Contact with a sick cat.
- Contact with infected feces, blood or vomiting.
- Through the milk of the sick mother or intrauterine.
- Biting bloodsucking insects.
- Through the owner, if he had previously contacted a sick animal and brought the virus on shoes, clothes or on his hands.
Kittens are ill and adults, not vaccinated, cats:
- Increase in body temperature to 41 degrees.
- Refusal of food and water.
- Foamy vomiting yellow.
- Diarrhea, possibly mixed with blood.
In the acute course of the disease may develop secondary infections that cause conjunctivitis and inflammation of the respiratory system of cats. There are pathologies of the nervous system, as the virus is able to infiltrate into the head and back of the brain through the bloodstream.
If the distemper treatment does not start on time, from the first signs to death, the cat will take no more than a week
When the temperature drops to 37 degrees, the forecast is not comforting. In 80% of cases, the animal dies.
Characteristic of immunized immunized animals. It proceeds in a milder form, and with timely treatment does not end in death. Treat easier. Symptoms are similar to the acute form of the disease, but less pronounced.
How to treat cat plague
Cat treatment is divided into specific and symptomatic treatment:
- Daily intravenous drip isotonic sodium chloride solution and 5% glucose solution - to relieve dehydration.
- Antibiotic therapy - drugs from the group of cephalosporins.
- Adsorbents and coating agents.
- Drugs that accelerate blood formation.
Home self-treatment is not the best way for a cat with a distemper. There are tips on the internet that the animal can be cured with a vodka / brandy talker along with the yolk.
At the time, consult a specialist
Alcohols also suppress the already sluggish immunity. Such treatment only accelerates the demise of the animal.
Effective treatment - treatment in a veterinary clinic.
Care for a sick cat
At home, after the necessary medical manipulations, the animal needs warmth, rest and rest:
- Install the bed of the cat next to the source of heat - the battery, heater. Despite the strong fever that is exhausting the cat's body, he still needs an external source of heat.
- Eye rinsing with conjunctivitis.
- Feed not by force. It is enough to put a bowl with kefir, silt and cottage cheese, low-fat raw meat next to the pet. The animal itself will eat when interested in food.
- Daily change of litter.
- Daily genital hygiene.
- Daily disinfection of the room in which the cat lives. For this purpose, concentrated solutions of chlorine, fluoroquinol-based preparations and other disinfectants with a high concentration are used.
Cheating doctors in the treatment of distemper
Not all forms of plague are treated. It is a fact. Some veterinarians suck money from owners to try to cure a hopeless animal. A self-respecting specialist will not scoff at an unhappy cat and stuff it with useless drugs, when it is clear from the anamnesis a long time ago that it is better to put a pet to sleep.
Comprehensive measures help to cope with distemper
What you should pay attention to:
- Treatment without antibiotics.
- Diagnosis without proper blood and feces (with the exception of small settlements, where it is almost impossible).
- Treatment without drip.
- Please leave the cat in the hospital.
Treatment of an animal in a hospital is unacceptable, as a sick cat can infect all patients in a hospital.
The only possible prevention of feline plague is a polyvalent vaccine.
Vaccination is done from two months of age, revaccination - 3 weeks after the first injection. Subsequent vaccinations are carried out once a year according to a schedule.
With timely prevention, panleukopenia can be avoided. But if the owner notices the list of symptoms presented for his pet, then you should immediately take the purr to the veterinary clinic. And create all the conditions for recovery.
The only positive quality of cat distemper is its safety for humans.
After all, the earlier the treatment begins, the greater the chances of a cat's life.
Causes of disease
The causative agent of the disease is a representative of the family of parvoviruses - a DNA-containing virus serologically close to the causative agent of parvovirus enteritis of minks and dogs. Its size is very small, only 22-24 nm, in the photo it looks like a small capsule. The virus is quite stable in the environment and retains its virulence for quite a long period. About one year at relatively low temperatures, it can exist in the organs, cells, feces of sick cats and in the rooms where they were located.
The virus is relatively resistant to high temperatures, dies when heated to 60 ° C only after an hour, disinfection does not always help. It is absolutely insensitive to some drugs, but chlorination will help to cope with it. For the treatment of premises take 1 part bleach to 32 parts of water. Objects contacted by sick animals and on which the virus remains are burned whenever possible.
Ways of infection
Panleukopenia virus is transmitted from infected cats by oral contact. The source of infection can be the natural excreta of an animal: urine, feces, vomiting, or saliva. In the early and acute stages of the disease, infection can occur through fleas. The virus can be transmitted through contaminated objects: water, food, bedding, dishes, etc.
Once in the cat's body, the causative agent of the disease begins to multiply rapidly, spreading throughout the body of the animal. The incubation period lasts from 3 to 10 days. During this time, the virus manages to multiply and begins to kill the rapidly dividing cells of the body, which include cells of the bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, and blood. Cats develop symptoms of anemia, which deprives them of protection against other bacterial or viral infections. Secondary infection may occur, which complicates the course of the disease and is very dangerous, especially for kittens.
Cat panleukopenia manifests itself ambiguously. Often the symptoms may resemble signs of other diseases. Mild disease is characterized by loss of appetite and a slight increase in temperature. Such a course of the disease is typical for adult cats, with kittens it usually proceeds in a more severe form. Симптомы могут появиться внезапно и быстро развиваться, особенно при отсутствии лечения.
Животное становится вялым, угнетенным, теряет аппетит, температура тела поднимается до 41°C и выше. Появляется рвота. At the onset of the disease, vomit is watery with a brownish or yellow tinge, later mucus and blood impurities may appear. For panleukopenia is characterized by diarrhea, which develops simultaneously with vomiting or appearing a little later. Feces fetid, liquid, yellowish in color mixed with blood or fibrin. These signs indicate hemorrhagic or catarrhal inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that the virus causes.
From the photo of the sick cats, it is clear that the poses they take indicate a strong pain in the groin and abdomen. Animals search for a secluded dark place and hide there. They may sit for a long time, stooping over a bowl of drinking or eating, but not touching them. During an illness, their appetite completely disappears.
Hypertensive course of the disease is typical for kittens under the age of one year. In this case, symptoms of damage to the nervous system appear: overexcitement, rejection of water, fearfulness, increased mobility. Like adult animals, kittens may develop vomiting and diarrhea. Possible development of paralysis and paresis of the limbs and internal organs. This form of panleukopenia differs in transience, the virus practically does not meet the body’s resistance and without treatment everything ends with the rapid death of the animal.
If the virus infects kittens in utero, they can be born without any external deviations. Over time, symptoms appear that indicate cerebellar hypoplasia. For example, lack of coordination of movements. It is impossible to treat this condition, it remains for the rest of life and is somewhat leveled by the gradual adaptation of the animal. Only timely prevention can save against such consequences.
The general course of the disease depends largely on the age, immune status and general condition of the affected cats. Adult animals most often tolerate the disease in a mild form and retain a lifelong immunity. The most dangerous disease for kittens, in which the incubation period lasts only 2-7 days, after which the disease manifests itself in a severe form and very often ends in death. Prevention, preventing disease, is especially important for them.
Diagnosis is carried out on the results of examination, laboratory tests and clinical manifestations. For correct diagnosis it is very important that the owner described in detail the pet's medical history. Panleukopenia successfully masks as other diseases, and the life of the animal often depends on timely treatment, especially for kittens.
Only the correct diagnosis makes it possible to begin a competent treatment. Therefore, it should begin with a visit to the vet. The most commonly prescribed treatment regimen includes broad spectrum antibiotics, immunomodulators, sulfonamides. To avoid allergic reactions characteristic of cats, they are combined with the use of antihistamines. Injections of ascorbic acid and B vitamins can be given.
To facilitate the course of the disease and increase the effectiveness of treatment for cats and kittens organize special conditions of detention. The room where the animals are located should be darkened, warm and without drafts. Sick provide constant access to warm boiled water, which can be added decoctions of anti-inflammatory and expectorant medicinal plants. The first two days give meat or fish broth as food.
On the third day after the start of treatment, you can offer oatmeal or rice porridge, boiled in beef broth or water. If diarrhea and vomiting are not observed after eating, the amount of porridge and the frequency of feeding will gradually increase. Starting from 5-7 days of illness cats can be transferred to the usual diet. After the end of the treatment, the recovered animal remains a hidden virus carrier for quite a long time. Contact with him is especially dangerous for kittens. In the room where the sick cat was, disinfection must be carried out.
The best remedy for panleukopenia is timely prevention. Activities needed include:
- vaccination of young cats and kittens from the age of 8 weeks
- 2 week quarantine activities for all newly arrived animals,
- proper nutrition
- disinfection of bedding, bowls and cat rooms,
- immediate isolation of diseased animals.
Competent prevention and timely treatment will save a furry pet from the serious consequences of a terrible disease.