The Kholmogory breed of cows is hardy, unpretentious and distinguished by good productivity. The origin of the breed is domestic - it was bred in the north of the country, in the Arkhangelsk region. There is also the main breeding plant of cows of this breed.
Cattle of this species has quite good competitive advantages, but it is also not without its drawbacks: in the article we will consider this question in more detail. In addition, we learn all the features of animals of Kholmogory breed, how to grow them, how to care for them. We will also get acquainted with the prices of animals, and reviews of farmers.
A bit of history
As already mentioned, this breed of cows was bred in the north of the country - in the Kholmogorsky district of the Arkhangelsk region - from here, in fact, its name. Long before the appearance of “foreign” breeds of cows, the local “Kholmogorka” began to spread throughout the region and beyond its borders: the animals were extremely unpretentious, tolerated the local harsh climate, and quickly gained weight. And when Peter “cut through” his window to Europe, foreign cattle began to arrive from abroad along with various goods.
Then the breeders began to conduct experiments on the crossing of local unpretentious, but short and small hill hill and imported cows of the Dutch and Holstein breeds. Experiments on breeding have been going on for more than a dozen years (more precisely, about 200 years), and finally, in 1937, a cow of the Kholmogory breed was officially presented at the agricultural exhibition. You should also pay attention and learn more about the Yaroslavl breed of cows.
The cow of the Kholmogory breed looks like a Dutch-looking animal. And if at the beginning of breeding this breed could not boast of particularly outstanding productive characteristics, by now the qualitative characteristics of animals have been greatly improved. Live weight of the breed has increased, and the number of defects and defects affecting productivity has significantly reduced.
The hill hill has its own “bugs”, that is, shortcomings, according to which a specialist can easily distinguish a cow from this species from any other. It:
- Somewhat angular physique. Soft roundness and smoothness in this case is not observed.
- The chest of an animal has a shallow depth.
- The hind legs are often crooked, sometimes strong.
But the big plus of the hill-hill is that although it is a cow and of the dairy direction, however, her physique is rather “meat” - dense and large.
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On the video - description of the breed:
The main signs of the breed are
- Medium head, muzzle narrow. The neck is rather thin. Strong harmonious physique, somewhat rough and wide boned. The relief is moderate.
- The body of the Kholmogory cow is long, the back is straight, even, clearly visible waist. The sacrum is noticeably raised, the back part is wide. The chest has parameters: girth - 196-198 cm, depth - 70-72 cm. The dewlap in this case is not pronounced.
- Udder medium-sized, all its proportions are proportional. Nipples have a cylindrical elongated shape. Cow skin is elastic, has an average thickness.
- The limbs are tall, but rather stable. The average height of a cow and a bull is 130-135 cm at the withers. Color skins often black and white, spotted. Rarely when Kholmogory cows can be with red spots, and completely red (red) - never happen.
- And, although officially the Kholmogory breed has long been presented to the agricultural community, however, work to improve the gene pool is still ongoing.. The main efforts of breeders are aimed at increasing the amount of milk yield in animals, as well as increasing the fat content of milk.
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Breeders of Kholmogory breed cows are constantly working to improve the productive characteristics of their wards. The development is in the meat, and in the dairy direction. It should be noted that the cattle of this breed has a rather high precocity, cows have high reproductive characteristics. So, for the first time, a heifer is able to fully settle at the age of 30 months.
The newborn calf Kholmogorets has an impressive weight - 32-35 kg chick and 37-39 goby. If immediately after birth, the calf gets a full-fledged feeding, then by the age of six months it can reach a weight of 160-180 kg (heifers) and 180-200 kg (gobies). By the age of one year, calves, on average, weigh 280-300 kg.
An adult cow of Kholmogory breed weighs 450-490 kg, and a bull weighs 820-950 kg. There are such breeding bulls, whose weight reaches 1100 kg. At the same time, the slaughter rate of an adult individual is 50-54%.
That is, more than half the weight of the animal is pure meat, fit for human consumption. To make the bulls gain weight faster, they are usually castrated. And then on a good forage a bullhead can add a kilogram of live weight per day. Slaughter yield in this case will be from 58% to 65%. The last digit is the maximum.
During the lactation period, the cow gives from 3000 to 3300 milk yields. There are cases when especially productive cow-hills provided 5,000 yields. Recordmakers, who are especially valued in any breeding farm, can even give out 7,000 milk yields: but this is rather a rarity and an exception.
Milk fat in cows of this breed is 3.6-3.8%. Of course, breeders do not lose hope to raise the fat content to at least 4%, but so far this task is in the process of solving.
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What are the advantages of these animals, let's sum up.
The main advantage of the cow-hills is their unpretentiousness and undemanding of the conditions of detention. Bred in the harsh Russian north, they are able to easily adapt to practical conditions. Easily tolerate cold, short summer, not too nutritious food.
Cows show decent milk yield. The meat of animals is very tasty, has high quality. Animals are resistant to diseases, due to the natural hardening of their high immunity.
Attention: it should be borne in mind that these animals are not very good for growing in a warm climate, as in the southern regions their immunity weakens and their productivity decreases.
How to grow
We learn the main nuances of the maintenance and care of these animals.
I must say that the breed is extremely unpretentious. Bred in the Russian north, where the climate is harsh, the Kholmogory breed is able to live successfully and to gain weight safely even in the conditions of long winters and a short pasture season.
Difficulties sometimes cause the development of an optimal diet for animals. The fact is that the menu for cow-hills must be carefully compiled, taking into account all the necessary minerals and elements. If there is a shortage of one or another trace element, the animals may significantly decrease their milk yield and slow down their weight gain. In addition, often unbalanced feeding leads to shortening of the lactation period.
In addition to the diet, it is important to pay attention to the preparation of cows for calving - the duration of the lactation period and the amount of milk also depend on this. The correctness of the milking is also important.
To get good milk yield from a cow of the Kholmogory breed, the following feed should be included in the diet of the animal:
- sunflower cake,
- flax meal,
- cereals and legumes,
- fresh hay
- in winter - silo.
After the birth, the calf is held with his mother until he reaches the age of 20 days. After that, the young animal is transferred to a special pen to other calves. When animals are 8 months old, they are regrouped according to gender and level of physical development.
For the group, which included small, stunted animals, a special enhanced diet is developed with maximum nutrient uptake. Be sure to enter into the menu fortified and mineral supplements.
It must be admitted that the cost of a high Kholmogory cow cannot be called high. The advantageous price is explained by the fact that animals are raised on the spot, in our country, and not brought from abroad. In addition, for their content does not require any special conditions. But what is the price of a Holstein cow, can be found in this article.
Thus, the cost of a young bull of a Kholmogory breed starts from 13 thousand rubles, sometimes you can bargain for a slightly lower amount.
The price of this animal is two months old. If the calf (calf and bull) is only a month old, it can be purchased for 11 thousand rubles. It will also be interesting to learn about the price of Ayrshire cow breed.
In general, the online feedback on the Kholmogory breed of cows is positive. Practically everyone who grows these animals admire their unpretentiousness, especially if they have dealt with more whimsical breeds before. Let's look at several reviews in more detail.
- Denis, 42, Penza: “I have a farm enterprise - we grow cattle. Began with the importation of imported cows and sires. Everything is good, however, some animals were sick, it is difficult enough to grow them - you need to constantly provide "greenhouse" conditions for life. Then at the exhibition I saw cows of Kholmogory breed, talked with breeders, learned all the nuances. We purchased several animals for trial, and now we buy more from time to time. Compared with imported cows, Kholmogory is extremely unpretentious, quietly tolerating the content not even in the warmest room. There is a small problem with feeds - but it can be solved. Overall, I am satisfied. The price of animals is very profitable, and allows any farmer to buy such a cow. ”
- Pavel, 37, Omsk: “I learned about the Kholmogorsk breed of cows when I was visiting with a friend in Arkhangelsk. Shortly after that, I decided to start farming, the question arose of acquiring several animals for milk production - and here I remembered the unpretentiousness and the inexpensive price of hills. I bought several cows and a bull in the breeding farm, and things went well. Now I already have a herd of heads at 50 - and this, I think, is not the limit. I advise you to purchase a Kholmogory cow, if you want for a low price to get an animal adapted to our uneasy climate, not too demanding to the content. I think that today it is one of the most profitable solutions for farming ”.
So, we looked at the peculiarities of the cows of the Kholmogory breed - as you can see, this unpretentious and inexpensive breed has many advantages. Therefore, when you are going to grow cattle, pay special attention to this species: with simple care, the animals grow very quickly and give good milk yield. Acquisition of cows of Kholmogory breed can be a very profitable investment.
Modern Kholmogory breed of cows: description and characteristics
The main distinctive features of Astrakhan cattle are:
- elongated body,
- long legs,
- straight back line
- deep narrow chest
- well developed ass.
Most often Kholmogory cows have a black and white color. Sometimes red-motley, black or red animals are also found. Udder of these medium sized cows with cylindrical nipples. The length of the latter can range from 6.5 to 9 cm. In some specimens, the nipples are wide apart, in others they are close together.
Where is divorced?
The only gene pool of the Kholmogory breed in our country is located in the Arkhangelsk tribal enterprise. From here, the seed of bulls frozen in liquid nitrogen goes to many regions of Russia. The breed of Kholmogorsk cows is grown everywhere in our country. However, this cattle has received the greatest distribution in Udmurtia, Tatarstan, Moscow, Arkhangelsk and Kirov regions. These cows are popular not only in Russia. Many farmers from Moldova and Ukraine also give preference to this breed.
Advantages and disadvantages
Of course, like any other, the Kholmogory breed of cows has its advantages and disadvantages. The first can be attributed primarily:
- early maturity and fertility,
- fast growth,
- endurance and immunity to adverse weather factors,
- resistance to all sorts of diseases.
Some disadvantage of the Kholmogory breed is that sometimes in the litter individuals appear with crooked legs, not too deep chests or narrow rear parts. When grown on poor pastures, Kholmogory cows practically do not reduce productivity. However, in our time, in the farms, in most cases, a mixture of this breed with Holstein is bred. Such hybrids give more milk. However, they are also more demanding on the quality of feeding. Kholmogorsk breed and its hybrids are allowed to be bred in all regions of our country with any climate, including cold.
In the care the breed of cows Kholmogorskaya is very unpretentious. The only difficulty in growing is developing a balanced diet. With a lack of certain substances or underfeeding, these cows can significantly lose in productivity. Improper feeding leads, first of all, to the fact that in Kholmogory cows the lactation period is shortened. In addition, factors such as are affected by the milk production of these animals:
- level of preparation for calving
- correct milking procedure.
To get good milk yield, the Kholmogorsk breed of cows should be grown on such feed as sunflower and flax meal, grass mixtures of cereals and legumes, as well as good young hay. In winter, high quality silage is usually included in the diet.
Care for the young
Calves of the Kholmogory breed up to the age of twenty days are kept together with their mothers. Then they are transferred to special premises for young stock and placed in group sections. Upon reaching 8 months of age, calves are grouped according to development and sex. For each small herd develop their feed ration, necessarily containing vitamin and mineral supplements.
At present, work on the improvement of the hill hill in the Arkhangelsk region, of course, continues. The efforts of breeders are aimed primarily at increasing milk yields. The Kholmogory breed of cows is improving, the characteristic of which was given in more detail above, in the farms according to two main technologies:
- Linear. In this case, the characteristics of the breed are improved by using as producers of bulls with the best performance. To obtain purebred cattle at the Arkhangelsk breeding enterprise, a stock of sperm has been created for 564 thousand doses.
- Breeding in families. In this case, the selection of the best individuals is made on the maternal line.
In addition to purebred breeding, in some farms, as already mentioned, holsteinization of Kholmogory cattle is also carried out. It also allows you to increase the milk productivity of cows. However, the Holstein hybrids are not only more demanding of feed, but also age faster. Milk from five lactations can be obtained from purebred Kholmogory cows. From hybrids - only three. In most farms, crossbreds are raised with a share of Holstein genes of no more than 50%.
Kholmogory breed of cows: the price of young animals
These cows are not particularly expensive. After all, they are not divorced abroad, but in our country. The cost of one bull is about 13 thousand rubles. This is the price of a calf aged 2 months. Monthly bull or calf can be purchased for 11 thousand rubles.
Thus, the Kholmogory breed of cows is one of the best in our country. She has a lot of advantages. With proper care and proper breeding, breeding these animals can be the most profitable and profitable occupation.
The origin of the Kholmogory breed of cows
Kholmogory cows began to spread outside their homeland even before cows from other countries began to appear here. Since Arkhangelsk became an important port city during the reign of Peter the Great, many important goods, including livestock, were brought to it.
Brought cattle grazed along with the local and formed excellent dairy quality. For a long time, breeders crossed the local breed with Holstein and Dutch, as a result of which they received Kholmogory with excellent dairy qualities and good adaptability to the cold climate.
Description of the Kholmogory breed
Kholmogorskie cows are similar in appearance to the Dutch. After years of selection, Kholmogory animals became larger and stronger, but they still have angular features, insufficient depth of the chest, and hind limbs of a curved shape.
Among the common signs of the breed are the following:
- Medium sized head
- Narrow muzzle and thin neck
- Strong, fairly harmonious physique with a wide bone
- Moderately developed body relief
- Длинное туловище с прямой спиной и ровной поясницей
- Приподнятый крестец и широкий зад
- The chest of the Kholmogory cow in girth is 196–198 centimeters, and its depth is 70–72 centimeters
- Well developed poorly
- Udder medium-sized, cylindrical nipples
- The skin is of medium thickness, elastic
- Limbs tall and resilient
- Height at withers is on average from 130 to 135 centimeters.
Most often the Kholmogory breed possesses black and white suit. Fully black or red-colored individuals are also found. In rare cases, animals are purely red.
The variety was created in the Russian climate, and the selection was aimed at maximal compliance of livestock indicators with the country's weather conditions. Cows are distinguished by unpretentiousness in almost all spheres of life.
- Nutrition. In cold climates, cows feel much better than in southern heat. Ruminants are able to increase weight and give good milk yield, feeding on simple grass or hay, depending on the season. The basic rule - the food should be juicy. With a decent diet, weights of livestock for slaughter grow at a very fast pace. Dairy cows reduce performance in hot climates or inadequate feeding. During the day, an adult eats up to 100 kg of grass.
- Care. Calves are not immediately separated from their mother. Upon reaching the age of three weeks, the youngsters are resettled and the groups for the intended purpose are formed. Depending on the direction of the group, is assigned a diet. There are no special requirements for keeping; breeders are pleased with the endurance of cows, their resistance to almost all types of diseases and good-natured disposition. It is noteworthy that it is not recommended to warm the barn particularly strongly - stuffiness and heat will cause a decrease in the productivity of cows.
Scientists do not stop at the already received figures. In order to further improve the milk production indicators, experiments are constantly being conducted on the crossing of hill hills with other breeds. Work is conducted in two directions.
- Linear. Improvements are expected after insemination of cows with the material of the best dairy breeds producing bulls. Breeding new species is conducted on the land of the Arkhangelsk region, historically native to the Burenkas. The level is incredibly serious - in the reserve, scientists have a stock of almost 600 thousand doses of semen from the breeding males.
- Marital. Unlike linear, this direction relied on maternal genes. In the process of breeding cows there is a careful selection, the most successful offspring becomes the next in the chain.
In addition to the purely scientific approach, there is also an independent breeding. The owners are trying to increase the milk yield by crossing cows with Holstein bulls. With respect to the equal ratio of the genotype, you can really get more milk, but the period of productivity is significantly reduced.
Kholmogory breed of cows is ideal for breeding in Russian latitudes. Bred in a cool climate, the Kholmogorka is perfectly adapted to life in the middle and northern strip. In addition, it should be noted low cost - about 13 thousand rubles. This price makes breeding affordable for any farm.