The pyometra in cats is inflammation of the uterus, accompanied by suppuration. This is a very dangerous disease, without treatment it can lead to blood poisoning and death of the cat. Pathologies are equally susceptible to both giving birth and giving birth to animals. Purulent inflammation develops very quickly, sometimes in just a few hours or days. The uterus is filled with exudate, and the pet's condition is rapidly deteriorating. This can lead to peritonitis and death of the animal. Therefore, the sick pet needs emergency veterinary care.
Causes of illness
The disease occurs due to the ingress of bacteria in the genital tract, as well as due to hormonal imbalance. The following causes of pyometra in cats can be identified:
- Empty chutes. If a long time periods of estrus in a cat go without a mating, then over time this leads to a serious hormonal imbalance. Therefore, if the owners do not plan to breed a pet, the animal is best sterilized.
- The use of pills from estrus. Often, pet owners give hormones to the cat so that it does not scream and ask the cat. However, the constant use of such drugs is extremely harmful. This can cause malfunction of the gonads. Cystic changes occur in the uterus, and then pyometra.
- Hypothermia during estrus. During this period, the cat's body is vulnerable to all adverse effects. Due to reduced immunity, the animal becomes susceptible to infections.
- Lack of hygiene during childbirth. If the cat gives birth to babies in unsanitary conditions, the infection easily penetrates the uterus.
- Knit with unverified cat. The cat may get an infection during mating. This often happens if the cat has prostatitis or other urinary infections. Uncontrolled mating with street animals is especially dangerous.
- Other genitourinary infections. In cystitis, vaginitis, or cervicitis, bacteria can enter the uterus from other organs.
- Chlamydia. In this disease, chlamydia can enter the uterus through the bloodstream.
If the cat is sterilized
Does pyometra happen to sterilized cats? If the animal has both the ovaries and the uterus removed, the disease can be completely excluded. However, there are cases when sterilization is performed poorly. In some veterinary clinics, only the ovaries are removed and the uterus is left. Over time, this body reduces. In such cases, the development of pyometra is possible. Therefore, during sterilization it is very important to remove all reproductive organs.
Forms of pathology
In cats, pyometra flows in two forms: open and closed. In the first case, the pus comes out through the cervical canal. This kind of inflammation can be cured by conservative methods only at the initial stage. An operation is usually recommended.
With the closed form of pus accumulates inside the uterus. Content cannot exit, as the cervical canal is closed. This is a more severe form of the disease, which is subject only to surgical treatment.
Signs of an open form
The main symptom of a pyometra in an open cat is an abundant discharge from the loop. They look like pinkish or brown pus and have an unpleasant odor. Traces of excreta of a sick animal remain on the litter. The hair under the tail becomes dirty and sticky, the cat constantly licks the loop area.
A cat's pyometra is accompanied by an increase in body temperature of 1 -1.5 degrees. The sick animal eats very little, it is tormented by thirst. There is a weakness and apathy. Because of the pain, the cat cries plaintively and does not tolerate even the slightest touch to the stomach. There is diarrhea and frequent urination.
Symptoms of the closed form
In the closed form, symptoms of pyometra in cats are more severe. Pus cannot come out of the uterus, as the cervical canal is closed. The volume of exudate can reach 1 liter. The contents press on the walls of the uterus, causing the cat severe pain in the abdominal cavity. The abdomen is sharply enlarged and swollen.
The body temperature of the animal rises to +41 degrees. There is no discharge from the loop. As with the open form, loss of appetite, thirst, diarrhea and frequent diuresis are noted. The cat's state of health is rapidly deteriorating due to increasing intoxication. The animal becomes indifferent and apathetic, does not respond to external stimuli, breathes heavily.
A dangerous complication of pyometra in cats is inflammation of the peritoneum - peritonitis. Such a consequence is observed in the closed form of the disease. A large amount of pus accumulates in the uterus. The exudate accumulates and the walls of the organ rupture under pressure. Pus enters the abdominal cavity, develops severe inflammation, which often ends with the death of the pet. This complication is more common in young cats. At a young age, the walls of the uterus have increased fragility. Also, peritonitis occurs in old animals suffering from concomitant chronic diseases.
The main method for diagnosing pyometra in cats is abdominal ultrasound. This study shows the presence of purulent contents and cystic changes in the uterus. The affected organ is dramatically increased in size.
Additionally prescribe a general blood test. Increased leukocyte count and ESR suggests an inflammatory response. In addition, conduct biochemical analysis. In the blood of a sick cat, urea and protein levels are increased.
When treating pyometra in cats, veterinarians strongly recommend urgent surgery to remove the uterus and ovaries. However, if the animal is involved in breeding, the owners do not always agree to surgery. In this case, conduct conservative treatment. But it is effective only in the initial stages of the disease and in the open form of the disease.
To remove the pus, the animal is administered the drug "Oxytocin". It contributes to uterine contractions and exudate excretion. Then prescribed a course of antibiotics: "Gentamicin", "Ceftriaxone", "Tilana". They are administered to the animal intramuscularly. To strengthen the body's defenses, immunomodulators are indicated: Gamavita, Ribotan, Maxidine.
With conservative treatment can not give an unambiguous positive prognosis of the disease. The use of drugs does not always help get rid of the disease. In most cases, the pathology has to be treated surgically.
Urgent sterilization is the most radical method of treating pyometra in cats. The operation always gives a favorable prognosis. In the closed form of the disease, surgery is the only way to save the life of an animal.
Under general anesthesia, the cat is removed the uterus with a purulent cavity and ovaries. Currently, it is possible to perform this operation by laparoscopic method with minimal trauma.
In the postoperative period prescribed a course of antibiotics. It is necessary to prevent bacterial complications.
Caring for a cat after surgery
At first, after the operation, the animal needs careful care. The cats wear a special collar around their neck to prevent them from biting or licking the stitches.
An animal can eat poorly after surgery. Feed the cat should be soft sparing food. Recommended ready-made diet pies and broth with chopped chicken meat. In access to the animal should always be fresh drink.
It is necessary to monitor daily the condition of postoperative sutures. If there is inflammation, it is urgent to show the animal to the vet.
With proper care, the pet's well-being is fully restored 10 days after surgery.
Timely sterilization of the animal is the most reliable way to prevent pyometra in cats. This simple operation is usually easily tolerated by pets. It helps to avoid many health problems.
You should avoid the use of drugs from estrus. Medications such as Contratex, Stop Intima and Sex Barrier contain hormones. Their constant intake is harmful to the animal and can provoke pyometra. During estrus, it is safer to give your pet sedatives. However, empty heat chills can also cause illness, so sterilization is the best option.
If the cat is involved in breeding, and sterilization is not possible, it is necessary to undergo regular check-ups at the veterinarian. For prophylactic purposes, a specialist can prescribe a preventive course of antibacterial and immunomodulatory therapy. Before viscous, it is necessary to check the cat for urinary infections and prostatitis. These measures will help prevent a serious and dangerous illness.
Causes of pyometra (purulent inflammation of the uterus, purulent endometritis)
Quite often diagnosed disease, pyometra, often detected in older females, however, cases of malaise in individuals of young and middle age are not uncommon.
There are the following prerequisites for its development:
- Conditions favorable for the development of bacteria in the uterus during the first 2-3 months after estrus. Elevated levels of progesterone stimulates and, accordingly, thickens the mucous uterine membrane. If the pregnancy does not occur, it increases, cysts that secrete fluid are formed - ideal conditions for bacterial development. The same excess hormone does not allow pushing out the accumulated walls of the uterus. At the same time, the leukocytes protecting the cavity do not work: the nature’s concern for sperm, which can be destroyed by them. As a result, infection is observed.
- Uncontrolled use of hormonal drugs that stop or reduce estrus. Such a measure often causes changes in the uterus that are suitable for this physiological process. Estrogen, natural or synthetic, enhances the action of progesterone, which can trigger the development of inflammation.
Additional risk factors are the violation of hygiene standards during cat estrus, possible unsanitary conditions during childbirth, uncontrolled mating, disruption of immune processes, congenital hormonal changes, low physical exertion. Feline cats, as well as those who gave birth prematurely or who had pathologies, have the greatest susceptibility to the disease. Completely protect the animal can only be sterilized with the removal of the uterus and ovaries.
Symptoms of pyometra in cats
At the initial stage of the pyometra, the cat may not be disturbed. The general condition does not deteriorate, it is possible to use more water, which, as a rule, remains unnoticed. The owners begin to notice the alarming symptoms when the cat has hair in tufts until bald spots due to an increased amount of vaginal discharge. The animal is worried, the appetite is getting worse, the temperature is rising. A clean cat scratches itself before the sores and gets hair, a symptom that is rarely associated with the accumulation of pus in the body, rather with the presence of parasites or skin diseases. That is why the primary signs often do not attract attention, which can lead to serious consequences.
It is worth paying attention to:
- enlarged abdomen,
- constant thirst with frequent urination,
- brown or white discharge, often dull with an unpleasant smell,
- embittered, restless behavior
- rapid licking of the abdomen,
- loss of appetite and profuse vomiting, and diarrhea,
- dullness and ruffled coat.
These signs may appear partially or absent altogether. If the cervix is closed, quickly accumulating inside the pus poison the body through the bloodstream, rupture of the uterine wall with all the contents into the abdominal cavity is possible. This situation directly threatens the cat's life.
Treatment of pyometra in cats
No matter how the endometritis in cats proceeds, the doctor should confirm and treat the symptoms and treatment. Complete recovery of the animal is possible only after surgery: removal of the uterus and ovaries.
The success of drug treatment is questionable, is allowed only in the early stages of the course of the disease and often has a relapse. As a rule, a procaine blockade is performed in the pelvic area, a calculated amount of prostaglandin-based drugs is administered intramuscularly, followed by antibiotic therapy (gentamicin, amoxicillin for cats, intrauterine installation of the pilan). In this case, prostaglandin can provoke uterine contractions up to its breakthrough and peritonitis.
Conservative treatment of cats gives the following results:
- 3 out of 4 individuals recover in the early stages of the course of the disease, 1 out of 4 - if it is neglected,
- half of the cured cats get a relapse after the next heat,
- 7% become barren.
If necessary, an intensive therapy is carried out before the intervention. Experts consider this method the most effective. Of course, the offspring will have to forget. However, to keep the animal alive, with a greater chance of recovery is much more important.
Pet care after surgery
A sick animal requires the prevention of possible postoperative complications, reduction of pain syndrome and additional care. In severe cases, the cat will be left in the clinic for some time. If the operation was successful and there is no threat to life, it is possible to take the animal home. At the same time follow all instructions of the veterinarian.
As a rule, the seam is regularly (at least once a day) treated with an antiseptic. To avoid complications, a course of antibiotics is prescribed. Until the final healing of the cat will have to wear a blanket.
If organs are removed by laparoscopy, intracutaneous sutures are imposed, special care is not required.
Even a difficult postoperative period in a cat after uterus removal can be facilitated by the use of special medicinal, wound healing and immunostimulating agents:
- Injection Imunofan for cats whose price is low, and the result is proved: an increase in antiviral and antibacterial resistance of the weakened organism of the animal. In the period after the illness and surgery, it will have an anti-inflammatory effect, reduce the possible side effects of therapeutic agents. According to studies, Immunofan for cats does not cause allergic reactions, you should only consider the required dose.
- Universal Hemobalance for cats is used for the prevention and treatment, including and after surgery. The drug will provide the diseased animal with necessary substances, restore the liver, help the digestive and hematopoietic processes.
- Preventive Roncoleukin for cats whose price does not frighten even the economical owner, will reduce the likelihood of postoperative complications. If the state is unstable, it will improve the condition of the pet, will shorten the recovery period, and will assist in the rapid regeneration of tissues.
- Unique Travmatin for cats advise all owners to have a tail. It will help to anesthetize, decontaminate, eliminate the effects of intoxication of the feline body. After the operation to remove the uterus, the pet will come to its senses much faster; Travmatin for cats, whose price is only about 300 rubles per bottle, will eliminate the pain syndrome and the effects of shock.
- External Aluminum spray for animals is designed to treat wounds, stitches. Promotes rapid healing, has anti-inflammatory effect. The film does not give the cat a lick. The duration of use after removal of the uterus depends on the rate of healing and does not exceed 10 days.
- The drug ASD 2 for cats has a pronounced antiseptic effect, should be used with caution in order to avoid toxic effects as prescribed by a doctor.
It should be noted that before using any drug should clarify the need and the exact dosage of the veterinarian.
What is dangerous pyometra
In cats, pyometra is a pathological process that occurs in the inner lining of the animal's uterus. This is a type of chronic suppurative endometritis. The disease is extremely serious and a threat to life. A cat's pyometra can develop regardless of the breed, age, or number of successful matings. Many people mistakenly believe that only adults or animals giving birth are ill, but in reality this is not the case. Only those who have undergone a sterilization procedure, that is, cats lacking reproductive organs - the ovaries and the uterus - have immunity from this disease for life. Pyometra - a disease that can occur completely unnoticed. But in one moment it is rapidly developing, and the animal can die in a matter of hours - this is the cunning of the disease.
A cat's pyometra can develop for a variety of reasons. One of the most frequent are hormonal disorders and infectious diseases. The reason may be various pathologies of the internal genital organs, difficult childbirth, as well as their course in non-sterile conditions. Пиометра у кошек может появиться и вследствие заболеваний и воспалительных процессов других внутренних органов мочеполовой системы - инфекция может легко переместиться в матку. Эндометрит возникает от множества бактерий, потому нужно следить и за здоровьем вяжущих котов. Когда воспалительный процесс запущен, в матке кошечки образуется гной.Its accumulation occurs rapidly, the uterus stretches to a huge size, its walls can not withstand - a gap occurs, and the fluid enters the abdominal cavity. Often in this case, save the animal fails.
About the dangers of contraceptives
Owners of cats should be aware that any contraceptives are based on the use of hormonal drugs. The reaction of each animal to their introduction may be completely different. If one kitty can, without consequences for her health, take such drugs for several years, then another may experience hormonal disruption from a single use. Under the action of gland hormones, cats produce an excessive amount of secretion, it accumulates in the uterus, and the entry of pathogenic microflora can trigger the inflammatory process, due to which pyometra will occur. In a cat, the symptoms may be sluggish and may appear as early as the last stage. It is extremely important to identify the disease as early as possible, in which case you can count on a happy outcome and save the animal's life.
There are certain common signs that the pyometra begins to develop in an animal. In a cat, the symptoms are characterized by a worsening of the general condition, the animal is apathetic, does not play, lies more. The cat's body temperature rises, urination increases, appetite disappears and vomiting may occur. The cat drinks a lot of water, quickly loses weight. Wool looks dull and unhealthy. A pyometra in cats is detected by visual examination: the abdomen is greatly enlarged, it becomes painful. The cat often licks, thick vaginal discharges with a fetid odor appear, their color may be light or dark brown. At the slightest suspicion, you should immediately show the cat to a specialist.
An unequivocal diagnosis can only be made by a doctor. A complete examination and palpation of the uterus. If it is enlarged and there is a suspicion of pyometra, then an ultrasound will be indicated. These are the main steps for detecting pyometra in cats. Symptoms and treatment are closely related: if the inflammatory process is in its initial stage, then drug treatment may be recommended. If the pyometra is running, then the only effective treatment in this situation is emergency surgery.
In no case should not engage in diagnosis and self-treatment - it is quite a serious disease! Only a qualified specialist should conduct all possible studies, on the basis of which the diagnosis of "pyometra" in cats is made. Symptoms and treatment at the initial stage give more hope for recovery.
Drugs such as Oxytocin and Prostaglandin are used to cause contraction and dilatation of the cervix. This leads to its release from pus.
As for antibiotics, the doctor should pick them up, having performed laboratory seeding of cat vaginal discharge and identifying which drug the microflora is most sensitive to.
In the treatment of pyometra in cats, Brullomycin showed itself well. It is administered intramuscularly in a 0.2-0.3 ml 3 times a day. The treatment lasts 2-3 weeks. Kloprostenol is also used (5 μg per 5 kg of animal weight subcutaneously) with Amoxicillin (20 mg per 1 kg of body weight intramuscularly). The first is used for three days, the second - for a week.
Therapy is considered more effective if, together with antibiotics, the cat receives immunomodulators (Immunofan, Ribotan) and vitamins.
Perhaps the veterinarian will recommend the removal of the uterus and ovaries even if the pyometra has just begun to develop. This is the most effective way. Drug treatment is less effective and effective only in 15% of cases, it does not guarantee that after another estrus pyometra will not appear again. If your cat has no breeding value, it is better to agree to the operation. So you protect her and yourself from possible troubles in the future.
Why does pyometra arise?
Most often, pyometra in cats can occur for the following reasons.:
- there was a hormonal failure in the body of a pet,
- penetration into the uterus of pathogenic bacteria (often occurs after childbirth, when the uterus is open),
- improper or incomplete treatment of diseases of the genitourinary system, in particular, endometritis,
- taking medications containing hormones necessary to suppress estrus in a cat (for example, sex barrier, contrasex and other advertised means),
- frequent and uncontrolled mating, occasional mating with street and other cats whose state of health is unknown,
- lack of necessary sanitary conditions during estrus, mating, pregnancy and childbirth in a cat.
Some veterinarians note that one of the causes of pyometra in cats is a weakened immune system, as well as the lack of necessary substances, vitamins and minerals in her body - because of this he is unable to resist the development of pathogenic bacteria in the uterus.
Not only in cats during estrus, but also in cats after the birth of kittens, as well as in pregnant pets, pyometra begins to develop when bacteria enter the uterus. In this case, the kittens are guaranteed to die, but timely assistance to the cat can give a chance for her salvation. Therefore, during the period of pregnancy, it is important to observe the darling as closely as possible so as not to miss the first symptoms of the disease.
Treatment with pyometra medications
Treatment of pyometra in cats most often requires surgery, which includes the complete removal of the ovaries and uterus - in fact, the inflamed organs. In some cases, this is the only way to help the pet.
Drug treatment of cats is to take drugs that will help clean the cat's uterus from pus, strengthen the cat's immune system of bacteria and stop the inflammatory process itself. Most often, veterinarians prescribe the following drugs:
- antibiotics (most commonly ceftriaxone),
- brullomitsin and other means.
The dosage can be selected only by a veterinarian. He will monitor the course of treatment and adjust it if necessary.
Drug treatment is prescribed only in the case when it is important to keep the animal's ability to multiply. However, this solution has its own characteristics:
- drug treatment in at least half the cases does not relieve pyometra relapse,
- with the closed flow of the pyometra, the chance of curing the cat does not exceed 40%,
- In the future, the animal often has problems with reproduction: the chance to successfully survive the pregnancy and childbirth is reduced at least 2 times.
Drug treatment is not considered the most benign. Moreover, it is not always permissible (only with uncomplicated disease) and does not always give the desired results.
Surgical treatment and postoperative care
It has been clinically proven that surgery is the most effective method of treating pathology.
Surgical treatment is essentially sterilization, when the animal has its genitals: the ovaries and uterus.. If the disease is detected at an early stage of its development, the operation will be no more difficult than conventional sterilization. If the diagnosis has already been made to a seriously ill animal, then surgical treatment will require much more skill of the surgeon. Nevertheless, only surgery increases the probability of successful treatment up to 90-100%.
The operation is performed under general anesthesia and does not cause discomfort to the cat. The scar after the intervention rarely exceeds 2-3 cm, and it grows very quickly and comfortably for the animal. Quite often, after surgery, antibiotics and immunomodulators are prescribed to improve the effectiveness of treatment.
Postoperative care for a cat is as follows:
- daily control of the seam condition, its antiseptic treatment if necessary,
- provide the cat with constant access to drinking water and a balanced diet, soft and easily digestible food,
- follow the cat during the day after surgery: when leaving the anesthesia, the animal can get hurt, because the coordination of movements will be disturbed.
If the suture gets wet, does not heal well, or even more so there is an unpleasant smell from it, the pet must be immediately transported to the veterinarian so as not to miss the infection and the onset of new inflammation.
It should be noted that the only way to 100% protection against pyometra is sterilization of the cat. If there is no possibility or desire to sterilize the cat, then the condition of the pet's uterus should be monitored annually using ultrasound.
Causes of pyometra in cats
The appearance of pyometra in a cat is capable of provoking a number of factors:
- Injuries during childbirth, delivery in non-sterile conditions, in violation of the rules of asepsis and antisepsis.
- Hormonal ovarian dysfunction. It develops in cats due to the high level of progesterone and estrogen in the cat's body, may develop when taking medications from estrus (contracex, anti-sex), etc. With hormonal dysfunction, the cat develops glandular cystic hyperplasia of the endometrium, accompanied by the appearance of cysts. There is a weakening of the body's defenses and as a result, the cat develops pyometra.
- Inflammation of the urogenital system (cystitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, endometritis), in which the inflammatory process from the lower parts of the reproductive apparatus enters the uterine cavity.
- Uncontrolled mating, mating with untested cat.
- Infectious and invasive diseases, pathogens that affect the endometrium of the cat (chlamydia in cats).
Signs of a pyometra in a cat
Pyometres in cats can be open and closed.
With open pyometer the cervical canal is opened and the purulent contents of pink or brown color in a large amount stand out from the vulva. After lying down, the cat leaves whitish spots on the litter, the body temperature rises by 1 -1.5 ° C. The sick cat develops increased thirst, complete and partial loss of appetite, upset gastrointestinal tract (cat diarrhea), and frequent urination. The dog licks its genitals every 20-30 minutes.
With closed pyometer, during external examination there are no vaginal discharge because the cervix is closed. In the uterus, the accumulation of purulent exudate occurs, causing intoxication of the body. The temperature of the body rises by 1-2 ° C, the cat has no discharge from the external genital organs, thirst is greatly increased, appetite is lost, the general condition is deteriorating rapidly. The activity of the gastrointestinal tract is disturbed - diarrhea appears. The defeat of the urogenital system is accompanied by frequent urination. A cat's stomach on palpation is enlarged and tight. The cat develops intoxication of the body, breathing becomes hard, there is no reaction to external stimuli.
In individual cats, the development of pyometra can occur very rapidly, and the cat may die before the onset of symptoms typical of pyometra. The amount of purulent exudate in the uterine cavity can reach a liter in two days, thin layers of the uterus do not withstand pressure, and pus is released into the abdominal cavity with the development of purulent peritonitis.
Treatment of pyometra in cats
Despite the fact that some owners are categorically opposed to prompt removal of the uterus and ovaries, this radical method of treating pyometra is the most optimal method of treatment that can save the life of your pet. During the operation, the veterinarian completely removes the uterus with pus accumulated inside and both ovaries.
The prognosis for this method of treatment is favorable.
A conservative method of treatment gives a positive result only in the initial stage of development of the pyometra in the cat and when the owner wishes to preserve the offspring. The aim of the conservative treatment method is to remove purulent exudate from the uterus, suppress pathogenic microorganisms remaining in the uterus and increase the body's defenses of the sick cat. Based on this, veterinary specialists cat sick pyometry prescribe the following medications:
- To remove purulent exudate from the cavity of the maca, cat is injected with drugs that cause contraction of the muscles of the uterus - oxytocin or one of the prostaglandin preparations. Apply them with great care. overdose can lead to rupture of the uterus and the development of purulent peritonitis.
- Intramuscular administration of antibiotics (thelan, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, etc.).
- To improve the immunity of the sick cat, immunomodulators and ribotan are prescribed.
The prognosis for conservative treatment of pyometra is cautious.