Dairy goat breeds: features of choice and main features of favorites


Goat - unpretentious, neat, very convenient and profitable animal for the household. Of course, she needs conditions of detention, care and attention, even the fulfillment of some whims, for which she will pay the owner a hundredfold. Healing milk, tasty meat - this is what milk goats are. Breeding them is a painstaking matter, but simple, quickly paying back. The cost of food, the device stall is much less than a cow. It is easy to care for them, time is not required much. Watching goats is fun. Kids love to play with kids - this is a real circus at home.

Goat feed and cure

Goat milk is nutritious and dietary, analogous to the female breast. In it, compared with cow's more protein, calcium and phosphorus salts are the “building material” of the skeleton and teeth, it is fatter and, most importantly, hypoallergenic. Therefore, there is no better product than goat's milk, for children-artificials, for people who are allergic to cow. In the old days, when there were no mixtures, to which infants are now used to feed babies, babies are watered with goat milk. Older people who have problems with food digestion also speak positively about him. Animal therapy (healing with the help of animals) recommends getting a goat to those suffering from hypertension, goitre and cholelithiasis. Milk and communication with a pet can cure these ailments.

For an example about the usefulness of goats do not go far. Recall Robinson. With the goats, he was full, dressed and shod, communication with them brightened up many years of solitude in a foreign land. Milk goat is traditionally called the “poor cow”. But in recent years, goat's milk is valued more expensive than cow's milk, moreover, it is rarely found on sale.

Numerous tribe

Goats - one of the first domestic animals with a long experience of service to man - 9000 years. By productive direction, they are divided into 5 groups: wool, downy, meat, dairy and mixed (wool, down, meat and milk). On every continent there are representatives of small-shallow tribes for different purposes. In Southeast Asia, mainly goats are raised for meat, and downy mountains frolic in the Altai Mountains. In Europe, mainly breeds of dairy goats are bred. They contain not only the population for milk and for the preparation of products from it. There are many goat farms that supply raw materials to the enterprises of the food industry. For others, the specialization is goat breeding for sale. Selection experiments are continuing to improve the quality of milk and the animal constitution, to breed new breeds.

Consider the breed of dairy goats - the most productive and more adapted to cold winters, rather than African Nubian goats. These are Zaanen, Toggenburg, Alpine (Swiss, French, British), Megrelian and Gorky dairy goats. The photo of each representative is accompanied by a list of signs of the exterior, a characteristic of productivity.

Exterior of the Saanen goat

Appearance is a sample of a dairy goat. The constitution is dense or dense dense, the backbone (skeleton) is strong with moderately developed muscles. The skin is strong and thin, covered with an awn without down undercoat. The head is dry average, komolya, ears "horn" directed forward and slightly to the side. The neck is long, flat sometimes with "earrings." The body is deep, long, wide enough. Legs strong, set correctly. Hooves light yellow. The suit is white. On the skin of the ears, the udder is sometimes black pigmentation in the form of spots. Good stock ball or pear-shaped udder with well developed nipples.

Lactation up to 330 days a year. Young goats are milked continuously for several years. Milk yield from 600 and more liters for lactation with milk fat content of at least 4%. A record of 3507 liters is not yet defeated. Dairy goats must be kept away from the goat-producer, otherwise the milk will have an unpleasant taste and smell.

Zaanensky goats are prolific, quick and hardy. In the absence of a closely related coating, pedigree traits are transmitted to the offspring in full.

Goats from Toggenburg

In the 18th century, a Swiss breed of goats was created by the method of national selection by the Swiss. For the next 3 centuries, as a result of the crossing of this breed with representatives of local breeds in different countries, brown Czech, noble Toggenburg, British Togenburgburg goats were bred. For the first time, single goat goats in Russia came to Russia at the beginning of the last century.

The exterior of the breed is distinguished by a brown suit, but there are also spotty animals. Toggenburg goats are recognizable by a pronounced feature - white markings: 2 bands parallel to the muzzle, rim of the ears at the edges, the lower part of the tail and legs from the hooves to hock joints are also white. The constitution is strong and dry, the body is harmonious in shape with the height at the withers of 0.6 m. The elongated head on the long neck. Straight slightly flat profile. Toggenburg goats are horny, goats with horns, but there are also hornless. Straight back, bulging ribs. Limbs strong, moderate length, set correctly, strong, strong hoofs. The sacrum is wide, the udder is large. The hair is silky, on the back and hips grows up to 20 cm. Manufacturers weight up to 70 kg, for queens up to 55 kg.

Toggenburg breed goats fertile (in the offspring of kids usually 2-3), easily acclimatized to winter and mountain conditions, prefers coolness and shade in summer, but demanding on the diet, which determines the taste of milk.

Lactation up to 300 days a year. Milkiness at the first goat of 500 l, with subsequent lambing, milk yield grows to 1000 l without a decrease in volumes in winter. Milk fat 3-4%. Cheese excellent taste.

Alpine goats

Breeding of animals of this breed began in the mountainous regions of Switzerland by the method of national selection. Then selection continued in France and England. The Swiss alpine goats were brought there and crossed with the best local breeds.

Common "alpine" features

Large-sized animals: at the age of 4, the goat is at the withers, its height is 76 cm, its weight is 61 kg, the goat is 81 cm and 77 kg. The neck is long, the head is dry with erect ears, the profile is straight. There are horny and horny. Milk productivity and fertility are high - from 1200 to 1600 liters of milk per year with good feeding and favorable conditions, several kids in one lamb. Milk is tasty, fatty (up to 5.5%) and nutritious (protein 3%).

Alpine goats are unpretentious to the diet, adapt quickly to new climatic conditions, tend to become leaders in the herd (you need to be careful not to discourage others from feeding troughs), to understand, to the owner are affectionate, friendly. Alpine goat dairy breeds are indispensable in the highlands - they are graceful and dexterous, real "climbers" and will get food for themselves where the cow does not climb, and by evening they will bring milk to the owner. Of course, the yield will be smaller, but what a useful, made from medicinal plants. These goats are also suitable for stall.

Megrelian goat

In western Georgia, in Megrelia, dairy goats of Megrelian lowland and mountain type breeding. On flat terrain, residents of populated areas keep tied and stall animals of the first type. They feed them harvested vegetable food, waste from fruits and vegetables. Lowland goats are small, the average weight of queens with a height of 60 cm at the withers is 33-37 kg, the larger and heavier goats are under 50 kg. For 200 days of lactation from a goat, an average of 300 l of milk is given each time, record holders give 750 of each. The fertility is low: only 20 out of 100 queens bring 2 young goats, the rest one by one.

Mountain goats are larger than their brethren, with a strong constitution and coarse skeleton, more massive. Goat weight up to 50 kg, goats up to 70 kg. They graze on highland pastures from spring to late autumn, in the winter they are lowered from their peaks into the mountain valleys, where they are kept in the grass. Productivity on average from 200 to 250 liters per semiannual lactation. Fecundity is small - 110 kids from 100 queens.

The color of the Megrelian goats is white, red and gray. Short wool coarse. All animals have well developed curved horns in the shape of the letter S on a slightly elongated head, with beards of medium length.

Megrelian goats are resistant to diseases. Relocating these goats to other areas will improve the endurance and productivity of local goats.

Goat breeding

It is difficult to find adult thoroughbred goats per tribe and it will be expensive to pay for them. You can go the other way - to select goats and goats from pedigree parents in different farms, following the most important rule - the prohibition of closely related breeding. It is most reliable to contact the breeding goat breeders. Do not forget the good old rule: expensive and sweet, and if it's cheap - you know, the “trick” might not work.

Inspect the goat maker and goat-mom - their pedigree signs should be obvious. Verify the words of the seller about the high productivity of the uterus in practice - let them give a goat in your presence. Try the taste and smell of milk.

Unsuitable kids from the lambing, in which there were more than two. Particular attention to the future manufacturer. A goat on a tribe must be a hornless one. Check the development of the genitals of kids.

Find out from the seller how was feeding. Important: before two months of age, goat milk maternal milk should be their main food. Growth and development are judged by weight, appetite, appearance, condition of coat and playfulness of the object of sale.

And the kids arrived at a permanent place of detention. The rest (successful breeding) depends on proper feeding and caring for animals.

Features and General Information

Goat breeds for economic purposes are divided into several groups:

  • downy
  • wool,
  • skin,
  • park,
  • meat,
  • milk
  • In addition, there are breeds of mixed orientation: milk-meat, milk-wool, milk-down.

In Russia, the most common dairy breeds. And this is not surprising. Goat milk surpasses cow's milk in a number of indicators, it is considered to be healing, and it is much easier and cheaper to keep a goat in the yard.

Important! The composition of goat milk is close to breast maternal. Infant formulas based on it are considered among the best. Goat milk is hypoallergenic, people who suffer from intolerance to cow protein can drink it. It is better absorbed and less irritating to the gastric mucosa.

Differences of dairy breeds

Dairy goats are distinguished from their relatives primarily by their physique. They are characterized by:

  • large, conical, open format (meat breeds are smaller and more “square”),
  • body extending from the chest to the back,
  • wide, straight, back sag in the sacrum area,
  • angular, pronounced, flat shoulder blades and shoulders,
  • the chest volume, with well distinguished convex, rather long edges,
  • straight with strong hooves, widely spaced limbs,
  • light head on a rather thin neck,
  • tight and thin skin
  • wide, deep, without sagging, extensive belly.

Important! The type of coat and color depends on the breed, but it is believed that shorthair goats are more convenient to milk.

The main distinguishing feature of dairy goats is a large elastic udder in the shape of a bowl or rounded pear, clearly visible from the side, front and rear, without seals and coarse, hard sections.

Udder dairy goats look elastic and dense.

A highly productive dairy animal has wide milk veins and wells. The skin on the udder is thin, dense, elastic. Elongated nipples, oriented forward and to the sides, medium or large, after milking, the skin on them is collected in shallow folds.

In goats of other economic orientations, the udder is small, sluggish, loose, not changing after the return of milk, with short breasts. A sagging, stretched, udder dividing during walking, bifurcated, asymmetrical or tapering to the rear part, the presence of excess sucks on it speaks of low productivity.

How to choose a milk goat

Buying for personal farming or for breeding goats at home is troublesome. You should first study the special literature with photos and names of breeds, gather information about sellers, decide on the breed and the desired exterior of the goat (size, presence of horns, type of wool, color).

Choosing an animal should ask the owner:

  • the reason for the sale,
  • age and number of lambing
  • last lactation time
  • how many goats have the goat already brought (2-3 kids of lamb per lamb is considered a good fertility),
  • how the birth proceeded, after how long the afterbirth departed,
  • in the launch of a goat or not, if so, then who is the father of the future kids,
  • feeding regimen and diet (in animals fed with milk for three months - good immunity),
  • were there any procedures for the destruction of helmites and skin parasites,
  • character (easily excitable, bodily goat is able to deliver a lot of trouble),
  • by price.
The cost of an adult goat depends on the breed.

Prices for goat goats of highly productive dairy breeds (Zaanen, Alpine, Toggenburg, Lamancha) can reach 20-30 thousand rubles. The cost of rare for Russia Nubian goats starts from 150 thousand. Untamed goats can be bought for 1.5 - 5 thousand rubles.

Having received the information of interest, proceed to the inspection:

  1. Verify the description of the exterior of the selected breed with the appearance of the animal, inspect the goat from all sides. A healthy goat looks cheerful, moves vigorously, looks lively and fun. Kids are restless and curious.
  2. Estimate sizes. The larger the goat, the higher the milkiness.
  3. Check the state of the udder, skin. Shiny, smooth wool should not be felted, hang in tatters, shine with bald spots. Thin skin, easily otgryvayuschaya on the hips, indicates the purity of the breed. Thick skin and coarse wool are inherent to beef goats.
  4. Spreading the wool, find out whether there are fleas, leeches, ticks or other "living creatures".
  5. Pay attention to the condition of the hooves, joints, nasal sinuses, ears, eyes.
  6. If the deal is made in the summer, it is better to immediately “test” the goat, having milked it. This will help to know the character, the size of the milk yield, the characteristics of the milking (taut or weak udder). Buying a very young goat is interested in milk yield, received from her mother and sisters, but it is better not to buy a goat under two years old.
  7. You can clarify the age by looking into the goat's mouth. At one and a half years, two permanent incisors cut through goats. In two years - the next two. At the age of three, the number of permanent incisors reaches six. In 4-5 years, all the incisors are permanent, in the form of wide spatulas. After reaching the age of six, the gaps between the teeth already appear. By eight years old, the teeth are erased and fall out.
The specific smell of milk appears when the goats are poor in content.

It is believed that buying a goat, you should sniff her head between the horns. If there is no specific "goat" smell, then the milk will not smell. In fact, most modern dairy goats are odorless breeds.. The characteristic unpleasant taste of milk appears when improper feeding, care, joint keeping of a goat together with an adult goat.

Saanen breed

One of the largest and most productive dairy breeds. His pedigree is from the Swiss goats, common in the Zaanensky valley.

Important! Zaanesky goat belongs to the world achievement - 3 507 kg of milk per year.

Characteristics of the breed:

  • pear-shaped udder with well developed nipples,
  • snow-white, rarely ivory-colored, short and thick wool,
  • erect large ears
  • height at withers to 80 cm
  • average weight of goats 50-60 kg, goats up to 110 kg,
  • good yield of meat "bread" category
  • flavourless milk with fat content up to 4.5%,
  • early puberty
  • high fecundity: 2-3 kid goat
  • excellent dairy performance after the third lambing (up to 6 liters per day, about 1000 liters per year),
  • Barley goats do not stop milking for two or more years.
Zaanenskoe goats make up the main livestock on farms.

Zaanensky goats are unpretentious in content, but do not tolerate hot weather. The average life expectancy is 8 years, but some individuals live to 15. The milk production gene is transmitted from the father. If an ordinary goat is crossed with a zaanensky goat, then in 80% of cases the yield of offspring will be close to the yield of zaanensky goats.

Megrelian breed

Megrelians - immigrants from the southern regions of Georgia. Differ in large horns, medium-sized beard. Megrelian wool is rather coarse for milch goats. Its color can be white, chaly, light gray.

Economic characteristics of the breed:

  • average live weight of goats: 45 kg,
  • weight of goats: 55-60 kg
  • height at withers to 70 cm
  • milk yield 400-800 liters per year,
  • average fecundity.

Famous Georgian sorts of cheese, cheese, cottage cheese are made from the milk of Mingrelian goats, distinguished by high fat content and excellent taste.

Megrelian goats are unpretentious and grateful for the good care.

Megrelian goats are especially appreciated for their high viability and high immunity, the possibility of keeping most of the year on pasture. When buying should take into account their heat-loving, goats do not tolerate cold.

Toggenburg breed

Breed bred by Swiss breeders based on local breeds for the production of high-quality varieties of cheese.

Тоггенбургская порода коз используется для получения высококачественного молока.

У тоггенбурских коз:

  • средние размеры (высота в холке 60-70 см, живой вес матки от 40 до 50 кг, самца: 70-80 кг),
  • шелковистая, мягкая, длинная шерсть, закрывающая ноги до коленных суставов,
  • flat, elongated, hornless head with large, erect ears,
  • pretty short legs
  • 400-1000 liters of milk with fat content up to 3-4%, high protein content (high rates are preserved in winter),
  • life expectancy: 7-8 years,
  • main color of brown color of different saturation,
  • on the muzzle, the tips of the ears, on the tail, and the lower part of the limbs are white markings.

Toggenburg goats feel great in Central Russia, in Siberia, in the Far East. They are often used to improve dairy performance and acclimatize other breeds.

Russian white

Domestic, spontaneously bred breed is still not officially recognized because of the great variability of breed characteristics. Bred by crossing local and zaanenskoy breeds. Most often found in the central and north-western regions of the Russian Federation.

Animals of the national breed are different:

  • white in color, but there are also white individuals with black, gray or brown-red burns,
  • a small elongated head with small, straight-set ears, large crescent-shaped horns curved towards the bottom and back (the absence of horns is not considered a breed defect; there are approximately equal numbers of horned and hornless individuals among the population),
  • medium size (a goat weighs 40-50 kg, a goat weighs 55-75 kg, although there are also giant goats with a live weight of 95 kg),
  • straight oriented breasts,
  • slightly sagging croup
  • average milk yield (500-600 liters per year) and high fat milk content of 4-5%,
  • high fertility and precocity,
  • unpretentiousness in maintenance, adaptation to the Russian climatic conditions,
  • long enough life (10-12 years),
  • may be long-haired and short-haired.

Interesting! The skins of white Russian goats are used to produce high-quality leathers.


This breed of dairy goats occurred as a result of the interbreeding of Russian whites and zaanensky. Females and males have rather compact sizes and small weight - from 35 to 60 kg. A distinctive feature of the Gorky breed - the duration of the lactation process is more than 280 days a year.

The Gorky goat breed is very high-deserving, and not whimsical about the content.

Gorky - very high-yielding goats, which have good reproductive qualities. For 1 time they can produce litter in the amount of from 2 to 4 kids.

The average milk yield per day is about 4–5 liters of milk with fat content from 4 to 5.5%.

They have short hair and a small undercoat, for 1 season you can comb out about 250–300 grams of down from an adult.

Gorky goats are unpretentious in conditions of maintenance and do not need a large number of expensive feed. They have thin, but durable leather, which can be used for sewing clothes, shoes, making gloves, belts, etc.


The homeland of this breed of dairy goats is also located in Switzerland. Appeared as a result of crossing Saanen goats with other breeds. It is divided into 3 subspecies: brown, British and Czech.

Wool Toggenburg goats has an average length and mostly brown color (there are spotty representatives). You can determine the breed by the characteristic white stripes on the face and the same color of the legs and edges of the ears. They differ in quite compact size and low weight - from 45 to 55 kg in females and from 60 to 70 kg in males.

Their lactation period is long - from 240 to 300 days a year.

Per day, these goats give 4-7 liters of milk, with fat content of not less than 4%.

For 1 lambing, the female produces 2–3 kids.


The roots of this breed of goats are in Switzerland, a little later they began to be exported to the UK and Switzerland to improve the dairy qualities of the local goats. They have several varieties obtained as a result of crossing.

The color of alpine goats can be of the most different colors - from pure white, or black to spotty, or red. Their coat is short, has no pronounced down undercoat.

Alpine goat breed

They have a long lactation period - from 260 to 300 days a year.

Daily milk intake is high and ranges from 5 to 8 liters of milk per day, which has a fat content of at least 5%.

For one offspring, the female can produce more than two kids.

These animals are famous for their cheerful nature, resistance to disease, weather conditions, as well as a strong attachment to their owner. They like to be in the company of their own kind, but often there are clashes between them.

Czech brown

These goats are quite large in size. Females have a weight from 55 to 70 kg, and males from 65 to 75 kg. Their hair is short, has a reddish-brown shade with characteristic tan points on the stomach, back and legs.

Czech brown goat breed, in addition to high milk yield, is also distinguished by the possibility of obtaining dietary meat

In addition, their meat is considered a dietary product, has high culinary qualities.

They are distinguished by high milk performance, 1 adult female per day can yield from 4 to 7 liters of milk with fat content of more than 4.5%.

Animals of this breed are resistant to diseases, as well as to the effects of wet, wind, or frosty weather. Females are fertile and for 1 lambing can give birth from 2 to 3 kids.

These goats were partitioned in Spain by crossing African and European goats. They have good reproductive and dairy indicators.

During the day one female is able to give from 4 to 8 liters of milk, the fat content of which is from 3.5 to 6%.

Breed of goats Lamancha

Lamanche goats are miniature and have a small weight - from 35 to 45 kg in females and from 50 to 60 kg in males. A characteristic feature of this breed is the short coat of reddish-golden color with black tan points on the back of the body, legs and stripes on the head.

Home improvement for goats

Before you buy a goat, you need to equip a dwelling for it, stock up on food. The room for keeping goats should be dry, clean, not stuffy and without drafts. In summer, goats are sent to the goat house only for the night, during the day they should be on the street all the time. In winter, it is necessary to maintain the temperature not lower than + 7 ° C, and if the goat is in a shed with kids, not less than + 10 ° C. In extreme cold conditions, goats sometimes sew special clothing to protect the udder from the cold. Or, if conditions allow, you can pick up goats in a warmer room, for example, a canopy or porch at home.

In general, these animals are not very afraid of cold, but frost, combined with dampness can cause diseases. Therefore, the goatling should be insulated and equipped in advance. Despite the cold weather, in the winter it is also necessary to take goats outside, but only in calm weather, and at a temperature not lower than -12 ° C.

In the case when there are many heterosexual adult goats in the goatling, it is necessary to arrange for them separate pens, if, of course, strict control over their reproduction is planned. The height of the pen is 130-150 cm, taking into account that the goat can easily jump over the lower partition. The floor of the pen is only a boardwalk.

Milk Goat Care

It is advisable to keep goats separately from other animals in order to avoid infection with lice or worms. Wool requires good care - mats and feces contaminated with feces regularly shorn. If an animal does not walk much, as is usually the case in winter, its hooves begin to grow, and then, when walking, the goat feels acute, severe pain. In the summer you can find a way out - it’s enough to let go of the goat to the asphalt area, its hooves will sharpen themselves. In winter, they will have to be removed with a sharp knife or special tongs. At the same time you need to be very careful not to touch the living place.

Household cleaning should be done every day. With the help of a shovel or any other convenient tool, it is necessary to remove manure, the remnants of food that the goats have not eaten. The litter changes daily. You need to ensure that every day in the watering system was clean, fresh, but not cold water. When frost warmed it, and only then give the goats.

Special requirements and feed. Do not feed goats from galvanized dishes. Goats often change their preferences. Therefore, it is possible that what she ate with pleasure last week today she doesn’t even smell. They can be fed grain, chopped beets, potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, hay. You can also make mash - some of the raw or boiled vegetables are mixed with grains or bran and a small amount of water. Also, goats are happy to graze, but ordinary grass does not always attract them, they often gnaw bark and leaves of fruit trees. Therefore, if you do not want to get operational damage to your garden, it is best to keep the goats on a leash.

Lamancha (Lamancha)

The Lamancha breed is an American goat with an exotic appearance and very small ears. In La Mancha, two types of auditory shells are distinguished: an elf ear with a lowered or raised tip and a length of cartilage up to 5 cm and a very small “dried” ear of a gopher up to 2.5 cm long. If the ear value is exceeded, the animal is rejected.

Characteristic features described in the breed standard:

  • large size, powerful body type,
  • the height of the queens at the withers is up to 75 cm, the average live weight is 60-65 kg, the height of the males is up to 95 cm, the weight is up to 100 kg,
  • straight muzzle
  • short straight wool,
  • multiplicity (up to 4 kids per lamb),
  • high milkiness (up to 8 liters of fat, tasty milk per day),
  • the color varies and the standard is not specified,
  • longevity (goats live on average from 14 to 17 years),
  • calm, gentle, balanced character,
  • endurance, unpretentiousness, lack of a specific smell.

Nubian breed

The only reason why Nubian goats are not widely spread in Russian farms is their high cost. The productive qualities of these tall animals with an elongated body are high, and their appearance is peculiar:

  • height at withers to 90 cm
  • average live weight of queens 55-60 kg, males: 90-130 kg,
  • the head is small, with a characteristic “Roman” nose with a crook, large drooping ears, small horns or without them,
  • the neck is slender, high with a distinct transverse hollow,
  • legs are long, thin,
  • wool is short, shiny,
  • the suit is black, white, brown, red, spotty.
Nubian kids are distinguished by a lively disposition and love to be naughty.

Goats bring 3-4 kids two times a year. Give a year to 900 liters of milk with a sweet smell, delicate taste. In the US official standard, milk fat content is claimed to 4.5-5%, some sources increase the figure to 8%.

Animals are vigorous, mobile, easily excited, often rustle and stern. They have no peculiar smell. The goats do not smell even during the mating period. The meat is soft, juicy.

Cameroon breed

Cameroon goats are dwarf breeds. Goats with thick wavy hair, small beard, amusing short tail and curved horns are often found in the apartments as companion animals, decorated with mini-zoos.

Usually, the weight of the uterus does not exceed 15 kg, and the goat - 25, but despite the small dimensions of the goat can bring considerable income. Undemanding babies for one okot bring from 2 to 4 kids. Per day give up to one and a half liters of fatty, odorless, tasty milk.

Cameroon goats give very tasty and full-fat milk.

Cameroon goat's milk is famous for its ability not to turn sour for a long time. It can be stored in the refrigerator for up to two weeks. The yield of goats lasts until the end of life, with an average duration of 12-15 years. For excellent taste, meat is also appreciated.

Speckled german goat

The German variegated goat is bred on the basis of local German and brown alpine breeds. From her parents, she inherited a light brown, chocolate, dark brown color with a characteristic dark stripe running along the ridge, and a short, smooth coat. The color of the abdomen and limbs varies from light to dark fawn. Both the presence and absence of horns is allowed.

The breed standard was registered in 1928. Representatives of the breed:

  • height of goat at withers 80-90 cm, goats - 70-80 cm,
  • the live weight of the female is 55-75 kg, the male is up to 100 kg,
  • excellent multiplicity
  • temper calm, friendly.
German goats are unpretentious and convenient for maintenance.

Goats undemanding to feed and content, acclimatized to a temperate and sharply continental climate, tolerate frost well, endowed with excellent immunity. For a year a goat gives 850-1000 liters of milk with a fat content of 3.2-3.5%.

The motley goats differ in the shape of the udder and the nicks convenient for both manual and machine milking, which is why they are often bred on industrial farms.

Czech brown

Czech brown or shorthair goat was registered in 1970. In animals with aristocratic appearance, elongated narrow muzzle, small erect ears. The color is black-brown with a longitudinal black stripe running all over the body, a black triangle is required between the ears.

Goats have a large, soft, shapeless, folded udder after milking, which allows the goat to be milked not only by hand, but also by means of milking machines. Due to the high percentage of hermaphrodite birth and small population, the short-haired goat belongs to rare breeds. Often used in breeding to improve milk production.

Czech goats have a friendly, affectionate character.

The economic qualities of the breed are quite high:

  • average live weight of goats is about 50 kg, goats - 70-85 kg,
  • goats at the withers reach 65-75 cm, males - 70-80 kg,
  • 1-2 goats are brought for lambing goats,
  • for the year give 800-1000 liters of milk with a sweetish creamy taste without a specific aroma, fat content of 3.5-4.5%.

Goats quickly become attached to the owner, cheerful, energetic, ready to protect the herd, easy to remember the nicknames and simple commands. They are perfectly adapted to the conditions of highlands, good foragers, love free-range, but they do not tolerate heat and suffer greatly from blood-sucking flying insects.

Video: How to choose a milk goat

The selection of the breed of goats dairy without smell is a very responsible matter. Having decided on the breed, do not forget to pay attention to the external state of the animal, its grooming, playfulness, appetite, udder condition, etc. It is best to personally get acquainted with the owners of pedigree kids and watch their parents, in particular, the amount of milk yield of the pedigree female per day. This will protect against the acquisition of the patient, or unproductive dairy goat.

Goat diseases

Goats are often subject to disease. This usually happens with insufficient care, improper feeding regime, poorly equipped brat. At the first symptoms of any health problems, the sick goat should be isolated, but it is possible that preventive measures will also be needed for healthy individuals. Self-treatment is completely excluded! Only an experienced veterinarian can correctly determine the type and nature of the disease, prescribe treatment. Otherwise, the risk of death of the animal is not excluded.

Consider the most frequent diseases of goats and their causes.

  1. Infection with worms. The reason is grazing on dirty pastures, where other animals graze, untimely replacement of litter or cleaning of faeces, dirty water.
  2. Mastitis. The reason is improper care for the udder, incomplete pumping of milk, delaying or skipping milks.
  3. Food poisoning. The reason is feeding at the same time with such feeds that it is undesirable to combine, fermented, dirty feed, use of pickled feed, dirty water.
  4. Injuries. The reason - the goat itself is an active animal, loves to run, jump. Therefore, you need to remove away all dangerous items, how to equip the goat barn, and then the risk of injury will be reduced to a minimum.
  5. Hoof disease The reason - the wrong conditions, injury, delays in grinding hoofs.

Dairy breeds of goats. a brief description of

In addition to dairy breeds of goats, there is also meat, wool, mixed and downy. These breeds give very little milk, so if your goal is the maintenance of a dairy goat, you need to familiarize yourself with what breeds of dairy goats are. Some of them are not in Russia yet, but their imminent appearance is not excluded. In addition, science does not stand still, constantly carried out breeding, crossing, to obtain more productive breeds of animals. So, what breeds of dairy goats exist:

  • Zaanen,
  • toggenburg,
  • alpine
  • Gorky,
  • Mingrelian
  • nubian

And this is not all breeds. Each of them gives a certain number of liters of milk per year, they differ among themselves in weight, height and color.

Zaanenskaya - the undisputed leader in milk production. Animals are distinguished by white coat color, rather large in size. For lactation able to give from 800 to 1200 kg of milk. Sufficiently demanding on the quality of feed, can poorly acclimatize.

Toggenburg - gives from 500 to 1000 kg of milk per lactation. Color animals, as a rule, is represented by all shades of brown. Well acclimatized, well tolerated cold, may suffer from the heat. Demanding conditions of detention.

Alpine - for lactation, on average, give from 700 to 950 kg of milk. Color varied. Well acclimatized in various climatic conditions. Undemanding to feed. Not a big problem for content.

Gorky - unlike the previous breeds, whose homeland is Switzerland, belongs to the Russian breeds. Feels good in almost any climatic region of Russia. Окрас чаще всего белый, реже встречаются серые козы этой породы. Продуктивность несколько ниже, чем у западных сородичей и составляет от 450 до 650 кг молока за лактацию, однако при соответствующих условиях содержания и оптимальном рационе способна давать значительно больше – до 1200 кг.

Мегрельская – за лактацию дает от 300 до 450 кг молока, отличается нетребовательностью к кормам и хорошим потреблением подножного корма. It does not tolerate cold, it is difficult to acclimatize in the northern regions. Relatively low milk yield is compensated by the increased fat content in milk and the wonderful taste of the product itself.

Nubian - differs in a variety of color from white to brown and black. A characteristic feature of these goats are long and wide drooping ears. Give from 700 to 950 kg of milk per lactation. Demanding on the quality and composition of feed. Distinguished by a calm disposition and a good attitude towards a person, these goats, at the same time, are quite conflicts with each other.

Regardless of what breed you goat goat, it is worth remembering that these are kind and sensitive animals. With a good host attitude towards them, they pay the same, but they are able to remember the insult, to become stubborn and disobedient.

White Banat

New breed of dairy goats of Romania received as a result of mixing white local goat with Zaanensky goat. The main signs of this breed are short ears, not too large saber horns, short hair, the head in profile is straight. White Banat reaches the withers up to 70 centimeters, weight up to 50 kilograms. By purchasing an animal of this breed, you can count on milk yield up to 700 liters of milk.

White Czech

This is the most common breed in the Czech Republic. As well as Belaya Banatskaya was obtained by crossing the local goat with the Zaanen breed. It has a dairy direction of productivity.

Distinctive features - a short, coarse wool cover, the color of the wool is white, the horns on the head are missing. Record milk yield of the White Czech 970 liters of goat milk, with an indicator of fat content of 3.5%.

Goat breed Lamancha

This breed originates in faraway America and was officially registered in 1958. In addition to impressive performance (6-8 liters of milk per day), a distinctive feature of this breed is its multiplicity, the animal can produce up to four kids in one pregnancy.

Lamancha goat breed

In Russia, this breed is quite widespread. A young goat up to one year old will cost from ten thousand rubles to twenty-five.

Features of dairy goat care

First of all, I would like to emphasize that the goat is an extremely freedom-loving animal. And in order to extract the maximum benefit from the animal, you must ensure sufficient walking and grazing, up to 6-7 hours a day, but in the autumn-winter period, the walking hours are reduced to 3-4. You have to know that this animal is extremely difficult to tolerate loneliness, so the ideal option is the initial purchase of at least two individuals, ideally - a young goat with kids.

The goat is not a capricious animal, but must be kept in good conditions. Therefore, you must provide the most comfortable place to keep the animal

The organization of the place of residence

Accommodation should be clean and bright enough, always without drafts. A prerequisite is constant airing, frequent cleaning and timely changing of bedding on the floor.

In order to avoid the appearance of unpleasant odor in milk, goats should be kept separately from goats, since the characteristic smell inherent in goats can be transmitted in consequence to milk.

In the summer, goats are driven into the goat house only for the night. In winter, the animal can live at temperatures up to minus 15 degrees, but ideally - plus 6-8 degrees. You can get acquainted with the photos of goatlings to organize the most comfortable living for animals.

Dairy goat

As for food, the goats are not whimsical in the diet. The animal will be happy to consume both fresh grass and wood food. In the stall period it is worth to stock up on hay from clover and meadow hay. The ideal option for feeding a milk goat is hay, which is cut at the very beginning of flowering, during the period of maximum nutritional value of the grass, namely after seven o'clock in the evening, or in the morning until nine o'clock. In winter, in order to diversify the nutrition of the goat, it should be given aspen, birch and poplar brooms, as well as willow, raspberries and alder. The goat consumption of spruce, pine and aspen branches has a favorable effect on the quantity and quality of milk.

To goat milk gave milk as long as possible, it must be poured at least once a year. A pregnant animal needs good nutrition, the diet must include at least 1 kg of root crops, 1 kg of oats, and in the last month, the roots are replaced with brooms. Feeding kids should also be varied and high-calorie.

Summing up, I would like to say on whatever breed of dairy goats you would not stop the choice, remember that acquiring an animal you get not only liters of fresh goat milk, but also a real pet, a new family member, with character and habits. Love animals, let the cultivation and care of the goats bring much joy.