Animals

Horse structure

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Horses are one of the fastest, strongest and most enduring animals on the planet, which man has been able to tame and take advantage of. Since ancient times, they were used for riding, participated in different wars, transported cargo, were a means of moving in peacetime, etc. It becomes interesting how this animal can withstand such a serious load. To understand this, it is necessary to understand the structure of the horse, its anatomy.

Of great interest is the musculoskeletal system of the horse, which helps it to endure a tremendous load. If you want to connect further life with these animals or just want to be able to ride them, then you need to know their anatomy and basic characteristics.

Horse skeleton

As you can see the horse's skeleton has a very complex structure. Her skeleton is very flexible and agile. This is explained by a large number of joints and ligaments. Thanks to this, the animal moves quickly. The bones are interconnected by sutures or joints. A total of 205 consecutive bones can be counted in the skeleton. Fifty-four bones make up the spine of an animal (although this depends on the horse’s breed, as this figure may vary). And the shoulder girdle, which is formed by the shoulder blades that bind the fore limbs with the ligaments and muscles with the thoracic region, is also important.

Horse skull

Horse head must be is proportional to the body, because the balance of the animal depends on it. The skull of a stallion is very durable, able to withstand serious loads. It consists of 34 solid bone plates, connected by seams. Such a serious defense helps to keep the brain intact even with serious blows. The skull is long and elongated. The brain part accounts for 1/3 of the skull. On the front 2/3 of the skull.

The organs of vision are in the eye socket. In the oral cavity begins the digestive and respiratory system. And also there are vocal cords and endocrine glands. The skull is the most important component of the structure of this animal.. It is very important that there is no damage to the skull, otherwise the life of the animal will be endangered.

Having understood the structure of the skeleton of a horse, let's look at the articles of this animal. Stati are separate parts of the animal’s body that perform various functions. There are about 60 of them. Let's sort out the most important ones.

The head may have different types (depending on the breed):

In the head there are such main partsas ears, mouth, nostrils, teeth, eyes, temples, nose. As in the structure of the head, these parts of the body may have a different structure. For example, the eyes can be both small and large. But the bulging eyes are more welcome as the view improves. The pupil and the iris of the eyes must be dark in color. This suggests that visual impairment is not present. Because of the lateral position of the eyes, they can see everything that happens around without lifting their heads.

Teeth can tell a lot. For example, about health. With age, they begin to change and deteriorate, but this can also occur due to improper nutrition. In normal condition, 40 teeth should be present in healthy stallions.

Ears are also an important part of the building. Thanks to them, you can understand what the mood of the animal. The more mobile the ears, the better the condition of the horse. But if there is a high intensity of such movements, it means vision problems, as the animal tries to catch the information to compensate for its lack. In a calm state, the ears should be relaxed and immobile. But also they must be straight and proportionate to the head.

In the structure of the horse, the neck is very important, as the cervical vertebrae connect the thoracic part with the skull. It helps regulate balance. Long powerful neck gives the horse beauty. And it also affects the speed. A properly shaped neck should be set at 45 degrees to the horizon.

Withers - the part of the body protruding between the head and back. What kind of horse you see depends on it. In case if small withers, the horse will be a cargo, and if tall and long, then this is a sport horse.

The shoulder includes shoulders and humerus. The heavyweights have short shoulders, while the horses, on the contrary, have long. In the event that the blade is at an angle of 45 degrees from the horizon, the movement will be free. But if the angle is less, the animal will have stiffness in movement. And the smaller the angle, the greater the stiffness.

Horse forearm in the right state should look short. It makes her move graceful.

Knuckles

Knuckle joints play an important role. The course and endurance of a horse depends on them. Ideally, they should be wide, then the course of the horse will be softer. It is very important to keep an eye on this part of the body, since the joints often swell up or swelling can form on them.

The hooves of a healthy horse should be free of any cracks and signs of inflammation, they should shine. And the darker the hoof of a horse, the healthier it is.. The shape and size depends on the breed of the animal. Thus, in heavy draft hoofs are wider and flattened, while in racers they are long.

The croup is the back of the animal. This part plays an important role in the movement, since it is due to pushing. It contains the strongest muscles. This part accounts for 60% of the total weight of the stallion. There are several types of cereals:

The race joint is the support of the pelvic girdle. When an animal is overloaded, there is a high probability of edema, which can turn into diseases.

A trained horse's belly will be taut and muscular. But the stomach of a sick animal will stick out. This suggests that the spine is very curved. But it can be not only with sick, but also with healthy horses. For example, in mares that often give birth or in animals that experience constant stress.

Coat

Special covering hairs are formed on the skin of the animal. In warm weather, they are short and smooth, in cold weather - long and fluffy. And there are also special protective hair, located on the mane, legs, bangs, lower jaw, tail. The density and length of such hair depends on the breed.

Horse breed classification

The text has already touched on the topic that there are different breeds of horses with different characteristics. And here are a few classifications that will help not to get lost in the choice of the mount:

  1. Riding. These are very frisky tall and hardy animals. Usually participate in horse racing. There are Akhal-Teke, purebred, Don, Budennovskaya breed, etc.
  2. Trotting. Frisky, lean and workable. There are Oryol, Russian trotter breed, etc.
  3. Sledding Massive, large, workable. There are Thorian, Kuznetsk, Latvian breed, etc.
  4. Heavyweight. They are very large strong and hardy. There are Soviet, Vladimir breed, etc.

The horse is a magnificent animal, able to withstand heavy loads. Even in our time, they will be relevant for a long time, since they can be seen everywhere: in horse riding competitions, parades, in the circus, on farms, in films, even the police use horses as a means of transportation.

And in order to maintain a horse in good condition, it is necessary to monitor its behavior and nutrition, there must be constant care for it. Thanks to all this, she can live a long life. On average, horses live to 25 years. But thanks to good care they can live much longer.

An example of how to weigh a horse

In order to describe the characteristics of the body of the animal, it is necessary to measure and weigh, and not just look at the exterior of the horse. If you know the weight of a horse, then you can determine its individual characteristics of the development of the organs of movement and exterior. See which breed it belongs to. All these data must be used in order to control the development of young animals, during the examination of animals at exhibitions or the installation of purchase prices for workhorses.

Usually, when measuring a horse, 4 measurements are needed: the length of the body, the chest girth, the girth of the metacarpus and the height at the withers.

In order for measurements to be accurate, the horse must stand on four legs, on a flat surface. Next, a person takes a measuring tool and approaches the animal from the left side. On the left side, as a rule, it is more convenient for a person who makes measurements with his right hand, and the horse is more accustomed, as it always saddles on the left.

The height of the withers is measured vertically - the distance from the withers of the animal to the ground. According to this measurement, you can tell the height of the animal. The measuring device looks like a stick, on which there are centimeter divisions. On the stick there is a rake that moves freely. A man must set the stick strictly vertically near the front left foot of the horse. Then he moves the rail and stops it where the highest part of the withers is. If the horse has horseshoes, then one or two centimeters, which are horseshoe thick, are taken from the amount received.

The height of withers can be distinguished ponies - up to 100 cm, very small - up to 140 cm, small - up to 149 cm, medium - up to 159 cm, large - up to 179 cm and very large - above 170 cm. Sometimes, some confuse tall and high-legged. A high height at the withers may be characteristic of both heavy breeds and riding ones. Both of them can be called tall. But a riding horse with long limbs, is already considered high-legged. As a rule, high-legged horses have a narrow body, they are weaker than their colleagues and are not particularly stable. A heavy horse usually has short limbs and a very large chest girth, so it can be called low-legged. Horses with low legs and broad chests usually have slow movements, but they use food well and can maintain their body condition.

In order to measure the chest girth of a horse, you must take a measuring tape or tape measure. With a tape measure, you need to bend around the highest point on the withers and the lower surface of the chest vertically, while touching the back corner on the shoulder blade. Girth of heavy horses usually reaches up to 240 cm, while for large riding animals it varies from 175 to 190 cm.

If you take a stick and measure the distance from the front protrusion of the shoulder, the shoulder joint to the back point of the sciatic mound, you can see the length of the horse’s torso. The format of the horse can be learned from the ratio of height to the head and length of the body. It can be in the form of a square, a standing or lying rectangle.

Horse format

Measuring tape can also measure the circumference of the metacarpus. Usually, the front left leg is measured, around it stretch the tape near the narrowest part. Riding horses have a girth of 18-20 cm, and heavy horses - 23-25 ​​cm. According to the girth of the metacarpus, one can say how the backbone will develop and what it is now, what kind of a fortress it has and so on. If the girth is small, the legs of the horse are usually thin and slender. But excessive dryness is also not welcome.

In order to weigh the animal, use special scales. The animal must be weighed in the morning before it has eaten and drunk. An adult draft carrier can weigh 700–900 kg, while lightweight or upright horses weigh 500 kg, ponies weigh from 100 to 200 kg, and horses of local breeds reach 400 kg.

Horse stati

In order to make it easier to compare the exterior of a horse, parts of their body are distinguished, in horse breeding they are called articles. When assessing the structure of the horse, you should pay attention to such articles as: back, croup, head, lower back, withers, stomach, front and hind limbs and chest. As a rule, the exterior is considered in parts, but always evaluated in general. In assessing the structure of the horse includes the overall constitution and typicality for a particular breed. If a person knows the exterior, then this will help him determine the breed of the horse, its state of health, look at the shortcomings of the structure and the scope of the breed. If the exterior of the animal has pathological changes that are considered a breed defect, then in the future the horse will not be well-functioning, have pedigree value and its monetary value will decrease.

Stati horses figure one

Become a horse

  1. ears
  2. bang
  3. temple
  4. forehead
  5. nose (snoring)
  6. muzzle
  7. head
  8. lips
  9. chin
  10. chin fossa
  11. branches of the lower jaw
  12. ganache
  13. occipital crest
  14. nape
  15. neck comb
  16. side of neck
  17. throat
  18. ice gutter
  19. shoulder blade
  20. chest
  21. paddle
  22. withers
  23. back
  24. loin
  25. macklock
  26. sacrum
  27. tail tail
  28. croup
  29. hip
  30. buttock
  31. sciatic hill
  32. sod
  33. rib cage (ribs)
  34. false edges
  35. sternum
  36. stomach
  37. prepuce
  38. groin area
  39. knee
  40. shin
  41. Achilles tendon
  42. heel
  43. hock
  44. tarsus
  45. chestnuts
  46. spurs
  47. brushes (friezes)
  48. shoulder
  49. cubit
  50. lower arm
  51. carpal joint (wrist)
  52. pyast
  53. putty joint
  54. puto (grandma)
  55. whisk
  56. hoof hook
  57. hoof side wall
  58. foot heel
  59. tail

The temperament and temper of the horse can be partially recognized by its head. The fast-allyn horses usually have a light, small and dry head, while in heavy-duty horses it is damp, large and coarse. The shape of the head can be divided into several types: a) pike or concave profile, b) convex profile, c) hook-nosed profile, d) lop-eared.

Horse ears

In the rapidly allyn horses, the eyes are larger and more prominent, in the heavy haul they are smaller.

According to the degree of protuberance of the eye, it can be said of an extended angle of view and a small dead zone (usually such horses are rarely frightened).

Ganache is the posterior angle at the lower jaw. Ganash are wide and narrow. In the first case, they hold 4 fingers, and in the second - three fingers. Wide ganash has great value, because it does not obstruct breathing. The length and width of the neck can tell about the mobility and attachment of the head to the neck. The nape of the fast-allyn horses is longer than that of the draft horses. If a horse has a short nape, then it is difficult to control.

Because of this, there are some inconveniences when using riding horses. See fig. below: a) short nape, b) long nape.

Horse nape

The neck and head can be considered a regulator of the center of gravity of the animal. When the neck and head fall, the load on the fore limbs increases in parallel, and when it rises - on the back. Heavyweights are born with a short and thick neck, and riding horses with a long and thin. According to the shape of the bend, you can divide the neck into: a) a straight neck, b) a deer (set high with a high yield and a caddy), c) thick or fleshy with a low yield, d) a swan.

Horse neck

The setting of the neck and the way out of its torso can be low, high and normal. It is desirable that all horses have a normally set neck, about 45 degrees to the horizon, and it can also be muscular.

Topline

A good loin is one that is wide, flat and muscular. The length of the tuck is associated with the long loins. In those horses that have a long sigh, they are usually weak and they do not keep up well. So the hedgehog respiratory rate can be determined by the movement of the podsdoho. If the horse is at rest, it makes 12-14 breaths per minute. The intensity of the work of the animal affects the frequency of respiratory movements.

When evaluating croup, then pay attention to the width, length and slope. Riding horses should have straight and long croup. In heavy groats, forked, wide and with well-developed muscles. At the same time, there should be a large slope, due to the fact that there is a difference between the height in maklokah and the ischial tubercles.

A well-developed chest is assessed by depth, length, and width. Heavy trucks have got a wide and rounded cage, but they have a short one. In this case, the ribs are attached to the spine at a more obtuse angle. Riding and trotting horses can boast a deep and long rib cage, which led to a higher position of the ribs. Horses breathe freer when there is a large mobility of the ribs and a large distance between them.

As for the abdomen, in trot and riding horses it is pulled up during training and in a concentrated type of feeding. Large and emaciated animals usually have a lean stomach. Sagging abdomen can be in those horses in which the weakening and stretching of the muscles of the lower abdominal wall.

The development and condition of the limbs of the horse structure, affect the performance of the horse itself. Therefore, when assessing the exterior, they pay a lot of attention. When the horse moves, the fore and hind limbs can perform different roles. Body support is the forelimbs, and the rear are needed in order to ensure the movement of the animal forward. The front legs are usually wider than the hind legs, the bones of the front limbs are shorter and directed vertically. Unlike the hind legs, the front ones are articulated at a more obtuse angle.

The long and slanting blade serves as a good sign for all horses. It can provide a great deal of forward movement of the shoulder joint. Also due to this move becomes wider and wider and increases the rise of the legs and takeaway. When assessing the forearm, then look at its muscularity and length. The ratio with the metacarpus is also taken into account. It must be somewhere 1/3 longer than the pasterns. The wrist itself must be developed, wide and dry. The wrist is usually clearly delineated, visibly protruding above the metacarpus.

The pasterns of good breeds must be short, well developed and have the correct formulation without nakostnikov. When evaluating metacarpus, they look at the length, shape, dryness, girth, and contour of the tendons.The thickness of the metacarpus can tell how strong and developed the backbone is.

If we compare the bones of the hind and fore limbs, then the first ones are longer and have increased strength. The muscles of the front legs are usually not as strongly developed as those of the hind ones. Quick-ally horses have well developed long shin and thigh muscles, but stepping horses have gluteus.

A good thighbone is a long and well muscled thigh. When the bones of the hip are longer, the removal of the hind legs and torso increases, and the stride becomes longer.

The hock is an organ of the hind limb, which is distinguished by its springiness. The joint should be dry, wide and developed. Normal staging of the legs is considered when the angle of the hock is 150 degrees.

The knotted joints of the fore and hind limbs of an animal absorb shock when the horse moves. They must also be well developed, dry, clear and not thickened. But behind the fetters joints in horses grow long hair, which is called brushes or friezes. Brushes help protect tendons and joints from damage.

While the horse is moving, the headstocks take over the entire body, acting as a spring mechanism that transfers the weight to the hoof. Grandmas can be distinguished by thickness, dryness and length. An animal needs hooves for protective, buffering and hooking functions. The hind feet of horses are usually smaller than the front and have a thicker sole. The shape and strength of the hoof may vary depending on age, gender, constitution, and the conditions in which the horse is kept.

Limb setting

  • a) clubfoot
  • b) normal setting
  • c) mark
  • d) X-shaped
  • e) normal
  • e) O-shaped
  • h) strongly laid back hind legs
  • h) saber set
Horse limbs

set tail can be: a) high, b) correct, c) pressed

Horse tail

Types of horse constitution

The constitution of a horse is the structure of the body and the constitution of the animal.

Type of constitution can be poured into 4 types:

  1. The coarse type is massive bones, voluminous muscles, thick skin covered with coarse hair. Horses of this type have a very thick mane, brushes and tail.
  2. Gentle type - thin, but strong bones, not very bulky muscles, thin skin, which is covered with soft and short hair.
  3. Thick or dry type - strong, not strong bones, dense, well-developed muscles, thin and dense skin, covered with thin hair.
  4. Loose or wet type - massive, but not enough dense bones, voluminous, loose muscles, thick skin, thickly covered with hair.

Horse anatomy - structural features

Anatomy is the main subject for veterinary specialists. Knowledge of the features of the structure of the horse allows you to compare normal and pathological conditions, to conduct clinical diagnostics, in time to respond to errors in feeding and maintenance.

Also important is the anatomy of a horse when selecting animals for a tribe - knowledge of the structure of the horse's body will make it possible to correctly judge its exterior and the compliance of its breed.

Horse organs and tissues form the systems responsible for movement, digestion, breathing, and other important functions.

Horses in the process of evolutionary transformations have reached the maximum level of development of the organs of motion - their body is intended for rapid movement. The apparatus of the movement of animals can be divided into static (skeleton and tendons) and active (musculature) systems. In the horse's skeleton, 220-225 bones are distinguished, which can be interconnected as follows:

  • seams - so the bones of the skull are connected after birth, in the womb the bones are not connected, which allows the fetus to pass the birth canal
  • joints - a movable joint that allows movement in different directions (depending on the structure of the joint, degrees of freedom),
  • cartilage - durable, elastic formation, performing a cushioning function,
  • tendons - often complement the joints, limiting their mobility.

The skeleton of a horse performs the function of a skeleton on which muscles, skin, and various organs are attached. Bones also largely protect internal organs from injuries - chest, skull, pelvic cavity. Bone tissue has an anatomical and chemical structure.

They distinguish between mineral substance (calcium salts, phosphoric compounds, sodium, magnesium and other elements) and organic fibers (collagen, elastic). The body of a tubular bone is called a diaphysis, it is outside covered with a periosteum of connective tissue, and the inside is represented by bone cells.

The ends of the bone are called cartilage-covered epiphyses. The epiphyses themselves are composed of spongy substance and bone marrow.

An axial and peripheral skeleton is formed from the bones. The axial skeleton of a horse consists of the skull, the bones of which create protective cavities for the brain, sensory organs, the anterior part of the digestive system.

It also includes a vertebral column, consisting of vertebrae connected by cartilage. In the thoracic region, the ribs and sternum are attached to the vertebrae, which form a protective chest for the heart and lungs.

The periphery consists of the belts of the thoracic and pelvic limbs. It is a system of tubular bones connected by joints and ligaments, providing movement of the horse.

Ligaments go to each of the bones - connective tissue fibers, the other horses of which are attached to the muscles. The musculature consists of shrinkable cells covered with fascia.

Muscles provide the movement of the horse, its facial expressions and the work of the internal abdominal organs.

Leather and its derivatives

Horse skin is thin, its development is explained by pedigree features, age, constitution, features of the content.

The thinnest skin is in race horses, and in heavy-stressed animals, the integuments have a rough character. Thin skin type allows you to increase heat transfer, which is necessary for race horses under heavy loads.

The local breeds (Yakut, Bashkir, Mongolian) skin has a developed coat.

In horses, sweat glands are highly developed, which prevent the animal from overheating during a heavy load, as a result of which they are covered with soap.

In the thicker skin are the hair follicles - special formations from which the hair is formed. The horse distinguishes the covering type of hair, which forms the basis of the coat, the long type forms the mane and tail, and the sinuosal hair performs the functions of the organs of touch.

The most solid derivative of the skin is the hoof horn - a sturdy capsule covering the distal finger phalanges. The hoof has a complex structure that provides a constant renewal of the solid wall, cushioning when walking, and protection from uneven ground.

Digestive canal

The digestive system in horses has undergone major changes in the course of evolution. The greatest changes affected the intestines, in which huge chambers were formed - colon and caecum, the volume of which exceeds 100 liters. They make the main digestion of roughage - the decomposition of fiber into lighter carbohydrates.

The digestive canal is a tube, with various extensions (organs and departments) along its length. In all parts of the tube is represented by three layers - mucous (internal), serous (external) and muscle (medium). There are slight differences, so there are three layers of muscle in the stomach. Also in the intestine and acorn on the mucous are a variety of glandular cells.

The first section is the oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus. Here are the teeth, lips, which feed is captured, partially crushed. The tongue mixes and moves further down the esophagus into the lower divisions. This organ plays a minimal role in the digestion of food in horses, although up to 50% of light sugars can be processed with the participation of saliva.

The horse's stomach is represented by lateral expansion with a capacity of up to 12-16 liters. It is customary to distinguish three parts:

  • cardiac (so named because of its proximity to the heart) in which the connection of the esophagus and the stomach. Horses have a peculiarity - lack of vomiting due to oblique entry of the esophagus into the stomach and the formation of concentric muscle fibers around the hole,
  • pyloric (transition to the intestine), here are areas of the digestive glands,
  • medium (blind bag) - takes up over 50% of the stomach, here the processing of food by microorganisms occurs.

Next is the thin intestine, which continues to be processed feed. A significant role in digestion at this stage is playing the secrets of the glands - my own secretory cells of the intestine and credited (liver, pancreas). Also in the thin section is decontaminated food com.

The greatest value in the digestion of a horse is a thick section - it occupies a large part of the abdominal cavity (the volume of large heavy-weight breeds can reach 200 liters).

The colon and caecum are inhabited by microorganisms that convert non-digestible cellulose into a milder form. In addition, a huge number of protozoa and bacteria that serve as protein feed for horses are killed every day.

The thick section consists of the blind, colon and rectum.

A large role in the process of digestion of food is played by glands:

  • The salivary (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) glands are necessary for the production of saliva entering the oral cavity. Under its action, feed is moistened, partial destruction of sugars,
  • the liver is a large gland. Its lobules produce bile, which enters the duodenum through the ducts. Under the action of this substance, the structure of fats is destroyed, their hydrophobic properties are lost, which allows them to be absorbed,
  • the pancreas is located behind the stomach and produces enzymes that break down proteins, starch, milk sugar, fats.

Features of gas exchange

For a horse to move quickly, a large amount of oxygen is needed. The anatomy of its respiratory organs has certain features. Respiratory organs are divided into pneumatic and gas exchange. The former have the shape of a tube, along which a mixture of gases flows in both directions, and the latter includes alveolar tissue, in which carbon dioxide is exchanged for oxygen.

The first difference in the anatomy of the respiratory organs of horses is the presence of a palatine curtain, due to which only nasal breathing is possible. In the nasal cavity is located four course, covered mucous. They carry out the normalization of air temperature, the removal of some impurities, the fight against microorganisms. Then the air goes into the larynx and trachea - cartilaginous tubes.

Light horses occupy most of the chest. This is a paired organ consisting of parenchyma. It is formed by the alveolar and bronchial tree. The framework of the lung is represented by bronchi - these are hollow tubes of cartilaginous tissue, similar to the trachea, but of smaller diameter.

On them the air inhaled by a horse goes to smaller ways - bronchioles, and then to alveoli. The latter are the structural unit of the lung; a large number of blood vessels carrying blood rich in carbon dioxide are suitable for them. Due to the difference in the partial pressure, carbon dioxide in the blood is replaced by oxygen.

Now the air is saturated with carbon dioxide, is expelled from the lungs.

The act of breathing is initiated by a special center located in the brain. Irritation in it comes with an increase in carbon dioxide.

In response, a signal is given to reduce the intercostal muscles, trapezius, and other muscles of the inspirators. A significant role is played here and the abdominals, especially in stallions. Next is the act of exhalation.

Also horses can independently regulate the rate of breathing.

Blood and blood supply organs

The vessels in the horse's body form a huge network, in the center of which is the heart. This is a hollow muscular organ consisting of four chambers - a pair of atria and ventricles. The heart is located in the chest, its tremors can be felt at the intersection of the elbow joint and 4-6 ribs. The heart wall consists of three layers:

  1. endocardium, the inner layer that does not have blood vessels, its cells are powered by the blood of chambers. Its most important element is the valves - semilunar, bivalve, aortic, which prevent the backflow of blood,
  2. myocardium - muscular, middle layer. It consists of a special type of musculature and a system of its own innervation. Due to this, the heart can shrink without interruption and influence from outside
  3. the epicard is the outer shell, with coronary vessels passing through it. A heart shirt is placed on top of the epicardium.

Contraction of the left ventricle blood is sent to all organs - through the aorta through the smaller main vessels to the peripheral capillaries, suitable to all corners of the horse's body.

There is an exchange of gases, nutrients and metabolic products.

Now venous blood is moving away from the tissues - first through the small vessels, then through the venules into the main veins and then into the jugular vein, which flows into the right atrium.

So begins the small circle of blood circulation - through the pulmonary artery venous blood goes to the respiratory organs, to enrich it with oxygen. After gas exchange in the lungs, the blood from them moves through the veins to the left atrium. So ends the full cycle of blood circulation.

Red bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and liver are responsible for the production of blood elements.

In postnatal development in horses, the red bone marrow performs the main function of blood formation; moreover, it is the only organ where red blood cells are formed.

In the spleen, only lymphocytes and platelets can be produced, but also in it there is an accumulation of formed elements (up to 15-20%) and the processing of deceased red bodies. Thymus in horses is usually completely reduced by 2-3 years.

In parallel with the circulatory system is located lymphatic system. This is a network of vessels with many centers in the form of lymph nodes. Lymph is a tissue fluid with a small proportion of blood elements, primarily lymphocytes. White blood cells are produced in the lymph nodes. In the case of local pathology, there is a massive release of lymphocytes from the regional node.

Excretory and genital systems

Blood filtration and removal of harmful substances and metabolic products from the body by the kidneys. In the horse, they have a smooth surface, the shape of the left heart-shaped, and the right - bean-shaped.

Topographically, the kidneys of the horses are located on under the transverse vertebral processes at the level of the last thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae. The kidney consists of a cerebral and cortical substance, divided by stroma (connective tissue) into lobules.

In each, nephrons are located next - coiled glomeruli through which blood is filtered, and the formation of primary urine.

Formed by the kidneys fluid accumulates in the tubs, and gradually released by the ureters - a paired tube-like organ.

Further urine enters the bladder - it is a thin-walled organ that has a pronounced folding in the emptied state. The urethra moves away from the bladder.

In mares, it opens in anticipation of the vagina, and in stallions it forms the urogenital canal, which also serves to remove sperm.

The genitals are located in close anatomical and functional connection with the system of excretion. Breeding bodies of females:

  • the ovaries are the paired glands responsible for the formation of germ cells and hormones,
  • fallopian tubes - the egg cell moves through them,
  • the uterus is a tubular organ that serves as the receptacle of the fetus. The mares have a developed body and two small horns,
  • the vagina is a hollow organ, during the period of arousal of a horse is covered with a large number of epithelium,
  • external genitalia - large and small lips, vestibule, clitoris.

In stallions, the sex glands are called the testes - these are large paired organs located between the hips of the male in a special leathery sac - scrotum. The location of the genital glands of the stallion outside the body is necessary for the maturation of sperm. In addition to the testes and horses, the vesicle (up to 12 cm) and prostate glands are developed.

The introduction of sperm into the birth canal of the mare is carried out by the sexual penis. The stallion has a massive, laterally compressed body. The penis consists of a developed cavernous body, which is filled with blood in the process of erection, which leads to an increase in the penis and its acquisition of hardness. Inside the horse's penis passes the urogenital channel.

Regulatory functions

The work of all the above systems and organs is subject to neurohumoral regulation. Due to the brain, spinal cord and endocrine glands, the process of respiration, digestion, excretion and reproduction is carried out. There is some autonomy in the circulatory system, but the formation of blood cells is also fully regulated.

Endocrine glands:

  • the thyroid gland is small (up to 40 grams and up to 4 cm long), has a lobed structure, produces hormones that accelerate the growth of bone tissue of a horse, metabolic processes,
  • parathyroid participate in calcium metabolism,
  • adrenal glands - red paired organs with a mass of 5-40 grams. The main function - the production of adrenaline, affecting the sympathetic nervous system.

Связь между эндокринной и нервной системой осуществляется через гипофиз. Это отдел мозга, состоящий из адреногипофиза (выработка гормонов) и нейрогипофиза (нервная регуляция). Гипофиз осуществляет преобразование нейронных импульсов в гормоны, которые затем влияют на другие железы и системы. Также возможна и обратная схема воздействия.

Строение головного мозга лошади очень сложное.

It distinguishes areas that regulate the functions of internal organs, the processing of signals from the senses, and the cortex of the hemisphere, which is responsible for higher nervous activity.

The function of the spinal cord is to connect the brain and peripheral parts of the nerve fibers, which allows you to instantly produce a response to various external stimuli.

We study the anatomy of horses from A to Z

The study of anatomy begins with a review of the skeleton and articles of the animal. The horse’s skeleton consists of 252 bones that perform motor and support functions.

The bones of such a large, but very dynamic animal are subjected to large static loads. Therefore, the skeleton has a very high strength.

For comparison, the bones of horses can withstand compression in 2-3 times more than granite, and in terms of tensile strength, they are close to cast iron or brass.

To learn more about what the horse's skeleton consists of, as well as how many bones you have, you can look at the photo.

Horse Skeleton Diagram

It is a part of a horse’s body that performs a specific function in its body.

Inspection of the animal according to the articles, taking into account age and sex, allows you to accurately assess its external data, to identify the advantages and disadvantages.

In a professional examination, the exterior is evaluated in several dozen articles that are grouped into three groups: 1 - head, neck, torso, croup, 2 - limbs, 3 - addition or constitution.

Stati horses - scheme

Head structure

Causes the horse's skull. How it looks and its composition, look at the photo.

It may have several profile options: straight, bilch (or concave) and convex (or hook-nosed). All these three variants differ in the structure of bones and are present in different breeds.

Pike is more characteristic of animals living in hot desert zones. This profile reduces the possibility of sand entering the nostrils, as well as additionally heat the inhaled air.

Therefore, it is characteristic of such a breed as the Arabian thoroughbred.

The direct profile, on the contrary, allows a good flow of air to pass through the nostrils of the animal, and provides a large gas exchange. Therefore, such a horse muzzle is typical for most of the upper breeds.

For example, it has purebred riding horses, working horses and lightweight horses. As for the hook-nosed snout, it most often indicates the rudeness of the constitution, but does not affect the working qualities.

For example, it has a Hanover breed, as well as some trotters.

Also, when considering the horse's skull, it is very important to pay attention to such a zone as ganash or the corners of the mandible. The space between the ganache is called a sub-branch or a base and it greatly influences the use of the horse.

For example, a narrow distance badly affects the work of the animal in the collection. It should be so wide that when bending the neck, breathing is not difficult.

It is believed that the width is sufficient if a fist can fit between the ganache.

This is one of the most important organs of sense that affects its perception of the world around. Horses' vision is characterized by a very large overview.

Due to the lateral position of the eyes, a horse, without even turning its head to the side, sees what is happening on its side. However, it is worth remembering that there is a so-called "blind zone".

This is a narrow segment of a circle that covers the area right in front of your nose, as well as dropping the croup.

The eyes of horses must be well open, fairly prominent with a thin eyelid and long eyelashes. Horse eyes too bulging speak of visual impairment.

The iris and the pupil itself must be dark, brown or black. However, horses are also found with pigmentation disorders - “sortie eye”.

As practice shows, this does not affect the performance or other qualities of the animal and is associated only with skin pigmentation.

Like in other animals, the teeth form the oral cavity along with the tongue and jaws. They are large enough and strong for rubbing roughage. Adult stallions have a normal 40 teeth: 12 incisors, 24 molars and 4 canines. At mares, as a rule, there are no canines. By how many teeth and their shape is determined by the age of the animal.

Often there are various defects and defects of the jaws, for example, excessive bulge, overbite and so on. Of particular importance is the toothless edge of the jaws. This zone starts from the last incisor and up to the first mote tooth. It is in this part of the horse's mouth that the bit or bit is inserted. Therefore, its sensitivity and peculiarity is important for working qualities.

An integral part of the head of horses and are an important sense organ. So, they should be proportional to the head or slightly smaller. They consist of soft cartilaginous tissues, therefore they are distinguished by great mobility. They are located high and normally have a standing position. They can be rounded at the ends, pointed and straight.

By mobility and movement of the ears, one can judge not only the mood and condition of the animal, but also some of its shortcomings. For example, fixed ears can talk about deafness. But too mobile often indicate a visual impairment. Due to the sounds of these horses are trying to compensate for the lack of information. In a quiet state, the ears are relaxed, slightly tilted to the sides.

Nose and nostrils

Horses can have nostrils with thick walls, more closed, which indicates a lack of a constitution. Excitable animals more often have mobile nostrils with thin walls.

In the nose of the horses must be present clear as water liquid, which moisturizes the mucous membrane. If it is sticky or muddy, then it says about the disease of the animal.

In a quiet state, the nostrils of the horses practically do not move.

Body structure

The structure of the horse is associated with such a concept as the constitution. This is a collection of all physiological and morphological features that are responsible for the exterior of the animal.

The constitution is determined by individual development, as well as heredity. Today they secrete a strong and dense body - a dry constitution, a coarse, loose - damp.

Desirable is dry with a dense build and good muscle.

Normally, the neck should be 25-30% longer than the head. However, its shape and length are different for different horses. For example, a long neck can speak of greater maneuverability and speed of a horse. But then a horse with a short neck is less tired, as the airway shortens. Although it says about the poor development of the front muscles and less mobility.

The shape of the neck of the horses is curved or swan, as well as straight. The most convenient is the straight neck, but with a well-convex nape. On the outer part of the neck is growing horse mane. In some horses it is thick and long, in others it is shorter and more rare.

One of the important places in the structure of the front of the body. The withers of the horse connects the shoulder blades with the rest of the body and may have different lengths and heights. For example, high withers provide a good movement of the neck and head. But long and low means an oblique shoulder blade that allows you to make a large removal of the front legs.

Also evaluated in form and length. Ideally, it should be an optimal proportional structure. The long back can tell about the looseness of the constitution, the bad ligament of the front part and the croup. Often this is exactly what is found in working horses. The short one, on the contrary, conveys well the work of the hind limbs, but reduces maneuverability.

The shape of the back is soft - sagging, carps - convex and straight - a slight bend. The most acceptable form is considered straight. But sagging often occurs due to improper saddles, injuries to the withers or lower back. Carp shaped speaks of very good coordination and communication in front and behind. This form of the back is welcomed in working horses.

Estimated by length, width and slope. This is a very important part of the horse's body. Ideally, the croup should be approximately 35% of the length of the shell. Shorter lengths are allowed only for race horses. If we estimate the width, then when viewed from the back, it should cover the entire body.

As for the slope, the croup can be deflated, normal and straight. Different horses it is different, but most often it is normal. For race horses, a more acceptable lowered, as it allows you to make good front legs. But the direct croup is typical for steppe horses. The shape of the most desirable is oval croup.

Thorax and belly

The chest is assessed by depth and width. At the same time, depth is more important for riding breeds, and width - for heavy trucks. Deep chest is characteristic of a large volume of the lungs and heart. It is also important to evaluate the roundness of the ribs. The more they are round, the greater the capacity of the chest.

As for the belly, then normally it should be taut, hay, that is, rounded at the bottom, and smoothly continue the line of the chest. A heavily-drawn abdomen indicates a lack of bowel or some kind of disease. But too bulging or saggy belly indicates excess weight and muscle flabbiness.

Limbs

Horse legs are crucial for their use and performance.

Looking at the skeleton, we see that the forelimbs consist of shoulder blades, shoulder joint, shoulder, elbows, shoulder, wrist, gang joint and hoof.

The hind legs consist of the hip joint, thigh, knee, lower leg, hock joint, metatarsus, put joint and also the hoof. Especially good muscles should be exactly on the hind limbs.

Horse hooves - the most important part of the body. Their diseases and injuries lead to lameness and even loss of ability to move. It consists of three layers: the horny or shoe, the base of the skin and the subcutaneous layer. For more details on the structure of the horse's leg, see the photo diagram.

Tail and mane

Of course, without these hairs it is difficult to imagine any normal horse. Horse mane covers the entire neck, starting from the forehead - bangs and ending with withers.

The horse’s tail begins at the end of the croup, the tail of the needle, and continues down to the knot joint. The length is determined by the breed and the way of keeping the animal.

Both the tail and the mane of a horse have the same color, but may differ from the main color of the body.

Horse Skeleton - Care and Treatment | CONVOD

| CONVOD

The horse is one of the first wild animals tamed by man. For many millennia, it helps to survive on earth. And any person must know the internal structure and features of the horse's skeleton.

The horse’s skeleton consists of 252 separate bones that are connected together in a specific order. Every bone outside is covered with a dense leathery shell - "periosteum". The bone is penetrated by the blood vessels that feed it, whereas the periosteum concentrates mainly on the nerves.

1 Spinal column = 54 vertebra (7 cervical, 18 thoracic, 6 lumbar, 5 sacral (grown) 18 caudal (average)).

2 Thorax = 37 bones (18 pairs of ribs and one sternum).

3 Skull = 34 bones (including 3 auditory ossicles in each of the two cavities of the middle ear).

4 Chest limbs = 40 bones (including 3 sesamoid bones in each limb).

5 Pelvic limbs = 40 bones (including 4 sesamoid bones in each limb).

Bones are made up of organic matter (characteristic of the body - the body) and of mineral substances (typical of minerals, - stones).

Minerals give the bones the necessary hardness, and the organic substances impart to the bones some elasticity, without which the bones would be too fragile and with every strong impact or fall of the animal would be at risk of fracture.

The body needs minerals to form bones from food and drink. This makes clear the importance of having a sufficient amount of lime and other mineral substances in the feed and drink.

The bones of the skeleton are connected to each other either motionless, by means of so-called sutures, or movably in the form of joints. In the latter case, the articular ends of the bones are covered with a layer of cartilage. Two such ends of the bones are fastened as a sleeve with a "sumochnaya" bundle. Very often for reinforcement one, two or more lateral tendon ligaments are attached to the sumoid ligament.

The bones included in the skeleton are very diverse in appearance, shape and size.

The bones of the head for the most part have the appearance of plates, more or less curved. Connecting to each other through seams, they form protected cavities in which important organs are placed. Thus, the brain, the organ of hearing are placed in the skull, the eye in the orbit, the digestive and respiratory tracts get into the oral and nasal cavities, etc.

From the skull, along the neck, back and waist, there are bones connected in series - the vertebrae forming the spinal column, or the spine. It distinguishes: 7 vertebrae of the cervical, 18 - dorsal and 6 - lumbar.

The large openings in each vertebra merge into a long vertebral canal that contains the so-called spinal cord when the vertebrae join.

Direct continuation of the spine is the sacral bone, consisting of several intergrown vertebrae, and finally, a series of caudal vertebrae, which form the basis of the tail.

From the eighteen dorsal vertebrae, 18 ribs extend from the bottom to the right and left, which, with the help of intermediate dense, half ossified cartilages, are connected below with the chest bone. The ribs are curved bone plates, facing outward and backward with their bulges.

Thus, a bone cell is obtained, bounded above by the dorsal vertebrae, from the sides by the ribs, below by the chest bone and intermediate cartilage. This cage, called the thorax, limits the "thoracic cavity", which in its front part is narrow and constricted from the sides, and expands in the back in the form of a round bell.

In the chest cavity are placed: lungs, heart, large blood vessels, blood vessels pass through it, food piping and various nerves.

The pelvic bones that have grown together are moving away from the sacral bone. Their connection with the sacral bone is dense, little mobile.

In this way, a second bone ring is formed, embracing the "pelvic cavity", which is bounded: from above — by the sacral bone, from the sides by the iliac bones, and from the bottom — by the pubic and ischial bones.

In the pelvic cavity is part of the genital and urinary organs and part of the intestines.

The space between the rib cage and the pelvis has only bone support from the lumbar vertebrae, and from the sides and bottom it closes with the abdominal muscles. This space, adjacent to the front of the chest, and behind the pelvic cavities, is called the abdominal cavity and accommodates part of the urinary organs and most of the digestive organs.

Two more pairs of legs or limbs join the described part of the skeleton, which forms the basis of the head and torso. The basis of the forelimbs are the scapula, the humerus, the radius and ulna bones, the eight carpal bones, the metacarpal bone with 2 slate grips, the goose bones with 2 sesamoid, the crown bone, the hoof bone with the shuttle.

The basis of the hind limbs is composed of: Femur or thigh, Patella (col. Cup), Shank bone, or shin, with the fibula, Bones (six) of the hock, Plutus bone with 2 slate, Cranial bone with 2 sesamoid, Crown bone, The hoofed bone with the shuttle.

The large bones of the limbs belong to the tubular bones. They have inside the cavity, made the so-called bone marrow. This substance, despite its name, has nothing to do with the nervous tissue of the brain and consists of adipose tissue (fat), rich in blood.

The bones of the limbs are connected between themselves movably, - joints, fastened with ligaments.

The forelimbs are connected to the trunk with the help of muscles, and the hind limbs - through the joint.

The skeleton is a solid foundation for the soft parts of the body, gives the body stability, a certain shape and size and contains in its cavities important organs of the body.

The skeleton (as mentioned above) consists of 252 bones and is subdivided as follows:

I. Bones of the head.

A. Bones of the skull.

Occipital bone 1 Sickle bone 1 Dark bones 2 Frontal bones 2 Temporal bones 2 Main bone 1

Ethmoid bone 1

Hearing bones: Anvil Hammers 2 Stripped bones 2

Lenticular bones 2

B. Bones of the face.

Nasal bones 2 Lacrimal bones 2 Zygomatic bones 2 Large jaw bones 2 Small jaw bones 2 Palatine bones 2 Pterygoid bones 2 S osticular bone 1 Nasal concha 4 Maxillary bone 1

Hyoid bone 1

Teeth: Cutters 14 Fangs 4

Pinnacles 24

Ii. The bones of the body.

A. Bones of the spinal column.

Cervical vertebrae 7 Sacral bone 1 Spinal vertebrae 18 Tail vertebrae 18

Lumbar vertebrae 6

B. Bones of the chest.

Ribs 36
Thoracic cavity 1

B. The bones of the pelvis.

Ilia bones 2 Pubic bones 2

Sciatic bones 2

Iii. The bones of the limbs.

A. Bones of the forelimbs.

Shoulder bones 2 Shoulder bones 2 Radius bones 2

Ulna bones 2

Wrist bones: Hook bones 2 Polygonal bones 2 Sphenoid bones 2 Cuboid bones 2 Conical bones 2 Scaphoid bones 2 Semilunary bones 2 Pea-shaped bones 2 Metacarpal bones 2 Slate bones 4 Sesame-shaped bones 4 Cross bones 2 Crown bones 2 Hocks bones 2

Switch bones 2

Б. Кости задних конечностей.

Бедренные кости 2 Подколенные кости 2 Большие берцовые кости (голени) 2

Малые берцовые кости 2

Кости скакательного сустава:

Heel bones 2 Roller bones 2 Cubed bones 2 Large navicular bones 2 Small navicular bones 2 Sphenoid bones 2 Metatarsal bones 2 Slate bones 4 Sesamoid bones 4 Putty bones (2) Coronary bones 2 Hoof bones 2

Small bones 2

Bones and ligaments are called passive organs of motion.

Horse structure

Description of a horse of any breed starts from the exterior, where the most important features and features of the structure are indicated: neck, withers, head profile, shoulder and back structure, length of croup, limbs.

The most common defects are also indicated in the description: softness of the back, saber hair, face of dibs, etc. To understand all the features of the exterior of the animal can only understand the structure of the horse.

Features of the horse skeleton

The skeleton of a horse includes more than two hundred bones. Each bone of the skeleton is covered with durable periosteal tissue and pierced with a large number of blood vessels. A large number of nerve endings are collected in the periosteal tissue, transmitting signals to and from the brain.

All bones are interconnected - some moving joints, some connections are still. The bones that make up the horse’s skeleton are diverse in shape, size, appearance, and strength.

So the horse's skull consists of thirty-four fairly strong and flat bones, interconnected by sutures. The bones are immobile, and their strength allows them to withstand quite strong blows.

However, it is much lighter than the skull of cows or even pigs, and its shape is more streamlined and pointed. Bones of extremities are distinguished by mobile joints and thicker, more rounded shape.

Features of the structure of the trunk, legs and head of a horse

Regardless of the breed, destination, age or gender, the structure of the horse’s body is not personalized and consists of:

The science of horses or hippology - gives a clear description and definition of each part of the equestrian skeleton, its features, functionality, as well as possible defects and shortcomings.

Horse's head

The expressiveness of a horse's head depends entirely on the breed of the animal. The profile can be convex, concave, straight, with a small crook.

A beautiful head should have the correct proportions, be dry, with light lines, moving ears, wide and open, clean nostrils, well-defined ganaches. The correct length of the head is 2/5 of the height of the animal at the withers.

The optimal position of the head is at a 45 degree angle to the neck. This set does not create problems for the work and collection of the horse, does not cause problems with breathing and health.

The eyes of a horse are large and expressive, with long and often thick cilia. As in humans, the eyes of an animal may express fatigue or fear, reflect good or poor health, show mood.

The eyeball must be clean and clear - any clouding indicates a serious problem in the health of the horse. These noble animals are not adapted to breathing through the mouth.

Inhale and exhale through the nostrils, covered with very sensitive and thin skin with long thin hairs that perform a tactile function.

The nostrils of horses are mobile, they can open widely, providing a greater flow of air. Lips are also covered with tactile hairs and soft skin. The stallions have forty teeth, the mares thirty-six.

With age, teeth grind down. The sperm iron rests on the toothless edge of the mouth, located between the incisors and the molars.

Toothless edge of the mouth - a feature of the horse's jaw structure, and not the result of removing some of the teeth, as many people think.

From the length of the neck, bending, the right position depends on the performance of the animal. The neck can have a low, medium or high output, and vary also high or low, or medium set.

The science of horses describes the three basic forms of the neck of an animal: straight, deer (tangle) and swan. A straight neck can also be short or long, fleshy, thin. Swan neck has a beautiful bend, long lines of the neck.

The reindeer neck has a convex lower edge and a straight or concave upper.

Horses with a long swan neck are larger and better adapted for gathering, which is important when working in dressage and jumping.

Deer neck often leads to breathing problems due to a crooked throat. The performance of the horse and the overall exterior depend on the neck position. A very high neck position leads to a concavity of the back, softness, sagging. Low postav - to a convex, carp, hunchbacked back.

The length of a horse's neck depends a lot on the breed. The longest neck in riding horses. Heavy and draft horse breeds have a short and fleshy neck.

For riding breeds, an unnecessarily short neck is a significant drawback - it makes it difficult for a worker to collect a horse, and prevents normal breathing and free movement.

The horse's body is the main and most complex part of the structure of the animal. Withers - the highest point of the body, above the shoulder. It is on the withers that the height of the animal is measured. The withers can be both medium and high, low, can be wide or narrow.

Along the entire back, from the withers to the sacral joint, there passes a long spin lumbar line. It is an important link between the front and rear girdle of the extremities, a peculiar axis of the transmission of the impulse of movement from the back pair of legs to the front.

The length of the line should correspond to the direct use of horses. So, in the upper breeds, the back line is longer, and in the harness - shorter, with good muscles and sufficient width.

This is explained by the difference of gaits (harness rocks are more located in the step work), as well as the use of spinal muscles.

The ideal form of the croup - under a slight slope, with good muscle relief, sufficient for the length of the breed. Horizontal croup reduces performance and adversely affects the work of the hock joints, and excessive inclination is inherent in horses with a strong and frisky gallop, but negatively affects the quality of the trot and pitch.

The shape and size of the chest depends largely on the breed, animal structure and training. A bulky chest has a good effect on the performance of the animal, as it has enough space for the development of the lungs and heart. Massive chest is found in horses of draft and heavy breeds.

Medium in width, but high and deep enough chest - a feature of the upper breeds.

Features of the structure of the head

Horse face has the following profile options:

Representatives of certain breeds may have different parts. For example, the concave-type horse muzzle is characteristic of purebred Arabian horses, which are often bred in arid areas. Due to this, the sand gets less in the nostrils, which makes life easier in the desert.

Arabian steed - muzzle concave type

Representatives of riding breeds differ in a direct profile. This ensures normal throughput and free circulation of air through the nostrils. It helps animals while running.

Golshtinsky breed - a muzzle with a direct profile

Horse muzzle convex profile is more common in trotters. Despite some rudeness of the constitution, it does not affect the stamina and working qualities of such horses.

The skull of a horse determines the structure of its head. When considering it, it is important to pay attention to ganashes. This name designates the area of ​​the corners of the lower jaw. The distance between the corners should be sufficiently free so that the breathing of the animal is not difficult when the neck is bent. To check, you can put a fist in the slap. If it passes and fits freely, the distance is of normal width.

These animals have a lateral location of the eyes, which helps to increase visibility. If it is necessary to see what is happening on the left or right side, it is not necessary to turn the head and strain the muscles for the horse. But there is one nuance concerning vision. All that is in front of her nose and behind the croup falls into the blind zone.

Horse eye

The pupil and the iris have a dark shade, the color is brown or black. Pigmentation is also allowed. This does not affect the overall performance of the animal.

Horse eye moderately convex, with a thin eyelid. Excessive bulge indicates violations of the visual apparatus.

Jaw structure

The shape and number of teeth determine the age. The horse's jaw along with the tongue are part of the oral cavity.

Horse's jaw structure

The animal must have a developed jaw without defects. Abnormal bite and other defects are undesirable. This may further have a negative effect on the performance of the horse. She will not be able to properly assimilate roughage.

In case of defects in the toothless jaw edge, difficulties arise with insertion.

Ears are proportional to a horse's head, or slightly smaller. They are high and straight. There are the following types:

It is necessary to pay special attention to the mobility of the ears. This attribute determines not only the emotional state of the animal, but also the state of the hearing aid. An alarming sign is the complete immobility of the ears. The animal may be deaf.

Horse ears

If it is on the contrary, excessively moving the ears, this is also an alarm signal. Thus, the animal is trying to maximize the use of the organs of hearing due to lack of visual information due to eye problems. Normally, the ears have a slight slope. Also, in a relaxed state, they are relaxed and moderately mobile.

The horse's nose has thick or thin walls. The space in the nostrils should be clean and wet. Turbid fluid in the mucous membranes of the nose can be a warning signal indicating an animal's illness. The nostrils barely move when the horse is at rest.

Features of the structure of the body

The general constitution and skeleton of a horse depend on the individual development of the animal, as well as heredity. The best option is considered a strong lean body with well-developed muscles and croup.

The croup is the back of the horse.

Parameters that should be considered during the inspection:

  • Length (at least 35% of the body),
  • Width,
  • Incline.

Given the last parameter, distinguish the following types of croup:

The most common option is a normal slope. The lowered croup gives a good removal of the front legs, which provides the racers with an advantage when running. Straight croup is less common, usually this type can be seen in steppe rocks.

Back, withers and lower back

The withers of the horse connects the blades to the rest of the body. The length and height of this part of the body, as well as the back may be different. Taking into account the bend, there are the following options for the shape of the back:

The best option is considered a straight back. The convex shape ensures good coordination of the anterior and posterior, which is an advantage for representatives of working breeds. Sagging back should be alerted. The animal may have had lower back injuries. This may cause difficulties in the operation or control of the mount. Normally, the horse’s skeleton must be sturdy.

A healthy horse should have a straight back, flat and muscular lower back.

A healthy animal has a flat and muscular lower back (this is the area between the back and the croup). The height of the horse at the withers may vary. This parameter, together with the weight and length of the body determines the overall size of the horse.

Thorax and Abdomen

When assessing the parameters of the breast in representatives of riding breeds pay attention to the depth. Rounded ribs and deep chest indicate a good lung volume due to the large capacity of the chest. For representatives of breeds of draft vehicles, width is more important.

The belly of the horse must continue to line the chest.

The abdomen should smoothly continue the chest line. If the stomach is retracted, it can serve as a signal of problems with the gastrointestinal tract or other diseases. When muscle loose or overweight, the abdomen begins to sag.

The shape and length of the neck may be different. The direct form is considered to be more convenient for working breeds.

Horse neck

Owners of a long neck have an advantage in maneuverability when running, but racers with a short neck are less tired. This is due to the reduction of air passage through the respiratory tract.

Front legs

The composition of the front limbs include:

  • Spatula
  • Shoulder, upper arm and shoulder joint,
  • Cubit,
  • Wrist,
  • Joint,
  • Hoof.

The horse hoof is a horn formation around the phalanges of the foot, and is an important part of the body of these animals. By their form and condition, you can determine the approximate age and conditions of detention. The color of the hooves may be different - whether it is dark or light.

The structure of the genitals and udder

The sex organs of the mare include:

External genitals are called vulva.

The male genitalia consists of the penis, the sex glands, and the testes with appendages.

A horse's udder has two small nipples with pinch valves. Udder capacity has a small volume, on average about two liters of milk. Because of this, frequent milking is required. Unlike cows, mares need a foal to give milk.

Wool and top coat

The mane evenly covers the neck. The tail of the horse is located at the end of the croup. The length of the tail of different breeds is different. As a rule, the horse’s tail and mane have the same color, but the color of the outer hair of the body may be different.

Coat of horses

In the summer, the hair is shorter and tighter. In winter, it grows and becomes softer. The state of wool depends on the conditions of the animal. Color, length and thickness are a definite distinguishing feature of representatives of different breeds.

In the area of ​​the nose, ears, eyes and lips are vibrissae. These tactile hairs act as nerve endings.

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