The appearance of aquamira occurred for thousands of years, so it is not possible to instantly create an optimal microclimate in the aquarium. It is not enough to buy a rack with specialized chemicals and equipment.
Preparing the primary environment
Start the launch of the aquarium by determining the place where the artificial reservoir will be located and only then you can decide on the settlement and other filling of the aquarium. However, this is still far away. Install the aquarium in its place and pour water to the top. This is necessary so that traces of sealant and other hazards dissolve. Now drain it completely. Together with the water will leave the remnants of dissolved materials. After that, you need to go to laying soil. Pour water into a tank for a third of its volume and lay the prepared material on the bottom. It is best to use small round stones, the grains of which do not exceed 5 millimeters. Try to find a soil with a neutral alkaline medium. You can check it without special devices, just drop vinegar on it, if it starts to sizzle, then the rigidity in such an aquarium will be alkalized and faded.
Properly selected soil allows you to create an organic microclimate and will not allow to form places of stagnation where water does not circulate. Since the soil is considered a natural biofilter for all microorganisms, the continued success of the launch of a new aquarium depends largely on the correct actions for choosing and laying the ground. The bacteria that appeared in it are involved in the process of ozonization and water nitratization; therefore, it is important to keep track of areas that are difficult to access for changing water. In order not to accidentally bring harmful microorganisms and diseases into the aquarium, the soil must be treated. Starting an aquarium from scratch begins with the ignition or boiling of the washed soil. To the bottom of the aquarium is not cracked from the temperature drop, the soil is lowered into the poured water or pre-cooled. After it is in place, add liquid to the required level.
For starters, you can ignore aeration, filtering and lighting. It is enough to turn on the heater if necessary. After a day, the chlorine content will return to normal, the water will acquire the desired temperature, and the excess gases will come out. You can start planting plants. For their existence, you must properly highlight the water. Try to put the lamp in the range of 0.35 watts per liter. For the beginning of the 8-hour daylight will be enough.
Plants that help form the right microclimate:
- Cut or pterygoid carrots,
- Indian fern
- Rapidly growing grass.
The launch of the aquarium is complicated by the lack of bacteria that are responsible for the processing of the waste products of the inhabitants. Thanks to the above plants, or rather, the death of their leaves, these microorganisms become larger. No matter how much you want to run fancy fish at this moment, you have to wait. The first stage has been completed - the plants are in place, now it is necessary to wait for time, so that they adapt, take root and go to growth. All these actions among aquarists are called - setting the primary balance.
Stages of microclimate formation:
- Active reproduction of microorganisms leads to turbidity of water,
- After 3-4 days, transparency returns to normal.
- The absorption of oxygen and organics leads to the accumulation of ammonia,
- Bacteria begin to work hard and normalize the environment.
Many are trying to find the answer, how long should the aquarium stand before launching the fish. In fact, there is no optimal time limit. It all depends on temperature, plants and volume. You must wait for the light smell of fresh weed, and not a new aquarium with a silicone impurity.
It is time to launch the first fish. If you are not sure that the aquarium is fully prepared to accept the inhabitants, then start with a pair of Guppy or Danyushek. However, if you have done everything according to the instructions, then boldly plant a whole flock of young individuals into the pond. Up to 15 teenagers can be released into the one-hundred-meter aquarium.
Do this correctly:
- Bring a jar or bag of young stock home,
- Wait a couple of hours, setting aeration of water in a jar or bag,
- Drain some of the water and add the one in your tank,
- Wait an hour and repeat the procedure.
- Gradually, within a few hours, change all the water,
- Send the fish to the general aquarium.
If possible, try to measure the parameters of water first time. To do this you will need testers for acidity, nitrates and ammonia. Fish pioneers must be fed live food, if there is none, then ice cream is allowed. Feeding dry food is not desirable. If there is no other choice, then enter it for not many, arranging fasting days for the inhabitants. It is imperative to observe this rule so that a bacterial outbreak does not occur.
In the beginning it is not necessary to build a schedule for changing and changing water, just watch the inhabitants. You can change 10-20% of water if:
- All the fish have fallen into the lower layers,
- Melting in pairs or a flock,
- Presses upper fin.
To make sure you need to change the water, check the acidity and temperature. If the scale of the thermometer is above 25 degrees with a pH of more than 7.6, then change part of the water. It is important to make sure that all the fish have fallen to the bottom, and not just one individual. If one of the fish descended low alone - drop him into quarantine and continue to monitor.
Experienced aquarists offer another way to normalize balance. Set off all the fish for a day and wait for the decrease in the ammonia ratio. Then the inhabitants come back.
Running the aquarium and settling fish in it affects the quality of the water. Each individual creates a chemical cloud around itself that affects its neighbors. The higher the density of fish, the greater the impact of harmful substances.
Maintaining the aquarium microclimate
To ensure that the launch does not turn out to be a waste of time, it is necessary to carefully plan the follow-up care: the number and frequency of water or part of it. To create the best water, tap water is completely unsuitable. Tap water is too aggressive for sensitive fish. It is strictly forbidden to change all the water (except for the “patient”). In the aquarium is established its own environment, like the one that is familiar to the type of fish.
The optimal amount of topped up water is no more than 1/5. Fish will be able to restore the normal microsphere after a couple of days. If you change ½ the volume of water at a time, this inept action can lead to the death of fish and plants. Recovery of hydrobalance large amount of water is possible only in 2-3 weeks. Full replacement of water will lead to the death of all living things, and it will be necessary to launch the aquarium from the very beginning. Use separated water, the temperature of which will be approximately equal to the aquarium one - this will reduce the chance of fish killing.
What should be done before launch?
Even before the launch procedure, it is necessary to solve a number of critical issues and take some necessary steps:
- Decide what kind of fish or aquatic animals you want to have. Find out what conditions they need. Be sure to find out if they are compatible with each other!
- Depending on the decisions on the first item, choose the volume and model of the aquarium, as well as a list of necessary equipment and design items. Based on the species and number of future inhabitants, decide whether you need a heater with a thermostat, for example, how powerful the filter should be, whether an additional compressor is needed, how to decorate an aquarium: stones or snags, which plants to plant, and so on.
- Choose a place for the aquarium - not in the draft and not in the sun. It is also important that access to the aquarium is convenient, and there are a sufficient number of outlets nearby.
- Buy and install an aquarium (necessarily on a flat surface, so that its edges do not hang down from the shelf or pedestal even per centimeter). Pre-aquarium washed without the use of chemical detergents.
- To place in the aquarium equipment: filter, compressor, heater and thermometer, lighting. Fill the soil with a layer of 3-4 cm. Depending on the type of soil and its source of origin, it may be necessary to pre-heat it, boil it or rinse it. The same applies to stones and snags.
Now the aquarium is ready to fill the water and start running. But before we give the step-by-step start-up instructions, let us try to figure out what this notorious launch is for and what the running aquarium is different from the non-running.
Quite a bit of theory
As we already wrote above, the aquarium is an open-loop system, where various substances come outside. This is mainly fish food, which the fish eat, while releasing waste. In chemical terms, ammonia is the most significant and toxic part of this waste; even in low concentrations, it can cause poisoning and subsequent death of fish and other aquatic animals. However, in nature there are bacteria (they are called nitrifying), which consume ammonia, oxidizing it to nitrite. Nitrite for fish is not much better than ammonia, but there are other types of nitrifying bacteria, which in turn bind them, turning them into relatively harmless nitrates.
This whole system of bacterial colonies, which makes water with nitrates from poisonous ammonia water, quite suitable for fish, is called a biofilter. Since the efficiency of the biofilter directly depends on the number of its constituent bacteria in the aquarium (it is clear that two or three microscopic nitrosomonas cannot convert ammonia selected by a dozen large goldfish into safe compounds), these bacteria need to be allowed to multiply to the desired number. For this they need three things:
- food (ammonia and nitrite),
- substrate (surface to which they can attach),
- and for some time, as the bacteria multiply rapidly, but still not lightning.
Run (instructions for beginners)
So, let's sort through the points, how to launch the aquarium correctly:
- Starting begins with the laying of the soil and with the subsequent pouring of water. Use tap water, you do not need to defend it beforehand. After pouring water turn on the filter with aeration. If the filter does not have an aerator, then the compressor must additionally work, since nitrifying bacteria require a lot of oxygen and a heater (set at 24-25 °). In this form, with the lights off, the aquarium is left for 5-7 days. All these days they spend only monitoring the operation of the equipment: check whether oxygen is supplied, measure the temperature of the water.
- After 5-7 days, unpretentious fast-growing plants are planted, after which they turn on the lighting for 4-5 hours a day.
- After 1-2 days, you can run the first aquarium animals. These may be small, unpretentious fish (viviparous or, for example, danios), but it is better to use ampularia snails that are more resistant to water quality or hymeno-viral frogs. There should be few animals. Feed them once a day in very small portions. It is necessary to constantly monitor their behavior and appetite. Ampulyarias, for example, are excellent indicators of water quality: in clean, good water, they rush around the aquarium at cruising speed, straightening antennae and looking for food. At this stage, the light is turned on for the whole day (8-12 hours), you can add special bacterial cultures to the aquarium to start (they are from different companies, for example Sera Nitrivek).
- After a week, the remaining plants are planted and begin in parts (at intervals of 1-2 days) to launch the main fish population. Each released batch should be carefully watched, fed moderately.
That is, in fact, all science. True, nothing complicated?
Of course, the equilibrium in the aquarium is still unstable, and some time after start-up such unpleasant phenomena as, for example, outbreaks of diatoms can be observed. But if the launch was carried out correctly, these problems usually are not catastrophic, do not lead to a massive freezing of fish, and are solved in working order. To combat these diatoms, for example, a small charming catfish otozinclus is successfully used.
How to facilitate the launch of the aquarium?
Above, we wrote that for the reproduction of beneficial bacteria need nutrition and substrate. And, of course, the initial number of the bacterial colony matters. Thus, in order to accelerate the maturation of the biofilter and, accordingly, the launch of the aquarium, a large number of bacteria can be immediately introduced into the artificial reservoir and a large area substrate can be prepared for them (there is enough nutrition for the bacteria in the starting aquarium).
Bacteria are introduced with the help of industrial starter culture (we also mentioned about them above) or with water, soil, a filter filler from a functioning, safe aquarium. To ensure sufficient substrate area for bacteria, it is recommended to use filters with fillers made of porous ceramics or filters of considerable volume with other fillers, plant plants with narrow, feathery leaves, and use fine gravel of even size as the soil. All these surfaces will inhabit the nitrifying bacteria.
Control of the launch of the aquarium greatly facilitates the use of tests for aquarium water for ammonia and nitrite. These tests are produced by different manufacturers and are not uncommon in pet stores. With their help, you can track the level of these toxic compounds in the water and adjust the population of fish in the running aquarium.
As you can see, the correct launch of the aquarium takes not so much time - it is quite possible to suffer two or three weeks. It does not require a colossal amount of strength and special academic knowledge. But it helps to avoid many problems in the future, preserves the life and health of the fish, and therefore, the nerves and good mood to their owner.
Turbidity of the water in the aquarium
After the launch, it is often possible to observe the turbidity of the water, signaling that it is still early to inhabit the inhabitants. It is necessary to find out the reason why water has lost its transparency:
- If turbidity has a whitish hue, then most likely a bacterial boom has occurred, after launch it is a normal phenomenon. Ammonia and nitrifying bacteria began to multiply due to the abundance of food. As a rule, an outbreak lasts a couple of days, after which it gradually declines because of ciliates that multiply in turn, for which bacteria are natural food. Adding water from a prosperous aquarium can accelerate the process, and you need to take it from the bottom or next to the filter, since it is in these places that most infusoria live.
Sometimes the water may become cloudy in long-running aquariums from too large substitutions.
- Green turbidity is caused by overproduction of microscopic algae. This is mainly due to too bright consecration and a long daylight day. In this case, you need to reduce the brightness of the light in the aquarium and make sure that it does not fall into direct sunlight.
- Sometimes yellowish cloudiness may appear from insufficiently washed soil. As a rule, it settles in a few hours.
- The brownish water becomes from the coagulum and the filter with peat. Humic substances for fish are harmless, and even useful for some species, but they strongly affect the acidity of water, which, in turn, may adversely affect species that prefer alkaline water. In this case, it is necessary to drain the water, and soak the wooden decorations themselves for several days in running water.
- Water can be painted from bright colored soil or artificial decorations. It is better not to use such decorations at all, since they often have a negative impact on the health of the inhabitants due to dyes.
Run the aquarium
It makes no difference how many liters you run an aquarium. The 30-liter aquarium runs exactly the same as the 250-liter tank.
- Install a volumetric aquarium background if you plan to use it.
- Place the substrate and the prepared soil in the aquarium, taking into account your plans for the design of the aquarium. On my site there is a section dedicated to the design of the aquarium and design examples. I recommend to familiarize yourself in advance, because the change of design is already poorly tolerated aquaria.
- Install the acquired aquarium equipment: filter for aquarium, aquarium lamp, air compressor and the like. For the best appearance of the aquarium, the equipment is hidden and masked in all possible ways.
- Plant aquarium plants. Sprinkle the plants periodically with water to plant to avoid drying or drying. In this section you will be able to familiarize yourself with all aspects of the selection, selection and maintenance of aquarium plants.
- Бросьте на растения сверху скомканную газету и начните аккуратно заливать отстоянную ранее воду.
- После залива воды, включите аквариумное освещение, фильтр и компрессор. Поддерживайте освещение в аквариуме длительностью в 8-10 часов все последующие дни.
- Через несколько часов на поверхности воды образуется бактериальная пленка. Place a sheet of newspaper on the surface of the water. Remove the wetted newspaper with a bacterial wrap.
Congratulations! This is the first time you have launched your new aquarium.
If after the start of the aquarium, the water has clouded, then do not worry. This is an absolutely natural process of the formation of a biobalance in a new aquarium. Wait until the water clears naturally, regaining transparency after a few days or a week. Do not take any action, wait.
You should be worried if the smell of a rotten or the smell of a swamp appears from the water. If you get a bad smell from aquarium water, refer to this article: Why does the water in the aquarium smell and smell?
If after a week the water remains turbid, then I recommend turning to this article in search of an error.
Fish can be run two weeks after launch, when all the necessary processes are established. I highly recommend not to fish the aquarium immediately after launch. Often, after a hasty settlement of fish, the aquarium has to be restarted, which negatively affects plants and fish. Just wait.
Starting the aquarium from scratch should start with the choice of the tank itself. If the aquarist is a beginner, it is preferable to choose medium-sized models, the volume of which varies from 80 to 200 liters. Such a step makes it easy to maintain biological balance in comparison with small tanks. The step-by-step launch of the aquarium, described below, will help to avoid problems.
All filters are divided into two major categories - external and internal. Beginners who start the aquarium from scratch, it is recommended to acquire a good internal, which will also save. Manufacturers indicate how much water filter is designed, so it is almost impossible to make a mistake. However, experts recommend choosing such equipment with a small margin.
Heater with thermostat
This device maintains a comfortable temperature for all participants in the system. Manufacturers also indicate the recommended volume on the package. When starting the aquarium from scratch, the choice is usually not difficult.
A special beam spectrum is an important condition for the full existence of aquatic plants. They grow well under special-purpose lamps with intense lighting. On average, one liter of water requires a power of 0.6 V, that is, at least 60 V per one hundred liters, and all 90 is better.
When there is a launch of the aquarium from scratch, it should be noted that the light day should be the same. Automation perfectly copes with this (special timers).
Experienced aquarists recommend to give preference to a special film of black or dark blue color, you can also pull on the tablet, commensurate with the parameters of the rear window, the fabric of the desired shade. It is this background that will perfectly emphasize the beauty. Split glossy photographic backgrounds are not the best choice; launching an aquarium with plants can be spoiled.
Carbon dioxide saturation system
In the daytime, carbon dioxide is necessary for all the vegetation of the system to grow, especially if there are a lot of fish there. It is recommended to pay close attention to CO2 parameters. It is recommended to establish a saturation system after stabilization of biological equilibrium, including when there is a launch of an aquarium with plants.
The product must be durable. Weight stolitrovogo aquarium is 140 kg. You can purchase a special cabinet or adapt existing furniture. The aquarium, the photo of which is presented below, is installed on the cabinet correctly.
Run Stage One: Verification
First of all, it is necessary to determine if the tank is leaking. To do this, it is placed in the bath, preferably on a flat surface. The aquarium is filled with running water up to half the volume, after a day it is completely filled. Such a test is carried out in any capacity containers - only this way it can be understood if the glass will burst and the product will carry the first launch. After checking the water is drained, it is better to wash the tank. The aquarium is installed on the cabinet.
Run Stage Two: Ground
As a rule, the soil is represented by gravel of the small fraction, which is suitable for most plants. Before you put it in the aquarium, it is better to conduct a heat treatment, for example, boiling. After that, most of the soil is mixed with the starting fertilizer.
The base is carefully laid out on the bottom in an even layer, the height of which should not be less than 4 cm. In some cases it is advisable to arrange an uneven layer: small at the front glass, gradually rising to the back wall. It is better to immediately plan the places where the plants will be located. At this stage, it is important to do everything correctly to avoid further refinements. When choosing a place where plantings will be located, it is better to focus on lighting and remoteness from heating appliances. Artificial and natural decorations are placed on the ground.
Run Stage Four: Planting Plants
When placing living vegetation should be guided by these recommendations:
- Near the rear wall are large plantations.
- In the middle part, it is customary to plant smaller specimens.
- In the foreground - the smallest, they will be closest to the observer.
Beginners should choose inexpensive, viable plants, such as valisneria or hornpole. Such instances help to quickly establish a balance, after which they can be replaced. In addition, a special bacterial starter can be used to accelerate the stabilization of the biological balance. It is introduced into the water according to the instructions. Plants during planting should be constantly sprayed with a spray.
Run Stage Five: Gulf of Water and Connection
Water can be used the most simple - plumbing. It must stand in order for the chlorine to completely evaporate. If you do not want to wait, you can buy bottled drinking water.
To prevent erosion of the soil, a saucer is placed on its bottom. The flow of incoming water should fall on him. Aquarium is full. Then you can turn on the equipment. It is necessary to immediately check how the filters function, heating, what temperature level is established in the system. The filter should work all the time, it can not be disabled. After a few weeks, a bacterial environment arises inside the device, which becomes a biological filter. If you turn it off, the bacteria will quickly die without oxygen and fresh water. Their place will immediately be replaced by anaerobic microorganisms that produce hydrogen sulfide and methane - from them the whole system will cease to function.
The final check should take place seven days after launch. In the first days of work, the water in the aquarium will become turbid, as part of the plants will die off, and the bacteria will begin to multiply rapidly. The activity of microorganisms normalizes this process over time, and it will be possible to talk about the stabilization of the internal biosystem. Only then the tank is ready to receive fish. It will take about a month to complete the formation of an environment where every resident will feel well. One fish should be about 10 liters of water.
How to run the fish
A week after the start of the launch, it is desirable to increase the lighting time of the aquarium up to 12 hours. At this time, you can run unpretentious species of fish in an amount not exceeding one third of the allowable for such a population size. It is important that with the proper launch of the fish at this time should remain hungry - it is absolutely harmless for them. Feeding can disrupt the nitrogen cycle, making it necessary to restart. Food fish will be able to get after four days.
In a few more days, the aquarium may be populated by half the population. During this period, you can run more capricious fish. After seven days you can run all the fish.
If the house is soft water, you should choose those inhabitants who prefer this pH level, and vice versa. The aquarium, the photo of which is presented below, is launched absolutely correctly and delights with its beauty.
The launch of a new aquarium may be complicated if it is of a marine type. All stages are similar to the previous ones, but water requires special preparation. It must be treated with reverse osmosis, and then settled for three days. After that, the salt concentration is brought to the required level.
When the optimum salt balance, density and temperature of water are reached, you can fill the ground: sand or coral chips. Further, in the system you can place live stones, plant corals, decorate the bottom with shells. After a week you should check the performance of nitrite and ammonium in water. One month after the water preparation, it is possible to launch the fish in the marine aquarium.
Rules successful aquarist
- you need to purchase only healthy fish in trusted stores,
- fish can not be overfed,
- it’s better to check regularly how all systems work,
- the fish must have sufficient living space
- fish living in the same system must be compatible,
- nitrogen cycle support
- periodic filter cleaning,
- even a beginner needs to know what water hardness is, pH, buffer capacity,
- a regular partial replacement of water is necessary, even if the first launch of the aquarium occurred less than two weeks ago.
Instead of conclusion
The rapid launch of the aquarium in 99% of cases does not lead to the desired results, it is often necessary to repeat the cycle of preparation. A beginner aquarist must be patient in order for the system to stabilize and fully function.
The question of how to prepare an aquarium for launching has become very relevant lately. Many families want to get beautiful fish that will swim surrounded by vegetation. However, the maintenance of the system requires a certain amount of effort from the owner, which is better to take into account at the stage of making the decision to install an aquarium. In addition, we must not forget about the need for fixed costs for the maintenance of the system, including the purchase of fish food, replacement filters, etc.