The great white shark is known to many as the man-eater, or carharodon. This animal belongs to the class of cartilaginous fish and the herring shark family. To date, the population of this species slightly exceeds three thousand individuals, so the great white shark belongs to the category of predatory animals that are on the verge of extinction.
Description and characteristics of the white shark
The length of the largest of all modern predatory sharks is eleven meters or a bit more. The most common individuals with a body length of not more than six meters, and weighing in the range of 650-3000 kg. The back and sides of the white shark have a characteristic gray coloration with slight brownish or black tones.. The surface of the abdominal part is off-white.
It is interesting! It is known that relatively recently there were white sharks, whose body length could reach thirty meters. In the mouth of such an individual living at the end of the Tertiary period, eight adults could freely accommodate.
Modern white sharks are mostly solitary. Adult individuals can occur not only in the waters of the open ocean, but also near the coastline. As a rule, the shark tries to keep closer to the surface, and prefers warm or moderately warm ocean waters. The prey is destroyed by the white shark with the help of very large and wide, triangular teeth. All teeth have jagged edges. Very powerful jaws allow the water predator to bite without much effort, not only cartilage tissue, but also rather large bones of its prey. Hungry white sharks are not particularly picky about food choices.
Features of the white shark morphology:
- a large conical head has a pair of eyes, a pair of nostrils and a large enough mouth,
- fine grooves are located around the nostrils, increasing the rate of water inflow and improving the predator's sense of smell,
- the pressure power indices of large jaws reach eighteen thousand Newtons,
- teeth arranged in five rows regularly change, but their total number varies within three hundred,
- behind the head of the predator are five gill slits,
- two large pectoral fins and anterior dorsal fin of fleshy type. They are complemented by relatively smaller second dorsal, ventral and anal fins,
- fin located in the tail section, has a large size,
- The predator's circulatory system is well developed and is able to quickly warm up the muscle tissue, increasing the speed of movement and improving the mobility of a large body.
It is interesting! The great white shark does not have a swim bladder, therefore, has a negative buoyancy, and to prevent diving to the bottom, the fish must constantly make swimming movements.
The peculiarity of the species is the unusual structure of the eyes, which allows the predator to see prey even in the dark. A special organ of the shark is the lateral line, due to which the slightest agitation of the water is captured even at a distance of one hundred meters or more.
Habitat and distribution in nature
The habitat of the white shark is the many coastal waters of the oceans.. This predator is found almost everywhere, except for the Arctic Ocean and further south of the coast of Australia and South Africa.
The largest number of individuals hunts in the coastal zone of California, as well as in close proximity to the island of Guadeloupe in Mexico. Also, a small population of the great white shark lives near Italy and Croatia, and near the coastline of New Zealand. Here, small flocks belong to the category of protected species.
A significant amount of white shark has chosen the waters near Dyer Island, which allowed scientists to successfully conduct numerous scientific studies. Also, quite large populations of the great white shark are found near the following areas:
- New Zealand.
In general, the predator is relatively unpretentious in the habitat, so the migration is focused on the areas with the largest number of prey and optimal conditions for reproduction. Epipelagicheskoy able to love the coastal marine area with a large number of seals, sea lions, whales and other species of small sharks or large bony fish. Only very large orcas are able to resist this “mistress” of ocean space.
Lifestyle and behavioral features
The nature of the behavior and the social structure of the white sharks has not yet been adequately studied. It is known for certain that the population living in waters close to South Africa is characterized by hierarchical dominance in accordance with the sex, size and residency of individuals. The dominance of females over males, and the largest individuals over smaller sharks. Conflict situations in the hunting process are resolved by rituals or demonstrative behavior. Fights between individuals of the same population are certainly possible, but they are quite rare. As a rule, sharks of this species during conflicts are limited to not too strong, precautionary bites.
A distinctive feature of the white shark is the ability to periodically raise its head above the water surface in the process of hunting and searching for prey. According to scientists, this way the shark manages to catch smells well even at a considerable distance.
It is interesting! In the waters of the coastal zone, predators usually consist of stable or long-formed groups of two to six individuals, which resembles a wolf pack. Each such group has the so-called alpha leader, and the remaining individuals within the “flock” have a status that is clearly established in accordance with the hierarchy.
Great white sharks have quite well-developed mental abilities and acumen, which allows you to find food in almost any, even the most difficult conditions.
Water predator feeding
Young carharadones, as the main diet, use small-sized bony fish, small-sized marine animals and small mammals. Enough and fully formed big white sharks expand their diets at the expense of larger prey, which can be seals, sea lions, as well as large fish. Adult carharadons will not refuse such prey as smaller species of shark, cephalopods, and other most nutritious marine life.
For successful hunting with great white sharks, a peculiar body color is used.but. Light coloring makes the shark almost invisible among the underwater rocky places, which allows it to track its prey very easily. Particularly interesting is the moment of attack of the great white shark. Due to the high body temperature, the predator is able to develop quite a decent speed, and good strategic abilities allow the carharadon people to use win-win tactics when hunting for aquatic inhabitants.
Important! Possessing a massive body, very powerful jaws and sharp teeth, the great white shark has almost no competitors among aquatic predators and is capable of hunting virtually any prey.
The main food habits of the great white shark are seals and other marine animals, including dolphins and small whale species. Eating significant amounts of fatty foods allows this predator to maintain optimal energy balance. Heated muscle mass with the circulatory system needs a diet provided by high-calorie foods.
Of particular interest is the hunt for seal seals. Sliding horizontally in the water column, the white shark pretends not to be noticed by an animal floating on the surface, but as soon as the seal loses its vigilance, the shark attacks the prey, jumping out of the water sharply and almost at lightning speed. When hunting for a dolphin, the great white shark sets up an ambush and attacks from behind, which prevents the dolphin from taking advantage of its unique ability - echo location.
The breeding of the white shark way of breeding is unique, and is unique to the cartilage species of fish.. Puberty females of the great white shark begins at the age of twelve or fourteen years. Males reach sexual maturity somewhat earlier, at about the age of ten. Low levels of fertility and too long a period of puberty are considered the main reasons for the decline of the great white shark population today.
Notable is the fact that the great white shark becomes a real predator even before its birth. As a rule, several sharks are born in the womb of a female shark, but only the strongest cubs are born, and they eat up all their siblings in the womb. The average gestation time lasts about eleven months. The young cubs that emerged into the world almost immediately begin to hunt on their own. According to long-term observations of the predator and official statistics, about two-thirds of the younger generation of the white sharks do not even live to their first birthday.
The natural white shark has not so many natural enemies as it may seem at first glance. Occasionally, this predator is injured during fights with its more aggressive and hungry kinsmen of larger size. The most formidable, strong and serious rival of the white shark is the killer whale. The power, rationality and grip of the killer whale sometimes surpasses the ability of the shark, and high organization allows you to attack karharodona suddenly.
Among other things, the hedgehog fish is the terrible and cruel enemy of the shark. Despite the fact that the size of such a water inhabitant is relatively small, the death of a large white shark is often associated with a fish-hedgehog, which swells up at the first sign of danger, and as a result takes the form of a very prickly and hard ball. It is impossible to spit out or swallow the hedgehog fish already stuck inside the mouth, therefore the predator is often waiting for a very painful death from an infection or starvation.
Origin of the white shark
Previously, it was believed that white sharks evolved from the megalodon - a giant fish, up to 30 m long and weighing almost 50 tons, extinct 3 million years ago. But modern studies of the remains of the super-predator allowed to establish the belonging of megalodons to the Otodontidae family, and the white sharks belong to the family of herring sharks, therefore supporters of the version have greatly diminished.
Today, scientists believe the ancestor of the white shark Isurus hastalis is one of the extinct species of mako shark. Both predators have almost the same structure of the teeth, only in the white shark during the evolution along the edges of the tooth the notches formed.
White Shark Systematics
The white shark belongs to the class of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), which means that its skeleton has no bones, but consists entirely of cartilage tissue. This feature besides sharks have stingrays and chimeras.
The great white shark belongs to the order Lamniformes, which unites large species of sharks with a torpedo-shaped body.
Dense addition, pointed muzzle and 5 gill slits allowed to classify the white shark to the family of herring or lame sharks (Lamnidae). Her closest relatives are mako shark, salmon shark and lamna.
The genus of white sharks (Carcharodon) includes 2 extinct and one modern species - the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), also called carharodon or due to the sad glory - eater shark.
Great White Shark Appearance
This is a stocky fish with a dense body, elongated in the form of a torpedo. The head of the predator is very large, conical, with a pointed muzzle and maw, a curved parabola. On the sides of the head closer to the pectoral fin are 5 huge gill slits, providing water breathing.
The pectoral fins are large, elongated in the shape of a sickle. The first dorsal fin is high, triangular in shape, growing a little farther than the base of the pectoral fins. Sometimes its top is rounded. The second dorsal fin is quite small, as well as the anal. On the ventral fin of males there is an elongated element - copulatory outgrowth.
The blades of the tail fin of the white shark of the same width, which is typical of other herring sharks, capable of developing a decent speed before the attack.
The name "white" shark is not quite correctly conveys the color of the predator. Its upper part and sides are often gray, sometimes brownish or with a blue tint. There are dark, almost black copies. But the belly of a white shark is off-white.
Newborn sharks and adults completely identical in appearance, but differ only in size.
How much does a white shark
The maximum possible size and weight of karharodona still cause heated debate in scientific circles. In the authoritative encyclopedia of past years, “The Life of Animals” in 1971 is called the highest growth of a measured white shark - 11 m, without indicating weight. However, the opinion of modern scientists on this subject is less optimistic. Ichthyologists believe that under conditions of ideal habitat, the white shark can grow to a maximum of 6.8 m in length.
A number of scientific sources claim that the largest size of the white shark was caught off the coast of Cuba in 1945. Its length was 6.4 m, and the approximate weight of 3,324 kg. The measurements were carried out on the basis of a photo of a white shark; therefore, some experts believe that the real size of the fish is overestimated by at least 1 meter.
In 1988, a white shark was caught off the Canadian coast, which they managed to measure and weigh. It was a female, 6.1 m long with a body weight of about 1,900 kg. This copy is considered to be the only one whose dimensions and weight are reliably confirmed.
An interesting fact: if we compare the weight of the great white shark with large representatives of other families, then its mass at the same length will be almost 2 times more!
On average, adults weigh from 680 to 1,100 kg. Females are heavier and larger than males, their length is 4.6-4.9 m, males grow from 3.4 to 4 m.
Nevertheless, minds excite not so much the impressive dimensions of the great white shark, but its deadly maw. Indeed, larger predators live in the depths of the sea, for example, members of the giant shark family, and the white shark's teeth are unique in their own way.
How many teeth a white shark
This predator has the largest teeth of all existing fish today, their length is about 5 cm. Triangular teeth with coarse notches on the edges are arranged in several rows and are constantly updated. The number of rows depends on the age of the fish, they range from 3 to 7. The upper jaws carry larger teeth, the teeth are smaller but sharper in the lower jaw.
Each row can contain from 30 to 40 teeth, i.e. The total number of teeth in the mouth of the great white shark is more than 300 pieces.
The teeth of the first, working row wear out quickly and to replace the lost gums, fully formed new teeth are raised and advanced. Such a "conveyor" is provided by mobility in the gums and short roots of the teeth.
Today, those who like to tickle your nerves need not watch thrillers about sharks. Extreme ecotourism is extremely popular - diving in a cage, when a person protected only by metal bars sees the deadly mouth of a famous predator at arm's length. Entertainment costs everyone 50-150 euros. Dangerous attractions are waiting for their customers in the places where the representatives of the species are most crowded.
Where white sharks are found
Despite a clear downward trend in the species, white sharks continue to inhabit all oceans, except the Arctic. The most numerous populations are found off the coast of South Africa, the US state of California, the Mexican state of Lower California, Australia and New Zealand. From here come the best photos of the white shark, chilling their soul with their realism.
Most karharodonov prefer the coastal waters of the temperate zone with t from 12 to 24 ° C and keep almost under the surface of the water. However, large specimens feel great in tropical waters, cold seas, in the open ocean, as well as at considerable depth. According to the documentary data, the great white shark was once caught at a depth of 1,280 m with the help of industrial bottom tools.
Before the invention of radio beacons, it was believed that long journeys are characteristic only of males of white sharks, females keep their native shores all their lives. However, the ability to track the movement of fish with the help of modern equipment proved the fact of long migrations by individuals of both sexes.
For what purpose the great white sharks overcome tremendous distances, remains a mystery. For example, it took one individual 9 months to overcome 20 thousand km from the coast of South Africa to Australia and back. Probably, long-term migrations are associated with reproduction or seasonal fluctuations of the food base in different parts of the range.
What do white sharks eat
Их рацион чрезвычайно разнообразен, однако несмотря на репутацию пожирателей всего подряд, белые акулы питаются преимущественно рыбой, крабами, небольшими морскими животными, головоногими и двустворчатыми моллюсками. Из рыбы в желудках выловленных экземпляров обнаруживают сельдь, сардину, скатов и тунца. Добычей хищников нередко становятся дельфины, морские свиньи, морские бобры, морские львы и тюлени.
Непереваренные останки в желудках белых акул лишний раз подтверждают, насколько агрессивны эти хищники по отношению к другим морским обитателям. Their victims are not inferior in size bite whales, spotted crocodiles, northern elephant seals, moonfish, and various types of sharks: the dark shark-dog, the Australian shark-nanny, the big blue shark, the red fox and the katran. However, such a menu is atypical for most white sharks and is the exception.
White sharks will not refuse from carrion and gladly eat carcasses of dead cetaceans. Various inedible objects are often found in the stomachs of predators, for example, pieces of plastic, wood, and whole glass bottles.
Sometimes great white sharks practice cannibalism uncharacteristic of the species. For example, in the waters of Australia, in front of observers, a 6-meter great white shark half-bit its 3-meter relative.
With a successful hunt, the predators eat for the future. Due to slower metabolism, the white shark weighing about a ton for 1.5 months is only 30 kg of whale blubber. However, these are purely theoretical calculations, but in practice, predators eat much more, while demonstrating hunting skills perfected by millions of years of evolution.
White Shark Hunting Techniques
Carharodons live and hunt one by one, but sometimes they manifest social behavior. For example, in the coastal waters of Cape Town, a group of 2-6 individuals who behave quite peacefully in a flock is regularly noticed.
Observations carried out in the waters of South Africa have shown that within such groups there is a different kind of hierarchy. Females dominate males, large individuals over smaller ones. At the meeting, representatives of different groups and individuals quickly determine the social position of each other and the alpha leader. Conflicts are usually resolved by preventive bites and in most cases this ends. However, before hunting, white sharks are always separated.
Unlike their relatives, white sharks often protrude their heads out of the water, catching smells that are carried through the air. This is usually the case when patrolling archipelagoes, where harvests make harvests.
When the animals are in the water, the white shark begins to hunt. Swims towards the victim under the very surface of the water and makes a sharp throw, sometimes half or completely jumping out of the water. Seals or fur seals grab the bottom across the body, large individuals drags off to the depth and drowns, then tears into pieces and eats. Small swallows whole.
In the fog and at dawn, the white shark's chances of attacking from the first 50/50. In case of an unsuccessful attempt, the predator pursues the prey, developing a speed of up to 40 km / h.
Northern elephant seals that are found abundantly off the coast of California, white sharks bite from behind, immobilizing. Then they wait patiently for the victim to bleed out and stop resisting.
Dolphins never swim in front, eliminating the possibility of detecting danger using echolocation.
If you don't try, you won't know. According to this principle, great white sharks determine the edibility of any objects, be it a buoy or a man. According to statistics, between 1990 and 2011, 139 white shark attacks occurred on humans, of which only 29 were fatal.
Even after the attack, the Carjarodons do not pursue people intentionally, the victims are single swimmers dying from a painful shock. When there is a partner, the wounded man can be saved by driving the predator away and leaving the danger zone together.
Only born sharks hunt on their own and do not pose a danger to humans and large animals.
Breeding white sharks
Reproductive maturity of white sharks comes late when the fish reach their maximum size. Females mature at the age of 33 years, males are ready to breed in 26 years.
These predators do not survive in captivity, so research on their mating behavior and reproduction contain extremely scarce information.
Great white sharks are egg-breeding fish. This means that the fertilized eggs remain in the mother's oviducts. They hatch from embryos that feed on eggs produced by the ovaries. A pregnant female bears an average of 5-10 embryos, but theoretically a litter can contain from 2 to 14 pups. At an early and intermediate stage, the belly of the young is very stretched and filled with yolk, and when the production of eggs stops, the fetus digests the nutrient reserves.
The exact timing of the offspring of white sharks is unknown, but scientists believe that pregnancy lasts more than 12 months. Sharks are born fully developed, from 1.2 to 1.5 m long and ready for independent living.
How much does the white shark live
The average life span of a great white shark is estimated at 70 years. Studies based on the study of vertebral growth have established the age of the oldest white shark. It turned out to be a male 73 years old. However, not everyone can live to old age.
Previously, scientists believed that the predator who heads the food chain does not have natural enemies. But at the end of the last century there were reports of attacks on white sharks of killer whales - even larger and bloodthirsty predators.
Another enemy of the white shark is the crested crocodile, which can turn a large fish over and easily tear its throat or belly.
Water pollution, casual catching, and poaching also reduce the number of the species from the already low. The price of a tooth on the black market is $ 600-800, and the cost of the jaws of a great white shark reaches $ 20-50 thousand.
Today, predators are protected by the law of many countries, for example, Australia, South Africa, the US states of Florida and California. By the way, Peter Benchley, the author of the famous novel “Jaws”, clearly did not expect the negative consequences of the sensational film adaptation. Therefore, the writer devoted the last 10 years of his life to studying the ocean ecosystem and actively defended the great white sharks.
Interesting facts about the white shark (lat. Carcharodon carcharias)
The white shark is the largest modern predatory fish known as the great white shark and the eater shark.
The great white shark is well known for its size - it is known that the largest representatives of the species reached or even exceeded 6 meters in length and weighed up to 2268 kg. (LITHIUM112 on deviantART)
The white shark reaches puberty at the age of 15 years, and the average life expectancy of sharks is 30 years. (TERRY GOSS)
The largest specimens of the white shark are considered: a shark with a length of 6.9 m, caught in southern Australian waters near Port Fairy in the 1870s, and a shark with a length of 7.3 m, caught in a herring trap near the dam in New Brunswick, Canada in the 1930s. Reported instances of 7.5 meters in length were common, but the above dimensions remained a record. (VENSON KUCHIPUDI)
Video: Great White Shark (Carcharodon)
The first scientific name, Squalus carcharias, gave the white shark to Karl Linnaeus in 1758. (VENSON KUCHIPUDI)
Great white sharks live in almost all coastal waters, where temperatures range from 12 to 24 ° C. (SHARKDIVER.COM)
Large populations are found off the coast of the United States, South Africa, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Chile and the Mediterranean. (SCOTT RETTIG)
At first, the white shark attacks seals horizontally, like fish, but then changes habit and attacks from below so that the prey will not notice it to the last. (OCEANFILMFEST)
Studies have shown that white sharks make not only regular movements along the coast, but also transoceanic transitions, returning to the same places. Moreover, both females and males migrate. (VENSON KUCHIPUDI)
Large white sharks have a protective coloration: the belly is light, and the dorsal fin is gray (sometimes brown or bluish). (GEORGE PROBST)
Such coloring confuses prey because it blurs the silhouette of a predator from the side. (VENSON KUCHIPUDI)
Above, a darker shade mixes with the sea, and from below the silhouette appears small against the background of the penetrating sun. (D.J. SCHUESSLER)
White sharks are predators, they feed mainly on fish (tuna, stingrays, other sharks), cetaceans (dolphins, porpoises, whales), pinnipeds (seals, fur seals, sea lions), turtles, otters and even sea birds. (SPENCER LATTIMER)
Little is known about the great white shark in terms of its behavior during the mating season. (GEORGE PROBST)
Scientists have never seen the process of giving birth to babies, although pregnant females were examined more than once. (GEORGE PROBST)
White sharks are viviparous fishes (i.e., eggs develop and hatch in the uterus and continue to develop until birth). Probably, white sharks reproduce offspring once every two years, but this fact has not been proven. (GREAT WHITE SHARK DIVING)
White shark gestation period is 11 months. Powerful jaws of a cub begin to wave already in the first month. (PIXELEATER on deviantART)
Video: The largest shark weighs about 2 tons
Shark cannibals are not yet born: stronger calves eat weak ones right in the womb. Birth occurs in spring or summer. (PATRIC DOUGLAS / SHARKDIVER.COM)
Although the white shark is considered a predator of the highest order (that is, they have no enemies in their own form), sometimes, although very rarely, they can be hunted by a larger orca. (VENSON KUCHIPUDI)
Mutual competition between the white shark and the killer whale can occur in areas where their eating habits intersect. (VENSON KUCHIPUDI)
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GuruAnimal.ru »Fish» Interesting facts about the white shark (lat. Carcharodon carcharias)
Sharks and their habitat halo
Sharks, despite the delusions, are very clever and funny cartilaginous fishes, who are not alien to such feelings as curiosity or playfulness. Perhaps due to this, the sharks and populated the aquatic environment so tightly. At their disposal are not only the oceans, but even some lakes and rivers. Naturally halo habitats and habits of different types are completely different.
About 460 species of various sharks live in the world ocean. Among them, only 45 species are dangerous to humans, others are not more dangerous than pike. Considering the largest ocean - the Pacific, one can immediately note that its waters store a lot of dangerous and predatory sharks, including leopard, lemon and fish hammer. The most dangerous resorts of the Pacific:
- Brisbane is an Australian city located on the shores of the Coral Sea,
- Beach Bolines - California,
- Oahu and Maui - Hawaiian Islands.
The Atlantic Ocean is not so densely populated by sharks, but those that live there are particularly dangerous. The least safe places considered to be the Bahamas, Recife in Brazil and the beach of Florida "New Smyrna". The Indian Ocean is a record holder in the number and bloodthirstiness of sharks. In addition, their habitat halo extends to many resorts in Australia, as well as Oceania. African ocean shores can hardly be called safe.
The most dangerous places: the bay Kosi-Bey (South Africa) and the Seychelles.
The Arctic Ocean is rightfully becoming the most interesting ocean, as there are a lot of cold-resistant sharks living in its waters, which are interesting for their behavior and habits. The most interesting is that among the huge sharks of “cold waters”, only one species is considered dangerous.
Sharks are inherently very peaceful and calm. Their natural diet includes fish with a high concentration of fat. Therefore, despite the point of view of many creepy movies and books, sharks only bite off pieces from humans, but in almost 95% of cases they spit out meat, some types of jellyfish and snakes kill more people.
The only dangerous enemy of the shark, to date, is man. In addition to the fact that researchers were wrong in believing that shark cartilage cures cancer, in many countries the shark has become a delicacy. Also, most civilized countries contain from 3 to 20 sharks in captivity, not counting the frequent collections.
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The story was written on such an application: "A short story about how one boy in a gym class noticed that a large white shark was found in the shower and in the pool. Neither harmful classmates, nor an evil coach, nor a teacher who loved to cut the whole class and especially they did not believe him. But in vain ... "Although, of course, I had to move a little from the application.
- Glory! You are walking? - Cyril shouted, the last of my classmates crawling out of the pool. Glory in no hurry to get out. In a month, the summer holidays will begin, and he will go to his grandmother. And my grandmother is near a lake. And all the children are swimming in the lake ... but not him. The most shameful secret of Glory was that he was afraid to swim. He didn’t like shivering when his feet didn’t touch the bottom. It seemed that now surely something grabbed his leg, blithely gurgling in the water. Something toothy. Huge The shark ... About Sharks, Slava knew if not everything, then very much for a boy of ten years. I got carried away by them even when I looked at the first Jaws, terrible antiquity, but still scary. Then the second and third. Both "Open Seas". Jaws 3D. Honestly, even the absurd "Shark Tsunami" and the Discovery programs, which showed sharks to almost playful dolphins, never attacking people, if they were not provoked, unnerved the boy to the depths of his soul, causing his heart to die at each appearance in the frame of the triangular fin. Another thing is that Slava would rather die than admit it honestly. He was afraid, but watched, gritting his teeth. He read that his fear needed to face. So he looked. And only a month later, after a miserable four weeks, he will either swim in the lake, like other children, or be subjected to endless ridicule, as was the case last summer. No, the well-read Slavik, of course, knew that there were no sharks in the lakes. If you do not count the bull sharks, who have chosen the lake Nicaragua. But who guarantees that bull sharks, the most dangerous for humans, by the way, will not swim along some rivulets to grandmother's lake ?! Did you catch a shark a few years ago in the Gulf of Finland? He was reading! And the cottage is in the Leningrad region, and the lake is just connected to the Gulf of Finland by a network of rivers. Glory called himself paranoid. Then a coward. Then miserable, described rag. The last worked, and taking a deep breath, the boy decided. He swims the entire length of the pool, without touching the bottom, back and forth. And then come out and run into the shower. If you're lucky, he won't even be late for the literature. Literature led the most unloved teacher of Glory, Olga Maximovna. She was not loved by the whole class for the constant grumbling and nagging, but she hated the Glory sightingly. Glory knew. The longer it was impossible to pull, the boy pushed off from the wall of the pool and swam. All his sensations were concentrated in the legs. Right now ... now sharp teeth are closing on the ankle ... Quiet! This is just a pool! Here, where, where, and in the school’s swimming pool, the shark cannot be met for sure. This is not a pool, as in the Jaws, which was connected to the sea, right? It connects only with the plumbing, and no shark swims along it, whatever one may say. Oh, except for the cigar. Slava very vividly remembered the scene from the Jaws 3D, where cigar sharks were no worse than piranhas gnawed on one brunette. In time, yes, you will not say anything. Chill passed over the skin, but the memory noticeably added to the glory of speed. And then the hair under the swim cap began to move for real. Glory was not alone in the pool. A huge shadow was sliding slowly along the next path to meet him. Above the water, the familiar triangular fin of Choehört loomed up to the pain! In the fish was not less than four meters in length! In a panic, Slava went under the water, and then frantically pounded with his hands and feet on the water, striving for the stairs. Splashes attracted a shark, which rushed to him sharply, going to the depths. Glory knew what it meant ... an attack. About two meters to the stairs. To the shark - no more than three. Slava flew out of the pool by a bullet. The shark jumped out of the water, demonstrating a snow-white against the gray sides and back of the belly. Monstrous jaws clicked in the air. Slava had warm trickles on her legs, but now he wasn’t even up to her disgrace. He watched as the shark, bent at the highest point of its flight, falls back into the pool, right on the separation rope between the tracks, and slowly goes under water, dissolving in the depths ... When the spray scattered, the pool was again a pool. Small frog, two meters in the deepest place ... Of course, there was no shark. There could be no shark! But after all, someone broke the fence, right? Plastic rings scattered throughout the pool, even on the floor flew off. Slavik on stiff legs went into the shower. As you wish. On physical education, he will no longer go. He will scream, make tantrums, cry like a first grader, if necessary. He is not afraid of even the formidable fizruk Anton Anatolyevich. But in the pool it will not drive. And in the lake too. And he hardly ever will take a bath. There is a shower. Experienced stress made the boy somewhat inhibited. There was not a single thought in his head, he moved mechanically, hardly controlling his own hands and feet. He was late for literature, of course. The lips still seemed strangers, numb. Glory did not apologize and did not ask if he could go. Just went to my place. Of course, Olga Maximovna could not stand for such a thing. - Dolokhov, how to understand this? Slava raised a half-mad look at her. The teacher, it seems, did not notice either the dilated pupils of the boy, nor the pounding trembling of him. - Explain to me - and to the class - what has delayed you? “Shark,” Slava moved his disobedient lips. - In the pool ... - What?
What is the white shark famous for?
- the teacher disgustedly opened her mouth, from which her deep nasolabial folds became more clearly defined, and looked at Glory with a mixture of pity and disgust. — Какая такая акула? — Кархарадон Кархариас, большая белая акула. Около четырёх метров. Самец, — машинально отвечал Слава. — Он порвал ограждение в бассейне. Посмотрите, если мне не верите. Класс почему-то засмеялся. Слава ничего смешного не видел. — Я поговорю с Антоном Анатольевичем на перемене, — пообещала учительница, ничуть не менее противно поджав губы.However, according to Slava, any expression on her face seemed nasty in exactly the same degree. - Give me your diary. I will write a comment to parents. Slava obediently carried the diary to the teacher's desk. “Now, sit down, and you have already taken time from the class,” Olga Maksimovna ordered. Glory silently sat down. Even under the threat of terrible torture, he could not tell what was discussed in that lesson. Before his eyes was a relentless picture of a powerful giant fish, a real monster, flying out of the water and snapping jaws. The shark was a meter away from him. He saw her pointed scales, saw the scars on the dorsal fin. Saw creepy round eyes, perfect for this killing machine. I saw how my eyes hid behind blink membranes, defending themselves before the attack. Glory knew he saw a shark. And he saw her in the pool. No one could convince him otherwise. The next change and lesson in history was as if in a fog. And then Anton Anatolevich fished him in the corridor. As soon as he saw Slava, he began to scream, calling him a bully and a jerk. He graduated from the requirement to invite parents to school. And wrote another comment in the diary. With parents, Slava used to be honest. They are not psychotic Olga Maximovna. They always took his side, often blocking off in front of the teachers. It turned out that this time honesty was not the best policy. They did not believe him! The more Slava argued, proving what he saw, the more anxious the views exchanged between parents with each other. It all ended with the fact that twice a week after school he began to meet with a psychologist. It is not clear how this was learned in the class, but "Psycho" and "Schizik" became the second name of Glory very soon. You can even say the first. Nobody called him glory now. Even the best once friend Kirill. And during the summer holidays nothing was forgotten. In the summer, Slava went to her grandmother, but did not go to the lake. He did not even like to sit on the beach. Too close to the water. And Slava now knew for sure that no water was safe. The ridicule of other children were deeply indifferent to him. Slava closed and went into himself deeper every day. And in the winter, just before the New Year holidays, an emergency happened at school. Fizruk Anton Anatolevich unexpectedly went crazy and with incredible cruelty tore two two third-grade girls who were additionally engaged in the pool. The teacher who discovered them fainted. All the water was pink with blood, pieces of meat floated on the surface. At least there were rumors like that. Then Anton Anatolyevich was seen at school, he came to pick up the documents. There were already other rumors that he was released for lack of evidence of guilt. Glory then approached the coach when he smoked on the porch, and silently stood beside him. - Have you seen too? - all he asked. - Shark. Anton Anatolyevich recoiled from the boy, discarded the cigarette that he had just smoked and started walking away. Slava shrugged. He did not want new meetings with a psychologist, which means that it was better to remain silent. He just knew that he was right. Sharks are also found here. They are found anywhere. Contact the site programmer.
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Few people know that the fear of sharks is contrived. A person feeds his fears from the myths and stories of other people, they make you believe that the shark is a terrible predator from which there is no escape.
It is customary for a person to assume that absolutely all sharks are not just bloodthirsty, but deadly, because there is no escape from them. Or the fear of sharks - is it just the fear of fairy tales?
Let's try to find out how fast these inhabitants of the sea depth are, and are they all the same in speed and danger?
Imagine the most common shark. What picture came up before your eyes? Right! Large sized fish with sharp, blade-like teeth that are covered in fresh blood from a recently eaten innocent animal. But now you will understand how wrong you are.
Shark turtle hunting
As you already understood, the sharks are all different. Far from each for obtaining food requires high speed. Some shark species feed only on plankton and small fish that drift silently in the ocean, and no high speed is required for their fishing.
And there are those who do not prefer to swim in the upper layers of the oceans, they are much more pleasant at the bottom, under tons of water, and there, as you know, you can’t pick up the speed.
Of course, there are several species of sharks that are still able to track down their prey. However, they do it infrequently. Some even learned to "walk" on the seabed, they use in this pectoral fins.
Black Shark Speed
The chances that a black shark will attack a person are very scanty, since this species of shark lives too deep. This species is an object of poacher catches because of its meat, fat and large liver. The diet of the black shark consists of stingrays, bony fishes, sharks, and also crustaceans. By and large, these sharks do not hunt for their victims, they are quietly waiting in ambush, and when given the right moment - they attack.
Where does the great white shark live?
White sharks adapt perfectly to different environmental conditions. They are distributed throughout the oceans, but adhere to areas with a temperate climate. But sometimes they can be seen in the tropics and off the coast of Alaska. In the world there are small places of clusters of white sharks, where they regularly, from year to year, meet predators. These are the coastal waters of Australia, New Zealand, California and Baja California, South Africa and the Mediterranean.
How to find out
For centuries, the white shark was considered one of the most ferocious and bloodthirsty predators of the Earth, and for this there were reasons. It can reach a length of 6 m and a mass up to 3 tons. In 1930, the largest white shark was caught in the Canadian province of New Brunswick, which was even included in the Guinness Book of Records. The length of her body was 7.3 m. White shark females are usually larger and more massive than males. The shark has a strong torpedo-shaped body, a large conical head, pointed fins.
The body of these sharks is white only below. The upper part is unevenly colored in greyish-brown or greyish-blue tones. Such a protective coloring well hides the animal in sea water, making it hardly noticeable to predators. Like other members of the families, the white shark has three rows of teeth, which it uses like a saw.
Lifestyle and Biology
Hunting is most often sent by the pack, but often they are hunted alone. The basis of the diet of the white shark is small fish. However, as they grow older, their taste preferences change, and adults begin to hunt for seals and other animals that lead the marine lifestyle. In order to maintain a constant body temperature, the shark needs a lot of high-calorie food. Therefore, it is the seals and seals with their abundant reserves of adipose tissue - the best option.
White sharks are viviparous. Males begin to breed at the age of eight years, when the length of their body reaches not less than 3.5 m. Females - at 12 years, and their body should increase to 4.5 m. Scientists have not yet been able to reliably establish many aspects of the reproduction biology of the species. At the same time, from 5 to 10 fry can be born, the body length of which varies from 120 to 150 cm. During the aging period, which presumably lasts about a year, embryos eat unfertilized eggs in the womb. Thus, they support their vitality and get the opportunity for full development.
The average life of a white shark is 30 years.
Listed in the Red Book
According to scientists, today on the Earth there are no more than 3.5 thousand white sharks. The species is the only surviving member of the genus Carcharodon. The decline in the size of the global population began in the 1970s. Earlier, for many decades, white sharks were hunted for jaws, teeth and fins, and also simply exterminated, considering them to be the most dangerous predators and enemies of man. Another possible reason for the fact that today the species is listed in the International Red Book is a long period of maturation and puberty. Before puberty, sharks themselves are exposed to a large number of dangers, become prey to larger predators and often die. The species was included in the list of protected animals relatively recently, in the 2000s. But now around the world there is a ban on the destruction of white sharks. Those who violate it, expect serious trouble. For example, in New Zealand, a poacher who has risked killing a white shark will be severely punished. The maximum fine that he will be obliged to pay will be 250 thousand dollars, and the measure of restraint will be six months in prison.
Interesting fact about the white shark
The white shark is one of the largest predators among fish. However, despite the bloodthirsty image of the man-eating shark, presented in Steven Spielberg’s cult film Jaws, in reality, white predators rarely attack people purposefully. Most likely, they attack a person, mistakenly mistaking him for a seal. Feeling that the prey is not fat enough, the shark releases the prey. But sharks hunt in packs, and perhaps every member will want to make sure that it is not a seal. Nevertheless, only one bite of a predator with sharp teeth can be fatal. At the same time, such an extreme form of recreation as swimming with sharks is becoming increasingly popular in the world.
Great White Shark Area
The great white shark can be found in all the waters of the world's oceans, where the temperature is not lower than 12 degrees and not higher than 24 degrees. In colder water, these predators are extremely rare. It is also interesting that such a fish lives in salt water, and in salted and desalinated fish.
Interesting fact: such a predator does not live and could not live in the Black Sea. This is explained by the fact that the water here is too fresh, besides in the Black Sea there is not enough food to survive this predatory fish.
Carharodona can be found on the coast of the United States, Canada, Guadeloupe, Argentina, Chile, Japan, China, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, as well as off the coast of Croatia and Italy, Portugal and North Africa. By the way, in New Zealand this species is under protection.
The largest population inhabits the island of Dyer, in South Africa. Scientific studies of these predatory fish are also conducted there.
White sharks settle in the waters of the seas. They feed on seals, whales, large bony fish. And only a large killer whale is capable of terrorizing this predator.
Appearance and anatomy of carharodon
The body of the great white shark is fusiform, streamlined, like most sharks - active predators. A large, conical head with small eyes located on it and a pair of nostrils, to which small grooves lead, increasing the flow of water to the olfactory receptors of the shark. The mouth is very wide, armed with sharp triangular-shaped teeth with notches on the sides. With teeth such as an ax, the shark cuts off pieces of flesh from prey. The number of teeth in the great white shark, as in the tiger, 280-300.
They are arranged in several rows (usually 5). The complete replacement of the first row of teeth in young individuals of large white sharks occurs on average once every three months, in adults - once every eight months, i.e. the younger a shark, the more often they change teeth. Behind the head are the gill slits - five on each side. The body color of large white sharks is typical of fish swimming in the water column. The ventral side is lighter, usually off-white, the dorsal side is darker, gray, with shades of blue, brown or green. This color makes the predator in the water column barely visible and allows it to hunt for prey more efficiently. Large and fleshy anterior dorsal fin and two infants.
The abdominal, second dorsal and anal fins are smaller. The tail fin finishes the plumage, both blades of which, like all salmon sharks, are approximately the same size. Among the features of the anatomical structure, it should be noted highly developed circulatory system of large white sharks, which allows to warm up the muscles, thereby achieving a high mobility of the shark in the water.
Like all sharks, the big white has no swim bladder, which is why they have to constantly move in order not to drown. However, it should be noted that the sharks do not feel much inconvenience from this. Millions of years they did without a bubble and did not suffer from it at all.
Great White Shark Sizes
The usual size of an adult individual of the great white shark is 4-5.2 meters and weighs 700-1000 kg. Females are usually larger than males. The maximum size of the white shark is about 8 m and weighs more than 3500 kg. It should be noted that the maximum size of the white shark is a hotly debated topic. Some zoologists, experts in sharks, believe that the great white shark can reach significant sizes - more than 10 and even 12 meters in length.
For several decades, many scientific works on ichthyology, as well as the Book of Records, called the largest of the large white sharks caught ever large: a great white shark 10.9 m long caught in southern Australian waters near Port Fairy in 1870- years, and a great white shark, 11.3 m long, caught in a herring trap near the dam in the province of New Brunswick (Canada) in 1930.
Reports of the capture of specimens 6.5–7 meters long were common, but the above dimensions remained record high for a long time. Some researchers have questioned the accuracy of the measurements of the sizes of these sharks in both cases. The reason for this doubt is the large difference between the size of the record individuals and all other sizes of large, large white sharks, obtained by accurate measurements.
The NewBranswick shark was probably not a white, but a giant shark, since both sharks have a similar body shape. Since the fact of catching this shark and its measurement were recorded not by ichthyologists, but by fishermen, such a mistake could well have taken place. The question of the size of the shark from Port Fairy was clarified in the 1970s, when the shark specialist DI Reynolds studied the jaws of this great white shark. The largest teeth and jaws, he found that the Port Fairy shark was no more than 6 meters in length. Apparently, an error in measuring the size of this shark was made in order to get a sensation.
Scientists have determined the size of the largest instance, the length of which was reliably measured, in 6.4 meters. This great white shark was caught in Cuban waters in 1945, measured by specialists with documented measurements. However, in this case, there were experts who claim that the shark was actually several feet shorter. The unconfirmed weight of this Cuban shark was 3270 kg.
What eats karharodon?
Juveniles feed on small bony fish, small marine animals and mammals. Older individuals hunt for fur seals, sea lions, mollusks, large fish, even other sharks and whales.
Due to their color, these predators can easily be masked while hunting, and the high body temperature allows them move fast and overtake your prey. And also thanks to active movements, there is also an active brain activity, thanks to which this predator is able to invent ingenious strategies during the hunt.
By the way, about attacks on people: very often, surfers and swimmers with their body movements remind karcharodons of the same sea-seals, so she can actively attack them.
But here it is worth taking into account the fact that these predatory fish prefer fatty foods. Therefore, having bitten a person and tasted it, the shark swims away in disappointment. So the opinion that such predators feed on human flesh is quite erroneous.
Reproduction and longevity
Individuals less than 4 m in length, most likely immature adolescents. Female sharks can become pregnant no earlier than 12-14 years old. Males mature a little earlier - at 10. Great white sharks breed by breeding. This method is inherent exclusively in cartilage species of fish. Pregnancy lasts about 11 months, then several babies hatch in the womb of the mother. The strongest eat the weak, while still inside. 2-3 completely independent shark are born. According to statistics, 2/3 of them do not live up to a year, becoming a victim of adult fish and even their own mother. Due to prolonged pregnancy, low productivity and late maturation, the number of white sharks is steadily decreasing. In the world ocean no more than 4500 individuals live.
Interesting Shark Facts
- Despite (or because of) notoriety, sharks are considered to be among the most curious fish of interest to scientists, divers, and many people far from the world of the ocean.
- In Chinese culture, sharks, or rather their parts, play a special role. Shark fin soup is a recognized delicacy and is offered to the most honored guests, and dried shark fin is considered an aphrodisiac.
- Japanese culture exposes sharks terrible monsters, carrying the souls of sinners.
- The belief that shark cartilage is a panacea for cancer does not have scientific evidence. Более того, ученые развеяли миф, что акулы имеют иммунитет к раку: у многих рыб были найдены злокачественные опухоли разных систем и органов.
- Невзирая на то, что мясо акулы имеет свойство накапливать ртуть, многих это не останавливает, оно и по сей день используется как деликатесное.
- Крепкая и прочная кожа акул нашла применение в галантерейной промышленности, а также используется для изготовления абразивных материалов.
- На протяжении веков акул истребляют самым иррациональным и кощунственным образом ради плавников, которые составляют всего лишь 4% от массы тела. And carcasses are left to rot on the ground or thrown into the ocean.
- The shark is a fish that plays an invaluable role in the ocean ecosystem, but the third part of the species of sharks is on the verge of extinction only due to man’s fault.
White and Mako Sharks
Great white sharks - the largest and most dangerous predators inhabiting the waters of the ocean - may actually be related to mako sharks. This is supported by the fossils of the white shark, 4 million years old, found in Peru. Such a find is an extraordinary paleontological rarity, since the skeleton of sharks consists not of bones, like in most fish, but of cartilages — softer and worse-preserved tissues.
"The safety of the sample we detected allows us to understand much better.
Great polar shark
The largest polar shark caught on a hook was pulled out by Danish fishermen from the Norwegian Bucknafjord in the west of the country. The mass of the predator, pecking at the usual spinning, is 880 kg, and its length exceeds 4 meters.
A huge fish, traditionally inhabiting the polar latitudes, amateur anglers Per Jensen and Henrik Hansen pulled out of the water for almost a whole hour.
Guests from the Danish kingdom told that they came to Norway specifically for the sharks. Record they managed to set already on.
Big dental hype
Big dental hype
How often do you brush your teeth? Most likely, once or twice a day. And how often have you thought about what substances are in the toothpaste, which you use every day, month after month? Probably, just like me - never. Like me, you rely on the recommendations of the Dental Association. And in vain.
After I came across information about the dangers of fluorine, I really thought about the fact that I had never even had a thought before.
Large Hadron Collider stopped
The Large Hadron Collider was stopped for several hours due to a leak in the cooling system.
"The sensors recorded leaks in the circuit of demineralized water, which cools the power supplies of the pumps of the cryogenic cooling system, as well as the power supplies of the magnets," the agency source said.
It is assumed that the inactivity time of the accelerator will be about 6 hours.
It is emphasized that the problems are rather insignificant and the operation of the accelerator will be restored to.
Most billionaires live in Moscow
Most of the billionaires listed on the new Forbes list live in Moscow.
According to the newspaper, the Russian capital is a “place of residence” for 79 rich people, followed by New York with 58 billionaires.
Forbes also notes that over the past year the number of rich Russians in the ranking increased by 2/3, reaching 101.
Large Hadron Collider went to normal operation
After the winter holidays and several weeks of tests, the Large Hadron Collider entered normal operation, the official microblog of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) said in a statement. "The season of physical research in 2011 has begun," - said in a statement.
The collider, which began operating in February 2010 after several months of calibration, eliminating minor problems, completed its first working year in December of the same year and was stopped until mid-February.
According to advertising, this is not a cheap remedy that can cure even the most severe cases of cancer. In our country, shark cartilage tests were not carried out, somehow, apparently, not before. But similar tests were carried out in 1998 in the United States.
In the November issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology, American scientists published disappointing test results for cartilage manufacturers.
According to estimates of American physicians, shark cartilage has been used to treat 50,000 Americans already.
Sharks in Vladivostok
In Vladivostok, in the area of Russky Island, a flock of large sharks was found, in the same part of the Sea of Japan, where sharks have recently attacked people twice. On the evening of August 17, the shark attacked the resting man, who lost the hands of both hands. The next day, a shark attacked a 16-year-old, bending his legs. Fortunately, the doctors said that the victim’s legs would be saved.
"The Commission for the Prevention and Management of Emergencies of Primorsky Krai strongly recommends that residents and