Due to the species diversity, the length of sharks is very different: small bottom ones barely reach 20 cm, and the whale shark grows to 20 meters and has a weight of 34 tons (mass of an average sperm whale). The skeleton of a shark has no bones and consists only of cartilage tissue. The streamlined body is covered with scales with pronounced relief protrusions, the strength of which is not inferior to the teeth, in connection with which the scales of the shark received the name "skin teeth".
The shark's respiratory organ is the gill slits located in front of the pectoral fins.
The shark's heart maintains too weak blood pressure, therefore, to stimulate blood flow, the fish must be in motion as often as possible, helping the heart with continuous muscle contractions. Although some species of sharks feel great, lying on the bottom and pumping water through the gills.
The shark has no swim bladder that all bony fish have.
Therefore, the buoyancy of the shark provides a giant liver, which is almost a third of the body weight of predatory fish, low density of cartilage tissue and fins.
The shark's stomach is very elastic, so it can hold a large amount of food.
To digest food, the concentration of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice is not enough, and then the sharks turn the stomach inside out, freeing them from undigested surplus, and what is interesting is that the stomach does not suffer from numerous sharp teeth.
Sharks have excellent eyesight, exceeding the sharpness of human 10 times.
The hearing is represented by the inner ear and picks up low frequencies and infrasound, and also provides the equilibrium function to predatory fish.
Sharks have a rare sense of smell and can smell smells coming through the air and through the water.
The smell of blood predators catch in the ratio of 1 to a million, which is comparable with a teaspoon, diluted in a swimming pool.
The speed of a shark, as a rule, does not exceed 5 - 8 km / h, although, sensing prey, the predator can accelerate to almost 20 km / h. Warm-blooded species - the white shark and the mako shark dissect the water column at a speed of up to 50 km / h.
The average life expectancy of a shark is no more than 30 years, but sandy quatra, whale and polar sharks can live for more than 100 years.
The structure of the predator's jaws depends on the lifestyle and the food used. The shark's teeth are long, sharp, in the shape of a cone; with them it easily rips the flesh of the victim.
Representatives of the gray shark family are endowed with flat and sharp teeth, which allows them to tear apart large-sized meat.
Tiger shark teeth
The whale shark, whose main ration is plankton, has small teeth up to 5 mm in length, although their number can reach several thousand.
Horned sharks, feeding mainly on bottom food, have sharp front small teeth and a back row of large crushing teeth. As a result of grinding or falling out, the teeth of a predatory fish are replaced by new ones growing on the inside of the mouth.
How many teeth does a shark have?
Comb-toothed sharks have 6 rows of teeth on the bottom and 4 rows on the upper jaws with a total of 180-220 teeth. In the mouth of the white and tiger sharks are 280-300 teeth, which are located in 5-6 rows on each jaw. In a fringed shark, the number of dentitions is 20-28 on each jaw, with a total number of teeth 300-400. At the whale shark in the mouth there are 14 thousand teeth.
The size of the shark's teeth also varies from species to species. For example, the size of the teeth of the white shark is 5 cm. The length of the teeth of sharks that feed on plankton is only 5 mm.
White Shark Sharp Teeth
White shark teeth
Tooth shark Megalodon - ancient extinct shark
Where do sharks live?
Sharks live in the waters of the entire world ocean, that is, in all seas and oceans. The main distribution occurs in equatorial and equatorial waters of the seas, in coastal waters, especially in reef buildings.
It is worth noting that some species of sharks, such as the common gray shark and the stupor-headed shark, are capable of living in both salt and fresh water, swimming in rivers. The depth of the sharks habitat is 2000 meters on average, in rare cases they descend to 3000 meters.
What does a shark eat?
The food of sharks is quite diverse and depends on the specific species and range. Most of the species prefer marine fish. Deep-sea sharks eat crabs and other crustaceans.
The great white shark preys on eared seals, elephant seals and cetacean mammals, the tiger shark swallows everything. And only 3 species - the big-eared, whale and gigantic sharks eat plankton, cephalopods, and small fish.
Shark Types, Names and Photos
The modern classification of these ancient fish that existed hundreds of millions of years ago, identifies 8 major groups, forming about 450 species of sharks:
Carkharin(gray, carcharide) sharks(lat. Carcharhiniformes)
This unit includes 48 genera and 260 species. Typical representatives of the squad are the following types:
- Giant hammerhead shark(lat. Sphyrna mokarran)
Inhabits the waters of the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific Oceans, Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. The maximum recorded length of the shark - the hammer is 6.1 m. The leading edge of the “hammer” is almost straight, which distinguishes them from other hammerhead sharks. High dorsal fin is sickle shaped.
- Silk (florida) shark(lat. Carcharhinus falciformis)
He lives in the Mediterranean and Red Seas, is found in the equatorial and adjacent latitudes of the world's oceans.
For a wide-eyed shark, a rather dark color on the back of various shades of gray, blue, brown-brown with a slight metallic luster is characteristic. With age, the colors fade. The scales covering the skin of sharks are so small that they create the effect of their complete absence. The length of the silk (Florida) shark reaches 2.5-3.5 meters. The maximum recorded weight is 346 kilograms.
- Tiger (leopard) shark (Latin Galeocerdo cuvier)
It lives off the coast of Japan, New Zealand, USA, Africa, India, Australia. Tiger shark is considered one of the most common types of sharks on Earth.
These large predators reach a length of 5.5 meters. The color of the leopard shark is gray, the belly is white or light yellow. Until the shark reaches two meters in length, transverse stripes similar to tiger stripes are visible on its sides. Hence its name. These bands mask predatory fish from their larger relatives. With age, the bands fade.
- Bull sharkorgray bull, stupid shark(lat.Carcharhinus leucas)
The most aggressive species of sharks, common in tropical and subtropical oceans, can often be found this predatory fish in rivers and canals.
These huge fishes have a spindly oblong body characteristic of gray sharks, the snout is short, massive and dull. The surface of the body of a blunt-naked shark is painted gray, the belly is white. The maximum recorded body length is 4 meters.
- Blue shark or blue shark (big shark or big blue shark)(lat.Prionace glauca)
It is one of the most common sharks on earth. The habitat of the blue shark is quite wide: it is found everywhere in the temperate and tropical waters of the World Ocean. The big blue shark reaches 3.8 meters in length and weighs 204 kilograms. This species has an elongated slender body with long pectoral fins. Body color - blue, belly-white.
Diverse(bull horned) sharks(lat. Heterodontiformes)
A detachment includes one fossil and one modern genus, in which the following types can be distinguished:
- Zebrovidnaya bull (Chinese bull, narrow-band bull, narrow-band horned) shark(lat. Heterodontus zebra)
It lives off the coast of China, Japan, Australia, Indonesia. The maximum fixed length is 122 cm. The body of a narrow-striped bull shark is light brown or white in color with wide brown stripes, in addition there are narrow stripes on the sides.
- Helmet Bull Shark(lat. Heterodontus galeatus)
Rare species lives off the coast of Australia. The skin of the helmet-shaped bull shark is covered with large and coarse skin teeth. The color is light brown, with 5 dark saddle marks scattered over the main background. The maximum recorded length of the shark is 1.2 m.
- Mozambican bull (african horned) shark(lat. Heterodontus ramalheira)
The fish has a body length of just over 50 centimeters and lives off the coast of Mozambique, Yemen and Somalia. The base of the anal fin is located behind the base of the second dorsal fin. The main color of this type of shark is red-brown, with small white specks scattered on it. Maximum fixed length is 64 cm.
Multifilamental(multiscale) sharks(lat. Hexanchiformes)
Primitive squad, representing only 6 species of sharks, with the most famous:
- Fierce shark (mistress) (lat. Chlamydoselachus anguineus)
This shark has the ability to bend the body and attack the prey like a snake. The length of the squire was up to 2 m, but is usually about 1.5 m in females and 1.3 m in males. The body is strongly elongated. The color of this type of shark is of an even dark brown or gray color. They are distributed from the northern coast of Norway to Taiwan and California.
- Sevenfibers (ash shrub sevenshaber) (lat. Heptranchiasperlo)
It has a length of just over 1 meter and, despite aggressive behavior, is not dangerous to humans. It lives from coastal Cuban waters to the coast of Australia and Chile.
The color of this type of shark ranges from brownish-gray to olive in color, the belly is lighter. Some individuals of the ash gray shrub have dark markings on their backs, dark fringing is possible. The young shambles of the semi-marriages on the sides have dark spots, the edges of the dorsal and upper lobes of the caudal fin are darker than the main color.
Lamiform sharks(lat. Lamniformes)
These are large fish, endowed with a body, shaped like a torpedo. The detachment includes 7 genera:
- Gigantic (giant) sharks (lat. Cetorhinidae)
They have an average length of 15 m, but, despite the impressive dimensions, do not pose a danger to people. The color is gray-brown with speckles. On the tail stem there are pronounced lateral carinae, the tail of a sickle-shaped shark. Giant sharks live mainly in the waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, North and Mediterranean seas.
- Fox sharks (sea foxes) (lat. Alopias)
They have a very long upper part of the caudal fin, equal to the length of the body. In sea foxes as a whole, a slender body with small dorsal and long pectoral fins. The color of sharks varies from brownish to bluish or lilac-gray, the belly is bright. They grow up to 6 m in length, but they are shy and try to avoid encounters with a person.
Fox sharks are common in North American waters and throughout the Pacific coast.
- Herring (Lamps) sharks (lat. Lamnidae)
These are the fastest sharks. A prominent representative of the family is the white shark, which has a body length of up to 6 meters. Thanks to the delicious meat, herring sharks are exterminated for commercial purposes, and are also used as objects of sport hunting in the warm waters of the world's oceans.
- False Sand Sharks(lat. Pseudocarcharias)
Pseudocarcharias kamoharai is the only species of the genus. These fish have a peculiar body shape, resembling a cigar. The average body length is 1 m; predators are not aggressive towards humans, but after being caught they begin to bite. These sharks live in the eastern part of the Atlantic, in the Indian and Pacific Ocean.
- Sand shark(lat. Odontaspididae)
Family of large fish with a snub nose and a curved maw. Slow and not aggressive, are considered theoretically dangerous to humans, although the recorded cases of cannibalism are likely to belong to gray sharks, with which sandy ones are often confused.
Sand sharks are inhabitants of all tropical and many cool seas. The maximum body length of this species of shark is 3.7 m.
- Bigmies (pelagic) sharks(lat. Megachasma)
Family Megachasma represented by the only and rare species Megachasmapelagios. Representatives of the species of large sharks eat plankton and are not dangerous for humans. The body length of this species is up to 6 m in length. These sharks swim off the coast of Japan, Taiwan and the Philippine Islands.
- Scapanor sharks (house sharks) (lat. Mitsukurinidae)
They represent 1 species, which received the popular nickname “shark - goblin” for its long nose in the form of a beak. The length of an adult individual is about 4 m with a weight of just over 200 kg. The rare deep-water species of sharks lives off the coasts of Japan and Australia.
A squad consisting of 32 species of sharks, the brightest representative of which is considered the whale shark (Latin. Rhincodon typus), growing up to 20 meters in length. A good-natured animal that allows divers to stroke themselves and even ride on their backs.
Most species feed on shoal with mollusks and crayfish. These sharks are found in the warm waters of the tropical and subtropical zones.
The squad includes the only family of sawn sharks or ponosovy (lat. Pristiophoridae), which differ in a long flat face with teeth resembling a saw. The average length of an adult poniferous shark is 1.5 meters. These predatory fish are distributed in the warm waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean, as well as off the coast of South Africa, Australia, Japan and a number of countries in the Caribbean.
Numerous squad, including 22 genera and 112 species. Unusual representatives of the order are the Southern Catran, the sea dog, or the marigold (Latin Squalus acanthias), which can be found in all seas and oceans, including the Arctic and sub-Antarctic waters.
Flat-bodied sharks (sea angels, squats)(lat. Squatina)
They have a wide, flat body that looks like a stingray. Representatives of sea angels have a length of just over 2 meters, are predominantly nocturnal, and sleep during the day, buried in mud. They live in all the warm waters of the world's oceans.
Sharks are distinguished by a longer duration of puberty. Most females are capable of fertilization only at 10 years of age, and the whale shark becomes sexually mature at the age of 30-40 years.
Sharks are characterized by internal fertilization: some species lay eggs, others differ in egg production, other species are viviparous. The incubation period depends on the species and lasts from several months to 2 years.
Laying egg-laying fish contains from 2 to 12 eggs.
After fertilization, shark eggs are coated with a protein coat, which is also covered with a hornlike shell. This allows you to protect them from different marine predators.
The hatched cub immediately begins to live and eat independently.
Sharks living in captivity, recorded cases of parthenogenesis - fertilization without the participation of individuals of the male sex.
Cubs of ovoviviparous sharks, hatched in the womb, remain for some time in the oviducts and continue to develop, first eating not fertilized eggs, and when their teeth grow, they are their weak brothers and sisters.
As a result, one is born, less often - two of the strongest cubs. The body length of a newborn shark is different, for example, the white shark shark is born 155 cm in length, and the tiger shark has a length of only 51-76 cm.
Shark attack on humans, or killer sharks
According to international data, the leading countries in the number of shark attacks are the USA, Australia, Brazil, South Africa and New Zealand. However, according to unofficial statistics, the most dangerous countries are in Africa. Here the largest and most dangerous shark populations live in the region of Mozambique, Tanzania and Ghana. It is worth noting that shark attacks on people occur mainly in the ocean waters, rather than in the mainland seas.
Throughout the history of its existence, the person considers the shark to be the source of devil, a killer with the maniac’s manners and universal evil. In the world there are a lot of stories about shark killers.
The danger that the shark supposedly represents to people is greatly exaggerated thanks to fantastic books and sensational horror films. Only 4 types of sharks make unprovoked attacks on humans: the white, tiger, long-winged sharks and the bull shark. The most common misconception is that sharks love human meat. In reality, having cut off a piece, the shark is likely to spit it out, having found nothing in such a diet satisfying its need for replenishing energy reserves.
Selachii (sharks) are attributed to the superorder of cartilaginous fishes (subclass of plate-woolen) with a characteristic appearance — a torpedo-shaped body with an asymmetrical tail fin and head, whose jaws are studded with several rows of sharp teeth. The Russian transcription of the term goes back to the Old Norse “hákall”: this is how the Vikings once called every fish. In Russia, the word "sharks" (m. R.) Began to be used in relation to any aquatic predators from about the 18th century.
Not all, but many sharks have a corpus-torpedo and an oval-conical head, which helps them to easily overcome the hydrodynamic resistance of the water column, gaining a decent speed. The fish swims, making wave-like movements of the body / tail and cycling all the fins. The tail, which serves as a rudder and engine, consists of 2 blades, in the upper of which comes the spinal column.
Боковые плавники добавляют скорости и маневренности, а также «рулят» на поворотах, подъемах и погружениях. Кроме того, парные плавники вкупе со спинным отвечают за равновесие при резких остановках и кульбитах. Paradoxically, but the shark, which has a complex arsenal of fins, has not learned to “give up backwards,” but it has learned funny tricks.
It is interesting! Epoletic sharks walk along the bottom on the pectoral and abdominal fins, as on the legs. Small luminous sharks (no more than half a meter tall) “flutter” like hummingbirds in water, quickly reducing and spreading pectoral fins.
The cartilage skeleton is additionally strengthened with calcium in areas with a greater load (jaw and spine). By the way, the lightness of the skeleton is another cause of shark mobility and resourcefulness. To cope with the resilience of the environment helps the predator and its dense skin, composed of placoid scales that resemble teeth (in terms of strength and structure). It seems smooth if you move your hand from head to tail, and coarse as sandpaper, if you direct your hand from tail to head.
The mucus from the glands in the skin reduces friction and contributes to the collection of high speed. In addition, shark skin has a lot of pigment, responsible for the specific color of each species. Fish, as a rule, mimic the terrain, and are often decorated with stripes / spots under the general background of the bottom or thickets. Most sharks have a darker top than their belly, which helps them to disguise when looking at them from above. A light shade of the abdomen, on the contrary, makes the predator less noticeable for those who seek prey from the depths.
Fish or mammal
Sharks are aquatic animals from the class of cartilaginous fish, which includes close relatives of these predators, stingrays. Aquatic mammals (whales, seals, dolphins, etc.) living next to sharks and even resembling the latter do not belong to their family clan. Even a shark endowed with an extraordinary appearance still remains fish, as, for example, a fringed shark, in its outlines of a body similar to a sea serpent or an eel.
Carpet and squat sharks that live on the bottom are distinguished by a flat body with an inconspicuous sandy color that hides them among the bottom plants. Some wobbegong sharks have acquired leathery outgrowths on the snout ("wobbegong" from the language of the aborigines of Australia is translated as "shaggy beard"). The hammerhead shark is knocked out of the general row, whose name was influenced by the unusual T-shape of the head.
Character and way of life
It is customary to think that sharks in proud solitude plow the expanses of the ocean without creating numerous flocks. In reality, social behavior is not alien to predators: they gather in large groups during breeding periods or in places with an abundance of edibles.
Many species are prone to a sedentary and sedentary lifestyle, but some sharks migrate quite far, breaking thousands of miles annually.. Ichthyologists suggest that the pattern of migration of these predatory fish is more complicated than the migration of birds. The sharks have observed an interspecific social hierarchy, especially in terms of “distribution” of food rations: for example, the silk shark certainly obeys the long-winged.
It is interesting! The predator has a couple of ways to take a nap: do it during movement (after all, it is not so much the head as the spinal cord that controls it) or alternately disconnect each hemisphere, like dolphins.
The shark is constantly hungry and extremely voracious, because of which, day and night, it chases suitable prey with little or no rest. Ichthyologists recorded the sounds produced by sharks when dissecting the water column, and the crunching of their jaws, but came to the conclusion that these fish do not exchange sounds, but communicate with body language (including the position of the body and the turns of the fins).
Movement and breathing
Sharks are doomed to continuous movement - they need oxygen, but they (like most cartilaginous fish) do not have gill covers that run water through the gills. That is why the predator swims with its mouth open: so it takes water (to get oxygen) and remove it through the gill slits. Some sharks still manage to slow down, organizing themselves a short rest in areas with a strong undercurrent or pumping water through the gills (for which they inflate the cheeks and use the spray ball). It was also found that certain species of sharks, mainly benthic, are able to breathe skin.
In addition, in the muscle tissue of sharks, an increased concentration of myoglobin (respiratory protein) was found, due to which they, unlike the bony fishes, are able to withstand the load caused by constant movement. The cerebellum and the forebrain associated with the most developed parts of the brain are responsible for complex movements and coordination in space.
The role of the heart and liver
The temperature of the shark's body is usually equal to the temperature of its native water element, which is why these fish are called cold-blooded. True, some pelagic sharks are partly warm-blooded, as they are able to raise their own temperature due to the hard work of the muscles that warm the blood. The heart located in the thoracic region (close to the head) consists of 2 chambers, an atrium and a ventricle. The purpose of the heart is to pump blood through the gill artery into the vessels in the gills. Here the blood is saturated with oxygen and supplied to other important organs.
Important! The heart does not have enough power to maintain the blood pressure necessary for the distribution of oxygen over a huge body. Regular shrinking muscles help to stimulate blood flow.
The shark has a multifunctional and quite impressive (up to 20% of the total weight) liver, which is entrusted with several tasks:
- cleansing the body of toxins
- storage of nutrients
- replacement of the missing swim bladder.
Thanks to liver sharks keep afloat, and also almost do not feel the pressure drop during sharp ascents and descents.
Sharks have disgusting sight - they distinguish contours, but are not able to enjoy the color diversity of the world.. Moreover, sharks may not notice a fixed object, but they will start to stir when it comes into motion. As the predators attack their heads, nature has provided their eyes with protective devices, such as skin folds or blink membranes. The inner and middle ear are arranged to perceive even low-frequency vibrations (inaccessible to human hearing), for example, the movement of water layers.
Ampoules of Lorenzini, which catch the insignificant electrical impulses given by the victim, also help to find prey. These receptors are on the front of the head (especially in the hammerhead shark) and on the body.
It is interesting! Sharks have a strikingly sharp scent, 10 thousand times more sensitive than the human, which is explained by the developed front brain lobes responsible for smell, as well as by the presence of nostril fossae / grooves on the nose.
Thanks to the latter, the influx of water to the nostrils increases, the receptors are washed and read information about odors. No wonder the swimming shark constantly turns its nose, turning its head: as she tries to figure out where the alluring scent comes from.
It is not surprising that even a blinded predator easily finds fish places. But the shark falls into the greatest frenzy, feeling the smell of blood - for this it is enough a few drops dissolved in a standard pool. It has been observed that certain types of sharks have a so-called "air" sense of smell: they catch odors that are distributed not only in water, but also through the air.
How many sharks live
Almost all representatives of the super-order live not very much - about 20–30 years.. But among the sharks and long-livers, crossing the 100-year milestone. These include such types as:
The third one, by the way, became absolute record-holders not only among relatives, but among all vertebrates. Paleogenetics estimated the age of the 5-meter-caught specimen at 392 years (± 120 years), which led to a conclusion about the average life of the species, equal to 272 years.
It is interesting! Her teeth are responsible for shark life, or rather, their tireless “rotation”: from birth to death, the predator changes up to 50 thousand teeth. If this did not happen, the mouth would have lost its main weapon, and the fish simply died of starvation.
The teeth are renewed as they fall, moving out (as in the conveyor) from the inside of the mouth. The structure of the teeth / jaws is determined by the type of diet and lifestyle: for most sharks, the teeth are planted on cartilage and resemble sharp cones. The smallest teeth in species that eat plankton: no more than 3-5 mm in a whale shark. Carnivorous species (for example, sand sharks) wield long, sharp teeth that are easily included in the victim's flesh.
Bottom sharks, such as raznoozubye, nature equipped crushing (flat and ribbed) teeth, able to split shells. Wide and jagged teeth of a tiger shark: they are needed to cut and tear the meat of large animals.
Their number is still a question: some ichthyologists call the number 450, the second are confident that the species diversity of sharks is much more representative (about 530 species). The only thing that opponents agree on is the number of teams that unite all the sharks of the planet.
According to the modern classification of such groups there are only eight:
- carkharin - a detachment with a maximum (among sharks) variety of species, some of which are prone to oofagy,
- dissimilar - detachment of bottom sharks with nocturnal activity, having a dense body, 2 dorsal studded fins and one anal,
- multi-tine - includes 2 families, distinguished by the shape of the hull: torpedo-shaped in many-horny and acne-like in fleshy-sharks,
- Lamiform - in the detachment pelagic huge sharks with a torpedo-shaped body prevail,
- wobbee - inhabit the warm and tropical seas. All but the whale shark live on the bottom
- pylon-like - they are easy to recognize by their long, like a saw, face with many teeth,
- cat-shaped - found at great depths around the world, including latitudes near the poles,
- squat - a short muzzle and a flattened body resemble stingrays, however, shark gills do not open from the bottom, but on the sides.
It is interesting! The most imperceptible among sharks is the small catella (17–21 cm long), and the most impressive is the whale shark, which grows to 15–20 m.
Sharks have adapted to life throughout the World Ocean, and individual species (gray-headed sharks and gray sharks) periodically enter the estuaries of fresh rivers. Sharks prefer equatorial / equatorial waters, as well as coastal waters with a rich forage base. Usually predators stay at a depth of 2 km, occasionally dropping 3 km or even lower.
The sharks have a wide gastronomical predilection, which is explained by the structure of the stomach: it inexplicably stretches and is able not only to digest prey, but also to leave it in reserve. The main component of gastric juice is hydrochloric acid, easily dissolving metal, varnish and other materials. It is not surprising that some sharks (for example, tiger sharks) do not limit themselves in eating at all, swallowing all the objects encountered.
It is interesting! The tiger shark has a little trick that saves from the consequences of indomitable gluttony. The predator is able to turn the stomach inside out through the mouth (without injuring the walls with sharp teeth!), Spewing indigestible food and then rinsing it.
In general, the diet of sharks looks like this:
The white shark preys on large pelagic fishes, less frequently on young sea lions, seals and other mammals. Sea pelagic fish are also loved by mako, lamb and blue shark, and the large-mouthed, giant and whale-like ones to plankton. The menu of bottom sharks consists mainly of crabs and other crustaceans.
It is interesting! The shark finds its prey even in muddy water / bottom soil, feeling its weak heart impulses.
Both sharp teeth and phenomenally mobile shark jaws help to hold and cut prey. The bottom one plays the role of a stand, and the top one - the role of a kind of ax, with which the pieces are cut off from the carcass. Often, sharks operate with a buccal / buccal pump, sucking and tearing off the necessary fragments of flesh.
Reproduction and offspring
Sharks, like all cartilaginous fish, reproduce by internal fertilization, when the male enters the sex products into the female's body. Coitus looks more like rape, as the partner bites and rigidly holds the partner, forced to heal the love wounds later.
Modern sharks are divided into 3 categories (according to the way of appearance of offspring):
All methods of reproduction are aimed at preserving species, as they reduce fetal / postembryonic mortality. Oviparous sharks (over 30% of known species) lay from 1 to 12 large eggs, hanging them from algae. The thick shell protects the fruit from dehydration, damage and predators. The most massive clutches are observed in polar sharks, laying up to 500 (similar to goose) eggs.
In ovoviviparous sharks (more than 50% of species), an egg develops in the mother's body: there the progeny also hatch. Pregnancy lasts from several months to 2 years (quatra), which is considered a record among all vertebrates. “Ready” cubs (from 3 to 30) give birth to just over 10% of current sharks. By the way, newborns often die in the teeth of their own mother, if they do not have time to sail to a safe distance.
It is interesting! In females in captivity, there were cases of parthenogenesis, when the offspring appeared without the participation of males. Ichthyologists consider this a protective mechanism designed to preserve the number of the species.
Sharks have to fight for life in the womb. Ichthyologists describe the so-called pre-natal cannibalism, when part of the embryos (during oviparvation) mature earlier: hatching, they begin to devour the remaining eggs. Intrauterine eating of their own kind is not limited to: large species often eat small sharks.
The natural enemies of sharks (for the most part because of the same food preferences) include:
- Dolphins, especially killer whales,
- oily crocodile (in fresh water).
Skirmishes with dolphins occur because of the division of fish (mackerel, tuna and mackerel), with killer whales - because of large mammals. In pursuit of a swordfish, the shark unwittingly becomes its victim, snagging on the sword, piercing the gill slits. Marlin often himself attacks the shark because of its ugly character. But perhaps the invisible enemies are almost more dangerous for a shark - bacteria and parasites, which every day undermine its health.
Population and species status
According to researchers, about a quarter of the species currently living are endangered, and shark populations around the world are steadily declining.
All negative factors affecting the number of sharks are anthropogenic:
- the increasing fishing for shark animals
- environmental pollution (especially plastic waste),
- shark hunting, including fishing for fins,
- late fertility and low fertility (for example, the puberty of a lemon shark occurs at 13-15 years).
Sharks become hostages of their own insatiability and promiscuity, swallowing everything that comes their way. But even a powerful shark stomach, easily digesting nails, succumbs to plastic, and the animal dies.
Sharks and man
People are afraid of sharks, which is explained by numerous fables about their bloodthirstiness, not always documented. For his part, the man also tried to reduce the number of sharks, guided not so much by fear as by pursuit of profit.
Over 100 species of sharks are objects of commercial fishing.. In addition, they are exterminated for the safety of sea beaches and increasing the catch of fish eaten by sharks. Extreme fishing fans also kill them.
Annual production in the oceans, reaching up to 100 million individuals, is constantly growing, despite the restrictions and prohibitions. The most intensive fishing (in 26 industrial species) occurs in the Atlantic Ocean, a third of sharks are caught in the waters of the Indian Ocean and somewhat less in the Pacific Ocean.
Shark catch is divided into three conditional groups:
- full use of all parts of the fish, including its meat, cartilage, fins, liver and skin,
- occasional by-catch, when a shark falls into gear intended for other fish,
- finning - hunting for fins.
Important! The latter method of extraction is the most barbaric. The shark fins are cut off (whose weight is equal to 4% of body weight) and throw it into the sea or leave it on the shore.
Nowadays, Hong Kong is recognized as the global center of shark fin trade, accounting for 50–80% of the market segment (with 27% occupied by EU countries).
Ichthyologists are convinced that sharks are not as threatening as cinema and media say. Scientists support the findings with statistics: 1 to 11.5 million is the chance to become the target of a predator attack, and 1 to 264.1 million is the risk of dying from her teeth. For example, the US rescue services estimated that in a year approximately 3.3 thousand citizens are drowning in the country, but only one (!) Death occurs due to the fault of a shark.
In addition, only a few species are closely interested in human flesh.. The unmotivated aggression leading to the death of the swimmers is distinguished by the white, blunt, tiger and long-winged sharks. From time to time people are attacked by other sharks (hammer, mako, dark-footed gray, Galapagos, lemon, blue and silk), but these meetings usually end well.
Shark in captivity
Not many species can be kept in artificial conditions, due to the physiological characteristics of the shark. Публика хочет видеть самых агрессивных и больших животных, создающих ощутимые сложности при вылове и транспортировке. Во-первых, легко навредить рыбе, вытягивая ее с помощью снастей, а как раз в этот момент акула чрезвычайно возбуждена и сильна. Во-вторых, надо быть предельно осторожным, вынимая ее из моря и перекладывая во временный резервуар (акула способна раздавить внутренние органы собственным весом).
Проблемы возникают и при выборе подходящего аквариума. Он должен быть достаточно вместительным и одновременно непроницаемым для электромагнитных полей, к которым так чувствительны все акулы.
Акулы в культуре
Ранние упоминания об акулах присутствуют в древнегреческих мифах, а японцы некогда считали их морскими чудищами, забирающими души грешников. Австралийские аборигены, населяющие северо-восток Arnhem Land, признают прародителем своих племен серую акулу Mäna. Невыразимо трепетное отношение к зубастым хищницам испытывают жители Полинезии, особенно те, кто живет на Гавайских островах. Если верить полинезийской мифологии, девять акул являются не кем иным, как богами, хранящими океан и весь гавайский народ.
It is interesting! Правда, в других районах Полинезии распространено более прозаическое поверье о том, что акулы – всего лишь провиант, посылаемый духами для сохранения племени. In some places the shark is called a werewolf who loves to feast on human flesh.
More than others, this fish was demonized by modern Western culture (with its bloody films, novels and reporters), completely forgetting that sharks are one of the key links in the ecosystem of the World Ocean.
On shark species diversity
Sharks are no exception. In the seas, oceans and even rivers you can meet many representatives of these predatory fish, which differ not only in appearance and morphological features, but also in the way of feeding and behavior.
In order to avoid confusion, the scientists decided to carry out a classification, distributing all the species of sharks known to science into groups - taxonomic units. At the same time, only morphological features were taken into account - features of the internal structure, general and distinctive signs of the external structure.
Watch video: Types of sharks are so different and unique.
Nadotryad Shark - Cartilage Fish
Sharks, like all fish, belong to the type of vertebrates, i.e. having a core body - the spine.
The class in which sharks and their close relatives are included - stingrays, is called the class of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes). Here, all fish that have instead of calcined bone spine cartilaginous are combined.
The class of cartilaginous fish combines two subclasses - plate-splay (Elasmobranchii) and whole-headed or one-piece (Holocephali) fish. Sharks and stingrays are classified as plate-laced.
Whole-headed unite representatives of chimera-like fish.
The subclass of plate-fingering fish is divided into two superorders — sharks (Selachii) and skates (Batoidea).
In turn, due to differences in the structure of different representatives of the Shark superorder is divided into smaller groups - groups, which are divided into families. And families consist of species.
550 species of sharks existing and described at the time of the creation of this article are combined into 8 orders and 34 families, which have only their characteristic features.
Video: Shark Variety Documentary
Order Karkharinoobraznye, or gray sharks (Carcharhiniformes)
The largest of all shark units, which combines 8 families consisting of 51 genera.
Very diverse in appearance group. The most famous representatives of the squad are blunt (bull shark), tiger, blue and cat sharks. As well as a family of sharks molots, which by their amazing head shape cannot be confused with any other types of predators.
Watch the video - Tiger sharks:
Unites only one family of modern sharks - raznoozubye, horned or bull sharks. All of them differ in a rather clumsy body with a wide thick head and 2 dorsal fins, which are carried along a prickly thorn.
Diverse sharks are typical bottom predators. Large sizes do not reach.
The specific names of these Selachians include the Russian word "bull", which is why they are sometimes confused with a dangerous species for humans - the gray bull shark.
Diverse teeth are called for a design feature of the dental apparatus - in the mouth of a shark there are different teeth in appearance and size.
Often they are called horned or helmet-shaped. Such an unusual name for fish stuck with raznozubymi sharks because of the characteristic outlines of the head with pronounced brow ridges.
These arcs in some species are so high and expressive that they resemble peculiar horns.
Watch the video - Angel Shark attacked the horned shark:
Detachment Multifilamentary (Hexanchiformes)
It consists of two families, differing in the shape of the body - eel-like in flesh-bearing sharks and traditional torpedo-shaped in many-tampered Both families are characterized by 6 or 7 gill slits, one dorsal fin and the presence of an anal fin.
They are considered one of the most ancient and primitive cartilaginous fish.
A prominent feature of comb-toothed sharks is the comb-shaped teeth on the lower jaw.
Mighty sharks can not be confused with any other species - they are known for their acne-like body.
Watch the video - Flesh Shark:
Order Lamnoobraznye (Lamniformes)
It consists of 7 families, whose representatives are large oceanic sharks with a torpedo-shaped body.
Among the representatives of this family, some have notoriety. Carharodon or the white shark, the mako shark is distinguished by swiftness, bloodthirstiness and voracity, which makes them very dangerous for people.
As the complete opposite of them stands a giant shark. Cigar-shaped predator body - planktophage, in the way of feeding similar to baleen whales.
The most interesting family of the order Lamnoobraznye - Skapanorinhovye or goblin sharks (house shark). These are rather ancient, rare and poorly studied fish, which have a long, flattened snout with a movable jaw extending forward.
All these seemingly completely different predators are united by common traits in the structure of the organism and significant similarities at the genetic level.
Watch the video - Shark goblin:
Order Vobbegongoobraznye (Orectolobiformes)
Detachment includes 7 families.
They are distinguished by the rounded forms of the body, head, fins and smoothness of forms, in contrast to the classical torpedo-shaped appearance of sharks.
Many of the representatives of the order are predominantly benthic, and only the largest of the modern sharks, the whale shark, is a pelagic fish. It feeds on various planktonic organisms and small schooling fish.
Watch the video - Hunting the carpet shark-wobbegong:
Detachment Pile-shaped (Pristiophoriformes)
Quite a specific group of sharks, which is characterized by a long sawtooth snout with large lateral teeth.
Unknowingly, these sharks are often confused with fish-saws, referring to sloping.
In addition to the xiphoid snout, representatives of the detachment have distinctive features: the presence of a pair of long antennae under the snout, serving as one of the tactile organs, and the absence of the anal fin.
Like all bottom sharks, pilonos have developed sprinklers - an auxiliary respiratory organ.
Watch the video about the shark saw:
Order Squat (Squaliformes)
This unit is widely distributed and is found throughout the world, including the only one of sharks in latitudes with a cold climate.
The detachment of cat-like sharks is represented by numerous species - from large 6-8-meter sharks (polar) to the smallest 20-centimeter sharks.
The distinguishing feature of all members of the order is the absence of the anal fin.
Prickly sharks have a protective device in the dorsal fins - sharp spikes.
Watch the video - Polar Shark:
Squad squad (Squatiniformes)
Representatives of this squad also have a rather original body shape for sharks, more like stingrays.
But the similarity is only superficial. These fish are real sharks with morphological features peculiar only to them. The flattened body and enlarged pectoral fins arose in the process of evolution as an adaptation to the bottom way of life.
Watch the video - Angel Shark:
Shark species by environmental group
In addition to the generally accepted classification by morphological features, scientists distinguish ecological groups of sharks, which are divided according to different characteristics:
- according to their fitness for different water temperatures - in cold and warm water,
- for salinity requirements - marine and freshwater,
- for specific habitats - on nektonic or pelagic (floating in the water column), littoral or non-critical (coastal), benthic (near-bottom) and deep-sea,
- on food features - on predatory and filter feeders (planktophages),
- according to the peculiarities of reproduction, sharks are viviparous, ovoviviparous and egg-laying.
Modern ecological classification takes into account all these factors together. According to it, all sharks are divided into 10 ecological groups, some of which are divided into subgroups.
1. EP - epipelagic group
It includes the largest viviparous and ovoviviparous sharks found in the open ocean far from the coast at a depth of 100-300 meters.
It consists of two subgroups: EP1 - feeding on plankton using water filtration and EP2 - dangerous predators.
Representatives of EP1 are the big-mongrel, the giant and the largest of all sharks and the fish in general, the whale shark. Their gills, as a "trap network", filter sea water, absorbing everything edible from it.
EP2 includes blue, fox, and herring sharks.
2. N - Neritic or shelf group
In it, viviparous or ovivovorivannah sharks of medium length of 1-3 meters, living in coastal zones at a shallow depth, but sometimes swimming far into the open ocean or into large rivers.
For example, gray bull sharks can swim quite far upstream and even form permanent groups there. Eat schooling fish. Mainly in this group are sharks from the order Karkharinoobraznye.
3. P - a group of freshwater sharks, close to non-critical
Usually staying in fresh waters for sharks is temporary and occurs when sea species swim in the mouths of rivers with fresh or slightly brackish water. This is about 20 species of gray, weasel and prickly sharks.
There are species that can permanently inhabit both marine and absolutely fresh river or lake water.
Such species are called euryhaline (from the Greek "eurys" - wide and halinos - salty), that is, adapted to live in a wide range of salinity.
These include the blunt shark, she is a bull shark, which is found in the South American Amazon, the Indian Ganges, the African Zambezi, as well as in Central American Lake Nicaragua.
Few shark species live in fresh water all the time. For example, in the river Ganges you can meet a representative of the family of gray sharks - the Indian river shark.
Freshwater sharks prefer warm waters of equatorial regions and tropics. The northernmost places where they can meet are the rivers of Portugal and North America. The sizes are mostly medium (1-3 meters). The structure is not fundamentally different from marine species.
7. D - a group of young bottom sharks
Young bottom sharks of small size, living on the bottom near the coast, the most numerous in the number of individuals and species.
All these sharks are characterized by a body that is compressed in the dorso-ventral direction, dilated pectoral fins and a low swimming speed. They feed on bentosomes - benthic organisms.
The group is divided into 3 smaller groups:
- D1 - cat sharks with a highly developed sense of smell.
- D2 - carpet sharks, in which all the senses are very well developed, but especially skin sensitivity.
- D3 - pylonos and sea angels that look like stingrays.
10. PP - group of bottom-pelagic sharks
They live far from the coast in the water column at different depths depending on the season. The group includes some species of feline, prickly and upright sharks.
We see that all species of sharks have perfectly adapted to dwelling in various areas of the seas and oceans, which will allow them to continue to successfully multiply and thrive on the vast expanses of water, unless it is not prevented by humans.
Family: Carcharhinidae - Gray Sharks (Requiem sharks)
Genus: Carcharhinus - Gray Shark
- Species: Carcharhinus acronotus - Black-nose shark (Black-nose shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus albimarginatus - White-footed gray shark (Silver-tip shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus altimus - Big-nose shark
- Species: Carcharhinus amblyrhynchoides - Graceful shark
- Species: Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos - Dark-footed Gray Shark (Black-tail reef shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus amboinensis - Gray-eyed gray shark (Pig-eye shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus borneensis - Borneo gray shark (Borneo shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus brachyurus - Narrow shark (Copper shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus brevipinna - Short-necked gray shark (Spinner shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus cautus - Shy Shark (Nervous shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus cerdale - Pacific smalltail shark
- Species: Carcharhinus coatesi - Shark Coates (Coates' shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus dussumieri - Coromandel Shark (White-cheek shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus falciformis - Silk shark
- Species: Carcharhinus fitzroyensis - Wheatley River Shark (Creek whaler)
- Species: Carcharhinus galapagensis - Galapagos shark
- Species: Carcharhinus hemiodon - Indochinese nocturnal shark (Pondicherry shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus humani - Human's whaler shark
- Species: Carcharhinus isodon - Equivalent Gray Shark (Fine-tooth shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus leiodon Garrick - Smooth Black Tooth Shark (Smooth-tooth blacktip shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus leucas - Bull Shark
- Species: Carcharhinus limbatus - Black-tip shark
- Species: Carcharhinus longimanus - Long-winged shark (Oceanic whitetip shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus macloti - Indian night shark (Hard-nose shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus melanopterus - Malgash night shark (Black-tip reef shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus obscurus - dark shark (Dusky shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus perezi - Caribbean reef shark
- Species: Carcharhinus plumbeus - Blue-Gray Shark (Sandbar shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus porosus - Small tail shark
- Species: Carcharhinus sealei - Gray Shark (Black-spot shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus signatus - Cuban night shark (Night shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus sorrah - Gray-brown shark (Spot-tail shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus tilstoni - Australian blacktip shark
- Species: Carcharhinus tjutjot - Indonesian narrow-toothed shark (Indonesian whaler shark)
- Species: Carcharhinus sp.A - False little tail shark (False smalltail shark)
Genus: Galeocerdo - Tiger Sharks
- Species: Galeocerdo cuvier - Tiger shark
Genus: Glyphis - Freshwater Gray Shark
- Species: Glyphis fowlerae - Borneo Mukah river shark
- Species: Glyphis gangeticus - Gangan shark, or Asian gray shark, or Indian river (Ganges shark)
- View: Glyphis garricki - Northern river shark
- Species: Glyphis glyphis - Spear-tooth shark
- Species: Glyphis siamensis - Irrawaddy river shark
Genus: Isogomphodon - Ostronosy sharks
- Species: Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus - Sharp-nosed shark (Dagger-nose shark)
Genus: Lamiopsis - Broad-headed sharks
- Species: Lamiopsis temminckii - Broad Shark (Broad-fin shark)
- Species: Lamiopsis tephrodes - Borneo broadfin shark
Genus: Loxodon - Gray-eyed Gray Shark
- Species: Loxodon macrorhinus - Slit-eye shark
Genus: Nasolamia - White-nosed sharks
- Species: Nasolamia velox - White-nose shark (Panama White-nose shark)
Rod: Negaprion - Sharp Sharks
- Species: Negaprion acutidens - Madagascar sharp-toothed shark (Sickle-fin lemon shark)
- Species: Negaprion brevirostris - Lemon shark
Genus: Prionace - Blue Shark
- Species: Prionace glauca - Blue shark, or blue shark, or moka (Blue shark)
Genus: Rhizoprionodon - Long-nosed sharks
- Species: Rhizoprionodon acutus - Sharp-throated Shark (Milk shark)
- Species: Rhizoprionodon lalandii - Brazilian long-tail shark (Brazilian sharpnose shark)
- Species: Rhizoprionodon longurio - Panamanian long-eyed shark (Pacific sharpnose shark)
- Species: Rhizoprionodon oligolinx - Gray long-eyed shark (Gray sharpnose shark)
- Species: Rhizoprionodon porosus - Caribbean long-footed shark (Caribbean sharpnose shark)
- Species: Rhizoprionodon taylori - Australian long-tail shark (Australian sharpnose shark)
- Species: Rhizoprionodon terraenovae - American long-legged shark (Atlantic sharpnose shark)
Genus: Scoliodon - Yellow Pointy Sharks
- Species: Scoliodon laticaudus - Yellow sharp-nosed shark (Spade-nose shark)
- Species: Scoliodon macrorhynchos - Pacific yellow sharp-nosed shark (Pacific spadenose shark)
Genus: Triaenodon - Reef Sharks
- Species: Triaenodon obesus - White-tip reef shark
Family: Hemigaleidae - Big-eyed sharks (Weasel sharks)
Genus: Chaenogaleus - Hooked and Tooth Big-eyed Shark
- Species: Chaenogaleus macrostoma - Hook-toothed big-eyed shark, or Indian Ocean big-eyed shark, or Malay big-eyed shark (Hook-tooth shark)
Genus: Hemigaleus - Big-eyed shark
- Species: Hemigaleus australiensis - Australian striped shark (Australian weasel shark)
- Species: Hemigaleus microstoma - Indo-Malay Big-eyed Shark (Sickle-fin weasel shark)
Genus: Hemipristis - Indian gray sharks
- Species: Hemipristis elongata - Indian gray shark (Snaggle-tooth shark)
Genus: Paragaleus - Striped Sharks
- Species: Paragaleus leucolomatus - White-faced striped shark (White-tip weasel shark)
- Species: Paragaleus pectoralis - Atlantic striped shark, or yellow-striped shark (Atlantic weasel shark)
- Species: Paragaleus randalli - Elegant striped shark (Slender weasel shark)
- Species: Paragaleus tengi - Chinese striped shark (Straight-tooth weasel shark)
Family: Proscylliidae - Striped Cat Sharks (Finback catsharks)
Genus: Ctenacis - Harlequin Shark
- Species: Ctenacis fehlmanni - Somali Harlequin Shark (Harlequin catshark)
Genus: Eridacnis - Belt Sharks
- Species: Eridacnis barbouri - Cuban belt shark, or Cuban triple-tooth shark, or dwarf sharp-toothed shark (Cuban ribbontail catshark)
- Species: Eridacnis radcliffei - Indian ribbon shark (Pygmy ribbontail catshark)
- Species: Eridacnis sinuans - South African ribbon shark (African ribbontail catshark)
- Species: Eridacnis sp.X - Philippine ribbontail catshark
Genus: Proscyllium - Striped Feline Sharks
- Species: Proscyllium habereri - Striped cat shark (Graceful catshark)
- Species: Proscyllium magnificum - Magnificent catshark
- Species: Proscyllium venustum - Pacific striped cat shark (Pacific catshark)
Family: Pseudotriakidae - False cat sharks (False catsharks)
Genus: Gollum - New Zealand triple sharks
- Species: Gollum attenuatus - Slender smooth-hound
- Species: Gollum suluensis - Sulu False Shark (Sulu gollumshark)
- Species: Gollum sp.B - Spotted False Cocktail Shark (White-marked gollumshark)
Genus: Planonasus - False sharks
- Species: Planonasus parini - Dwarf False False Shark (Dwarf false catshark)
Genus: Pseudotriakis - fine-toothed sharks
- Species: Pseudotriakis microdon - False sharks (False catshark)
Family: Scyliorhinidae - Feline Sharks (Catsharks)
Genus: Apristurus - Black feline sharks
- View: Apristurus albisoma - White-bodied catshark
- View: Apristurus ampliceps - Rough-skin catshark
- View: Apristurus aphyodes - Ghost cat shark (White ghost catshark)
- View: Apristurus australis - Crested Shark (Pinocchio catshark)
- View: Apristurus breviventralis - Short-belly cat shark
- View: Apristurus brunneus - Brown cat shark
- View: Apristurus bucephalus - Big-head cat shark (Big-head catshark)
- View: Apristurus canutus - Antilles black cat shark (Hoary catshark)
- View: Apristurus exsanguis - Lazy Cat Shark (Flaccid catshark)
- View: Apristurus fedorovi - Fedorov's cat shark
- View: Apristurus garricki - Garrick's cat shark
- View: Apristurus gibbosus - Humpback catshark (Humpback catshark)
- Species: Apristurus herklotsi - Long-fin catshark (Philippine black cat shark)
- Вид: Apristurus indicus - Индийская черная кошачья акула (Small-belly catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus internatus - Кортконосая демоническая кошачья акула (Short-nose demon catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus investigatoris - Широконосая кошачья акула (Broad-nose catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus japonicus - Японская черная кошачья акула (Japanese catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus kampae - Калифорнийская черная кошачья акула (Long-nose catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus laurussonii - Исландская черная кошачья акула (Iceland catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus longicephalus - Большеголовая черная кошачья акула (Long-head catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus macrorhynchus - Длиннорылая черная кошачья акула (Flat-head catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus macrostomus - Широкоротая кошачья акула (Broad-mouth catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus manis - Призрачная черная кошачья акула (Ghost catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus melanoasper - Черная глубоководная кошачья акула (Black roughscale catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus microps - Малоглазая черная кошачья акула (Small-eye catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus micropterygeus - Узкоплавниковая кошачья акула (Small-dorsal catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus nakayai - Белоглазая кошачья акула (Milk-eye catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus nasutus - Носатая черная кошачья акула (Large-nose catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus parvipinnis - Короткоплавниковая черная кошачья акула (Small-fin catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus pinguis - Толстая кошачья акула (Fat catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus platyrhynchus - Плоскоголовая черная кошачья акула (Borneo catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus profundorum - Горбатая акула, или Глубоководная кошачья акула (Deep-water catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus riveri - Кубинская черная кошачья акула (Broad-gill catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus saldanha - Южноафриканская черная кошачья акула (Saldanha catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus sibogae - Макассарская черная кошачья акула (Pale catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus sinensis - Китайская черная кошачья акула (South China catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus spongiceps - Губчатая черная кошачья акула (Sponge-head catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus stenseni - Панамская черная кошачья акула (Panama ghost catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus sp.X Кошачья акула Гэлбрейта (Galbraith's catshark)
- Вид: Apristurus sp.3 - Чернильно-черная кошачья акула (Black wonder catshark)
Род: Asymbolus - Австралийские пятнистые кошачьи акулы
- Вид: Asymbolus analis - Австралийская пятнистая кошачья акула (Australian spotted catshark)
- Вид: Asymbolus funebris - Окрапленная кошачья акула (Blotched catshark)
- Вид: Asymbolus galacticus - Галактическая кошачья акула (Starry catshark)
- Вид: Asymbolus occiduus - Западная пятнистая кошачья акула (Western spotted catshark)
- Вид: Asymbolus pallidus - Бледная пятнистая кошачья акула (Pale spotted catshark)
- Вид: Asymbolus parvus - Карликовая пятнистая кошачья акула (Dwarf catshark)
- Вид: Asymbolus rubiginosus - Оранжевая пятнистая кошачья акула (Orange spotted catshark)
- Вид: Asymbolus submaculatus - Пестрая кошачья акула (Variegated catshark)
- Вид: Asymbolus vincenti - Тасманийская пятнистая кошачья акула (Gulf catshark)
Род: Atelomycterus - Коралловые кошачьи акулы
- Вид: Atelomycterus baliensis - Балийская коралловая кошачья акула (Bali catshark)
- Вид: Atelomycterus erdmanni - Пятнистоживотая коралловая кошачья акула (Spotted-belly catshark)
- Вид: Atelomycterus fasciatus - Песочнополосая коралловая кошачья акула (Banded sand catshark)
- Вид: Atelomycterus macleayi - Австралийская коралловая кошачья акула (Australian marbled catshark)
- Вид: Atelomycterus marmoratus - Индийская коралловая кошачья акула (Coral catshark)
- Вид: Atelomycterus marnkalha - Восточная коралловая кошачья акула (Eastern banded catshark)
Род: Aulohalaelurus - Губастые кошачьи акулы
- Species: Aulohalaelurus kanakorum - Caledonian cat shark (Kanakorum catshark)
- Species: Aulohalaelurus labiosus - Black-Spotted Feline Shark, or Australian black-spotted catshark
Genus: Bythaelurus - Dark Feline Sharks
- Species: Bythaelurus alcockii - Arabian catshark
- Species: Bythaelurus canescens - Dusky catshark
- Species: Bythaelurus clevai - Wide-headed cat shark (Broad-head catshark)
- Species: Bythaelurus dawsoni - New Zealand cat shark
- Species: Bythaelurus giddingsi - Galapagos cat shark (Galapagos catshark)
- Species: Bythaelurus hispidus - Bristly cat shark (Bristly catshark)
- Species: Bythaelurus immaculatus - Monotone cat shark (Spot-less catshark)
- Species: Bythaelurus incanus - Somber catshark
- Species: Bythaelurus lutarius - Dirty cat shark (Mud catshark)
- Species: Bythaelurus naylori - Dusky-snout catshark
- Species: Bythaelurus tenuicephalus - Narrow-head catshark
Genus: Cephaloscyllium - Headsted sharks
- Species: Cephaloscyllium albipinnum - White-fin swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium cooki - White-headed Swelling Shark (Cook's swellshark)
- Species: Cephaloscyllium fasciatum - Reticulated swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium formosanum - Taiwanese Blowing Shark (Formosa swellshark)
- Species: Cephaloscyllium hiscosecose - Australian striped shark (Australian reticulate swellshark)
- Species: Cephaloscyllium isabellum - Feline Shark, or Drafts Shark, or Japanese Head Sharks (Drafts board shark)
- Species: Cephaloscyllium laticeps - Australian swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium pardelotum - Leopard-spotted swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium pictum - Painted swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium sarawakensis - Malay dwarf swelling shark (Sarawak pygmy swellshark)
- Species: Cephaloscyllium signourum - Wide-tailed head shark (Flag-tail swellshark)
- Species: Cephaloscyllium silasi - Indian swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium speccum - Speckled swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium stevensi - Steven's swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium sufflans - Pouting Shark (Balloon shark)
- Species: Cephaloscyllium umbratile - Blotchy swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium variegatum - Saddled swellshark
- Species: Cephaloscyllium ventriosum - California Swelling Shark, or California Feline Shark (Swellshark)
- Species: Cephaloscyllium zebrum - Narrow-bar swelling shark (Narrow-bar swellshark)
- Species: Cephaloscyllium sp.1 - Philippine swellshark
Genus: Cephalurus - Big-headed sharks
- Species: Cephalurus cephalus - California big-headed shark (Lollipop catshark)
Genus: Figaro - Pinetails
- View: Figaro boardmani - Australian saw tail (Australian sawtail catshark)
- View: Figaro striatus - Northern sawtail catshark
Genus: Galeus - Pinetails
- View: Galeus antillensis - Antilles catshark
- Species: Galeus arae - Rough-tail catshark
- View: Galeus atlanticus - Atlantic sawtail (Atlantic sawtail catshark)
- Look: Galeus cadenati - Long-fin sawtail catshark
- Species: Galeus eastmani - Geeko catshark
- View: Galeus gracilis - Slender sawtail catshark
- Look: Galeus longirostris - Long-nose sawtail catshark
- Species: Galeus melastomus - Spanish shark-tail, or Blackmouth shark (Black-mouth catshark)
- View: Galeus mincaronei - Southern sawtail (Southern sawtail catshark)
- Species: Galeus murinus - Mouse catshark
- Species: Galeus nipponensis - Japanese logs (Broad-fin sawtail catshark)
- Species: Galeus piperatus - California Ponytail (Peppered catshark)
- View: Galeus polli - African sawtail catshark
- Appearance: Galeus priapus - Phallic catshark
- View: Galeus sauteri - Taiwanese sawtail (Black-tip sawtail catshark)
- Species: Galeus schultzi - Dwarf sawtail catshark
- View: Galeus springeri - Springer's sawtail catshark
Genus: Halaelurus - Spotted Sharks
- Species: Halaelurus boesemani - Speckled catshark
- Species: Halaelurus buergeri - Japanese spotted shark, or Burger's cat shark (Black-spotted catshark)
- Species: Halaelurus lineatus - Striped spotted shark (Lined catshark)
- Species: Halaelurus maculosus - Indonesian spotted shark (Indonesian speckled catshark)
- Species: Halaelurus natalensis - Tiger spotted shark (Tiger catshark)
- Species: Halaelurus quagga - Spotted Quagga Shark (Quagga catshark)
- Species: Halaelurus sellus - Red Spotted Shark (Rusty catshark)
Genus: Haploblepharus - South African Feline Sharks
- Species: Haploblepharus edwardsii - South African Adder cat shark (Puffadder shyshark)
- Species: Haploblepharus fuscus - Brown South African cat shark (Brown shyshark)
- Species: Haploblepharus kistnasamyi - KwaZuli cat shark (Natal shyshark)
- Species: Haploblepharus pictus - Namibian Feline Shark (Dark shyshark)
Genus: Holohalaelurus - African spotted sharks
- Species: Holohalaelurus favus - Honeycomb spotted shark (Honey-comb catshark)
- Species: Holohalaelurus grennian - Grinning catshark
- Species: Holohalaelurus melanostigma - Crying catshark
- Species: Holohalaelurus punctatus - African spotted shark (White-spotted catshark)
- Species: Holohalaelurus regani - Reagan's Spotted Shark (Izak catshark)
Genus: Parmaturus - Parmaturus feline sharks
- Species: Parmaturus albimarginatus - White-tip shark-parmaturus (White-tip catshark)
- Species: Parmaturus albipenis - Domestic shark-parmaturus (White-clasper catshark)
- Species: Parmaturus bigus - Beige catshark
- Species: Parmaturus campechiensis - Yucatan cat shark-parmaturus (Campeche catshark)
- Species: Parmaturus lanatus - Velvety shark-parmaturus (Velvet catshark)
- View: Parmaturus macmillani - McMillan's catshark Shark-Parmaturus
- Species: Parmaturus melanobranchus - South Chinese Feline Parmaturus (Black-gill catshark)
- Species: Parmaturus pilosus - Japanese cat shark-parmaturus (Salamander catshark)
- Species: Parmaturus xaniurus - California cat shark-parmaturus (File-tail catshark)
- Species: Parmaturus sp.1 - Humpback cat shark-parmaturus (Rough-back catshark)
- Species: Parmaturus sp.2 - Indonesian cattail parroturus (Indonesian filetail catshark)
- Species: Parmaturus sp.3 - Mexican Feline Shark Parmaturus (Gulf of Mexico filetail catshark)
Genus: Pentanchus - Single-fin cat sharks
- Species: Pentanchus profundicolus - Single-fin cat shark (One-fin catshark)
Genus: Poroderma - Baleen Shark
- Species: Poroderma africanum - Striped whiskered cat shark, or striped African cat shark (Striped catshark)
- Species: Poroderma pantherinum - Leopard catfish shark (Leopard catshark)
Genus: Schroederichthys - Spotted Feline Sharks
- View: Schroederichthys bivius - Narrow-mouthed catshark
- Species: Schroederichthys chilensis - Chilean spotted cat shark, or Chilean cat shark (Red-spotted catshark)
- Species: Schroederichthys maculatus - Spotted Cat Shark (Narrow-tail catshark)
- Species: Schroederichthys saurisqualus - Lizard catshark
- Species: Schroederichthys tenuis - Slender catshark
Genus: Scyliorhinus - Feline sharks
- Species: Scyliorhinus besnardi - Uruguayan cat shark (Polkadot Catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus boa - Caribbean Cat Shark (Boa catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus cabofriensis - Brazilian cat shark
- Species: Scyliorhinus canicula, or Common cat shark, or fine-spotted cat shark, or European cat shark, or sea dog (Lesser-spotted catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus capensis - South African Feline Shark, or Yellow-spotted catshark
- Species: Scyliorhinus cervigoni - West African cat shark
- Species: Scyliorhinus comoroensis - Comoro cat shark (Comoro catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus garmani - Brown-spotted cat shark (Brown-spotted catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus haeckelii - Brazilian cat shark (Freckled catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus hesperius - Central American feline shark (White-saddled catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus meadi - Bahamas cat shark (Blotched catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus retifer - Cat shark, or reef sea dog, or Mexican cat shark (Chain catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus stellaris - Star-like cat shark, or large-spotted cat shark, or star-shaped sea dog (Nursehound)
- Species: Scyliorhinus tokubee - Izu cat shark (Izu catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus torazame - Japanese cat shark (Cloudy catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus torrei - Cuban Feline Shark, or Florida Feline Shark (Dwarf catshark)
- Species: Scyliorhinus ugoi - Dark freckled catshark
- Species: Scyliorhinus sp.X - Oakley's catshark
Family: Sphyrnidae - Hammerhead sharks
Genus: Eusphyra - Big Hammers
- Look: Eusphyra blochii - Wing-head shark
Genus: Sphyrna - Hammerfish or Hammerhead Shark
- Species: Eusphyra blochii - Winghead Shark
- Species: Sphyrna corona - Scalloped bonnethead
- Species: Sphyrna lewini - Bronze hammerfish (Scalloped hammerhead)
- View: Sphyrna media - Panama-Caribbean hammerhead shark (Scoop-head hammerhead)
- Species: Sphyrna mokarran - Great hammerhead
- Species: Sphyrna tiburo - Hammerhead shark, or shovel shark (Bonnethead shark)
- Species: Sphyrna tudes - Small-eyed giant hammerhead shark (Small-eye hammerhead)
- Species: Sphyrna zygaena - Ordinary hammerhead shark (Smooth hammerhead)
Family: Triakidae - Cunny sharks (Houndsharks)
Genus: Furgaleus - Mustached Sharks
- View: Furgaleus macki - Whiskey shark
Genus: Galeorhinus - Soup sharks
- Species: Galeorhinus galeus - Soup Shark (Tope shark)
Genus: Gogolia - Gogolia
- View: Gogolia filewoodi - Gogolia (Sail-back houndshark)
Genus: Hemitriakis - Soup sharks
- Species: Hemitriakis abdita - Deep Sea Crescent Soup Shark (Deep-water sicklefin houndshark)
- Species: Hemitriakis complicofasciata - Spotted soup shark (Ocellate topeshark)
- Species: Hemitriakis falcata - Sickle-fin houndshark
- View: Hemitriakis indroyonoi - Indonesian soup shark (Indonesian houndshark)
- Species: Hemitriakis japanica - Japanese topeshark
- Species: Hemitriakis leucoperiptera - Philippine soup shark (White-fin topeshark)
Genus: Hypogaleus - Jagged Shark
- Species: Hypogaleus hyugaensis - Black-tip toothed Shark (Black-tip tope)
- View: Iago garricki - Long-nose houndshark
- View: Iago omanensis - Omani yago, or big-eyed yago (Big-eye houndshark)
- Species: Iago sp.A - Aden houndshark
Genus: Mustelus - Ordinary Sharks
- Species: Mustelus albipinnis - White-kunya shark (White-margin fin houndshark)
- Species: Mustelus antarcticus - Australian Cunfish shark (Gummy shark)
- Species: Mustelus asterias - Starry smooth shark (Starry smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus californicus - California shark or gray shark (Gray smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus canis - American shark or American shark (Dusky smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus canis insularis - Caribbean shark (Caribbean smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus dorsalis - Peruvian Cunia Shark (Sharp-tooth smooth-hound)
- Look: Mustelus fasciatus - Striped smooth-hound
- Species: Mustelus griseus - Spotted kunya shark (Spot-less smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus henlei - Brown kunya shark (Brown smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus higmani - Small-eye smooth-hound
- Species: Mustelus lenticulatus - New Zealand kunya shark (Spotted estuary smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus lunulatus - Sickle-fin smooth-hound
- Species: Mustelus manazo - Asian Kunya shark, or Japanese Kunya shark (Star-spotted smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus mangalorensis - Mangalur kunya shark (Mangalore houndshark)
- Species: Mustelus mento - Chilean Shark (Speckled smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus minicanis - Dwarf kunya shark (Dwarf smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus mosis - Arabian shark (Arabian smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus mustelus - European Kunya shark, or Common shark-dog (Common smooth-hound)
- View: Mustelus norrisi - Florida Kunya Shark (Narrow-fin smooth-hound)
- View: Mustelus palumbes - White-spotted smooth-hound
- Kind: Mustelus punctulatus - Black-spotted smooth-hound
- Species: Mustelus ravidus - Australian gray smooth-hound
- Species: Mustelus schmitti - Narrow-nose kunya shark (Narrow-nose smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus sinusmexicanus - Gulf smooth-hound
- Species: Mustelus stevensi - Western spotted kunya shark (Western spotted gummy shark)
- View: Mustelus walkeri - Eastern spotted kunya shark (Eastern spotted gummy shark)
- Species: Mustelus whitneyi - Humpback shark (Humpback smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus widodoi - White-fin smoothie-hound
- Species: Mustelus sp.1 - Sarawak shark (Sarawak smooth-hound)
- Species: Mustelus sp.2 - Kermadek kunya shark (Kermadec smooth-hound)
Genus: Scylliogaleus - Whistled Sharks
- Species: Scylliogaleus quecketti - Flake-nose houndshark
Genus: Triakis - Triple-tooth sharks, or triple-shark sharks
- Species: Triakis acutipinna - Ecuadorian triple-teeth shark (Sharp-fin houndshark)
- Species: Triakis maculata - Peruvian tri-teeth shark, or spotted tri-teeth shark (Spotted houndshark)
- Species: Triakis megalopterus - Cape triple-tooth shark (Sharp-tooth houndshark)
- Species: Triakis scyllium - Striped triple-tooth shark, or sharp-toothed marten shark (Banded houndshark)
- Species: Triakis semifasciata - California triple-toothed shark, or spotted sharp-toothed shark (Leopard shark)
Family: Heterodontidae - Different sharks, or bull sharks, or horned sharks (Bullhead sharks)
Genus: Heterodontus - Bull sharks, or raznoozubye sharks, or horned sharks
- Species: Heterodontus francisci - California Bull Shark (Horn shark)
- Species: Heterodontus galeatus - Crested bullhead shark
- Species: Heterodontus japonicus - Japanese bullhead shark
- Species: Heterodontus mexicanus - Mexican bull shark (Mexican hornshark)
- Species: Heterodontus omanensis - Oman bullhead shark (Oman bullhead shark)
- Species: Heterodontus portusjacksoni - Australian bull shark, or Australian horned shark (Port Jackson shark)
- Species: Heterodontus quoyi - Peruvian Bull Shark (Galapagos bullhead shark)
- Species: Heterodontus ramalheira - white-spotted bullhead shark
- Species: Heterodontus zebra - Zebra-type bull shark, or Chinese bull shark, or narrow-band bull shark (Zebra bullhead shark)
- Species: Heterodontus sp.X - Mysterious Bull Shark (Cryptic hornshark)
Family: Chlamydoselachidae - Frilled sharks (Frilled sharks)
Genus: Chlamydoselachus - Fiery sharks, or patron saints
- Species: Chlamydoselachus africana - African frilled shark
- Species: Chlamydoselachus anguineus - Frilled shark (Frilled shark)
Family: Hexanchidae - Multifilamental sharks, or comb-toothed sharks (Cow sharks)
Genus: Heptranchias - Seven-gill sharks, or seven-gills
- Species: Heptranchias perlo - Ash gray shrub (Sharp-nose sevengill shark)
Genus: Hexanchus - Six-gill sharks, or six-hives
- Species: Hexanchus griseus - Six-goose shark, or gray six-gable shark, or six-gill, or gray six-gill (Blunt-nose sixgill shark)
- Species: Hexanchus nakamurai - Big-eyed six-spear shark (Bigeyed sixgill shark)
Genus: Notorynchus - Flat-headed sharks, or flat-headed polytrops
- Species: Notorynchus cepedianus - Flat-headed cynium shark (Broad-nose sevengill shark)
Family: Alopiidae - Thresher sharks
Genus: Alopias - Fox Sharks, or Sea Foxes
- Species: Alopias pelagicus - Pelagic fox shark, or pelagic fox (Pelagic thresher shark)
- Species: Alopias superciliosus - Big-eyed shark fox, or Big-eye thresher shark
- Species: Alopias vulpinus - Fox shark, or sea fox (Thresher shark)
Family: Lamnidae - Lamp sharks, or herring sharks (Mackerel sharks)
Genus: Carcharodon - White sharks
- Species: Carcharodon carcharias - Great white shark, or carharodon (Great white shark)
Genus: Isurus - Shark-mako, or blue-gray shark
- Species: Isurus oxyrinchus - Shark-mako, or black-crested shark, or mackerel shark, or blue-gray herring shark (Short-fin mako)
- Species: Isurus paucus - Long-fin mako
Genus: Lamna - Herring Sharks
- Species: Lamna ditropis - Pacific herring shark, or North Pacific shark, or salmon shark
- Species: Lamna nasus - Atlantic herring shark, or lamna (Porbeagle shark)
Family: Odontaspididae - Sand sharks (Sand tiger sharks)
Genus: Carcharias - Tiger sand sharks
- Species: Carcharias taurus - Common sand shark (Sand tiger shark)
- Species: Carcharias tricuspidatus - Indian sand tiger (Indian sand tiger)
Genus: Odontaspis - Sand Sharks
- Species: Odontaspis ferox - Small Tooth Sandtiger shark
- Species: Odontaspis noronhai - Big-eye sandtiger shark
Shark in general
No matter how different the representatives of this super-order are among themselves, all sharks have common features in structure, physiology and behavior:
- The skeleton of these creatures is formed not by bone tissue, but by cartilage, which makes sharks lighter, nimble and mobile.
- They all have no swim bladder, without which most of the remaining fish can not exist.
- They are not covered with scales, and skin, and very tough, equipped with the smallest sharp teeth. Many people and sea animals died when they met with sharks not from their teeth, but from accidental contact with the skin.
- Among these predators there are species of sharks that do not spawn, but are viviparous. However, among those who went along the more traditional for aquatic paths of reproduction, the intermediate stage of development is not caviar, but rather a kind of eggs: there are very few of them (from 1 to 3), and they are protected by a very strong shell-shell . And from this repository there appears not a fry, but a formed cub. So, specifically for sharks, the new term “egg breeding” was coined.
- In many species of these fish, the teeth grow in several rows (from 3 to 5), which have up to 3 thousand canines and are constantly updated. Caries to these creatures is not terrible!
Separately, the question is: how many species of sharks are known to science The fact is that many of them have only a dozen or two representatives. And some are presented at all in a single copy registered by scientists. In principle, there are 150 species of sharks in the world - from those that have been met by oceanologists of many countries, and more than once. Given the endangered species (mainly due to the hunt for ocean predators), their number can be safely increased to 268. Some researchers believe that the number can be raised to 450, but other shark species are only known from the evidence of biologists who happened to encounter them.
This “tribe” amazes scientists with its dissimilarity, and sometimes antagonism (if not to take into account the menu), which certain species of sharks exhibit. So, the fish is supposed to have a torpedo-like body shape - this facilitates hunting in the aquatic environment. But there are some types of described predators, similar to stingrays or flounders: they are looking for prey near the bottom. And others have a flat and very wide muzzle. Still others can boast a sharp nose. But at the same time all varieties of sharks have the main characteristics.
Another feature: having sharp teeth, often continuously growing, predatory fish uses them only for attack. That is, they catch the prey and tear it, but does not chew. That is why all her mouth stuffing consists only of fangs - the shark has no chewing teeth.
Shark species: the names of the most dangerous for humans
The abundance of these predators by name is very difficult to list. Some species of Russian-language analogues of the names and not at all, there are only Latin names of each species of sharks. For children and adults, however, it is more important to know about the most dangerous of them, in case you have to be near the ocean, where such creatures are found.
The largest, most terrible and famous shark is a big white shark. It accounts for half of all human deaths from shark attacks, and three-quarters of all attacks of these animals. Единственное, что утешает: этой хищнице больше по вкусу морские львы, падаль, киты и тюлени. Если не провоцировать ее и не пораниться в воде до крови – проплывет мимо.
Второе место за тигровой акулой. Кличку она получила благодаря вертикальным полоскам на теле. А второй причиной стал скверный характер – акула агрессивна и всеядна. Опять же, без провокаций гоняться за человеком не будет, хотя может им полакомиться, просто по привычке подбирать все, что встречается на пути.
Акула-бык океанологами признана самой агрессивной из всех представителей надотряда. Хуже всего, что она может заходить и в устья больших рек. Кидается на все, что движется, может атаковать на мелководье. Так что если на курорте предупреждают, что в воде замечены представители этой разновидности акул, разумнее будет выбраться на пляж. И не заходить, пока не разрешат.
Ужас морей: сигарная акула
С точки зрения любознательности, куда интереснее рассмотреть малоизвестные разновидности акул. Есть рыба из этого племени, чья длина – всего 42 см, а внешность – страшна и нелепа. Длиннющие зубы сигарной акулы делают ее подобием морского бульдога. Но и сам по себе хищник страшен: он может убить океанского обитателя раз в пять крупнее себя.
Биологи называют подобные создания эктопаразитами. Он вгрызаются в жертву незаметно для нее самой и выедают значительный кусок плоти «носителя». Крупные особи выстаивают после атаки, но те рыбы/животные, что сравнимы или ненамного превосходят габариты агрессора, умирают.
Впервые «сигара» была выловлена в 1964 г. в Мексиканском заливе, и с тех пор в руки ихтиологов попал лишь десяток ее сородичей. Так что тем, кто уже видел каких-то акул, эта вряд ли знакома.
Уникальная лимонная акула
Этот представитель хищнического племени поистине неповторим. Во-первых, он может без вреда для себя заплывать и долгое время жить в пресных водах. Во-вторых, эта акула способна долго лежать на дне – да и вообще предпочитает охотиться на мелких глубинах, до одного метра. В-третьих, благодаря окраске она прекрасно сливается с окружающим пейзажем. Человека не съест, а вот его любимую собаку – без труда.
В отличие от акулы-ангела, предпочитает избегать контактов, но на нападение отвечает агрессивно. Впрочем, их осталось очень мало, водятся они преимущественно в южноамериканских водах, так что встретиться с ней шансов мало.
Семейство: Brachaeluridae - Шорные акулы (Blind sharks)
Род: Brachaelurus - Пятнистые шорные акулы
- Вид: Brachaelurus waddi - Пятнистая шорная акула (Blind shark)
Род: Heteroscyllium - Серо-голубые шорные акулы
- Вид: Heteroscyllium colcloughi - Серо-голубая шорная акула (Blue-grey carpetshark)
Семейство: Ginglymostomatidae - Усатые акулы (Nurse sharks)
Род: Ginglymostoma - Акулы-няньки
- Вид: Ginglymostoma cirratum - Усатая акула-нянька или акула-медсестра (Nurse shark)
- Вид: Ginglymostoma unami - Тихоокеанская акула-нянька (Pacific nurse shark)
Род: Nebrius - Акулы-няньки
- Вид: Nebrius ferrugineus - Ржавая акула-нянька (Tawny nurse shark)
Род: Pseudoginglymostoma - Акулы-няньки
- Вид: Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum - Короткоперая акула-нянька (Short-tail nurse shark)
Семейство: Hemiscylliidae - Азиатские кошачьи акулы (Bamboo sharks)
Genus: Chiloscyllium - Asian feline sharks, or sharks-cats
- Species: Chiloscyllium arabicum - Arabian cat shark (Arabian carpetshark)
- Species: Chiloscyllium burmensis - Burmese bamboo shark (Burmese bamboo shark)
- Species: Chiloscyllium caerulopunctatum - Madagascar cat shark (Bluespotted bamboo shark)
- Species: Chiloscyllium griseum - Gray Bamboo Shark (Gray bamboo shark)
- Appearance: Chiloscyllium hasseltii - Husselt's bamboo shark
- Species: Chiloscyllium indicum - Elegant bamboo shark (Slender bamboo shark)
- Species: Chiloscyllium plagiosum - Spotted Bamboo Shark (White-spotted bamboo shark)
- Species: Chiloscyllium punctatum - Brown-banded bamboo shark (Brown-banded bamboo shark)
Genus: Hemiscyllium - Indo-Australian feline sharks
- Species: Hemiscyllium freycineti - Indonesian cat shark (Indonesian speckled carpetshark)
- Species: Hemiscyllium galei - Multicolored epoletny shark (Cenderawasih epaulette shark)
- Species: Hemiscyllium hallstromi - Papuan epaulette shark
- Species: Hemiscyllium halmahera - Halmaherian epoletny shark - (Halmahera epaulette shark)
- Species: Hemiscyllium henryi - Henry's Epic Shark (Triton epaulette shark)
- Species: Hemiscyllium michaeli - Leopard epaulette shark (Leopard epaulette shark)
- Species: Hemiscyllium ocellatum - Epaulette shark (Epaulette shark)
- Species: Hemiscyllium strahani - Hooded carpetshark
- Species: Hemiscyllium trispeculare - Speckled carpetshark
- Species: Hemiscyllium sp.X - Seychelles Epoletus Shark (Seychelles carpetshark)
Family: Orectolobidae - Carpet Sharks, or Wobbegong (Wobbegong sharks)
Genus: Eucrossorhinus - Bearded Wobbegongs
- Species: Eucrossorhinus dasypogon - Bearded Wobbegong (Tasselled wobbegong)
Genus: Orectolobus - Carpet Sharks
- Species: Orectolobus floridus - Floral banded shark (Floral banded wobbegong)
- Species: Orectolobus halei - Striped carpet shark (Banded wobbegong)
- Species: Orectolobus hutchinsi - Western carpet shark (Western wobbegong)
- Species: Orectolobus japonicus - Japanese carpet wobble (Japanese wobbegong)
- View: Orectolobus leptolineatus - Indonesian carpet shark (Indonesian wobbegong)
- Species: Orectolobus maculatus - Spotted wobbegong, or Australian carpet shark (Spotted wobbegong)
- Appearance: Orectolobus ornatus - Ornamented Wobbegong (Ornate wobbegong)
- Species: Orectolobus parvimaculatus - Dwarf-spotted wobbegong
- Species: Orectolobus reticulatus - Grid carpet shark (Network wobbegong)
- Type: Orectolobus wardi - North Australian Wobbegong (Northern wobbegong)
Genus: Sutorectus - Hilly carpet sharks
- Species: Sutorectus tentaculatus - Mumpy Carpet Shark (Cobbler wobbegong)
Family: Parascylliidae - Collared sharks (Collared carpetsharks)
Genus: Cirrhoscyllium - Scarf Shark
- Species: Cirrhoscyllium expolitum - Philippine scarf shark (Barbel-throat carpetshark)
- View: Cirrhoscyllium formosanum - Taiwan scarf shark (Taiwan saddled carpetshark)
- Species: Cirrhoscyllium japonicum - Japanese Scarf Shark (Saddle carpetshark)
Genus: Parascyllium - Collared Shark
- Species: Parascyllium collare - Collared Shark (Collared carpetshark)
- Species: Parascyllium elongatum - Elongate carpetshark
- View: Parascyllium ferrugineum - Rusty Collar Shark (Rusty carpetshark)
- Species: Parascyllium sparsimaculatum - Ginger carpetshark (Ginger carpetshark)
- Species: Parascyllium variolatum - Changeable neck shark (Necklace carpetshark)
Family: Pristiophoridae - Sawsharks
Genus: Pliotrema - Pony sharks
- Species: Pliotrema warreni - Sawing shark, or pliotrema (Sixgill sawshark)
Genus: Pristiophorus - Pylon
- View: Pristiophorus cirratus - Long-nose sawshark
- View: Pristiophorus delicatus - Tropical sawshark
- View: Pristiophorus japonicus - Japanese sawshark
- View: Pristiophorus lanae - Lana's sawshark
- View: Pristiophorus nancyae - African dwarf sawshark
- View: Pristiophorus nudipinnis - Australian shark (Short-nose sawshark)
- View: Pristiophorus schroederi - Bahamas sawfish (Bahamas sawshark)
- View: Pristiophorus peroniensis - South Australian Little sawshark
Family: Echinorhinidae - Starfish sharks, or plaque sharks (Bramble sharks)
Genus: Echinorhinus - Plain Sharks
- Species: Echinorhinus brucus - Blinking shark, or star-studded shark, or alligator shark, or crocodile shark (Bramble shark)
- Species: Echinorhinus cookei - Pacific Shark (Prickly shark)
Family: Oxynotidae - Triangular sharks, or centrinic (Rough sharks)
Genus: Oxynotus - Trihedral sharks, or centers
- Species: Oxynotus bruniensis - Australian Centrin (Prickly dogfish)
- View: Oxynotus caribbaeus - Caribbean roughshark
- Species: Oxynotus centrina - Common centrin, or shark-pig (Angular roughshark)
- View: Oxynotus japonicus - Japanese Centshin (Japanese roughshark)
- View: Oxynotus paradoxus - Sail-fin roughshark
Family: Squalidae - Katranov sharks, or prickly sharks, or upright sharks (Dogfish sharks)
Genus: Cirrhigaleus - Baleen Whale Shark
- Type: Cirrhigaleus asper - Rough-skinned shark (Rough-skin spurdog)
- Species: Cirrhigaleus australis - Southern prickly shark (Southern mandarin dogfish)
- Species: Cirrhigaleus barbifer - Mustached prickly shark (Mandarin dogfish)
Genus: Squalus - Spiky sharks, or catrans
- Species: Squalus acanthias - Spotted (short-bodied, blunt-necked) barbed shark, or common (sand, southern, Patagonian) katran, or spiny dogfish
- Species: Squalus acutirostris - Chinese Longnose Dogfish
- Species: Squalus albifrons - Eastern highfin spur katran (Eastern highfin spurdog)
- Species: Squalus altipinnis - Western Longfin Shark, Katran (Western highfin spurdog)
- Species: Squalus blainville - Long-nosed (small) spiny shark (Long-nose spurdog)
- Species: Squalus brevirostris - Japanese short-nosed prickly shark (Japanese shortnose spurdog)
- Species: Squalus bucephalus - Big-head shark katran (Big-head spurdog)
- Species: Squalus chloroculus - Green-eyed spiny shark (Green-eye spurdog)
- Species: Squalus crassispinus - Brokeback Shark (Fat-spine spurdog)
- Species: Squalus cubensis - Cuban prickly shark, or Cuban prickly shark (Cuban dogfish)
- Species: Squalus edmundsi - Edmund's spurdog
- Species: Squalus formosus - Taiwan shark (Taiwan spurdog)
- Species: Squalus grahami - Eastern Long-Nose Shark Cat (Eastern longnose spurdog)
- Species: Squalus griffini - Northern spiny dogfish
- Species: Squalus hemipinnis - Indonesian prickly shark (Indonesian shortsnout spurdog)
- View: Squalus japonicus - Japanese spurdog
- Species: Squalus lalannei - Seychelles spiny shark (Seychelles spurdog)
- Look: Squalus megalops - Short-nose spurdog
- Look: Squalus melanurus - Black-tailed spurdog
- Species: Squalus mitsukurii - Mitsukuri thorny shark (Short-spine spurdog)
- View: Squalus montalbani - Indonesian green-eyed katran (Indonesian greeneye spurdog)
- Look: Squalus nasutus - Western longnose spurdog
- Species: Squalus notocaudatus - Broad-tailed Spiny Shark (Bar-tail spurdog)
- Look: Squalus rancureli - Vanuatsky katran (Cyrano spurdog)
- Species: Squalus raoulensis - Kermadec shark, katran (Kermadec spiny dogfish)
- Species: Squalus suckleyi - Pacific spiny dogfish (Pacific spiny dogfish)
- Species: Squalus sp.X - Lombok Katran Shark (Lombok highfin spurdog)
Family: Centrophoridae - Short-headed sharks, or needle sharks (Gulper sharks)
Genus: Centrophorus - Short-headed Shark
- Species: Centrophorus acus - Long short-pointed shark (Pacific gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus atromarginatus - Dwarf gulper shark (Dwarf gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus granulosus - Brown short-shark (Gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus harrissoni - Australian Short-shark (Dumb gulper shark)
- View: Centrophorus isodon - Blackfin fin shark (Black-fin gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus lusitanicus - Portuguese short-shark (Low-fin gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus moluccensis - Small-fin short-headed shark (Small-fin gulper shark)
- View: Centrophorus niaukang - Eastern short-headed shark (Eastern gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus robustus - South China short-shark (South China gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus seychellorum - Seychelles short-shark (Seychelles gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus squamosus - Gray short-headed shark (Leaf-scale gulper shark)
- View: Centrophorus tessellatus - Multicolored short-shark (Mosaic gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus uyato - Little short-shark (Little gulper shark)
- View: Centrophorus westraliensis - Western short-headed shark (Western gulper shark)
- Species: Centrophorus zeehaani - Southern short-shark (Southern dogfish)
- Species: Centrophorus sp.A - Mini short-shark (Mini gulper shark)
- View: Centrophorus sp.B - Graceful short-headed shark (Slender gulper shark)
Genus: Deania - Deania, or long-nosed spiny sharks
- Species: Deania calcea - Long-tailed Spiny Shark (Bird-beak dogfish)
- Species: Deania hystricosa - Rough longnose dogfish
- Species: Deania profundorum - Deep Sea, or South African prickly shark (Arrow-head dogfish)
- Look: Deania quadrispinosum - Long-snout dogfish (Long-snout dogfish)
Family: Dalatiidae - Upright sharks, or Dalatian sharks (Kitefin sharks)
Genus: Dalatias - Dalatia, or Upright Shark
- Species: Dalatias licha - Black Shark, or Dalatia, or American Upright Shark (Kitefin shark)
Genus: Euprotomicroides - Light-tailed sharks
- Species: Euprotomicroides zantedeschia - Light-tailed shark (Tail-light shark)
Genus: Euprotomicrus - Dwarf Shark
- Species: Euprotomicrus bispinatus - Pygmy shark
Genus: Heteroscymnoides - Dwarf Spiky Sharks
- Species: Heteroscymnoides marleyi - Long-nose dwarf prickly shark (Long-nose pygmy shark)
Genus: Isistius - Glowing Shark
- View: Isistius brasiliensis - Brazilian glowing shark (Cookie-cutter shark)
- Species: Isistius labialis - South China Shark (South China cookiecutter shark)
- Species: Isistius plutodus - Large Tooth Sharpening Shark
Genus: Mollisquama - Malliskwama
- View: Mollisquama parini - Shark Parin, or malliskvama (Pocket shark)
Genus: Squaliolus - Dwarf Spiny Sharks
- Species: Squaliolus aliae - Small-eyed spiny shark (Small-eye pygmy shark)
- Species: Squaliolus laticaudus - Spiny pygmy shark
Family: Etmopteridae - Lantern sharks, or glowing sharks (Lantern sharks)
Genus: Aculeola - Aculeola
- Species: Aculeola nigra - Black shark (Hook-tooth dogfish)
Genus: Centroscyllium - Black Dog Sharks
- Species: Centroscyllium excelsum - High-fin dog shark (High-fin dogfish)
- Species: Centroscyllium fabricii - Black dogfish
- Species: Centroscyllium granulatum - Granular dog shark (Granular dogfish)
- Species: Centroscyllium kamoharai - Black Dog Shark Kamohara (Bare-skin dogfish)
- Species: Centroscyllium nigrum - Black dog shark (Comb-tooth dogfish)
- Species: Centroscyllium ornatum - Ornate dog shark (Ornate dogfish)
- Species: Centroscyllium ritteri - White-footed dog shark (White-fin dogfish)
Genus: Etmopterus - Black sharks, or prickly sharks
- Species: Etmopterus baxteri - New Zealand black shark (New Zealand lanternshark)
- View: Etmopterus benchleyi - Ninja Shark (Ninja lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus bigelowi - Blurred lanternshark
- Species: Etmopterus brachyurus - Short-tail black shark (Short-tail lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus bullisi - Striped prickly shark (Lined lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus burgessi - Broad-snout black shark (Broad-snout lanternshark)
- View: Etmopterus carteri - Cylindrical black shark (Cylindrical lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus caudistigmus - Tail-spot lanternshark
- Species: Etmopterus compagnoi - Brown black shark (Brown lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus decacuspidatus - Comb-tooth black shark (Comb-tooth lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus dianthus - Pink black shark (Pink lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus dislineatus - Lined black shark (Lined lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus evansi - Black-mouth black shark (Black-mouth lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus fusus - Pygmy lanternshark
- Species: Etmopterus gracilispinis - Broadband black shark (Broad-banded lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus granulosus - Southern black shark (Southern lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus hillianus - Caribbean black shark (Caribbean lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus joungi - Short black fin shark (Short-fin smooth lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus litvinovi - Small-eyed black shark (Small-eye lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus lucifer - Glowing Black Shark (Black-belly lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus molleri - Moller's lanternshark
- Species: Etmopterus perryi - Small Black Shark (Dwarf lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus polli - African black shark (African lanternshark)
- View: Etmopterus princeps - Great black shark (Great lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus pseudosqualiolus - False black shark (False lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus pusillus - Crow shark (Smooth lanternshark)
- View: Etmopterus pycnolepis - Emery Black Shark (Dense-scale lanternshark)
- View: Etmopterus robinsi - West Indian lanternshark
- Species: Etmopterus schultzi - Fringed Black Shark (Fringe-fin lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus sculptus - Sculpted lanternshark
- Species: Etmopterus sentosus - Horned Black Shark (Thorny lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus spinax - Night shark, or Black spiny shark (Velvet-belly lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus splendidus - Pacific Black Shark (Splendid lanternshark)
- View: Etmopterus tasmaniensis - Tasmanian Etmopterus (Eastern Indian lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus unicolor - Bristly black shark (Bristled lanternshark)
- View: Etmopterus viator - Traveling black shark (Traveler lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus villosus - Hawaiian Black Shark, or Hawaiian Lanternshark
- Species: Etmopterus virens - Green spiny shark (Green lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus sp.A - Guadalupe Spiny Shark (Guadalupe lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus sp.B - Chilean prickly shark (Chilean lanternshark)
- Species: Etmopterus sp.C - Papua short-tail lanternshark
Genus: Miroscyllium - wonderful sharks
- Species: Miroscyllium sheikoi - Rasp-tooth dogfish
Genus: Trigonognathus - Triangular Shark
- Species: Trigonognathus kabeyai - Serpentine Spiny Shark (Viper dogfish)
Family: Somniosidae - Small Sharks, or Upright Sharks (Sleeper sharks)
Genus: Centroscymnus - White-eyed sharks
- Species: Centroscymnus coelolepis - White-eyed, spiny shark, or Portuguese shark (Portuguese dogfish)
- Species: Centroscymnus cryptacanthus - Short-eyed white-eyed shark (Roughskin dogfish)
- Species: Centroscymnus owstoni - Ouston's White-eyed Shark (Rough-skin dogfish)
Genus: Centroselachus - Thinned sharks
- Species: Centroselachus crepidater - Long-nosed barbed shark (Long-nose velvet dogfish)
Genus: Proscymnodon - Corduroy Spiny Sharks
- Species: Scymnodon ichiharai - Japanese velvet dogfish
- Species: Proscymnodon macracanthus - Large-spined prickly shark (Large-spine velvet dogfish)
- Species: Proscymnodon plunketi - Plunket's shark
- Species: Scymnodon ringens - Sharp Spiny Shark (Knife-tooth dogfish)
Genus: Scymnodalatias - Stsimnodalatii
- Species: Scymnodalatias albicauda - White-tail dogfish
- Species: Scymnodalatias garricki - Azores dogfish
- Species: Scymnodalatias oligodon - Sparse-tooth dogfish
- Species: Scymnodalatias sherwoodi - Sherwood's Barbed Shark, or Sherwood's dogfish
Genus: Somniosus - Polar sharks
- Species: Somniosus antarcticus - Antarctic polar shark (Southern sleeper shark)
- Species: Somniosus longus - Frog shark
- Species: Somniosus microcephalus - Greenland shark, or a low-finned polar shark, or Atlantic polar shark (Greenland shark)
- Species: Somniosus pacificus - Pacific polar shark or Pacific sleeper shark
- Species: Somniosus rostratus - Little sleeper shark
Genus: Zameus - Zameznye sharks
- Species: Zameus ichiharai - Japanese Velvet Dogfish
- Species: Zameus squamulosus - Zamoznaya prickly shark (Velvet dogfish)