Young farmers, owners of home farms, just starting to engage in poultry farming, buying “replenishment” in the poultry houses, sometimes do not know when to wait for the first eggs from pullets. Experienced owners are also lost, because there are many new breeds, and the timing of the start of egg-laying depends not only on the laying hen or broiler, but also on the feeding technology.
Trying to increase the productive period, the chickens begin to give premixes, accelerating the onset of egg-laying. And then it comes time to reap the benefits. The hens are sick, the quality of the eggs suffers, the amount of the products obtained is very different from the stated characteristics of the breed.
When do pullets begin to trot?
Much in the beginning of the laying of eggs decides exactly the breed. Laying of cross-breeds of such breeds as white or red Haysex, bred by crossing egg leggons, Hampshires with larger members of the Rhode Island breed, begin to rush already after 17 weeks. The weight of the hens can be from 2.5 to 3 kg:
- Egg-laying chickens start to be born earlier - 17-19 weeks.
- Hybrids of meat and egg breeds - 22 - 23 weeks.
- Meat breeds - 28 weeks.
Chickens of meat breeds are rarely grown for almost a year, only representatives intended for breeding can start laying. Their egg is smaller, but by the week of 30-32 it becomes equal in size to the egg breeds laid by hens, and then larger.
If during the period specified in the description of the breed, the clutch has not started, the conditions for keeping and feeding the birds should be reviewed.
Sometimes it is recommended to change the cock, but this advice totally unjustified. The presence of a male affects only fertilization of the egg, while the hen begins to fly regardless of whether there is a rooster in the house or not.
The first eggs in the nest are always small, weighing up to 50 grams. By 7-10 day their weight will reach standard - 60 - 70 grams. But it is believed that the very first eggs have a healing effect, they have much more nutrients, the yolk is more saturated with vitamins and has a high taste.
Earlier, the laying started leads to the fact that the eggs remain small for a long time, the hens' body is depleted. By the time of maturity, the hen should weigh at least 1 kg, meat and egg breeds imply a weight of up to 1.5 kg. It is believed that the weight of pullets, in which she must begin to nest, is 70-75% of the weight of an adult.
Many people consider optimum such breeds as Brahma, Kokhinhin, Plymouths: they gain weight well, but their egg production is average, that is, you can get both an egg and subsequently meat. But at the same time, it should be borne in mind that the start of egg-laying is at 7–8 months, so that the cost of feed will be significantly higher than for laying hens.
How rush chickens?
In the body of the bird laid a certain number of eggs, more than which it will not be able to carry eggs. It is from a chicken egg of reproductive age with good conditions that an egg is formed every day: the yolk, then - layer by layer - protein, shell, shell, nadkorlupny film. The process requires a large amount of energy, minerals, so it is necessary to feed the chickens according to a strictly observed technology. This will help get the maximum number of eggs for the productive period:
- Laying hens of egg breeds can take an egg for up to 10 months every day, for a productive period they give from 170 to 250 eggs. Record holder - leggrony: 330-340 eggs from each chicken.
- Chickens meat and egg give from 130 to 170 pieces for the productive period.
- Chickens of meat breeds, having begun to nest in 8 - 9 months, give only 100-110 eggs. They start shedding very quickly, during which egg-laying stops. But their egg is larger than that of ordinary layers.
The quantity and quality of eggs
On average, each chicken pulls 1 egg per day, the time period of maturation can be as much as 20 or 24 hours. But to wait for the daily appearance of eggs from chicken pullets is not worth it, they must "blow apart," as the grandmothers said. This period takes about 1 month for them, and then on average 3-4 months each one lays a testicle. The “rest time” can also take up to 1 month. It is very important that the chicken in this time period does not gain weight due to the accumulated fat, it reduces productivity.
But a small number of eggs laid contains a much larger amount of nutrients, experts say. The most valuable are just the first, with excellent taste, albeit small in weight.
Large eggs are inferior in taste, their yolk does not contain the same amount of vitamins and minerals that make the product extremely valuable for dietary nutrition.
One full egg weighing up to 60 grams contains:
- water - 70-75%,
- protein - 13% (most - in the yolk),
- fat - 11% (up to 32% of this amount - in the yolk),
- carbohydrate - 0.7% (approximately equal in protein and yolk).
Too large eggs - those obtained from chickens over 2 years old, are not only poor in vitamins and amino acids, but also have a not too strong, porous shell that cracks easily, it is often pecked, harmful microorganisms get inside. The most valuable product can be obtained in its own courtyard only with normal feeding of birds.
Quality products are supplied to the markets and small farms in which chickens graze plenty, moving freely on their runs, get natural food without hormonal supplements.
Buying an egg in stores, you should not rely on equally useful properties, feeding at poultry farms is mainly aimed at obtaining the maximum of eggs, in compound feeds there are many additives that increase egg production to the detriment of the health of the bird, and therefore the quality of the product it produces.
How long do the chickens race?
Having received the first egg from the youngsters, it is possible to calculate how long the chicken will carry the eggs.
The productive age of the bird is up to 2 years, but after 12 months the chickens begin to fatten, reduce the number of eggs in the clutch, rush after 2 - 3 days. By the end of the reproductive age, the number is reduced to 2 to 7 days, such chickens are considered to be a culling, they are sent to slaughter.
It is necessary to take into account the rest periods when the chickens do not rush for 3-4 weeks. It is not necessary to slaughter such individuals, after the break they begin to rush again as before. Rest periods under normal conditions are 3–5, but in poorly heated poultry houses in winter, chickens rest for 2–3 months.
It is worth changing a livestock in 2 years, but some grow a bird only one season, preferring to take pullet next year. You can replace chickens gradually, but it is worth remembering that old chickens, when kept together, often offend young ones who have only settled in a hen house.
How to feed the roosters-charmers and before slaughter? Find out about it here.
At least once a year you should disinfect the chicken coop. On the rules of its implementation, read our article.
How to improve the quality and quantity of eggs?
There are several ways to improve the quality and quantity of eggs in a household or farm:
- Proper selection of livestock: not only the breed of chickens can improve things in the house. If you pick up a bird of different ages, so that at the time when it is time to change the old ones, the pullets are just starting to carry eggs, in the middle generation give products with might and main, that is, the difference in the age of broods should be about six months), you can get a year-round useful product.
- Feeding: a balanced diet, with a sufficient amount of vitamins and minerals, full-fledged walking will help chickens to retain the ability to carry the optimal number of eggs for a long time.
- Content: The length of daylight and temperature conditions in the house have a great influence on egg production. In the cold season, the room should be heated, in the winter - additional lighting, humidity control.
- Mode: Experienced poultry houses know how sensitive chickens are to the feeding regime. Fodder given out of time, water of poor quality, lack of shell rock, gravel, chalk or sand can lead to disturbances in the body of chickens in a very short period. As a result, an egg without a shell or peeled "companions", of irregular shape, will cease to be a rarity in nests.
- In the morning, it is necessary to give coarse food, whole grain, at lunch - so that it is time to peck everything without residue - wet food: mash with vegetables, boiled corn, yeast, in the evening - mixed feeding: vegetables, grain, vitamins, mixed fodders. Constantly need "Zelenka" - fresh greens, silage, germinated cereals.
Compliance with the technology, following the recommendations for the content of a particular breed of chickens will help extend the productive period of the hens and always get only a high-quality and healthy product.
When the hens begin to trot pullets
Molodki poultry farmers are called chickens of the first year of life, which are just entering maturity. In laying hens, this stage usually occurs at the age of 4.5–5 months, in poultry meat and egg breeds - at 6–6.5 months, in meat hens - at 8–9 months.
The greatest productivity in laying hens is observed in the second half of the first year of life. During this period, in pullets of some egg breeds, egg production may exceed 300 eggs per year. However, in this case it is more a quantitative indicator, since the eggs themselves will be small.
However, the breed of poultry is of great importance. So, one of the most productive in the world is considered breed Leggorn in Italy. The onset of egg production in chicks of this breed is often noted already at the 17th week of bird life. In this case, by the end of the first year, the weight of the eggs is usually 55-58 grams. The eggs of young chickens have excellent fertility (about 95%), which is the key to a high hatchability rate of new offspring.
Chicks pullets Loman Brown which perfectly adapt to any climatic conditions, are also distinguished by high productivity. Layers start laying eggs on the 22nd week of life with an average weight of 1.8 kg. From one young pullet receive an average of 310 eggs per year, the weight of each egg is more than 60 grams. The peak of egg production in hens of the breed Loman Brown is observed from 26 to 30 weeks of age.
In the literal and figurative sense, the New Hampshire breed is a prominent representative of the egg-laying type of chickens. Pullets begin to rush at the age of six months, while the average weight of one egg exceeds 60 grams.
Molodki Hisex - Another record holder in egg production. In the creation of this hybrid, Dutch scientists used white Leghorn, Rhode Island and New Hampshire chickens. The youngsters of the White Hisex cross begin to nest after 140 days, at the age of two or three years the egg production reaches 280 eggs per year. At the same time, the eggs themselves are distinguished by a large size (average weight - 63 grams) and a very high nutritional value.
Why don't pullet chickens rush - a review of the reasons
It often happens that a novice farmer buys pullets on the market, which, as the seller assures, should literally start "from day to day." However, there are no eggs from young layers in a week or two. The most common reason for the lack of eggs in this case is the discrepancy between the actual age of the bird and the declared one.
To determine that a chicken is 18 weeks old, and not 21, even an experienced poultry breeder is not always able to, and a newcomer is not at all able to notice the trick. However, in this case, everything is not so sad - you just need to wait until the chickens "reach the standard."
However, there are a number of other factors and causes that can affect the egg production of young layers. Most often, they do not rush or cease to rush because of improperly balanced feed, lack of vitamins and minerals necessary for the growing organism.
Parasites are another reason for the decline or cessation of egg-laying. If chickens intensively clean feathers and began to lose weight, most likely, feather-eaters (chicken lice) were bred in the hen-house. In this case, sick birds should be immediately isolated, and the chicken coop should be treated with appropriate chemicals.
In small poultry houses, drops from chicken parasites (“Celandine”, “Front Line”, “Dana”, etc.) will help to eliminate the problem. As a preventive measure, it is imperative to put a ash and sand bath in the hen house so that the birds can clean the feathers.
Egg-laying markedly decreases or stops altogether during shedding (as a rule, this occurs by mid-autumn). The fact is that the hen spends a lot of energy on growing a new plumage, and if there are violations in the diet, there is simply no power left for the laying of eggs in poultry.
In order for the pullets to rush steadily, it is necessary to create comfortable conditions for them in the house and provide good nutrition.
What to feed?
The order of feeding of hens is not much different from the feeding of other domestic chickens. Meals should be three meals a day: in the morning pullets are fed in the morning after waking up, then in the middle of the day and in the evening - about an hour before turning off the light in the house.
At the same time, the diet of chicken pullets must necessarily be complete and balanced. All the necessary nutrients and trace elements must be ingested into the body of the bird without fail.
Significantly simplify the life of a novice poultry farmer will help ready combined feed for chicken pullets, which can be purchased at any specialized store. For example, the classical compound feed of the PC series is a complete and balanced diet that does not require additional additives and vitamins.
The full ration feed for pullets from 21 to 47 weeks old has the following composition:
- wheat - 50%,
- corn - 9%,
- barley - 10%,
- Soybean meal - 5%,
- sunflower meal - 13%,
- corn gluten - 1%,
- meat and bone meal - 5%,
- fish meal - 1%,
- salt, phosphate defluorinated - 1%,
- corn gluten - 1%,
- limestone flour - 2%.
One laying hen per day requires 120 grams of such a combined feed.
The inclusion in the diet of so-called mixers - steamed mixtures of grain, vegetables, green vegetation, animal feed, mineral and other additives helps to increase the productivity of chicken livestock. There are hundreds of recipes for such mash, each experienced poultry farmer must have his own.
Here is one of the options for the composition of the mash for pullets (in percentage):
- steamed grain - 40%
- chopped boiled potatoes - 15%
- chopped grass - 10%
- grated vegetables (root vegetables) —10%
- bran - 10%
- yogurt - 5%
- bone meal - 5%
- chalk - 3%
- fish oil - 1.5%
- salt - 0.5%.
All components are thoroughly mixed, if necessary, add warm water to a crumbly consistency.
How to choose pullet chickens - if you decide to buy them
It is best to plan the purchase of pullet chicken for spring. At this time, you can buy a bird at the age of 4.5-5 months, and the peak of its productivity will be in the summer, when there is a lot of pasture.
External signs of healthy pullets:
- Clean and well-groomed appearance, uniform plumage, lack of bald patches, etc.,
- Bulging eyes, clear pupils,
- Wide chest, legs wide apart,
- Elastic skin pale pink color,
- Red, even medium sized comb,
- High overall activity (healthy pullet is vigorous, constantly busy with something)
How to plant a laying hen to old hens
Replanting new chickens is a crucial moment. Since a strict hierarchy is always built in the house, the appearance of new guests breaks the idyll. As a result, adults may peck up juveniles to death.
If there is a rooster in the flock of birds, it is first recommended to “introduce” the hen to it.
- If there is no rooster, you can use the old old-fashioned way of “dating” chickens: they wear cloth gloves on their hands and perekupyvayut with them some old chickens.
- Then they stroke the pullet with these hands, after which they are placed in the house.
The best time for replanting is late evening, when chickens perch are perched. In the dark, the chickens see nothing and practically do nothing, so the neighbors will have a whole night to get used to the smell of others
Layer species when they start and how much they rush
The average age of sexual maturity of chickens is 18 weeks, some breeds begin to be born earlier. In many ways, it depends on the conditions of detention - how spacious the chicken coop is, high-quality and full-fledged food, not too many stressful situations. Chicks pullets are ready to nest when their weight is only 25% less than adult chicken. The peak of the productivity of one individual falls on the age of up to 1.5 years from the beginning of puberty. Consider the main types of laying hens:
- The “earliest” ones are egg layers. The first egg from it can be seen as early as 17 weeks.
- Poultry meat and egg breeds begin to "produce" products at 20, or at 24 weeks.
- Meat breeds. The name itself implies that “producing” eggs is not their “specialization”. Will have to wait about 6 months.
Interestingly, in the body of the chicken laid eggs for 15 years. Но курицы так долго не живет, да и яйценоскость снижается с каждым годом. Поэтому держать несушку долго нецелесообразно — яичной продукции уже не будет и мясо станет жестким и невкусным.
Attention! Одни из самых яйценоских пород: Леггорн, Доминант, Белая русская курица.
Какие бывают яйца
Средняя норма «выдачи продукции» у несушки — одно-два яичка в сутки. Структура скорлупы разная. В норме она может быть:
In the store, we used to choose eggs by varieties, supposedly the largest - tastier. By no means. The smallest get from young hens, they are sometimes called chicken. The mass of such eggs is not more than 45 g, they have a better and more tasty yolk.
Large - have a stronger shell with a porous structure. They are easy to clean. But they are most susceptible to penetration of harmful microorganisms inside, under the shell. Testicles carried by pullets of chickens that are not older than a week are considered dietary, and can be eaten raw.
Frequent dilemma - eggs with which shell color is more useful? Clearly, the color of the shell does not affect the value of the product - both white and brown are useful. Color shade only indicates the breed of chicken, nothing more.
How to increase the number of eggs: food, care
Genetic predisposition to high egg production in laying hens is only half the success. Other factors affecting productivity:
- Quality balanced nutrition. Do not be lazy and throw the hens, "all that remains" or be limited to dry food. Hens need and wet "mixed" food, with minerals and greens. Especially important is the presence of calcium in the menu for the proper formation of the shell.
- Conditions of detention. Layers are not picky about a hen house, but they need freedom of movement. For five hens - 1 m²
- The health of the hen. The presence of worms and other parasites can affect egg production.
- Regular updating of livestock. Otherwise, you can say "rejuvenation." If you overdo the hen, you can lose and meat.
It should be remembered that the chicken does not rush during the molt, and a short daylight hours reduces the amount of egg production. You can “cheat” the hens by holding artificial lighting in the hen house. It is also believed that chickens rush better after experiencing stress. If you do not feed and water the hen for a day, after the restoration of nutrition, she will give out double the norm.
The age of the egg laying hens expected is 4-5 months. It all depends on the breed, habitat and food. It should be remembered that it is particularly productive during the first 1.5 years.
Start of egg production
Wild breed ducks breed in April and May. Already for the next nesting season, females can carry out laying. They grow up in 10-11 months. Some individuals mature later. They are ready to perform the first laying at the age of 2 years.
Breeders who work on breeding domestic breeds of ducks, accelerated puberty in females. The first laying of individuals of the egg breed can be carried out already in 4.5-5 months, in 150 days. Ducks with meat productivity begin to bring eggs in 5.5-6 months, in 175 days.
It is necessary to ensure that the female carries out the first clutch in a timely manner. Early egg production is not productive. Eggs do not meet the requirements of poultry farmers. They are small, they do not have enough nutrients for the full development of the embryo.
Late laying in ducks is also not desirable. Eggs from overwhelmed females are large, high-quality, but females will not differ in good egg production. Despite this, they are often left in the parent flock. Podvortsami noted that the young, which appears from the late duck eggs, has a high immunity, develops better and gains weight.
Laying preparation for laying
In order for the duck laying to start in time and develop normally, they need to be prepared for this period. The quality of masonry is influenced by the length of the day, the indoor climate and good nutrition. Preparation begins 2 weeks before the expected onset of egg production:
- light day is brought to 16 h,
- in the house raise the temperature to 15 C,
- prescribe a diet enriched with protein and minerals. It includes corn, wheat, barley, bran, cake. The ducks are given a crushed shell, chalk and some salt,
- carry out control weighing. A good layer should weigh at least 2.7 kg and not more than 3 kg. Fatness is average. Plumage without any flaws: smooth, dense, with the inherent breed of ebb.
To obtain high-quality hatching eggs, they prepare the drakes. They are also subject to careful selection. They should not be aggressive, obese or exhausted. The average weight of a male is 3.4 kg: individuals are used to get the young of the paternal line. For the formation of the maternal herd choose drakes lower weight - 2.9 kg. Ducks prescribe the following diet:
- corn - 2 kg,
- wheat - 750 g,
- barley - 1 kg,
- peas - 330 g,
- as protein fillers are injected - wheat bran - 1.16 kg, soybean meal - 500 g, sunflower oilcake - 792 g,
- from mineral additives fish meal is used - 250 g, bone meal - 330 g, shell and chalk - 270 g, salt - 25 g,
- to improve the digestive tract give hay - 415 g, and gravel 60 g
This diet is designed for a month, for 1 layer. For a male, 10% more corn is added to feed. Peas or soy necessarily present in the diet. Legumes have a positive effect on the development of reproductive organs in ducks, stimulate sexual activity in birds.
Feed is carried out 3 times a day. In the morning, the ducks are given grain, hay. If possible, green grass, carrots and beets are introduced into the diet. At lunch, livestock fed grain mixtures with protein supplements. When evening feeding along with grain and grass injected minerals.
Egg production level
At the age of 4.5-6 months, ducklings begin puberty. From selected individuals form bird families. There should be no more than 4-5 females per drake. In this case, the fertility rate is 95-98%. With more females, egg fertility decreases. Wear develops gradually. Ducks do not rush every day. First, the eggs are small in size. The chemical composition is far from perfect. For incubation take the material in a month. As the laying of the laying increases:
The chicken has a certain stock of eggs that are reborn into eggs. When they all come out, the hen will stop giving eggs. The process of formation of the testicles takes a lot of energy of the mother's body. She needs a lot of nutrients during this period. The farmer must provide quality feeding. The champions of the egg direction carry 330 units of production per year. Egg and meat appointments - 200 for the period, meat producers - 150 for one period. Such indicators are found in experienced farmers who properly organize the maintenance and feeding of chickens.
Stages of testicular formation:
- Fertilized egg.
- Converted to the yolk.
- It goes into the oviduct.
- Formed protein.
- The shell is formed.
For the shell you need a lot of minerals. They must be present in the avian diet.
The best breeds
The best category of chickens in terms of egg productivity is the individuals of egg purposes. Leading breeds:
- Loman Brown. This is a cross producing a record number of testicles. The figure reaches up to 300 pieces per year. Starts to be born early - at 4 months. The first year is the highest egg production.
- Kuchinsky anniversary breed is stable. Its indicators do not fall for several years and reach 225 units of production per year. Starts to produce the product in 6 months.
- Haysek ranked among the leaders. His reputation is blackened by capricious birds. At the slightest stress, they lose the pace of egg production for a long time.
Egg production factors
There are factors to which young chickens react by increasing or decreasing egg production:
- Breed direction Egg-laying hens begin to fly earlier than others - at 4 months, they have the highest egg productivity. Mixed, unique representatives, bringing eggs and meat, begin to rush at 6 months. with an average productivity, meat - at 8 months. (egg production is reduced).
- The individual characteristics of each chicken. Sometimes, due to the individual characteristics of an individual, at a certain period it can stop laying eggs. In a favorable period, the productivity indicator is aligned.
- Conditions of detention and feeding. In winter and spring, chickens need vitamin feed due to the scarcity of vitamin components found in fresh grass. With proper feeding, the egg production rate begins to rise.
- Age. When the pullet begins to nest, it produces more eggs. With age, their number decreases.
- Shedding. During the change of plumage the chickens cease to run.
- The temperature in the room for keeping hens. During sharp rises and falls, the birds are under stress, which affects their performance.
- Air humidity. The indicator should be optimal (not high and not low). If requirements are violated, productivity falls.
- Lighting should coincide with the light day, creating comfort. Otherwise, the chicken will be less run.
- The density of the premises. If there is not enough space, the birds divide it. Productivity decreases due to stressful situations.