The black hornet, or Dybowski hornet (Vespa dybowskii), is one of the rarest hornets in our country. The number of this species in our territories is so small that it, for example, is listed in the regional Red Book of the Chita region. In addition to Transbaikalia, this insect can occasionally be found in Primorye and the Amur Region. The main habitat of the black hornet is located in China, India, Burma, Thailand, Japan and Korea.
It is noteworthy that if we consider all areas of the habitat of this species as a whole, it is impossible to unequivocally state its small number. This fact is explained by the fact that the rarity of encounters with an insect does not quite accurately reflect its actual prevalence.
Within the framework of the area as a whole, the black hornet is not an insect at all. Just because of some features of their biology, these hornets, in principle, never and never are numerous - even in the main habitats. However, this species has a stable population.
What does the black hornet look like?
Externally, the black hornet differs from the usual for our country hornet ordinary only completely black belly. If you compare these insects, for example, from photographs, then you will not find any difference in other elements of coloring: the head of the first type will literally exactly repeat the pattern on the body of the second, well known to many summer residents of the European part of Russia.
In the photo - black hornet in its natural habitat:
And this is what the ordinary hornet looks like:
It is worth noting that the entomologist can find another one, albeit not so expressive, the difference between these insects: the black hornet, unlike the ordinary one, has brownish wings, which, however, are not very noticeable against the background of the black abdomen:
These insects do not possess outstanding size - they have rather average indicators by genus. The female reaches a length of 28-31 mm, working individuals - 18-23 mm, and males - 22-25 mm. However, due to the monochromatic coloration, the body of insects of this species appears more slender and elongated in length than in typical “striped” relatives.
Interestingly, because of the characteristic coloring of black hornets, they are often mistaken for other insects. This is especially important for the southern regions of our country, where huge wasps of Scolia are found in abundance. Let's take a closer look at this interesting topic.
Who can be confused with black hornets?
Indeed, externally, the scoli very strongly resemble hornets, because both of them belong to the same family and therefore have a characteristic similar color. But unlike ordinary wasps or, for example, bumblebees, scoli, as well as hornets, can reach impressive sizes.
Thus, the average length of the body of females is 45 mm, but for some very large species, these figures are even longer - up to 60 mm. Thus, when determining insects, it is not worthwhile to focus only on the size of their bodies.
The main difference between Scolia and the common hornet is its dark color. But how, then, to distinguish between scolia and black hornet? Scientists-entomologists know that the usual giant scoliium has two transverse orange stripes on its black abdomen, but for ordinary eyewitnesses such subtleties are not known, so they are likely to take it for the black hornet.
For clarity and a better understanding of the issue, let's turn to the photos of all listed insects.
On the first photo - the black hornet:
Here is the common hornet:
And in this photo - giant scolia:
So, it is not so difficult to distinguish a black hornet from a scoli, it is only necessary to carefully examine their belly. The first insect has no spots and stripes here, the second one is decorated with yellow dressings.
In addition, the black hornet is not found west of Lake Baikal, so all meetings with a large black wasp in the European part of Russia are always meetings with cholies.
Scolls - insects are not social. Unlike hornets, they do not have nests; they do not live in families. Adult individuals usually feed on flowers, which cannot be said of their larvae. Females for procreation are found under the ground and with the stones of the larvae of large beetles, paralyzing them with their poison and laying eggs on the body. Thus, the larvae of Scoles feed on live, but immobilized larvae of beetles. Thanks to this source of food, the larvae pupate, hibernate under the ground, and the next year they get out of the cocoon, come to the surface of the earth and fly away.
There have been cases where cholium was even mistaken for bumblebees, but such a mistake could only be made by people very far from entomology, because the difference between these insects, despite their belonging to the same family, is generally large enough. So, scolium has a typical aspen waist and slender belly, the bumblebee, on the contrary, is dense and very wide.
A pair of black bumblebee-hornet is just as striking as a bumblebee with scoli - it will be very difficult to confuse them at least once in the photo.
The only nest parasite among fellows
The most important and especially interesting trait by which black hornets differ from other hornets is their way of life. Of all 23 species of its brethren, black is the only nested parasite.
At the end of summer, a young female finds a fairly large nest of ordinary or small Japanese hornets, penetrates into it and kills the uterus.
After that, the invader female with the help of special pheromones is disguised as family members, individuals of which, guided by smell, immediately recognize her as their queen. Despite the fact that the new inhabitant of the nest belongs to a completely different species, the working individuals, confused by its smell, with the same zeal, begin to serve the new uterus.
After the nest has been captured, the black hornet female immediately starts laying pre-fertilized eggs, from which the individuals that are already capable of breeding are then removed. Thus, throughout the development of the larvae of one species, the deluded working individuals of the other species nourish.
When the number of females and males becomes sufficient, they leave the nest and mate. Males soon die, and females find places for wintering or, if it happens in the tropics, new families for parasitism.
In the photo - black hornet on the tree bark:
It should be noted that the capture of the nest, despite the simple algorithm, is given to the females of the black hornet is not easy. The overwhelming majority of them die from the “hands” of working individuals, who zealously protect their dwelling.
Until the moment of the murder of the old uterus, a new one is never recognized in the family. However, those rare lucky women who manage to conquer the nest ensure the appearance of such a number of young individuals, which more than covers the death of less fortunate sisters.
It is clear that single females who are looking for a nest are not as often seen as, say, numerous working individuals of a large family. That is why even in their habitats, black hornets, unlike other types of hornets, are not considered widespread.
In exceptional cases, these insects can organize their own nests and live in families. This behavior is manifested very rarely in them and is primarily explained by the fact that in some places of the range of hornets of other small species may not be at all. In this case, the search for an object for parasitism will definitely end in failure, and even the probable presence of larger species on the territory of the hornets will not save the situation: Black cannot parasitize relatives of the type of giant hornets.
How dangerous are black hornets?
If we talk about the attacks of the black hornet on humans, then we can say that this insect stings much more painfully than the usual hornet we are used to. But at the same time, its bite is not so terrible as, for example, stinging with a giant Asian hornet living approximately in the same territories.
The fact that the giant hornet is leading the black in the matter of toxicity of poison is an indisputable fact, because this insect is in principle one of the most poisonous insects on Earth. But why, then, having approximately the same size, the other two hornets - black and ordinary - sting in different ways?
The fact is that to achieve success in capturing the nest, the black hornet female must be able to kill the uterus with its bite. However, theoretically, the old female should be resistant to the poison of the conqueror, because they both belong to the same genus and have toxins similar in composition. However, nature, “teaching” the black hornets to parasitize, rewarded them with a special poison containing additional enzymes and toxins, without which victory over the old uterus would have been impossible.
As for the person, for him the encounter with the black hornet ends in about the same way as with any other poisonous insect: first of all, there is a very strong throbbing pain. Immediately after the bite, a progressive inflammation appears on the affected area, the tissues harden, and severe itching can be felt. In addition, a stung person often has an increased heartbeat and shortness of breath.
If an allergic reaction joins the main symptoms, severe pains in the head appear, mucous membranes swell, and the development of Quincke edema becomes possible. In about 5–6% of cases, anaphylactic shock occurs after a bite by a black hornet, in which the absence of urgent medical care can be fatal.
The bites of chipped, unlike the bites of black hornets, are of low risk and practically painless. This is explained by the fact that the first insect uses its poison for protection, therefore its bite should cause a quick and sharp pain. The second uses its toxin to immobilize the victim, and it is for this reason that, of all the possible active components, its venom contains mainly paralytic substances.
First aid for stinging a black hornet must include all standard actions in such cases, namely:
- a cold compress should be applied to the affected area as soon as possible,
- to eliminate or alleviate a possible allergic reaction, you need to drink Suprastin or another antihistamine and carefully monitor your own condition,
- if you experience pain in your head, dizziness, high temperature, you should immediately call an ambulance or look for any other way to get to the hospital.
Remember - the sensitivity to insect venom is in no way dependent on your physical condition.
In conclusion, it is impossible not to mention that, like most of their relatives, the black hornet is a peace-loving insect, it will sting a person only in self-defense. If you do not touch this insect, do not try to kill it, and do not make sudden movements near the nest, it will never attack first.
At the same time, this hornet is able to provide invaluable assistance in the garden: it is with great pleasure that it kills various agricultural pests. So take care of the rare black hornets, respect their right to exist and use their services to exterminate harmful insects for free!
Red fire ant
The habitat of the reddish-red members of the huge ant family is America, China, the Philippines, Taiwan and Australia. Having a 6 mm body, these insects are not the largest representatives of their kind. However, their toxin is 12 times stronger than the poison of a honeybee and hornet. The attack of a miniature ant is accompanied by unbearable pain and injecting poison into the skin. The poison cocktail includes 46 dangerous ingredients that have a negative effect on the nervous system.
The threat lies in the militancy of insects. It is necessary for a person or an animal to carelessly disturb an anthill, all its inhabitants instantly pounce on a potential enemy. For small mammals, such an attack becomes deadly. It threatens people with sensations comparable to a fire burn, reddening of the skin, swelling and dizziness. For allergy sufferers, an attack of red fire ants can result in anaphylactic shock and coma.
Caterpillar of lonomy
Once a year, at the beginning of summer, harmless moths living in the wet forests of South America produce offspring. They lay in the crowns of trees the smallest eggs, from which the larvae soon hatch. Then "lazy clowns" are born - this is how the aborigines of the most poisonous caterpillars on the planet are called.
The creation of a length of 7 cm is painted in brown-green color, which allows it to perfectly mask among plants. The features of the insect are a white spot on the back, resembling the letter U, and thin bristles covering the body. Each of them has a cavity through which the poison passes, destroying fibrinogen - a protein contained in the plasma of human blood.
The slightest touch to a dangerous creature can be fatal. The sharp thorns instantly pierce the skin, and after 12 hours signs of poisoning appear: chills, malaise and headache. The lack of medical care threatens the victim with a disruption of the central nervous system, kidney damage and internal bleeding. 10 to 30 people die from poisoning with toxins every year.
Vespa Mandarinia Hornet
The habitat of this relative wasps - Japan, Korea, Taiwan, China, India and Thailand. For the 7-centimeter wingspan and the impressive size of a brightly colored body, reaching 5 cm in length, the flying arthropod monster is called a sparrow bee. However, unlike a harmless bird, the giant Asian hornet is deadly to humans.
Representatives of the order Hymenoptera live in large colonies, the basis of which lay the uterus. The food Vespa Mandarinia picky - their menu is made up of berries, foliage, fruits and insects. Despite the fact that the giant wasps are poisonous, they kill their prey with powerful jaws. But if the Asian hornet launches a deadly sting, expect trouble.
His poison is a strong poisonous substance. Getting to the soft tissues of a person, the toxin causes a painful effect, instant edema, heart palpitations, fever and shock. For people who are allergic to bee stings, a meeting with Vespa Mandarinia can be fatal.
The next reviewer, living in Africa, has no poisonous glands. The bite of this reddish-gray insect, the size of which does not exceed 15 mm, leads to infection with trypanosomes - microscopic parasitic organisms that cause sleeping sickness. Tsetse does not spare both people and animals - she attacks all warm moving objects. Do not attack Tsetse fly only on zebras - a black-and-white coloring of a solitary fly perceives a fly as flickering of bands.
Small teeth, located at the end of the trunk, the insect bites through the skin and injects viscous sputum into the victim's body, thinning the blood. After a short time, the bitten person feels the first signs of the disease: weakness, drowsiness and fever. In humans, a dangerous illness provokes:
- lymph node inflammation,
- mental disorder,
- numbness of the limbs
- the occurrence of tumors
- to whom and death.
According to the International Health Organization, every year 250 thousand people in the continent die from sleeping sickness. There is still no universal remedy for the tiny killer and trypanosome vaccine.
The most dangerous insect in the world: the anopheles mosquito (Anopheles)
Killer mosquitoes are adapted to live on all continents. The good news is that the climate of Europe, characterized by long winters and regular rains, is not suitable for the development of a dangerous creature. Outwardly, this bloodsucking insect is no different from its counterparts. You can only learn it by long hind legs. But unlike a harmless relative, the anopheus mosquito carries a deadly threat, annually killing 600 thousand people.
Anopheles is a carrier of malaria and the only distributor of this disease. Only females are dangerous. The virus enters the body of an insect with the blood of a person stung by it - the carrier of the infection. At the site of the mosquito bite - the carrier of plasmodium (parasites that cause malaria) - there is a slight swelling, itching and thickening of the tissues. Then come cramps, fever and headache. Without timely medical care, the disease is fraught with irreversible consequences for the cardiovascular system, liver, kidneys and brain.
The above creatures of nature pose a threat to animals and humans. Their bite can cause serious illness and cause severe pain, allergic reactions, anaphylactic shock and death. Soothes only one thing: the participants of the TOP-5 most dangerous insects live far beyond the limits of the European part of the continent.
Hornet - description, structure, characterization. What does a hornet look like?
On average, insects measure from 1.8 to 3.5 cm, and the largest are the hornets of the species Vespa mandarinia - they reach 5.5 cm in length. От прочих представителей семейства настоящих ос шершни отличаются более крупной головой и достаточно широкой макушкой, частью головы, расположенной позади фасеточных глаз. Помимо фасеточных глаз у насекомого имеются 3 простых глазка. Цвет головы может быть черным, желтым, оранжевым или красновато-коричневым с присутствием желтых пятен. На голове располагаются коричнево-черные усики-антенны, количество члеников которых различается у самок и самцов. Мандибулы (челюсти) насекомого имеют черный, коричневый или желто-оранжевый цвет.
Автор фото: H. Zell, CC BY-SA 3.0
У шершня округлое брюшко, перетянутое стройной талией в области сочленения с грудью. Расцветка многих шершней напоминает окрас обыкновенной осы, правда, чередование черных, желтых или рыжевато-оранжевых полосок может быть не настолько ярко и четко выражено. In other species, the belly is colored brown or black with one red or yellow stripe, and sometimes even without them. For example, the variable hornet (Latin Vespa fumida) has a completely brown-black color with alternation of lighter and darker tones. Also, the stripes on the abdomen of some species may have a white color (as in the species Vespa luctuosa). On the body of the insect grow hairs of different sizes.
Author photo: Adrien Perrard
At the end of the abdomen, working females and the uterus have an egg deposit, which is a sting. In a quiet state, it is imperceptible, as it is retracted into the belly of the insect. At the base of the sting is a steam poisonous gland with a reservoir filled with poison. The sting of a hornet is straight and smooth, unlike a bee, it does not have chipping, therefore hornets, like other wasps, can sting repeatedly.
Author photo: Trancelius, CC BY-SA 3.0
In total, the hornet has 3 pairs of legs in black, brown or yellow, depending on the species. In the structure of the limbs stand out a basin, a swivel, a thigh, a shin with a spur at the end and a foot. The webbed wings of the insect are represented by two pairs: large front and small rear ones. The front wings at rest are folded along the back. When flying, the front edge of small wings is attached with special hooks to the rear edge of large wings: thus, both right wings and both left wings form a single flying surface.
Author photo: Didier Descouens, CC BY-SA 4.0
Where do hornets live?
The largest part of the hornets habitat is in the Northern Hemisphere. However, to meet with this insect can not only be there. Hornets live in North America, Europe and Russia (except the Far North), in Asia and in North Africa. Insects are found in the north and east of China, in Kazakhstan, Laos, Indochina, in Taiwan and Cambodia, in Nepal, India, Vietnam and Sri Lanka, in Thailand, China, Korea and the mountain regions of Japan, in Algeria, Egypt, Libya , in the territory of Sudan and Somalia. Hornets live in Ukraine, Iran, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Turkey, Italy, Spain, France, Greece, Albania, Romania, Greece, Cyprus, Madagascar and in Bulgaria and other countries.
Photo by: Nmspec, CC BY-SA 4.0
Constructing rather large multi-tiered nests, by touch and texture resembling slightly corrugated, rough paper, hornets attach them in hollows, in birdhouses abandoned by birds, in deadwood bushes, in the attics of residential buildings, under the roofs of sheds, in dry caves, in steep cliffs or just hang them on the branches of trees. The color of the nest can be beige, brown, yellowish-brown, with dark red, purple or brown markings and stripes (depending on the type of insect). The shape of the multi-tiered hornet nests resemble a pear, an oval or a large ball. The size of the nest can reach about 70 cm in height and more than 40 cm in width.
Often the nests of these insects are called paper, since the principle of their creation is similar to paper production. The materials used for building are fibers of refractory, soft wood or bark from young twigs, which the hornets chew carefully and glue with their sticky saliva. Then the insects put this mass on the nest in a thin layer. After drying, it hardens and turns into a loose similarity of paper. This material is very similar to rough wrapping paper on which you can even write in pencil. The poor (from a human point of view) quality of this paper is explained by the fact that hornets, like wasps, use rotten wood and wood bark for construction.
Author photo: Fredciel, CC BY-SA 3.0
Hornet's nest inside. Larvae (with a yellow head) and pupae are visible in the comb. Author photo: Milan Kořínek
Some species of hornets, for example, the Dybowski hornet, do not build their own nests, preferring to settle in the nests of other types of hornet, killing the uterus, taking its place and laying their eggs, which are looked after by unsuspecting working hornets. Dybowski’s hornet is building its own housing only in exceptional cases when there is no suitable “apartment” nearby.
Some hornets, for example oriental (lat. Vespa orientalis), basal (lat. Vespa basalis) and belligerent (lat. Vespa bellicosa), build underground nests with numerous passages. They can be located underground, in the abandoned burrows of rodents or under the roots of trees and reach up to 20-30 cm in diameter. The depth of the location of the nest can reach 56 meters (as, for example, in the eastern hornets).
Photo by: Gideon Pisanty (Gidip), CC BY 3.0
What eat hornets?
Nutrition for adult hornet, mainly serves vegetable food, especially the one that is rich in sugar. Very often insects can be observed in orchards during the active ripening of fruits sitting on soft, overripe fruits (apples, pears, plums). Hornets with pleasure feed on sweet secretions of aphids and nectar, love to eat honey, so they often attack the apiary, drink juice flowing from the wounds of trees (aspens, oaks, ash trees, elms). In addition, hornets are excellent hunters: grasshoppers, flies, spiders, dragonflies, medium-sized locusts, butterflies, crickets, bees and their larvae, beetles, caterpillars and close relatives of hornets - wasps are their victims. For example, during the life cycle of tropical hornets can destroy more than 500 colonies of bees and wasps. By the way, the two-colored hornets Vespa bicolor living on the island of Hainan sometimes take orchid flowers for bees and attack them. And the whole thing in an unusual flavor, similar to the smell of a honey bee, which attracts predators.
The prey killed by powerful jaws and sting is thoroughly wetted with saliva and chewed to a state of suspension, but it is not at all a source of food for the adult hornet, but goes to feed on voracious larvae during the period of their growth. During the day, a large hornet colony can feed up to its larvae up to 500 grams of insects. Some hornets, such as the Dybowski hornet, besides catching live prey, are searching for dead insects, as well as collecting human food waste, without disdaining meat and fish. All this is also eaten by the larvae.
Reproduction of hornets.
Hornets are social insects, so their way of life is subject to strict rules reigning in the swarm, which sometimes can number several hundred, and sometimes thousands of individuals. Each individual performs a specific function, due to which all the processes necessary for the normal functioning of insects are perfectly supported in the family, and important information is also exchanged. The division into "castes" (working hornets-females, queen and males) allows the hornets to properly organize breeding, feeding, building nests, growing and feeding the offspring, as well as protecting their colony.
The hornet's uterus. Author photo: Bernard DUPONT, CC BY-SA 2.0
Worker hornet Vespa crabro. Author photo: Accipiter (R. Altenkamp), CC BY 3.0
Hornet male Vespa crabro. Author photo: Radek Sejkora
With the arrival of warm days (in countries with severe winters) or depending on the attachment of the species to the breeding dates (in warm countries), the hornet's uterus flies around the territory in search of a place to create a nest in which the new hornet colony will live. Finding a suitable place, she begins to build cells of cells. One egg is subsequently placed into each cell, from which in 5-8 days a tiny larva with a size of 1-2 mm will develop.
Hornet egg Author photo: böhringer friedrich, CC BY-SA 2.5
Eggs (small in the central honeycomb) and larvae. Photo by: Tubiniit, CC BY-SA 4.0
Having passed 5 stages in two weeks, the larva turns into a pupa, which in 13-15 days becomes an adult individual, gnaws the lid of the cell and comes out.
The larva of the hornet ordinary. Author photo: Milan Kořínek
With the emergence of the first adults (adults), the uterus shifts on them the construction of new cells and the care of the next offspring, practically stopping their departures from the nest. Working hornets are constantly in motion: they get food for the larvae, water, bring building materials. Hornets almost never sleep, working even at night. In the fall, the uterus produces eggs, from which females hatch, suitable for breeding. They mate with males, which die shortly thereafter. Also in the middle or end of autumn, the old hornet uterus and unfertilized females perish. New fertilized queens have the opportunity to spend the winter to create a new nest for the next season.
Types of hornets, photos and titles.
The following species belong to the genus of hornets:
- Vespa affinis - Small striped hornet,
- Vespa analis
- Vespa basalis - Basal Hornet,
- Vespa bellicosa - War Hornet,
- Vespa bicolor - Two-color hornet,
- Vespa binghami - Bingham Hornet,
- Vespa crabro - Common Hornet (Hornet Wasp),
- Vespa ducalis - Tropical (black-tailed) hornet,
- Vespa dybowskii - Dybowski hornet (black hornet),
- Vespa fervida - Ardent Hornet,
- Vespa fumida - Variable Hornet,
- Vespa luctuosa - the Wretched Hornet,
- Vespa mandarinia - Asian giant hornet, huge Asian hornet,
- Vespa mocsaryana
- Vespa multimaculata - Multi-spotted hornet,
- Vespa orientalis - Eastern hornet (eastern wasp),
- Vespa philippinensis - Philippine hornet,
- Vespa simillima - Yellow Hornet,
- Vespa soror - Blacktail Hornet,
- Vespa tropica - Tropical Hornet,
- Vespa velutina
- Vespa vivax
Below is a description of several species of hornets.
- Hornet ordinary, or hornet wasp (Latin Vespa crabro) - a fairly large representative of the genus: the hornet's uterus reaches a length of 2.5-3.5 cm, males have a length of 2.1-2.8 cm, working individuals range from 1.8 to 2.4 cm. Males and females have some differences in structure. Antennae of males consist of 13 segments, and in females - of 12. The abdomen of males consists of 7 segments, whereas in females there are only 6. Both the uterus and the working hornet have a sting - a modified ovipositor, up to 3 mm long, used by insects for protection. Males are deprived of such weapons. The abdomen of an ordinary hornet is colored by alternating stripes of orange-yellow and black, the chest is black. In females, the back of the head and cheeks are red, in males - orange. The front of the head of those and others yellow. The legs of the insect have a reddish brown color. The habitat of the common hornet includes the countries of Europe (with the exception of the northern and southern regions), Ukraine, southern Siberia, the eastern regions of China, Kazakhstan, North America (except its western part), and the European zone of Russia (with the exception of the northern regions).
Photo author: BlueBreezeWiki, CC BY-SA 3.0
- Miserable hornet (Latin Vespa luctuosa) - species of insects that are endemic to the Philippine Islands. The color of the hornet is brown or black, depending on the subspecies, there are white stripes on the wide abdomen. The crown of insects is orange-yellow in color. The sad hornet produces a highly toxic poison, which makes it a bite very dangerous to humans or animals.
Photo author: Jean-Luc Renneson
- Eastern Hornet, or Eastern wasp (Latin Vespa orientalis). The uterus is 2.5–3 cm long, the males reach 2.1–2.5 cm, the working hornets grow to 1.8–2.4 cm. The antennae of the males consist of 13 segments, in females - from 12. The body color is red - brown color, on the abdomen there is a wide strip of yellow-whitish hue. Scientists have proven that the xenopterin pigment contained in this strip allows insects to convert the absorbed sunlight into electricity. The Eastern Hornet tolerates a dry and hot climate. Hornets of this species live in the countries of southern Europe (Italy, Malta, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Crete and Cyprus), in North Africa (in Somalia, Algeria, Morocco, Libya), and also in Asia (in Turkey, Iran, Iraq Pakistan, Oman, China, Nepal, Israel, Palestine, Syria, India, on the territory of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan). This species of hornet is also found in Russia and in Madagascar. Nests are built not only above the ground, but also under the ground, as well as in the deadwood and under the roots of trees.
Author photo: MattiPaavola, CC BY-SA 3.0
- Tropical hornet (Latin Vespa tropica) - A species that lives in South Asia, spread from Afghanistan to New Guinea. The size of queens reach 4 cm, males and workers - 2.4-3 mm. The head and chest of the hornet may be black or reddish (depending on the subspecies), on the second segment of the black abdomen there is a yellow-orange strip. The nests of these insects can be located both on the branches of trees and under the ground.
Author photo: Jeevan Jose, CC BY-SA 4.0
- Vespa velutina hornet lives in southern China, in Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. Also found in Europe, particularly in France, where it was introduced artificially. The body length of the uterus is about 3 cm, the working individuals are about 2.4 cm in size, the body length of males is from 1.8 to 2 cm. The color depends on the subspecies, for example, the French variety of hornet Vespa velutina nigrithorax has a black color. The size of the nests of these insects reaches 60 cm.
Author photo: Charlesjsharp, CC BY-SA 4.0
- Dybowski hornet, or black hornet (lat. Vespa dybowskii). The size of the females is 2.8-3.0 cm, the body length of the hornet workers is 1.8-2.3 cm, the males are 2.1-2.5 cm. The abdomen and chest of the hornet of Dybovsky are black-brown, the wings are brownish. The view is rather small, which is why it is even listed in the Red Book of the Chita Region. The black hornet almost never builds its nests, parasitizing in the nests of the hornets of other species. The main habitat passes through the territory of China, Thailand, Japan, China, India, Korea and Burma. In Russia, black hornets live in Transbaikalia, Primorsky Krai and in the Amur region.
Author photo: Yasunori Koide, CC BY-SA 4.0
- Giant Asian Hornet (Latin Vespa mandarinia) - This is the biggest hornet in the world. The length of some individuals of this species exceeds 5 cm, and the wingspan reaches 7.5 cm. The head of the insect is wide and orange. Abdomen brownish with yellow stripes. The species lives in the mountains of Sri Lanka, in Korea, China, Nepal, on the territory of Japan, in India and in Taiwan. In Russia, this hornet lives in Primorsky Krai. The huge Asian hornet has a long sting, about 6 mm, and the bite is very painful and dangerous due to the content in the venom of a neurotoxic substance - mandorotoxin.
Author photo: Fufill, CC BY-SA 3.0
- Japanese hornet (lat.Vespa mandarinia japonica) is a subspecies of the giant Asian hornet, endemic to Japan, where it is called the "sparrow bee". Sometimes the insect is found on Sakhalin. This is a very large hornet, its body length often exceeds 4 cm, and its wingspan reaches 6 cm. The head of the Japanese hornet is large, yellow in color, with a pair of large eyes, to which are added three additional peepholes. The abdomen is dark brown with yellow stripes. The sting of a hornet can have a length of up to 6.2 mm, the bite is painful and very dangerous due to the presence of nerve toxins in the venom of the hornet. There is evidence that about 40 people die every year from the attack of the Japanese hornet in Japan.
Author photo: Alpsdake, CC BY-SA 3.0
Hornet bite, poison and consequences.
The hornet bite causes severe pain, redness of the skin, intolerable itching, fever, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath and can give a strong allergic reaction, even to the deadly anaphylactic shock or angioedema. In some cases, suppuration and tissue necrosis are formed at the site of the bite. Such effects are caused by the content of histamine, acetylcholine and other toxic components in the poison. Thus, this poisonous insect is very dangerous, since the poison of the hornet can easily kill a person. Particularly dangerous are the species of Vespa luctuosa, Vespa mandarinia.
The hornet's sting is smooth and has no chipping, which allows the insect to use it for multiple bites, easily removing the weapon from the victim's body. Hornet bite is especially dangerous for allergies and children. The reaction rate of this insect is so lightning that if it decided to go on the attack, it will be impossible to avoid a bite. The hornet is able to sting from any position, while it often does not even sit on the body of its victim - it just comes close to it and plunges its sting into the flesh on the fly.
What to do if bitten a hornet?
If you are stung by a hornet, do not waste time searching for and removing its sting from the skin - it simply will not be there. First aid after a hornet bite should be as follows:
- Try to take an antihistamine like Suprastin or Claritin as soon as possible: this stops the development of an allergic reaction,
- you can try to suck toxic poison out of the wound, although the skin at the site of the bite is quickly tightened, so after a minute and a half or two minutes after the attack of the hornet, it makes no sense to do so,
- put a cold compress in place of the bite: such a manipulation will reduce the swelling of tissues and slow down the spread of poison,
- lubricated place grease gel "Fenistil",
- Do not take antipyretic drugs after a hornet bite, if the body temperature has not risen above 38 ° C (except for children under 12) and do not drink alcohol in any way,
- watch your condition during the day: sometimes in the first hours after a bite, serious problems may not be observed, but often this state of health can be deceptive,
- if there is a serious deterioration in your health, immediately contact the ambulance service.
Often domestic animals suffer from bites of hornets. In this case, you should try to apply a cold compress to the site of the bite, and in case of a pronounced deterioration of the animal's well-being, immediately contact a veterinarian.
How to get rid of hornets?
Despite the fact that hornets benefit, destroying some pests of garden and garden plots, they are quite annoying insects. Moreover, their bites are very painful and even dangerous. Соседство с шершнями для человека – малоприятный факт, именно поэтому, когда на чердаке вашей дачи, под крышей хозяйственных построек, а иногда даже в частном доме появилось шершневое гнездо, от него лучше избавиться, особенно если среди жильцов есть маленькие дети или аллергики. Большой вред колония шершней может нанести пасеке, ведь это насекомое часто убивает медоносных пчел, нанося ущербы пчеловодческим хозяйствам. Все эти факторы нередко заставляют человека бороться с шершнями различными методиками.
Hornets appear in a person's dwelling infrequently, and sweet aroma, such as the smell of honey or overripe fruit, beckons them there. Having accidentally flown through a window or an open door, the hornet is lost in an unfamiliar space and cannot find its way back. Do not try to expel the insect, waving his arms violently: a frightened hornet can instantly go on the attack and sting. Wait for the insect to sit on any surface, and gently cover it with a regular glass jar. Then gently cover the neck of the vessel with the hand on which you are wearing a rubber or cloth glove, and release the hornet to the street.
If hornets appear in your house with periodic regularity, this should be a signal that they have set up their nest somewhere nearby. This means that urgent need to get rid of the hornets nest.
If there is an opportunity to get close to the nest, which is located at a not too high height, you can pour about two thirds of the water into a normal bucket, and then put the bucket on the bottom of the nest, completely hiding it for 15-20 minutes under a layer of water. In aquatic environment hornets die quickly enough.
If the hornet's nest is in a poorly accessible zone (crown or hollow of a tree, attic, high under the structure's roof), you can use another way to destroy it: the hornet's nest is generously sprayed with medilis-Ziper, Masterlac or BROS. For spraying sprayers are used with different jet power. Be sure to take care of remedies, because toxic insecticides that kill hornets can be harmful to humans. When working with drugs, be sure to put on a respirator, and also be prepared that disturbed insects in a panic may start to sting you. Therefore, dress in clothes with long legs and sleeves, tuck the legs in socks, wear gloves on your hands. Ideally, if you have a beekeeper's hat on your head - a hat with a net that protects your face and neck area.
Treatment against hornets is best done either at nightfall or at dawn: at this time, the insects show minimal activity and, therefore, will be less aggressive.
If you do not have the desire or opportunity to get rid of the hornets using your own resources, you can make an application to a specialized company engaged in the destruction of insect pests. Today, such professional services are provided by numerous organizations.
Fifth place - ants
Despite the fact that the most dangerous species of ants do not live in Russia, many are familiar with the bites of red ants. In addition to severe bite pain, there is a risk of developing anaphylactic shock, as the insect injects acid and other substances into the body. There is a cross reaction between wasp and ant poisons. Red and fire ants live in anthills, the height of which sometimes reaches half a meter. You can meet them everywhere in the woods and in nature, even in the country.
Fourth place - gadflies and gadflies
In addition to severe pain from the bite of a gadfly or a gadfly, there is a risk of infection - insects tolerate even anthrax. There is a risk of subcutaneous introduction of gadfly larvae - this is how they multiply. Blind larvae on their victims do not postpone. The larva may even appear in the eye, or inside the skull. Laying eggs on the victim's body is not at all necessary, insects can lay them on the grass, where they develop until the moment of transition to the body of the host, usually a herbivore animal.
Gadflies are tied to a particular species of host - so there is a sheep, a cow gadfly, and other species. But none of them will refuse to bite a person or set aside a larva. Insects fly together with herds, are active in the barnyards, near the water.
Third place - hornets
A bee sting or wasp is painful, but deaths are rare, mainly due to allergies or a massive attack of insects. Hornets are more dangerous - especially the giant Asian hornet, which lives in Primorye. Hornets willingly attack bees and feed them to their larvae, an aggressive creature that attacks a person if disturbed.
Insect venom contains neurotoxins and tissue-destroying substances. It causes severe anaphylactic shock, the outcome of the meeting could be death. Hornets act both individually and in groups. Stung several times a person receives a large dose of toxic substances, which leads to serious consequences for the body. Each year, about 300 people die from a meeting with these insects. Insects could be put on the first place, but meetings with them do not occur very often. But every year their habitat is expanding, this is due to global warming. And the risk of meeting increases.
Second place - ground beetle
The meeting with a ground beetle is associated with a particular risk - and this is not in vain. A large black beetle may interest a child or be close to an adult, and interest in it can end badly. The beetle is able to shoot a caustic liquid from the back, and at a considerable distance, up to 50 cm. If the substance gets on the skin, there will be a burning sensation and discomfort. After contact with eyes, mouth, respiratory organs, the risk increases, it is necessary to rinse the affected surface with plenty of water.
The most dangerous insect in Russia
The most dangerous insect in Russia is a beetle bug. The beetle, harmless at first sight, leaves traces on the skin that turn into blisters. After all, his body is saturated with poison contataridin, which is dangerous even in contact with the skin. When a poison enters the open wound and into the blood, it leads to a breakdown of the kidneys and bladder. The beetle is especially dangerous for children, the meeting can end pitifully. It is necessary to exclude any contact with these insects, do not touch them. In the old days, the poison obtained from these insects was used as a poison, and acted flawlessly, sending important people to the next world. Swallowing a beetle is extremely dangerous, urgent medical care will be required..
This is the list of the most dangerous insects in Russia. In addition to them, the danger is represented by other creatures - spiders, which are not classified as insects. It is dangerous to meet with Karakut, which can occur in the Arkhangelsk steppes, the Orenburg region, on the Yenisei. Care must always be taken, insects do not have large sizes, and the danger of them is underestimated, but every year hundreds of people die from fatal encounters, bites, or even skin contact.
Separately, it is worth noting ticks, which bite into the body and carry numerous diseases that can lead a person to death or disability. It is necessary to behave prudently with bees and wasps, large and bright beetles, ants. Children when going to nature, to the country, should be instructed on safety measures, adults should be vigilant.