The conditions of detention must be correct for the normal growth and health of the livestock of domestic animals. That is why it is important to know how to build a pigsty with your own hands. The ideal building of this type is a shed with a pen. A stable will be needed for keeping animals in the winter, while the pen is suitable for summer walks. If animals are locked in a shed, it will weaken their health, and during the repair they will have nowhere to hold.
Before you build a pigsty with your own hands, you need to determine how much space is needed for one animal. You must consider how many of them you intend to contain at the same time. For one pig will be enough 5 square meters. It is best to keep individuals in separate groups, distributed in boxes. On one box, the number of boars should not exceed 5 heads, whereas sows should not be more than 12.
Pigs, which are supposed to be kept on different types of feed, can be kept in sections of 25 individuals. This applies to young and small piglets. If you decide to build a pigsty for 2 heads with your own hands, then 10 square meters will be enough for this. The above parameters are calculated on the fact that each animal will be in a separate stall.
The walls should be built of sufficiently strong material, only then the restless beast will not be able to destroy them. The building must be equipped with a ventilation system and drains. The roof should have a slope, only then you eliminate the accumulation of precipitation in the form of rain and snow on its surface. The concept of construction exists not only for the main barn, but also for the paddock. Fencing should be made of wooden posts. Passages between them should be wide enough, only then pasture and cleaning will be comfortable.
If you have wondered how to make a pigsty with your own hands, then it is important to think about what the floor will be like. It is one of the most important components of the building. It should be made as strong and durable as possible. An excellent option for this would be a concrete coating. Wood is also good, but boards should be durable. Concrete flooring will be easier to clean. Ground cover is not suitable, as animals can destroy it. Among other things, the soil is not hygienic.
If you decide to build a pigsty with your own hands, the drawings of which must be prepared by you before starting work, you need to take into account not only the estimated number of heads, but also the climatic conditions. It should be remembered that pigs are early animals, they grow quickly, so over time it will be necessary to sort them by age and weight. For certain weight categories a certain ration, equipment and a place for content are necessary.
Features of construction
After the general calculation of the area in the shed has been made, it is necessary to make a project with some margin. Depending on what material will be at the heart of the crib, you should choose the foundation. If you are planning to build a pigsty for 2 heads with your own hands, and the walls are supposed to be made of wood, then the base is recommended to be made of uneven bars, removing the podium from the ground by 10 centimeters. As practice shows, a wooden pigsty provides not so big expenses in comparison with other options. A wooden coating, remote from the ground, will protect the building from moisture and leakage.
In the event that you decide to opt for a concrete pavement, then it should be combined. In the place where the animals will lie, you should lay the boards, because the pigs are thermophilic. As an alternative solution, you can lay the floor with bricks, as it is warm compared to concrete. As an additional advantage of the brick is the ease of its installation. It is important to ensure the flow of manure and dirt, for this floor is laid with a slope of 6 centimeters. In its coverage, you can make a drain through which it is convenient to wash away dirt and waste. This method, according to farmers, is more practical, because cleaning the barn will be much easier.
Pigsty with his own hands can be built according to a certain technology, however, it is necessary to remember about the thermophilicity of pigs. For adults, the optimum temperature is the limit from +12 to +15 degrees. Whereas piglets should be kept at +19 degrees. It is important to take into account the optimum level of humidity, which should not be more than 70%. To create a comfortable microclimate in the pigsty should conduct a heating system. It is best to lay it in an underground space.
Tools and materials for construction
Before starting work on the construction of the pigsty, it is imperative to take care of the availability of materials and tools. Among them: waterproofing, fastening elements, drill, tes, cement, crushed stone, sand, as well as materials for the walls. The latter may be brick or wood. Roofing materials, screws and thermal insulation will be required. However, you can build walls of any available material. The main condition for this is that they are durable. If the insulation is insufficient, you can make additional insulation using insulation wool or foam.
Important elements of the sty - windows and roof
Pigsty with his own hands can be built by any farmer, for this he does not need to have additional knowledge and skills. But every master should know about certain rules in order to observe them during construction. For example, windows should be 1.6 meters away from the floor surface. It is important to ensure the possibility of their opening for airing the barn. For intake of fresh air will be enough if half of them will open. But drafts adversely affect the health of pigs, animals are susceptible to them, so you need to rid the window frames of the cracks.
It is important to take into account another factor that will determine whether the building is of sufficient quality. So, the roof must reliably protect animals from precipitation. It is most often made shed. Choosing roofing material, you can give preference to slate. You should not begin construction if you do not know how to equip the ventilation system. Through the roof should bring the pipes through which fresh air will flow. To ensure thrust at the base of the pipe is installed exhaust device.
The construction of a pigsty with its own hands, the drawings of which are presented in the article, provides for the possibility of removing corrugations instead of a pipe to the street through the roof or wall. It is very convenient to use such a system in the cold season. If the thrust is still bad enough, then an increase in its intensity can be achieved by installing a heater at the base of the pipe.
A pigsty for 50 heads with your own hands will require the allocation of an area of 250 square meters. This figure does not take into account the passages between the pens and walking places. Windows should not be made too large, otherwise pigs from excessive light will be too active and excitable. The premises should be slightly darkened, this will make the animals calm and will have a better effect on weight gain. If a pigsty is supposed to be built in an area with a harsh winter, then it is best to make the glazing double.
Choice of place
Pigsty with his own hands can be equipped according to all the rules, but it will not cause inconvenience to a person only if he is far enough away from the living quarters. This requirement is due to the fact that in the urine of pigs contains phosphorus, the vapors of which can adversely affect human health. In addition, the smell will be very unpleasant and tangible.
Recommendations for the construction of the foundation, walls and roof
It will be easy to build a pigsty with your own hands if you first get acquainted with all the rules of work. For example, the foundation can even be laid out of cinder blocks or poured concrete solution. In order to extend the life of the walls, the upper part of the base is covered with roofing felt. Walls can be erected not only from wood and brick, but also from foam concrete, cinder block or sleepers. If the climate in your area is extremely harsh, then inside the walls are trimmed with wood, which will become additional insulation.
There is no sense in building an attic, since the humidity inside the room will be relatively high. It is best to finish the ceiling with a waterproofing film, since the effect of moisture on the beams will be disastrous.
If you decide to build a pigsty for 10 heads with your own hands, it is important to correctly calculate the area of the future building. This can be done if you take into account the above recommendations. The pens should be partitions with a height of 1.5 meters. This will separate the animals. For example, young animals should be separated to control the diet. Sows also benefit from a separate pen, but boars contain up to 5 heads in one pen. Most often it is wooden floors, which are cheaper than brick. It is important to make a strong fixation, as the adults are strong enough and able to break the wall.
When building a pigsty for 10 heads with your own hands, it is necessary to take into account not only that 5 square meters will be needed for one animal, but also that the passage should have a width of 1.5 meters. This indicates that the minimum area should be 50 square meters. Holes must be made in the wall of the passageway.
If you are thinking about how to make a pigsty with your own hands, drawings can be made by you yourself or borrowed from the article. They must necessarily reflect the location of the feeders, which should be located near the entrance to the pens. However, this is only a wish, not a requirement. It is desirable to make them from wooden planks, which are recommended to be finished with a metal sheet.
Regardless of whether you are building a small home pigsty for 2 heads with your own hands or are planning to build a pig farm for a large tribe, you must take into account the peculiarities of the animals and the basic requirements for the premises. A good pigsty must provide:
- space required for the separation of machines. The crowding of animals leads to their high incidence,
- reliable floors and foundation. From their wild relatives pigs inherited the ability to dig,
- heat. A small pigsty for 2 pigs does not have to be heated, it is enough to provide animals with wooden floor with bedding and to make high-quality insulation. Pigsty for 20 goals and more requires heating. When the temperature in the pigsty is less than 11C, the increase in the mass of animals stops, its losses occur,
- good ventilation system and dryness with the exception of drafts. Piglets are most sensitive to dampness. Humidity in the room must be maintained at 60%, an increase to 80% is dangerous for the young,
- paddock with equipped canopy. Required to accelerate the growth of animals, prevent rickets, the development of a strong bone system,
- good lighting - artificial at night and natural in the daytime.
Choice of location
Given the above requirements, the site where the pigsty will be located should be selected in protected from the wind, elevated, dry place:
- the proximity of the aqueduct is desirable, while it is required for a large pig farm,
- during the construction of a capital structure for a pigsty for 100 heads and more, sanitary norms imply a distance of not less than 30 meters from residential premises, taking into account the slope of the terrain and the direction of the main winds. This is necessary to prevent the separation of runoff of wastewater and odor,
- the size of the plot must be sufficient for the organization of walking pens.
Design of a pigsty includes calculation of the size of the structure with the given population. This will make it possible to calculate costs and determine the amount of materials. The construction of a pigsty for keeping 2 piglets at home does not require precise calculations, you only need to take into account the dimensions for paddock, the total area and width of the machine not less than 2.5 meters.
During the construction of premises for a larger herd, you need to use the table, taking into account which you can calculate the size for walking pens and pigsty.
In practice, try to avoid a large number of machines of different sizes. Take the depth of the machine for the minimum in the amount of 3 meters, leaving one transverse passage of 0.6-0.90 cm and longitudinal passes for technological needs with a width of 1.5-2 meters. A room with one longitudinal aisle will be cheaper than a room with two aisles because of the savings of building materials and space, it will also be more profitable to heat it.
It should be noted that the dimensions of the drinkers and feeders in the machine tool area are not included, with a large number of livestock, their dimensions can reach significant values.
By choosing the approximate construction area, with the thickness and height of the walls, you can choose building materials, as well as count their number.
If a home pigsty is built on 2 heads with its own hands, then materials are used that easily accessible in the area. Concrete, stone, gypsum concrete blocks, boards, wooden beams, etc. are possible. In the case of construction of small sizes, replacement and repair of worn-out structures do not require significant costs. The focus should be on preserving heat, heating in a pigsty is usually not provided. For external insulation apply mineral wool or foam.
Building a pigsty for 100 pigs requires a more careful selection of materials. Preference is desirable to give a waterproof and durable - concrete, stone, slate, metal. Wood is necessary for flooring under the den, ceilings and arrangement of floors.
Construction of a pigsty
Pig farm for 50 and more individuals - This is a capital construction, under construction, like a domestic barn, but taking into account certain features.
The best option would be to concreting on a sandy pad of a strip foundation with waterproofing with roofing material on the top. The depth must be 60-80 cm, the basement above-ground part is 40-60 cm. An asphalt or concrete blind area is built along the basement on the rubble foundation.
The walls are made of any material.able to resist rats, dampness, cold. The pigsty, which is made of shell rock, cinder blocks, bricks, is plastered and whitened inside, warmed outside with mineral wool or foam.
At the level of the ceiling, the height of the walls should be 200-250 cm. There is no need to make more in order to reduce heating costs and save building materials. Smaller height will complicate the high-quality ventilation of the room. For two pigs, the roof, as a rule, is performed shed with a rear wall height of 1.5-1.7 m, the front one is 2.1 meters.
Ceiling and roofing
How to make a pigsty warm will significantly depend on the floor construction. Ceiling is mandatory for areas with cold winters. The space between the ceiling beams and the ceiling is insulated with mineral wool, sheathed with vapor insulation. These works are subsequently significantly reduce heating costs, minimize the incidence of pigs.
A shed roof is cheaper than a gable only with a pigsty width of up to 9 meters, then the price is equalized. Attic inappropriate to do, it is almost never used, but increases spending on construction.
Doing the construction of the pigsty, much attention should be paid to the floor, since the health of the whole tribe depends on them significantly. Material and construction of the floor must provide simple cleaning, waterproofing, heat, disinfection.
Do not tempt pigs with wood floors, as they are not averse to nibbling them. The tree easily absorbs animal feces, is quite hygroscopic, negates disinfection, and rots quickly. For the same reasons, on large farms between machine tools, partitions are not made of wood.
Slotted floors From plastic, metal, concrete slabs are good cleaning convenience, but will require the arrangement of a complex sewer system. During this floor design, animals are more exposed to drafts, they are harder to heat. Moreover, this double floor is expensive because, additionally, industrial-made slabs are placed on the concrete base.
During the construction of a pigsty, the floors are usually poured with concrete. Причем непременно нужно сделать наклон для стекания в специальные желоба навозной жижи для ее сбора. В противоположном углу месту дефекации устанавливают для логова животных деревянные щиты с подстилкой из соломы. Это обустройство обеспечивает защиту животных от холода, простоту дезинфекции и уборки станков.
Passages and partitions
In a domestic barn for 2 pigs, the partitions are made of any available building materials, usually from planks and wooden beams with further whitewash. When damaged, they are easily replaced with new ones or are being repaired.
Large pig farm is divided into machines monolithic and metal structures. The fencing of weaned piglet zones should be 80 cm high, the rest of the animal groups should be 100 cm. The width of the machine gates should be about 70 cm.
Passages to pigs leave not less than 90 cm for adults, not less than 70 cm to young animals. The smallest width of the doors for evacuation of the herd is 120 cm. The dimensions of the aisles to the freeboard area of the machine tools are made 80 cm wide.
How to make your own hands pigstyBy arranging the necessary flow of coverage? To provide pigs with normal health, development and growth requires a combination of artificial and natural light. A suckling piglet with a sow needs a light day at 18 o'clock, the fattening young need a light period of 12 hours.
At a height of 1 m from the floor for natural lighting in the walls provide window openings of 1 sq. M. The total area of the window openings is about 1/10 of the total floor area. Electric lighting should be made muted, since bright lighting unnerves animals and has a stimulating effect on them.
Arrangement of a pigsty in regions with cold climatic conditions to obtain stable weight gain and save livestock will require heating the sty. In the southern regions there is enough double glazing, good insulation and floors of the walls.
For piglets, weaners and suckers, infrared devices are additionally installed, including them throughout the day for 30 minutes at intervals of an hour.
For the main ventilation method open windows is not a good solution, especially in the winter for large farms. A pig farm for 50 heads must be equipped with a good ventilation system. At the same time, the appearance of drafts is not allowed, they have a very negative effect on the health of the flock, and the piglets are simply disastrous.
The ventilation system can be any - from factory equipment to homemade equipment. The most important thing is that the ventilation should cope with the task of replacing the air of the pigsty.
Upon completion of the main construction is performed arrangement of the pigsty sunbeds, drinkers, feeders, equipment for disinsection, disinfection, cleaning.
Drinking bowls and feeders set near the entrance to the machine. For mineral dressings put a separate feeder. When the contents of the machine 1-3 pigs enough trough 25-28 cm deep, 42-45 cm wide, 65-75 cm long. With a significant livestock, the sizes of the feeders are taken into account in a ratio of 30 cm of additional length per individual. In order for the pigs in the feeder not to frolic, they divide the partition walls in it.
Features of the pigsty for Vietnamese pigs
For healthy offspring and good weight gain of this popular type of pigs, you need for them create conditions with natural instincts. At home, these pigs live in pastures like sheep, because they simply need large paddocks.
During the construction of the premises for the Vietnamese pigs, it is necessary to provide spacious walking pens with holes that are filled for bathing with water. There is no need to replace water, you just need to replenish it, animals in it will take mud baths. At the site of grazing, you need to dig 2-3 wooden pillars, about which pigs will scratch their backs. To protect against rain and sun, a canopy is installed over a part of the territory. These simple devices will pay off with the rapid growth and good health of the pigs of a given breed.
Pig production, both on an industrial farm scale and at home, is one of most profitable ways of agricultural business. Everything you need for it, you can do it yourself. A small barn and even a mini farm for pigs can be built independently, if you take up the task, being armed with all the necessary knowledge.
It does not matter what the purpose of the construction is: a small pig farm or a large complex for a large herd. Be sure to take into account the subtleties of the content of these animals and know the requirements for the room. A good sty should have the following characteristics:
- durable materials are used to build the foundation and the floors so that the pigs cannot undermine them,
- it is recommended to divide the room from the inside into machines - with a large crowding of animals, outbreaks of diseases occur,
- the pigsty is provided with a good ventilation system that does not allow the formation of drafts, while it does not allow dampness (it is poorly tolerated by young animals), the humidity level is maintained at about 70% (an increase in this indicator leads to piglet diseases),
- the room should be warm (if there are a couple of animals, then installing heating systems is optional, it will be enough to warm the walls, make warm, thick bedding for pigs, when keeping a large herd it is already necessary to approach heating more professionally, the minimum temperature should be at least +15 degrees, otherwise pigs do not gain weight well and can even lose it),
- providing lighting - in the daytime it should be natural, with the onset of the evening - artificial,
- providing a walking area with a canopy to protect against bad weather conditions - walks in the fresh air under the sun help prevent rickets, strengthen the bone system, accelerate the growth of livestock, and if there is a walking yard, the costs of cleaning the interior are reduced.
The size of the room is calculated based on the number of livestock that it will contain. At the same time, the amount of the required material and financial expenses are determined.
It is much easier to build a barn in a private farm for several animals. They do without exact calculation, they just take into account the minimum width of the machine, equal to 2.5 meters, the total area and size of the walking area.
The construction of a large pig farm implies knowledge of the standards, based on which the calculation of interior spaces and walking yards is made.
For the maintenance of pigs, it is preferable to use a strip foundation, the other types are used much less frequently. In some cases, put a pile or columnar with bars.
Foundation tapes are laid up to 70 cm deep, and for the most part around the perimeter. For the delimitation of the total space used partitions no more than 100cm in height. Separate individual rooms can be light wooden walls. These partitions do not need a base, you can get a support to the floor.
During the construction of the pen for many, many people think about using a monolithic tape or doing precast strip foundations, which were already manufactured from concrete blocks. The construction of a monolithic structure is less costly, the block version is much easier to build.
Pigs need a dry room, which means that when laying the foundation you need to remember to build a waterproofing. Materials will not allow seeping groundwater. Insulation is laid between the walls and the foundation. Liquid waterproofing is used for plastering the foundation, for example, bitumen mastic, a layer of waterproofing or similar materials is laid on top.
If foam concrete or other hygroscopic material is used for the construction of walls, then materials that do not absorb moisture are used for the basement. A few rows of bricks are laid out on top of the waterproofing material, then waterproofing again, then the turn of the wall construction begins. This technology is most relevant if the groundwater is very close to the surface.
For the construction of walls using a warm, lightweight material. These include:
They have only one drawback: the ability to absorb liquids. Blocks of large size have relatively low weight, and the building goes warm at low cost of funds. It is recommended to perform finishing work after the construction is completed. The walls are plastered on both sides.
Not the most common material is arbolit. It is a mixture of wood chips, as well as water and cement. It retains heat well, is durable, strong, and it is also easy to cook for yourself.
You can give preference to shellfish. It is a wonderful natural material for construction, but its acquisition is possible only in certain areas. They use bricks less often because of the high cost of the material, its inability to keep heat for a long time, and the additional costs of additional insulation.
Often, future breeders use bars, sleepers. The room turns out to be warm, if you caulk all the cracks, and then sheathe it with sheet material (moisture-resistant plywood) and paint it. The use of wood is not recommended due to the fact that animals happily gnawing malleable material. However, if you align everything, the pig will have nothing to cling to and the wall will not be damaged.
The room for pigs should keep warm in the winter months and give coolness in the summer. It is necessary to equip a good ventilation system, which will ensure the flow of fresh air, as well as normalize the humidity. Because of this, it is not recommended to arrange the ceiling at a small height, otherwise you will have to do frequent airing, which reduces the benefit of heating. When too high walls increases the consumption of the heating system. It is best to choose a height for the ceiling of about 2.5 meters.
You can apply the technology of a sloping ceiling without an attic space. In addition, the use of such space is impractical because of the high level of importance. The height of the walls with this option is small, about 1.7 - 1.9 m, the ceiling in the center of the room will rise to 2.5 m. At the same time, you can minimize the financial costs of building walls, but the cost of the roof will increase.
Roof and ceiling
To reduce financial costs, erect shed roofs. If the width of the pigsty is large, then the gable option will do. Spans with a length of more than 8 meters to close with a shed roof will cost as much as with the arrangement of gable roofs.
No matter which option is used - the construction of the attic is useless, it is not suitable for use. Mineral wool is used for roof insulation. Inside, steam insulating membranes must be filled, and in order to cover the roofing material, a waterproofing vapor-permeable film is used.
Roofing materials are selected at the discretion of the owner, most often use slate, soft roofing, corrugated flooring. From the inside for filing the ceiling using boards, plastic, plywood.
The most difficult process is the construction of the floor. There are many ways. Before you make a decision, you should familiarize yourself with the most common ways that have their advantages and disadvantages:
- Use of wooden flooring. Cut boards are used, their thickness should be 50 mm. It is necessary to nail tight, but small gaps are allowed. Among the advantages can be noted that such floors are non-slip and warm. Among the shortcomings: a high ability to absorb odors, urine, fragility, with an excess of moisture begin to swell. Difficulties arise during the disinfection measures, and cleaning.
- Concrete. If a high-quality material is used, its surface will be smooth, it will not conduct water, will not absorb odor, it is easy to wash it. The benefits include durability. This floor is not afraid of high humidity. Among the shortcomings, it can be said that the material is cold, but using some tricks such a defect is easily eliminated (heated floors, the use of thermal insulation materials, etc.).
- Asphalt. It is non-slip, warm, reliable. The porosity of the material causes some difficulties in washing, in the pores the litter gets stuck, which is very difficult to get rid of even with the help of a “Karcher”. From time to time, acid and alkali begin to corrode the asphalt, and it begins to become sticky.
- Use of ground cover. The most important advantage is a small cash outlay. Otherwise, such a floor has one continuous disadvantage: it does not heat, it is highly absorbent, there are difficulties with cleaning, the earth mixes with manure, an unpleasant smell is constantly present. It is common for pigs to undermine the ground, with such floors they can dig and dig. The use of earth floors is advisable as a temporary option. But when it becomes necessary to put other materials, it is necessary to remove a large layer of earth in order to get rid of the unpleasant smell.
- Bricks that are poured with concrete. Soil tamped, then you need to lay a brick as tightly as possible. Concrete is used to fill the gaps. The floors will be warmer than concrete, with all the advantages described above. By cons can be attributed to the high cost.
When building a room for animals, each breeder uses the option that seems most appropriate to him.
For the system to work smoothly, you must consider the size of the room. In a small pigsty you can get by with a pair of large ventilation sieves at the end of the room and one exhaust mine. In a large complex, the number of grids increases, exhaust shafts are added.
Daylight animals are optional, but only if there is artificial lighting, but this is an unjustified expense. Window openings make a large size, but taking into account the fact that the size of the total area should not exceed the floor area. With excessive light, acts of aggression may occur. The room should be soft lighting.
The window is settled at a height of one and a half meters, so that one half of it opens, for access to fresh air. In order for animals to gain weight well, they should be provided with optimal moisture values. A good ventilation system is a prerequisite for the health of pigs, but at the same time drafts that cause diseases are unacceptable. It is recommended to install double-glazed windows, if the frames are made of wood, or to install plastic. This option is the most convenient because it is easy to wash.
Requirements for the location and size of the pigsty
Before drawing up a project, the purchase of building materials and the start of work, think over the location of the pigsty on the site. Based on the physiology of pigs, they spend most of their lives (up to 75% of the time) in their house. Inside this room, animals are fed, mated and prepared for it, the farrowing of sows, the raising of offspring, the fattening of young stock, etc. The comfort of unmarried animals is important for the quality and efficiency of all these processes.
Council Discard the myth of the untidiness of pigs. They choose dry, warm living conditions. Also, the room needs a spacious environment, the absence of drafts and good lighting.
The pigsty is placed on a flat, slightly elevated place to protect its inhabitants from moisture, rain or melt water. Otherwise, during operation you will have to constantly get rid of harmful bacteria, mold and rats. This will adversely affect the health of animals. An open enclosure with a strong fence is attached to the pigsty. Pigs are reluctant to knead their feet, but when fattening it is not necessary. Therefore, the size of the enclosure should be made moderately modest.
Technical standards for assembling a pigsty for a couple of individuals
Spaciousness and internal arrangement of the room for artiodactyls depends on such factors:
- the type of pigs that will be in the pigsty,
- number of individuals
- the breed and size of the animals themselves.
A pigsty for 2 heads is a relatively small structure. The depth of the machines in it will be 2.5-3 m. Area requirements for different types of pigs:
- Boar-maker - at least 8 square meters. m. Contained isolated.
- Single uterus - 12-18 square meters. m (pen for 3-4 individuals).
- The pregnant uterus - 6-10 square meters. m. To the 4th month. Pregnancy is contained in two in one machine, after - in one.
- Piglets for fattening - 0.6-2 m per head. Up to 6 individuals are grown in one machine.
In the pigsty for 2 heads (boar and sow) provide a separate unit for piglets. Its size is calculated according to standard standards. The height of the building depends on the type of roof:
- warmed ceiling of any configuration is better to make in the range of 1.6-1.8 m above the floor near the wall,
- the usual flat roof is placed at a height of about 2.2 m,
- single or gable roof with open beams should not be higher than 2.6 m at the top.
Council If the roof allows you to make an attic, then it will be convenient to leave litter and feed for pigs.
Frame type pig shed: design and construction features
Составьте чертёж на основе общих принципов, нормативных данных и других индивидуальных особенностей вашего двора и поголовья. В качестве материала для несущих конструкций чаще выбирают кирпич или небольшие блоки. Если же вы хотите возвести свинарник быстро и сравнительно недорого, обратитесь к каркасной конструкции. Она не так долговечна, как кирпичная, но в остальном мало ей уступает.
The frame pigsty is simple in assembly because it is built from ready metal pipes (framework) and facing panels. They are linked together like a constructor. You can easily make windows and doors where it is convenient. To do this, simply insert the appropriate block in the desired opening. The principle of mounting such a barn is presented in the photo.
Technical features of the installation process:
- frame elements are mounted in 2-3 m,
- the pigsty can be warmed or not, depending on the type of skin,
- cladding - sandwich panels, thin sheets of zinc, etc.,
- side walls in spacious sheds - solid walls of wood or brick to strengthen the structure.
Proper ventilation is important for controlling humidity, temperature, and a normal bacteriological atmosphere in an animal shed:
- For a small frame pigsty, a pair of ventilation ducts at the opposite ends of the building is enough. In addition to them, you need to build a ventilation shaft for vertical exhaust.
- Spacious exhausting mines and ventilation ducts need more.
Construction of a pigsty
Begin construction of a frame pigsty with formation of the monolithic tape base. It will be the supporting elements for the frame. Provide a sand pillow. Also waterproof the support with ruberoid. After complete drying, proceed to the construction of the pigsty itself:
- Cover the foundation with a waterproofing layer.
- Fix the vertical elements in the supports on the foundation. Install horizontal rails at the desired height.
- The frame pigsty most often has a rounded roof, less often - a classic gable. It consists of the same longitudinal and transverse metal pipes.
- Lay the sides with a brick (on mortar) or a tree (on a prepared wooden frame).
- Install the cladding panels. The system of their installation is simple. Just follow the manufacturer's instructions.
- Install the doors and windows in the places provided.
- Get rid of all the cracks. Make internal communications.
The correct installation of the frame pigsty depends on compliance with the instructions and recommendations of the manufacturer. Today, residents of the Russian Federation offer similar products to several domestic and foreign manufacturers. Choose a structure with a greater thickness of bearing supports and facing materials.
Dimensions and layout
The size of the pigsty depends on the livestock that you plan to keep. Measurement on pigs at different ages requires different, as well as the number of animals that can live in the same pen. To make it easier to navigate, the data are tabulated.
Based on these dimensions, and it is necessary to plan a pigsty. It makes no sense to make a lot of pens of different areas, because basically they make two sizes of 3 * 4 m - for sows with piglets and keeping the rest of the livestock and 4 * 4 meters - fattening machines.
If the width of the building allows, machines (cages, pens) are located on either side of the central passage. For convenient maintenance, the width of the passage is at least 1.5 meters. Total total width of the pigsty is obtained - about 10 meters. The length depends on the planned livestock. An example of a two-row arrangement of machines - in the photo below.
The plan of the pigsty 18.5 * 7.5 m
If the building is not wide, the pens are made on the one hand, the passage is not recommended to work inconveniently. If necessary, it is better to make the machines less deep or slightly smaller than normal in size.
In addition, it is necessary to provide for a walking range - a summer site with a canopy. In warm weather, pigs spend most of their time outside. This has a good effect on the rate of weight gain. Also at this time you can close the barn for repairs.
A good design of the pigsty - with a free-standing paddock for each of the machines (see photo).
If necessary, you can make a pigsty wider, with a passage from the back of the machines - for easy maintenance. A similar option is in the following photos. Entrance to the pigsty on the one hand, walking - on the other.
Under pigsty often do tape foundations. Other types of bases are rarely set. Sometimes you can see a pile or column, usually with a grillage.
The foundation tape is made shallowly laid (60-70 cm deep) and, basically, only along the perimeter, since the common space is only enclosed by low partitions - one meter high. If they make a separate room, then they are fenced off with very light walls, more often - from boards (usually it is a utility room for storing inventory). Under such partitions, the base is not required, enough support to the floor.
You can build a small pigsty with your own hands on a lightweight strip foundation
If you plan to build a pigsty with your own hands, the question may arise: pour the monolithic tape or make a precast tape foundation from prefabricated concrete blocks. Monolithic will cost less, but the block is faster.
For normal pig keeping, the room should be dry. Therefore, during the construction of the foundation do not forget about waterproofing. It eliminates moisture from the ground. It is laid between the foundation and walls. It is advisable to coat the foundation with liquid waterproofing (bitumen mastic, for example), and lay a waterproofing sheet or other similar material on it.
If the walls are made of foam concrete of another hygroscopic material, it is advisable to make a base of a material that does not absorb moisture. Most often, two or three rows of bricks are put on the foundation, on top of the waterproofing, once again waterproofing (with a coating), and only then they continue to fold the walls. This is especially true with a high level of groundwater.
What and how to make walls
It is the best of all to make walls of a pigsty of light and warm material. All blocks of lightweight concrete (foam concrete, expanded clay concrete, aerated concrete, etc.) fall into this category. They have one drawback - they absorb water, because immediately after construction, such structures must be plastered inside and out. But on their own to build such pig houses is easy - the blocks are large and light, the buildings are warm and relatively inexpensive.
Pigsty plastered and painted looks very even ...
There is one more material that fits into this category, but for the time being is not very much used - wood concrete. It is made from a mixture of wood chips form and cement with water. Perfectly keeps heat, strong and strong, it can be made independently.
In some regions, build a pork hogs. Excellent natural building material, it is a pity only not available everywhere. Quite rarely used brick. Firstly, it is expensive, secondly, it is cold and the walls definitely require insulation.
Often build pigs from timber and even sleepers. They turn out warm, easy enough. In order not to make a hole out of the gaps, they are caulked like a normal log house, and outside they are sheathed with sheet material (waterproof plywood, OSB) and painted on top. In general, a tree is considered not the best material for a pigsty - pigs can nibble it perfectly, but if there is nothing to catch on, the surface is flat, then the walls will be intact.
The walls inside the pigsty are best plastered, then whitened or painted. Whitewashing is a disinfection and a good appearance, but until the wall is splashed. Then the view is not the most attractive - until the next whitewash. To prevent dirt from sticking to the walls, they are coated with resin diluted in gasoline. The height of such processing is about 1 meter. From such a wall the dirt flies. It looks somewhat gloomy, but easy to clean.
Another option - to beat the entire machine with boards around the perimeter, as in the following photo. It is easy to clean and do not lean against the cold wall in winter.
One example of a pigsty
Sex in the pigsty
The most difficult and controversial question is how to make a floor in a pigsty. Opinions are different. Here are the most common ways with their strengths and weaknesses:
- Wood flooring. It is made of 50 mm thick edged board, nailed close or with a very small gap. Advantages - non-slip floor, warm. Disadvantages - it absorbs urine and odors, swells from high humidity, quickly collapses. Disinfection is possible, but it is difficult to carry out, cleaning is not the easiest.
Wooden floors are a good option, but not the best.
With a large amount of litter, you can keep piglets on the dirt floor
Building a pigsty with their own hands, each owner usually chooses the one that seems preferable to him from these options.
Slotted floor device
A few words about urine diversion and manure removal. Despite the widespread opinion about the uncleanliness of pigs, they rather quickly get used to defecating in one place (there are exceptions, but not often). Therefore, many people prefer to make double floors - at the bottom they make something like concrete with a trough with an inclination towards the ditch, and slit floors are laid on top. The cracks may not be over the entire area, but only in a certain area. It is here and go "decent" pigs to defecate.
For convenient cleaning the slotted floor can be made in one place.
Slotted floors have concrete, metal and plastic. Plastic and metal are used for small piglets - the surface of the flooring is made a little ribbed and rough, the gaps are quite small.
Slotted floors for piglets
Concrete slatted floors are mass produced. They have small openings and wide lintels. This is done to minimize injury. In general, the construction of a slit floor makes work much easier, in a pigsty it is easier to maintain cleanliness.
Slotted floor slabs
In order to save, sometimes they make a slit floor of thick boards. But this is not the best idea - pigs can catch on the slots of the slot and turn the boards.
How to make a solid
In order to make the solid floor easier to clean too, a ditch is made along the machines, and the floor has a bias towards this ditch (2-5%). The ditch is often laid out of bricks and plastered. Then it goes to the cumulative capacity, for a normal outflow, too, must have a slope.
Concrete floor with gutters for drainage
Collected masses are either transported by special vehicles or pumped into holes for rotting and fermentation - for fertilizer. By the way, the lower part of the slotted pilaf is made according to the same scheme, only the ditch is under the upper flooring, and not in the aisle.
Insulated concrete floor
Whatever may be said, but the most practical, relatively inexpensive and reliable floor for a pigsty is concrete. In fact, he has two serious drawbacks. Already talked about one thing - in the winter it is cold. The second - it takes a long period of time for its final hardening (28 days from the moment of pouring). If you fill the floor while the livestock lives in the summer corral, there is no place to hurry, and you can fight the cold. For example, make it warmed.
On the concrete floor on the insulation is not cold
For arranging the warmed concrete floor in the pigsty, the soil is removed to a depth of 40 cm. The bottom of the pit is leveled and tamped. About 10 cm of rubble is poured, it is also well rammed (it is better to fill in and tamp down two 5 cm layers separately - there will be no cracks). 5 cm of sand are poured onto the compacted crushed stone, shed, rammed so that the footprint does not remain. Top put waterproofing (you can have a thick polyethylene film), pour insulation - expanded clay or granulated foam glass. Expanded clay is cheaper, but foam glass is better in granules (warmer in 3 times and does not absorb moisture, which is very important). Insulation rammed, but not as serious as a pillow of rubble and sand. Fill with concrete grade B 20 (2 parts of sand and 4 parts of rubble are taken for 1 part of cement). The minimum thickness of the layer is 3 cm, during pouring it forms the required slope towards the ditch.
If you do this, the floor will not be so cold, you will have to heat less.
The need for cleaning is determined by the design of the floor. If this is a regular sloping floor, every feeding is necessary to clean manure - three times a day. Slotted floors are mostly washed once a day. Additional cleaning may be required if there are undisciplined animals - then they take a broom or shovel and take out the manure on the floor. But it takes less time than when cleaning the usual floor.
You can clean with the help of "Kärcher"
Wash the floor in the pigsty can not just a hose. Much faster and better is obtained from the "Kärcher". First, the animals may be afraid, then they climb under the stream. It is necessary to wash them from a decent distance, otherwise there may be injuries.
Windows in the pigsty
Pigs can do without daylight, but then it is necessary to turn on the lighting, and with constantly growing tariffs these are unjustified expenses, which greatly reduce profitability. Therefore, the windows are made quite large, but their total area should not be larger than the floor area — excessively bright lighting makes animals aggressive. The best for them is dimmed light.
Metal windows are already put in the pigsties
Windows set at a height of 1.5-1.7 meters, at least half of them should open. This is necessary for ventilation - for optimum weight gain, optimal humidity and fresh air are required. And without airing this is not achieved. And although there should be good ventilation in the pigsty, there should be no drafts - animals get sick because of it. Therefore, they either make double glazing in wooden frames, or put plastic. With them, the troubles are generally a little - they are convenient to handle, easy to clean.
What to do machines for pigs
When building a pigsty with their own hands, they usually block the premises on the machines using two materials:
- 50 mm thick edged board and rack racks,
- metal pipes, sheet, corners.
The choice is really simple: what is cheaper, what you can work better with, or consider it a hundred more reliable. In principle, both options are not bad, they are widespread.
The height of the partitions is about 1 meter; a separate entrance is made to each pen. The gates should be well locked, and the simple bolts are unreliable, they are hooked by the cocks and open the doors.