Today it’s not difficult to build a chicken coop on the plot of land - building materials and drawings of various designs are in abundance. Showing how to arrange the arrangement of the chicken coop inside with your own hands, the photos will help to make a home for poultry convenient, rationally planned and safe.
Aims and objectives of the internal arrangement of the chicken coop
Layout allocated for a chicken coop or newly built premises is carried out on the basis of:
- from the number and age of the birds on which the housing is calculated,
- out of season, when the house is supposed to be used,
- from the need for regular cleaning and disinfection of the chicken coop.
For poultry, places for sleeping, feeding and quenching thirst are sure to be arranged. If the hen house contains hens or hens, comfortable safe nests are provided for them.
In order to maintain a veterinary-hygienic and stable functional state of the building, the poultry farmer must take care of:
- about ventilation in the hen house,
- about insulation, waterproofing and heating of the structure, especially if the building will serve in the winter period,
- about lighting the coop's space,
- about the correct selection of materials that are not only available and cheap, but can be easily washed and dry cleaned.
The first thing that they take care of, before building a chicken coop and equipping it with roosts, feeders and drinkers, is a microclimate suitable for the bird.
How to create a comfortable microclimate in the hen house?
The state of the bird, its growth and productivity depend on the indoor temperature, lighting, air humidity and its freshness. Even with summer chickens, it is important that the chicken coop is protected from moisture and drafts. Therefore, after assembling the frame and wall cladding, hydro and thermal insulation of the floor, walls and roof is necessarily carried out.
Using scrap materials and small tricks, the internal arrangement of the chicken coop will be much cheaper, which will have a positive impact on the cost of meat and egg products. An inexpensive and easy-to-install sheet foam, mineral wool, laminated film sheets and other materials are suitable for use:
- If it is planned to keep chickens on the site only in the warm season, such a construction will help prevent drafts that are dangerous for layers, hens and young stock, as well as protect the bird from overheating on hot days.
- When it is necessary to equip the winter chicken coop with their own hands, in the climate of the middle strip of one thermal insulation it is not enough, and it is necessary to think about the heating system.
Whatever the frost outside the walls, the temperature inside the chicken coop must remain positive. It is optimal if it does not fall below 7–10 ° C.
To obtain such an effect in poultry houses, a heating system is made of an autonomous type or connected to a home type.
Recently, more and more poultry farmers have paid attention to the infrared lamps or panels used to heat the chicken coop. They are economical and efficient, easy to install, provide non-irritating chicken lighting and heat not the air around, but the area under the source of infrared radiation. However, when arranging a chicken coop with such devices, it must be remembered that from the bird to them there should be no less than 50 cm, and it is better to cover the bulbs of the lamps with lattice protective covers.
Lighting and ventilation in the hen house
If infrared lamps are to be used not only for heating, but also for lighting, even their dim light can interfere with the bird at night. Therefore, after the completion of the 15-hour daylight hours, the hens for a good rest are provided with darkness.
You can save on electricity going to artificial lighting by making windows in the hen house. When the chickens are kept at the summer cottage, the device of the chicken coop will not change much, but if we are talking about an all-season design, we will have to take care of durable, cold-proof frames.
When they are arranging the chicken coop inside, as in the photo, they do ventilation with their own hands. It will help get rid of the unpleasant smell, as well as help to normalize the humidity and temperature, which increase in the process of vital activity of poultry:
- For small, designed for several birds of the premises can be limited to the simplest supply system.
- Ventilation in high-volume chicken coops should be forced and capture all areas of the living space.
Arranging the walls and floor of the chicken coop
In addition to the insulation of the premises, the poultry farmer who intends to keep chickens in the summer, it is useful to cover the walls with a layer of lime mortar. This will provide protection against common infections, parasites, and facilitate disinfection of the chicken coop.
With the same purpose, in the construction of a house for poultry it is necessary to provide a door or hatch for cleaning the floor of the chicken coop from old bedding, litter and other debris. When keeping chickens on deep bedding, a layer of lime is pre-poured on the floor; the bedding itself, no thinner than 10 cm, is made from clean, dry sawdust or straw. At the time of cold weather, the layer is enlarged and regularly changed as it gets dirty.
How to build a nest and roost in the hen house?
An integral part of a properly equipped chicken coop are the nests for hens and layers. They can be made of plywood, thin boards or other suitable materials, but if possible, experienced poultry farmers use what they have at hand. Birds perfectly master wicker baskets, plastic containers of suitable volume and buckets. The bottom in such nests is lined with all that litter.
The number of nests is calculated one by one for five birds. They need to be placed in such a way that nobody distracts the hens. Most often, nests are set at one or two levels at a distance from the entrance to the coop.
When the arrangement of the chicken coop is done with their own hands, inside, as in the photo, they mount rodents, which are convenient for chickens. These can be poles or bars with a diameter of about 50 mm. If the master takes square or rectangular bars, the corners are pre-rounded, and the entire surface is treated with sandpaper.
The first row of perches is made at a height of 50 cm, the second and subsequent ones - at a distance of about 35 cm from the previous one. It is important not to allow the bird to sit above each other so that the lower chickens are not contaminated by the droppings of those that have settled on the upper tiers. The minimum distance from the perches to the wall should be 25 cm.
Features arrangement of paddock for walking chickens
For walking the birds next to the chicken coop, they are sure to arrange an equipped playground. If it is planned to grow chickens at the summer cottage in the summer, the chicken coop is planned so that the pen is:
- did not go out on the hottest, south side, but at the same time it was not constantly shaded,
- was dry, clean and did not grow plants dangerous for birds,
- was protected from uninvited guests.
An example of a convenient design for homestead farming is the Dodonov chicken coop, where a house for a bird coexists with a small but thoughtful paddock for walking a bird.
Sturdy, durable pens are made of metal mesh, for the chicken coop they take fine-meshed material, which is tensioned and fixed on poles dug at the corners of the site. To avoid getting into domestic animals or trying the most desperate hens to leave the hen house, the height of the barrier must be at least 1.5–2 meters.
The mesh size for a chicken coop should be such that a curious bird cannot get stuck in it. Here it is important to take into account the difference in the size of adult chickens and roosters and walking chicks with a hen.
On the territory of walking for chickens provide a place for dust and ash baths. This procedure, which is very much loved by birds, helps chickens to get rid of annoying parasites: ticks, fleas, lice, and lice.
Part of the arrangement of the chicken coop inside - made with their own hands, as in the photo, drinkers and feeders. Such containers are installed on the walking area, where in summertime chickens spend most of the day.
Little tricks of the internal arrangement of the chicken coop
Experienced poultry farmers always have their own little tricks for arranging convenient, practical chicken houses:
- It is important to monitor the level and duration of daylight in the hen house. If pizzas suffer from an excess of light, they become aggressive and start pecking less strong relatives, spoiling the eggs in the nests.
- Do not install nests at the floor level, otherwise the most cunning chickens will surely love them for sleeping.
- To increase egg production, it is enough to place the nests in the shadowed corner of the chicken coop.
- Perches have ledges on the opposite wall from the nests.
- To make the birds easier to climb the upper tiers of perches and nests, inclined ramps and stairs are arranged for them.
- Drinking bowls and feeders are mounted slightly above the floor level so that they are comfortable to use, but the birds did not climb into the feed or water.
- The most convenient way is to place the feeders and drinkers closer to the wall between the nests and perches, so that they are in direct view of the maximum number of inhabitants of the coop.
Cages for chickens
Sometimes the bird is kept in cages. But it is with industrial or semi-industrial content. With this method of cultivation in a small area lives a large number of birds. A drawing of a cage for chickens with dimensions is located below.
Drawing cages for broilers with sizes
All sizes - according to standards, and nothing to invent. This is the minimum that the hens need. And what can happen from such cells in the photo below.
Cages for layers
How to make cages for wood broilers, see the video. Everything is painted in great detail: what, for what, what sizes, how to assemble and what is needed for that. Really helpful.
Arrangement of the chicken coop is unthinkable without drinking bowls and feeders. Moreover, in the summer walking, they too should be. Feeders are periodic and bunker. Periodic - this is when you came, poured out the feed rate and that's it. Until the next feed, they are empty.
Climbing and digging is a favorite thing
Bunker - this is when there is a decent supply of food, which is constantly poured into some capacity. Both have drawbacks: periodic ones - every time you need to go to the hen house and pour grain, and the bird crowds, fights for the best place, which sometimes leads to the fact that the feeder is turned over.
If you have a bunker trough, you need to walk much less frequently, but there is an opportunity to overfeed the bird, which is a disaster for layers. That is why either the hens are given a big walking or they feed only broilers in this way.
Constructions of periodic feeders have weight, but not all of them allow economical use of feed. The easiest way is to put the food in a bowl or container. But, if there is at least some possibility, the chickens begin to rake the food, empty it out and then trample it down. You have to throw it away. And such feeders can not just dig in the stern, but also to get into the trough with legs. Because they need to be improved. For this purpose, wire separators are installed on the container. Feed consumption is dramatically reduced: it is harder to scoop.
Manger with dividers
You can make, for example, another similar trough (or drinker), which is conveniently mounted or becomes against the wall. It is probably easier to weld from metal, although there are craftsmen who will make something similar from wood.
Convenient feeder for chickens: and a bit of space and stands firmly, and you can hang
There are some interesting ideas. For example, an economical auto-feeder is assembled from an old disk for a car, a basin of suitable diameter and a plastic bottle for water of a capacity of 5-10 liters.
Components for homemade feeders with economical feed consumption
Look for a disc of this type as in the photo: with a large number of small holes on the outer edge. In its middle, cut a hole the size of the neck of the bottle. In the cap of the bottle cut the bottom, leaving only the ring with thread. The feed mixture is poured into the bottle, they put a disk on it, press it with a cut off cap. Feed is poured into the pelvis, the structure is installed on top.
In order not to disassemble the feeder each time when it is necessary to pour it into the bottle of feed, you can cut the bottom, making it a kind of cover. Then the bottle itself can be fixed more seriously: fixing the threads from the cap is not very reliable. But such an improvement does not allow to rummage in the stern, and no one will climb into the basin.
You can make a feeder from a piece of plastic sewer pipe. Holes with a diameter of about 7 cm are cut from both sides. They do not have to be made round at all - square or rectangular will also go. A 90 ° corner is installed at the ends with a bell up and along a small piece of pipe: feed can be filled in here.
Feeding trough for a chicken coop from a plastic pipe. Suitable as a drinker
The second version of the chicken feed trough PVC pipe
A simple but roomy bunker feeder is a decent chest, in which a flap is attached at the bottom. In the open position, feed is poured onto it.
Another option economical feeders - from plastic sewer pipes. But this is a bunker design: decent stock. The design is simple, and consumption is reduced.
Even more interesting design of the chicken trough in the video: with a lid. To open it, you must jump on it.
Another option bunker trough of PVC pipes and plastic bottles from under the water.
Homemade drinkers for chickens
With drinkers almost the same story. Only here the water is sprayed, which in the mixture with the droppings gives an exceptionally persistent odor, as well as dirt. All this does not contribute to easier and faster cleaning. Therefore, the choice of drinkers is no less important than the feeders.
The easiest option for a small number of birds - up to 15 pieces - siphon drinkers. They are on the legs, allow economical use of water. If the legs are designed well, even a chicken that has flown to the top does not upset them.
Siphon drinkers - factory and homemade from a plastic bottle
Factory drinkers, of course, look more attractive, but the homemade version is almost for nothing, but they work just as well. In the photo you can see a simple siphon homemade chicken drinker: a support was nailed to the corner - a piece of board with a cut-out hole for the neck. Above - a system of fasteners, and the load, so as not to shoot down. In the former bottom of the bottle a hole is cut into which water is poured. The whole trick here is to choose the distance at which to install a water tank: so that there is not enough or too little of it.
Cup drinkers are convenient when grown in cages, as it is convenient to attach them to the grid. But no one bothers to hang a piece of the grid, say on the wall or come up with another mount.
Cup drinkers for poultry (including chickens)
They allow birds to drink without splashing. Water is fed into the cup, it is tilted under the action of gravity, cutting off the flow. The water was drunk, the cup rose, the water flows again. A hose is connected to the side fitting, the second end of which is in a container with water, which must stand above the level of the drinkers. Convenient and economical.
Installation options for cup drinkers
Nipple drinkers for chickens. These are small devices, a few centimeters in size. A stainless steel cone-shaped rod is inserted into the plastic case.
These nipples are screwed into plastic pipes into which water flows. The hole of the required diameter is drilled, the thread is cut and the nipple is screwed. When you press the rod, a few drops of water appear. Chickens peck the rod, drinking the drops that appear. The main disadvantage of this method is drops that fall to the floor. To prevent this from happening, a special drop catcher is placed under each drinker. It just snaps on the pipe.
For all its miniature, these little drinkers cost a lot, especially if the quality ones - read - imported. Ours, of course, cheaper, but break faster.
Small drinker for chickens or quails
And the rest are different cups and basins, into which water is simply poured. Their disadvantage is that they are often turned over by birds, and the water in them quickly gets dirty.
There are more interesting ideas from DIY. For example, such a drinking bowl from a pipe is shown in the photo. In a piece of plastic pipe the water level is controlled by a float mechanism from the toilet bowl. Three cup drinkers are attached to the pipes.
Three cup drinkers are attached to the pipe
The video shows the drinker with auto-complete.
If there is a desire to equip the chicken coop can be so as to minimize the need for its maintenance. In this case, the bird will bring not only income, but also pleasure: it is always pleasant to look at hand-made objects, and in a hen house without “straight” hands it is difficult and expensive to keep the bird.
The first thing you need to do before starting work is to calculate the required space of the building. To do this, you need to know exactly the number of chickens that will live in the hen house. The more birds, the more space they need. It is believed that the minimum area for 2-3 hens - not less than 1 sq. M. Но не стоит забывать, что птице (как несушке, так и мясной) нужно комфортное пространство, которое составляет около 3 м.кв. Старайтесь вести расчёты от этого показателя.
После того, как вы просчитали необходимую площадь строения, набросайте на бумаге его план. В интернете можно найти множество готовых схем, среди которых вы наверняка подберёте наиболее подходящую для вашего дачного участка. Остаётся только подогнать метраж под вашу площадь.
When drawing up a plan for a chicken coop, be sure to consider the presence of an open-air cage intended for walking birds. Its area must be calculated on the basis of a calculation of at least 1 sq. M. for one chicken. The more space, the better:
- Laying hens should move more to "keep their shape." It helps them to maintain and increase the wear. A chicken of an egg breed should not gain much weight, otherwise it will simply cease to be carried.
- Chicken meat breeds are arranged by nature so that high mobility allows them to build muscle mass. That is what is required of them, since they carry few eggs, but they are valuable in their meat.
When choosing a place for a stationary chicken coop, give preference to elevations. If there is none on your site, create it artificially: fill the hill with soil, broken brick, gravel or rubble. From above cover the hill with a thick layer of clay mixed with broken glass (this will save your pets from the invasion of rodents). Cover the clay with sand, soil or turf, at least 15 cm.
Foundation and floor - the basis of the structure
You chose the right place, arranged it, created a building plan. Now you can proceed directly to the construction.
Do I need to fill the foundation for the chicken coop? It depends on your personal choice. And the choice should be based on the features of the landscape, climate and the building itself. Sometimes you can do without the foundation, but if you decide to make a solid construction, then the best options would be a strip and column foundation. They will cost you much cheaper than, for example, slab, and besides, they are easier to perform. If you have the opportunity to do without pouring the foundation, then be sure to use it: these will save you from the extra waste of time, money and effort.
Drawing of the layout of the chicken coop
The easiest option is the skeleton coop. For its construction, you will need several adjusted to the size of the plate, in which it is easy to cut openings for doors and windows. Installation of the foundation you do not need, you only need to make a fence of iron sheets around the perimeter of the building. Dig them into the ground at a depth of 30 to 50 cm so that rodents do not get inside.
In order to arrange the floor in the hen house, you do not need special materials. The main thing is that its surface was clean, and pollution could be easily removed from it. Use any floor boards, and lay a layer of sawdust or straw up to 10 cm thick on top. When this litter is dirty, just remove it and put a new one. In winter, during the period of cold weather, increase the thickness of the litter layer. It is very important for laying hens, especially if you are planning to brood chickens.
Natural enemies of your poultry
Walls and roof
What are the most suitable walls for a chicken coop? If you choose, based on considerations of strength, it is better to build from stone, cinder block or brick. Such a construction will last for a long time, but it will be very cold, it will have to be further heated.
The walls of wood or logs will be much warmer, but will cost not much cheaper than stone or brick, besides their construction will take a lot of time. The easiest way to use frame technology is to install the frame and sheathe it on the outside and inside with boards or slabs. Between them, distribute insulation, which can be used as:
For a big chicken coop it is better to make a gable roof. This design will not allow the room to dampen: the snow will not linger on the surface, and rainwater will merge from the surface. In addition, you will have additional space in which you can store garden tools, building materials or feed.
Be sure to warm the roof. For the roof, you can use any material.
Personally, I can say, incredibly lucky, because I did not have to build a poultry house. In my garden there is an old makeshift house, which was once residential, and now has become a convenient refuge for poultry. It remains for me only to arrange perches and places for feeders and drinkers. A distinctive feature is a small brick stove that allows you to heat the entire space. Therefore, my chickens feel great both in summer and in winter.
Try to insulate the walls of the chicken coop so that the bird will be comfortable both in summer and in winter.
If you have a building on the site that is very easy to adapt to the content of poultry, be sure to take advantage of this opportunity. So you will save time and money.
How to equip the room inside step by step
When you build your own home for your poultry, you definitely need to take into account the good lighting in the room, and therefore take care of the windows. It is best to locate them on the south side and use opening structures to regularly provide fresh air.
The windows in the hen house should not be large. The optimal ratio of the total area of the windows to the floor area is 1 to 12. Outside, be sure to close the windows with a fine grid. Insects can serve as food for chickens, but with the same success will bring on themselves parasites that adversely affect the health of pets.
Provide the hens with the required number of nests.
Remember that the most suitable duration of light for layers is from 15 to 17 hours. In the summer you don’t have to worry about it, but in the winter you will need to provide additional coverage. To do this, you can use any lighting, for example, lamps with shades. The main condition is 1 sq.m. need 5 watts of lighting. The most intensive should be covered perches, feeders and drinkers. In the evening, the light must be turned off: the birds must sleep in the dark.
Be sure to make the ventilation type. In the summer, during the hot period, it will not only help to cool the chicken coop, but also remove unpleasant odors from it. If your chicken coop has a large area, you may need a fan.
Distribute internal space rationally
This part of the arrangement of the chicken coop is very important. It depends on how comfortable it will be for the bird to live in the prepared structure.
The roost is the most important place for a chicken, since it spends half its life on it. For roost it is best to choose bars about 5 cm in diameter. The length should correspond to the length of the wall to which you will attach the timber. Well round and sand the edges of the pole so that the hens do not get hurt.
The roost is installed at a height of at least half a meter from the floor. Poles are located in the form of steps relative to each other at a distance of 35 cm. The upper pole must be at least 25 cm from the wall.
The proper arrangement of the perch
Tip: Do not roost on the principle of floors, one above the other. Birds will be inconvenient to climb it, besides, you will have to constantly deal with excrement, covered each chicken. This can lead to diseases.
When calculating the required length of poles, take into account the fact that each chicken will need at least 30 cm of space.
The obligatory attribute of the hen house in which the hens live is the nesting place. In order to equip it, you can use the old box, basin, basket - no matter what material. The main thing is that the nest is deep enough. Bottom should be covered with straw or sawdust. By the number of chickens, determine how many nests you will need: for 5 birds, 1 nest.
It is not enough to build a chicken coop where there is free space. You need to properly orient it to the cardinal points. And this is not a trendy feng shui, it is really important. The door is best located on the east side, so that birds receive enough vitamin D3 with the rays of the rising sun. One of the parts of the pen should be located on the north side to ensure coolness on hot summer days.
To equip a fence enclosure, use metal columns, covered with galvanized mesh inside. Bury them deeper, at least 20 cm. Chickens love to dig up the soil, and can easily make a dig, sufficient for escaping into the wild. To catch runaways in the neighborhood is not the most joyful occupation, take my word for it.
A properly equipped pen will protect your bird from many troubles.
The height of the fence about 2.5 m will be enough so that the chickens do not fly. Roosters of some breeds can easily take such a height, but do not worry: they will not go far from their harem, and very soon return to the pen.
If you decide to leave a natural earthen surface in the pen, please note that over time, the soil littered with litter will turn under the influence of precipitation into liquid mud that chickens will bring to the chicken coop. This will affect not only the quality of the eggs, but also the health of the hens.
You can make the flooring of wooden boards. Place stones on the pen area, on them - wooden bars, treated with antiseptic and tar, with a section of 15x15 cm. In order for chickens to dig in the ground, install a large container, for example, a bath or a trough, and fill it with a mixture of dry, coarse sand and ash.
Video about the proper arrangement of the chicken coop
As you can see, building and equipping a chicken coop is easy for your poultry. I hope our tips will help you do the job right. If you have experience in arranging such facilities, please share them in the comments. If you have any questions on this topic, ask them, and we will be happy to answer you.
What should be the arrangement of a winter chicken coop inside for laying hens
Currently, chicken coops are carried out in a separate room with combined conditions of detention. That is, the room is planned for both summer and winter birds. Therefore, measures are envisaged not only for heating the room, but also for ventilation, light intensity, arrangement of nests and location of feeders with drinkers.
It is advisable to immediately build a major chicken coop on 40-50 birds. This is due to the allocation of the necessary arrangement of territory for walking and ease of cleaning indoors.
The rate of chickens per one square meter is 4-5 laying hens, therefore 10 m2 will be enough for a flock of 50 birds, which guarantees the free location of a smaller number of chickens.
In central Russia, a bar of 100 * 100 mm is used for the walls of the coop with insulation lining or the building is made using frame technology with cladding on the frame with OSB plates or a tongue-and-groove board.
Thus, the indoor temperature is maintained, both in summer and in winter without sudden drops and drafts are excluded.
- The roof is double sloped for storage in the attic of hay, straw and harvested brooms.
- The entrance to the chicken coop is equipped with a vestibule, which can be used for storing cleaning equipment, felling and grain.
- The windows are installed on the southern or western side of the coop at the rate of glazing area in a quarter of the floor area and inside the coop is closed with a metal grid.
A good floor option would be a concrete screed. It is performed as follows.
- Assume that you have a 40 cm high strip foundation, which is covered with sand to a height of 20 centimeters inside.
- Further, extruded polystyrene (insulation) is laid on a sandy compacted cushion and around the tape perimeter (reinforcement), reinforcement is made and a floor about 10 cm thick is poured. A concrete screed will be a good obstacle for rodents and will facilitate the cleaning process.
- Perches are performed at a height of about 80 cm from the floor. The error of locating the bars for a perch in the form of a pyramid. Chickens will strive to occupy the highest places, according to the hierarchy in the hen house, they will create a constant movement and night rest will not work. It is better to make roosts horizontally with a distance of 40-50 centimeters between the “seats”.
Places for laying eggs are divided into several compartments at the rate of one place for 3-4 hens.
The distance between the walls of 20-30 cm, the height of the front ledge of 5 centimeters, to avoid throwing out the litter and rolling out eggs.
If the compartments are at a height, then it is necessary to provide them with a ladder for lifting the birds and a board along the nests so that the chicken can choose its free space. A good option for laying in the nest is moss, which is not crushed and is enjoyed by chickens.
Lighting, ventilation and heating of the chicken coop
The inside of the chicken coop should be equipped in such a way that the layers get enough light in winter (optimally 18 hours of light), the temperature does not fall below 10 ° C, and there is constant access to feed and fresh water.
Weak and inadequate lighting affects the behavior of chickens, they sit on roost more, become lethargic and cease to rush. Too intense luminous flux provokes the hens to “test” eggs, they peck at their shells.
Sufficient lighting is 10 watts per square meter of floor based on the use of incandescent bulbs. If to use lamps of other type, then calculations of a light stream will be required.
You can arrange additional lighting in the area of drinking bowls and feeders by installing a short LED strip. “Light day” is set by timer.
If necessary, a mercury-quartz lamp is added to the lighting circuit to disinfect the room (intermittent on).
It is made of plastic pipes with a diameter of 200 mm. Air flow is provided by a pipe, which is located next to the wall opposite to the perches.
The lower end of the ventilation pipe is 20 cm above the floor, and the upper cut protrudes 30-40 centimeters above the roof. Hood settles in close proximity to the roost.
The exit of the pipe above the roof is about 1.5 meters and 15-20 centimeters from the ceiling. The lower parts of the pipes are closed with a net, and the upper ones with caps to prevent precipitation from entering the hen house.
In private households, heating of chicken coops is carried out with the help of electrical appliances: convectors, infrared heaters and infrared lamps. Convectors are set to the required temperature and provide constant heating of the air.
Infrared heaters work on a different principle. The appliances heat the walls and other objects of the house, which, in turn, give off heat energy to the air masses.
Infrared lamps have a high efficiency and in addition to heating can be the main source of light in the chicken coop.
Bedding, feeders and drinkers in the hen house
The internal arrangement of the chicken coop is a guarantee of the health of the bird and obtaining a stable number of eggs to the table.
For bedding using a mixture of straw and wood shavings, which are poured in a layer of 10-20 centimeters. Good results for the litter show leaves collected on a dry day.
As a rule, the litter is not cleaned in winter, organic processes occurring in the straw and shavings when interacting with the droppings give additional heat.
In order to prevent layers from caking, grain, which is collected by chickens, is scattered on the surface, spreading the litter.
By the way, the birds need to swim in the ashes to get rid of parasites, so the henhouse is equipped with a “bathroom”, a box 10–15 centimeters high and 100 * 100 centimeters in size, filling it with a mixture of dry sand and fine ash.
At the same time, ash will become an additional source of essential trace elements.
It is best to make several types of feeders designed for different types of feed.
For dry bulk (grain and tumble), a plastic pipe feeder is performed. The lower end of the ordinary sewer pipe is supplied with a tee. The pipe is installed vertically and a large amount of feed is immediately poured, which enters the lower part of the feeder as it decreases.
For mash set tray troughs along the walls of the coop at a height of 20 centimeters from the floor level. This allows you to avoid throwing out feed chicken.
Drinking bowls in the house is a device with a constant water supply, excluding its spillage and splashing.
On average, one bird drinks 200-500 ml of water per day, from this calculation the required volume of the device is established. Convenient to use nipple design.
By pressing the beak on the nipple, the bird receives the required amount of water from the tank and there is no pollution in the water bowl, and the litter remains dry.
Basic requirements for the coop
The performance of layers directly depends on the conditions of their detention, therefore it is necessary to take care of arranging the house to be nests, perches, good lighting and ventilation, watering and feeding troughs.
Plays an important role and what room is allocated under the shed for layers. If there are farm buildings in the yard, then one of them can be arranged under the coop.
You can build a room for keeping hens from almost any available or inexpensive materials. Frameworks made of boards, which are upholstered with sheets of chipboard, fiberboard or boards, are very popular. But you can use a wooden beam, stones, bricks, cinder blocks.
The design should be strong and stable.. Chickens love to peck at everything, so materials are recommended to choose eco-friendly. Если при обустройстве птичника будет использоваться пенопласт, то его нужно изолировать, иначе птицы его расклюют. Стены обязательно обрабатываются дезинфицирующими растворами, для чего можно использовать известь.
При устройстве курятника нужно продумать, где будут окна, которые должны составлять десятую часть от площади пола. Чтобы было удобно менять подстилку, в какой-нибудь стене можно сделать специальный лук.
Устройство полов и подстилка
Barn for laying hens You can build without a foundation, but the floor must be such that rodents cannot get into it through the room. A good foundation would be a good protection, but you can use solid metal sheets that are dug around the perimeter of the shed.
Layers need warm floors, for which they are satisfied in the following order:
- Draft timber.
- Bulk material in the form of pellets, gravel, etc.
To prevent rotting, wood is treated with a special paint that will also protect the material from insects.
It is not recommended to use modern materials for floor covering. For example, linoleum, birds can quickly peck. It is recommended to use natural litter, which must include peat. It will provide dryness in the house, and in cold weather it will be warm.
But before putting the litter, sprinkle the floors with lime. Then the peat is mixed with straw or hay. It should be at least ten centimeters thick.
A very important factor is the temperature of the air, especially for the young. Therefore, the house must be insulated so that it is warm and comfortable even on frosty days.
It is possible to seal the gaps between the shed boards using construction foam or foam sheets. For insulation of the roof, you can use mineral wool, foam or other available types of insulation.
In regions with frosty winters, this warming may not be enough. To achieve for the hens optimum temperature, toThat should not be below +10 degrees, you will need electric heaters or boiler and furnace heating.
Temperatures below zero degrees can cause a decrease in egg production and frostbite in the hens of the crests and paws. In a warm house the birds are mobile, eat well and carry eggs.
In the hot season, the chicken coop should be ventilated and the temperature should not rise above +35 degrees, otherwise the bird may die from overheating. In any case, ventilation in the house is very important, because fresh air is necessary for the birds.
If the barn is small, it will be enough exhaust fan. A large room is equipped with exhaust ventilation, which may be the simplest.
Good ventilation will help get rid of the harmful gases that chicken droppings emit.
For good productivity of laying hens at any time of the year it is necessary to provide a 12–14-hour light day. With longer lighting, the natural resource of birds will quickly become depleted, and with a short light day they will not be carried.
When equipping the barn additional lighting Consider the following points:
- It is best to use lamps up to 60 watts. Bright lights are not recommended.
- When light day is reduced, artificial lighting is switched on for about three hours in the morning and for three hours in the evening.
- Lamps should be insulated with grilles, and sockets with protective shields.
- The light should not turn on abruptly, but gradually. Otherwise, chickens will be frightened, and stress can negatively affect productivity.
- Turn off additional lighting gradually. First you need to turn off the main lighting, and after a few minutes - additional. This is necessary in order for the hens to settle down on their perch. Otherwise, the birds will spend the night on the floor.
For convenience, the luminaires can be equipped with a time relay, which will turn on and off the light in the hen house at the right time.
Internal structure of the chicken coop
To make the hens feel comfortable, you need to think about where to place the perches, nests, drinkers and feeders.
Without walking a large amount of time chickens spend on perches, which should be comfortable and properly located. They should be installed depending on what direction the chickens will live in the house:
- Laying birds are the most active birds, so perches are attached to them at least ninety centimeters from the floor.
- For chickens meat and egg breeds perches can be settled at a distance of sixty centimeters from the floor.
To make it convenient for the birds to climb onto their rail, you can bring a board or a ladder from a floor at a slight angle to it.
All perches are made on the same level, otherwise chickens will be squabbling over the topmost place. It is undesirable to set the crossbar at different levels also because the bird sitting upstairs with its droppings will soil below the laying hen.
Crossbar for roost Strong is selected. Under the weight of the hen it should not sag, much less break. The best fit wooden bars with a cross section of five centimeters. Their ends can be attached to the walls of the shed or mounted on vertical supports.
The tree is pretreated with sandpaper or a planer so that there is no burrs on it. Otherwise, the birds can injure the legs.
It is recommended to establish perches approximately in thirty centimeters from the warmest wall. It is desirable to arrange them in front of the window. For each layer, you need at least thirty-five centimeters of a perch on which she will sit.
In the secluded corner of the house, the layers should equip neststhat can be placed in a row or separately. One nest is enough for five or six hens.
Baskets, basins or boxes can be used as nests. The best and easiest option would be a plywood box with one open side. Its dimensions should be about 40x40x60 cm. The open side-entrance is equipped with a small side, and the nest is filled with straw, hay or sawdust. If to provide the hens with straw, then from this “building material” they will equip themselves a nest.
Nests are set in the darkest corner at a distance of thirty centimeters from the floor. If there are many hens in the hen house and the nests will be located in several tiers, but between them and the floor there is a perch or a ladder, along which birds can easily climb to the height.
For the convenience of collecting eggs, nests are equipped with egg collectors and installed with continuous batteries.
In each house must be troughwhich are of two kinds:
- Periodic - it is installed in the shed or on the walking tanks, which are filled with mixtures each feeding. Between feedings they stand empty. In such containers you need to constantly pour the grain, that is, during the day several times.
- Hopper feeders are filled with plenty of feed. But they are suitable only for broiler chickens, because they can not be overfed or they need to do a lot of walking.
Tanks for food can be put any:
- wood suitable for dry food, shell, gravel, chalk and other additives,
- metal and plastic containers are easy to clean and disinfect, so they can be used for both dry and wet food.
In order for birds not to climb into the feeders with their feet, they should be fixed to the wall at a distance of about thirty centimeters from the floor. It is good if the bead capacity is bent inwards so that the hens do not scatter the feed.
To during feeding there was no squabble between the chickens, and they did not crowd near the trough, the length of the tank should be calculated in accordance with the number of individuals.
The choice of drinkers is very important. The water tank needs to be chosen such that water does not spill out of it and splash out. Otherwise, the hen house will be constantly dirty, and wet droppings will produce an unpleasant, persistent odor.
Good choices are siphon drinkerswhich are designed for fifteen birds. It is only necessary to choose the option with stable legs, so that the drinker does not overturn, even if the layer flies and sits up. Such capacity can be bought or made by hand. To do this, a large-capacity plastic bottle turns over and the bottom is cut off. In the resulting hole will be poured water. The bottle is placed on a piece of board attached in the corner with a hole cut out in the middle, into which the neck is placed. Under the board is placed water tank.
The very simple watering and feeding trough can be independently made from plastic sewer pipes. In tubes with a cross section of ten centimeters, several files of rectangular shape are cut with a metal file, electric jigsaw or a hot knife. Along the edges are special plugs, and between the holes - lintels. If the feeder will be used for dry feed, the jumpers can not be done. To make it easier to pour and drain water, the edges of the homemade drinker can be closed with tees or your knees.
Chickens are often attacked by ticks, lice, fleas and other parasites. You can get rid of insects with the help of special preparations. But birds with parasites will cope on their own if the tanks are installed in the hen house for dust-and-dust baths. On the run you can not put the tank, and pour the mixture of sand and chopped wood ash or clay into a specially dug hole. It is recommended to add two hundred grams of sulfur in the bucket to be swept away from the ash and sand.
Suitable for bathing basin or other wide tank. The area of the tank should be approximately one square meter, and a depth of up to fifty centimeters. In poultry houses with a small area, baths are installed under the nests.
Chickens enjoy bathing in such baths. and thank their owners for their high productivity and delicious eggs.
It is possible to equip the chicken coop so that not only the hens are comfortable in it, but it is also convenient for the chicken house to serve them. A well thought out poultry unit will reduce maintenance to a minimum.