Everyone knows that a telescope is an aquarium fish. But in nature these creatures do not occur. Once upon a time all goldfish were obtained by breeding from a wild crucian. This is a very famous species that inhabits stagnant ponds or rivers, canals, ponds with a very slow current. It feeds on fry, insects, detritus, plants.
The homeland of black telescopes and goldfish is China. However, in 1500 they found themselves in Japan, in 1600 in Europe, and in 1800 in America. Most of the currently known varieties were bred once in the East and have not changed since then.
It is believed that the aquarium fish telescope, as well as the goldfish, was bred for the first time in the seventeenth century in China. Named it was a dragon fish, or dragon eye. A little later, they were taken to Japan, where they received a new name "demekin", by which they are known to this day.
Description of fish
Telescope - aquarium fish with unusually large eyes. Her body has an ovate or rounded shape, like a voiletail. Actually, these two types distinguish only the eyes. In all other respects, they are quite similar. Their body is wide and short, and the head is large with huge eyes and large fins.
Currently, telescopes are found in a variety of colors and forms, with veil fin. The most popular aquarium fish is a black telescope. It is most often sold in all pet stores, as well as in the markets, but over time it may well change color.
Telescopes grow big enough. Sometimes up to twenty centimeters. The life span of a fish is from ten to fifteen years. There have been cases when they lived in ponds for more than twenty years. Fish sizes vary greatly depending on their species, as well as habitat conditions. But less than ten centimeters they are not.
Aquarium fish telescopes: care
All goldfish, including telescopes, can live at sufficiently low temperatures. However, for beginning aquarists, a telescope is not the best kind of content. And the reason for this are the eyes of the fish. Telescopes have very poor eyesight, so it’s harder for them to find food. They are often injured and put an infection in the eyes.
But with all this, telescopes are very undemanding and unpretentious to the living conditions. They feel equally good both in the pond and in the aquarium. A telescope is an aquarium fish, the compatibility of which with other inhabitants must be taken into account. Since they see very poorly and are extremely slow, more active individuals can take food from them and leave them hungry. That is why it should be wisely pick their neighbors.
Many people contain goldfish and telescopes in round aquariums one by one and without plants. Of course, they are able to dwell there too, but round vessels do not suit them at all, they slow down their growth and impair vision.
As for feeding, in this telescopes unpretentious. They eat all kinds of live, artificial, frozen food. The main dish in their menu, you can make artificial food. And as an additional feeding, you can give artemia, bloodworm, tuber and daphnia. It is necessary to take into account the fact that telescopes have absolutely bad eyesight. And so they need time to find food. They often dig in the ground, raise dregs and dirt. Therefore, artificial feed is optimally suited, they do not disappear, but slowly disintegrate.
Telescopes sometimes readily enjoy algae. The following types are suitable for them: lemongrass, anubias, nuggets, cryptocorynes, saggitar, elodea, vallesneria. When choosing plants, it should be remembered that they should be soft.
Conditions of detention
The aquarium fish telescope (photo is given in the article) is quite large. It is characterized by the appearance of a large amount of dirt and waste. For the maintenance of the fish is important not only a large volume of the aquarium, but also its shape. Prerequisite is a good filter.
Round aquariums are a completely unacceptable option. But the usual rectangular fit perfectly. For fish, a large surface area of water is important, as gas exchange processes take place through it.
If we talk about the volume of the aquarium, for one pair you need 80-100 liters, and for each of the next fish of the same type add another 50 liters.
Telescopes tend to produce a lot of waste. For this reason, good filtering is essential. The best option is to use a strong external filter. Only the current from it must be passed through the flute, since telescopes are not the best swimmers.
Weekly, water should be replaced without fail (at least 20% of water should be replaced). Water parameters themselves are not very important.
As the soil is best to use coarse gravel or sand. Telescopes forever dig in it, besides often swallow large particles, causing death.
In the aquarium, you can add plants and decor. But remember the poor vision of telescopes and the vulnerability of their eyes. All elements of the aquarium should be smooth, without sharp edges.
The temperature regime for telescopes is not important, but ideally it can be a temperature of 20-23 degrees.
Who can get along with telescopes
The most correct option is to keep them separate. You can settle with related species: goldfish, veiltails, shubunkinami. But categorically it is impossible to combine them with tetragonopteriuses, Denison's barb, ternets, Sumatran barb.
For a telescope, quiet, balanced neighbors are good, and they won't hurt the fish.
For breeding three year olds are most suitable. They are most likely to get good healthy offspring. If you notice the appearance of distinctive sexual characteristics in fish, which we mentioned earlier, this means that fry may soon appear. This usually happens in spring.
By the process itself should be prepared in advance. Very often parents eat their own caviar. Therefore, a separate container should be prepared. Javanese moss can be laid on its bottom. The temperature should be around 24 degrees.
Two weeks before spawning, the male and female should be seated in different aquariums. The female must be transplanted to where the roe will develop. During one spawning, a telescope produces two thousand eggs. Good bright light and strong aeration become the impetus for the start of the process. Immediately after spawning, the female needs to be deposited.
In order that the caviar does not touch the fungus, add “Mycopur” or quite a bit of blue in the aquarium. However, remember that this categorically can not be done while the adult is in the water, otherwise there will be no fertilization.
Eggs will become larvae on the fifth day after the spawning itself. They do not need feeding yet. As long as they have a supply of nutrients. But when they become fry, they should be fed live dust. Fry completely unevenly developed. We'll have small and large instances to sit in different places. This is due to the fact that large individuals simply do not allow babies to eat.
Therefore, to obtain offspring from telescopes is not so easy. If you follow all the tips, you can achieve success. But it is very hard work.
Instead of an afterword
If you decide to start a telescope, then note that there are not only black individuals. When living in warmer water, they get a copper hue. But the dark-bronze varieties do not have large eyes. However, with age, they appear black in color and have a characteristic bulge of the eyes. Telescopes are wonderful beautiful fish that require careful handling. With its rather large size, they are very vulnerable.
Maintenance and care
photo can be increased
Calm in character, peaceful telescopes get along well with the same calm neighbors. To contain goldfish - telescopes need to be in an aquarium with a volume of at least 50 liters per fish, it is better if aquarium of at least 100 liters, which will accommodate a couple of pets. With an increase in the size of a home aquarium, the population density can be slightly increased, so 3-4 fish can be placed in a 150-liter aquarium, and 5-6 in a 200-liter aquarium. But with increasing population density should pay attention to good aeration of water.
These aquarium fish love to dig in the ground, so as it is better to use pebbles or coarse sand, then the fish will not be so easy to scatter. The aquarium itself is desirable species and spacious, in which to place large-leaved aquarium plants. However, telescopes quickly spoil the tender plants, or the surface of the leaves is contaminated by settling on them suspended particles of water in the water. To avoid this, plant plants in the aquarium with a strong root system and hard leaves. Plants such as egg capsules, valisneria, sagittarias, or helode, as the most enduring, are very well suited.
Goldfish - telescopes are kept in the same aquarium together with calm species of aquarium fish. In the aquarium it is necessary to provide natural light and good filtration. All varieties of goldfish prefer good aeration. The parameters of water in the aquarium fish are not particularly sensitive. In particular, this refers to the velvet-black telescopes, which are very popular with aquarists. The hardness of the water should be 8 - 25 °, with an acidity of 6-8. Part of the water in the aquarium, it is desirable to regularly replace.
In food telescopes are unpretentious, they eat everything and a lot. Their diet should contain animal and vegetable food. Despite the voracity of goldfish, overfeed them should not be. The amount of daily food they consume should be about 3% by weight of the fish. Feed adult fish should be twice a day - the first time early in the morning, and the second - in the evening. The amount of feed is calculated for 10-20 minutes of eating food, then the remains from the aquarium are removed. Adult fish that receive proper nutrition can endure a long week-long hunger strike without harm to their health.
Breeding and reproduction
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For spawning pick fish developed fish after the age of 2 years. In March-April, when the daylight begins to lengthen, young males begin to swim behind the females, keeping their egg deposit. On this basis, you can accurately determine the mature and ready to spawn fish. The male ready for spawning changes not only the behavior, it becomes quite active, but its color changes as well: the saw on the first ray of the front pair of pectoral fins appears in the form of a series of notches and there are warts on the gill covers, usually the size of a semolina grain. The female has a fat, caviar-filled belly.
Reproduction is not difficult. It is easiest to breed in spring when the water temperature reaches 23 C or slightly higher. A couple of weeks before planting in the spawning grounds, males and females are separated and fed abundantly. Before planting, in the spawning area, they are satisfied with a hungry day. The stimulus to spawning is fresh, softer water, and the temperature of the water in the spawning pool is 3–5 degrees higher than in the general aquarium.
For landing you need a spawning of 50 liters. It puts a protective net, and put a few plants. Approximately 2 - 3 males per female are spawned. Fertility from 2000 eggs, but its amount depends on the development of the female, age and conditions of detention. The incubation period lasts 3 - 4 days, the larvae turn into fry and swim in 2 - 5 days at a temperature of 20 - 26 C.
The hatch who has just hatched from caviar is very weak and helpless. It looks like a string, equipped with two eyes at one end and a gall bladder in the middle. Feed them with “living dust”. Juveniles develop quickly, but unevenly. At the age of one month, non-standard fry should be rejected. As fry grow, they should be sorted by size to prevent cannibalism. Feed juveniles with rotifers and artemia.
Diseases and diseases
Goldfish suffer from diseases of freshwater tropical fish. These are various bacterial and fungal diseases, as well as infection with parasites. The cause of the disease can be stress or injury, water pollution in the aquarium or poor-quality food, lack of oxygen.
The fungus is manifested in the form of various growths, white or gray. The appearance of the fungus is a signal to check the quality of the water.
The parasites that infect telescopes can be anchor worms that lay eggs in the skin. Have the appearance of threads. Their habitats are infected. Under the skin, flukes in the form of nodules parasitize. Other parasites are fish lice, crustacean - carpoed.
Of the simplest, ichthyophthirius and chylodon are dangerous. Symptom is clouding of the skin, similar to salt, acting as an irritant.
For fish telescopes are characterized by eye disease. If you are seeing a thorn, cloud or cloudiness, you need to pay attention to the quality of food or water.
They also sometimes have constipation or swelling of the body. Symptom of disease is an unusual swimming fish. A lack of oxygen causes the telescope to rise to the surface of the water.
Where did the telescope come from?
Essentially, the big bulging eyes of these carps are nothing more than a deviation from the norm, a peculiar deformity that pleased the man, and he decided to consolidate this decorative feature in subsequent generations.
Telescopes were bred in the 16th century in China and for a long time they were only popular in Asia. In Europe, these fish first appeared only in 1872, decorating the collection of the French aquarist P. Carbonier. In the same year, this breeder sold several individuals of A.S. Meshchersky, so Demenkin came to Russia. And by the beginning of the 20th century, through the efforts of domestic breeders, many species of different shapes and colors appeared.
What does a telescope look like?
Dragon fish, as they call it telescopes, has such structural features:
- Slightly shortened, swollen body, resembling a ball or an egg, with a round belly.
- A large head, on which are strongly convex eyes and a mouth directed slightly downwards, moving apart with an accordion.
- The eyes are so prominent that if you look at the head of the telescope from above, it clearly resembles a hammer. In shape, they can be spherical, dish-shaped, spherical, cylindrical, and conical. The eyes of the fish most often look slightly forward and in different directions, but there is a variety of astronomers whose eyes look upwards.
- Scales may be medium or absent.
- The dorsal, ventral, and lateral fins are wide, the caudal bifurcated, elongated, and strongly hanging down.
Varieties of telescopes
The basis of the classification demenkinov put such features as:
- The shape and size of the fins (tape and skirt telescopes).
- Scale form (individuals with and without scales).
- black is the most common and frequently occurring species, has a small tail and long lateral fins, the scales are arranged in straight rows,
- the panda is colored symmetrically, the black and white sections alternate,
- magpie - has a white body and black fins,
- red chinese.
The nature and compatibility of telescopes
Like all "Cinderella," telescopes belong to schooling fish, and settle them better in groups of 4-6 individuals. If the aquarium is not specific, then only peaceful, peaceful neighbors should be selected. For the Demenkin, slowness is characteristic, and therefore the more frisky inhabitants of the reservoir will easily leave them without food. Moreover, this can happen even within the same breed.
Short-bodied (telescope, lionhead, oranda, ranch, ryukin) and long-bodied (goldfish, comet, shubunkin) individuals cannot be settled together, because the former are more demanding of their living conditions, and besides, they risk being offended by the representatives of the second group and remain hungry because of them.
Ideal neighbors for the Demenkins are fish with similar temperament and habitat conditions.
You also can not settle them with fighting fish, for example, with a Siamese cockerel. The result of this neighborhood can be dangling fins and damaged eyes. Telescopes themselves, although harmless, are very voracious, so they can be dangerous for small fish and fry, which they will take for food.
How to equip an aquarium?
When arranging a home, the main efforts are directed at creating conditions under which the telescope could not damage its most valuable asset - the eyes. These fish will long live and feel well, given that:
Aquarium. The recommended amount of water per fish is from 50 liters. For a flock of 4-6 individuals an aquarium of 200 liters is needed.
Water. Water quality indicators should be within the following ranges: hardness 8-25, acidity 6-8. Золотые рыбки – холодноводные обитатели, поэтому оптимальной температурой считается 20-23°С, но телескопы могут переносить и больший диапазон 18-28°С, но без резких перепадов.
Фильтрация. In the aquarium, you will need to install a powerful filter with a capacity of 3 volumes per hour, as the fish are large and like to eat, and therefore quickly pollute the water. In muddy water, the demokines may die.
Aeration. Lack of oxygen in the water is unacceptable, therefore, aeration and weekly replacement of a quarter of the volume of water is needed.
Lighting. In addition to natural lighting, it is advisable to install an additional one, namely fluorescent lamps (0.5 W / l).
Priming. Fish love to dig in the ground. Therefore, it is better to take gravel or pebbles without sharp edges, or coarse sand. So they themselves do not get hurt, and do not lift the murk from the bottom. It is important to remember that in search of food, goldfish often swallow pebbles. If they are small enough, then the telescope will spit them out without problems, but with a large fraction of the soil it can choke. If such a nuisance has already occurred, then the fish must be carefully wrapped in a tissue and a tweezers to remove the stuck stone.
Vegetation. Plants are chosen with large leaves and strong roots (nugget, vallisneria, sagittaria, elodea). Better yet, plant them in pots. Gentle telescopes plants will eat. Danger to the eyes of fish can be plants with hard leaves. Grass is planted in the background, and the front is left to swim.
Registration. Choosing decorations for the aquarium, first of all, pay attention to their safety. Various snags and grottoes will not only impede the movement of clumsy telescopes, but also cause injuries. If you want to decorate the aquarium, it is better to do it with large rounded, non-sharp stones.
Diseases of telescopes
The most common ailments that affect these fish are:
- Bacterial infections that cause scabies. In this case, the body of the fish covers whitish mucus, and she constantly scratches herself on the stones. To fix the situation will only help a complete change of water.
- Fungus. In this disease, thin white strings appear on the body of the fish, which, if left untreated, will turn into a bloom similar to cotton wool and germinate into the internal organs. Sick telescopes almost cease to move and lie on the bottom.
- Defeats by parasites and the simplest organisms.
- Oxygen starvation. Signs: Fish often rise to the surface of the water to swallow air. Causes: overcrowding, too high water temperature, reduced oxygen in the water due to rotting plants or food debris. Consequences: appetite falls, growth stops, death. How to fix: reduce the temperature, increase the aeration, clean the bottom. If this is not enough, relocate the fish.
- Improper feeding can lead to inflammation of the digestive tract or obesity.
- Stress that a transplant can cause, bad water or unsuitable neighbors.
- Common cold, which is manifested in the death and flaking of the skin. Occurs with sharp fluctuations in water temperature.
- Invert. In this disease, the fish do not keep balance, tumbles, hangs at the surface of the water or lies at the bottom. In most cases, it is caused by inflammation of the swim bladder.
In conclusion, we say that the content of the telescope is not such a simple matter, it will take a lot of attention and time for proper care. However, an unusual form and funny behavior will bring their owner a lot of happy moments.
The history of the fish
In nature, the fish telescope is not found. Because it belongs to goldfish, and they were bred from a wild crucian. The crucian lives in a lake, a pond, a river, it lives in many bodies of water, and therefore is considered quite common. The basis of its diet are fry, insects, plants.
Initially, goldfish appeared in China, then in Japan, Europe, and only then in America. Based on this, one can guess that China is the birthplace of the telescope.
In Russia, these fish appeared in 1872. Today they are very common.
What does this fish look like?
Although the telescope belongs to goldfish, his body is not at all elongated, but rounded or ovoid. This fish is very similar to the veiltail. Only the latter has no such eyes. Telescopes possessors of a large head, on both sides of which large eyes are located, besides this, the fish has rather large fins.
To date, you can meet a telescope of different colors and shapes. Their fins can be long or short. Colors are also quite diverse. The most popular is considered a black telescope. Such fish can be purchased in the store or on the market. However, sometimes they change color, this should be known to the buyer or owner of this fish.
These fish live for about 10 years. If they live in freedom, they can live to 20. Their size fluctuates, and depends on the living conditions, as well as on the species. The average size of 10-15 centimeters, sometimes larger, up to 20. But what the fish looks like a telescope in the photo.
Low temperatures are not terrible for this fish, they can feel very good even in such situations. Despite the fact that these fish are not picky and do not require any special care, novice aquarists should not get them. This is due to their eyes, because they do not see well, they can not notice the food and starve. Another common problem of telescopes is eye inflammation, because after injuring the mucous membrane, they infect the eye.
In the aquarium, these fish live quite well, but they can survive in the pond. After all, the main thing is the purity of the water, the availability of food and friendly neighbors. The aggressive inhabitants of a pond or aquarium can leave sluggish telescopes hungry, which will inevitably lead them to death.
If you intend to keep them in the aquarium, then you should not get a round version. This is because in such aquariums the sight of the fish deteriorates, and in telescopes it is already very bad. In addition, the fish in the round aquarium can stop growing, this should also be remembered.
You can feed telescopes:
- Live view feed.
- Ice cream view.
- Artificial view.
It is better, of course, if the basis of nutrition is artificial feed. It is represented mainly by granules. And in addition to the pellets, you can feed them with bloodworms, daphnia, artemia, etc. The owners of these fish should take into account the vision of their pets, since in order for this fish to eat and find food, it will take much longer than other inhabitants of the aquarium. I would also like to say that the artificial food slowly disintegrates and does not dig into the ground, so it is he who is given the first place.
Life in an aquarium
For the maintenance of this fish is perfect to purchase a spacious aquarium. However, it must be equipped in a certain way:
- Telescopes produce a lot of waste, so the aquarium should contain a powerful filter, it is better if it is external and powerful enough. A daily water change of at least 20% is required.
- As already mentioned, round aquariums will not work, rectangular will be more convenient and more practical. As for the volume, it will be optimal to 40-50 liters for one fish. From this we can conclude that if the fish are 2, then water will need 80-100 liters.
- As for the soil, it should be either smaller or larger. These fish love to rummage in it, sometimes they can swallow it.
- Can be placed in the aquarium plants or decor. But do not forget about the problem eyes of these fish. Before you decorate and diversify your aquarium, you need to make sure that the fish will not get hurt.
- Water temperature is optimal from 20 to 23 degrees.
The ability of the telescope fish to live with other inhabitants of the aquarium
These fish love society. But it is better if this society is like itself. Other species of fish can injure the fins or eyes of telescopes, due to the fact that the latter are slow and practically blind. You can, of course, put to telescopes:
But tertseni, Sumatran barbus, tetragonopterus as neighbors do not fit the obsalyutno.
Sex differences and reproduction
Until spawning begins, the girl or the boy does not recognize it. Only during spawning in the female the shape of the body changes, because of the calf contained in it, it becomes round. The male differs only in white bumps on the head.
For healthy offspring, individuals of 3 years are most suitable. Reproduction occurs at the end of spring. In order for the parents themselves do not eat caviar, they must be seated in different aquariums. After spawning has occurred, the female needs to be transferred to the main aquarium.
After 5 days, larvae will appear from the roe, which do not need to be fed. Feed will need to appear later fry. Fry grow in different ways, so the smaller ones should be planted separately, so that they do not starve, since larger relatives will not allow them to fully feed.
Knowing all the information, to grow and maintain telescope fish is not difficult. But you need to take responsibility for these pets only if you can provide them with optimal and, most importantly, safe living conditions.