Animals of Baikal Your name (required) Your e-mail (required) Subject Message Report ▲ ▼ Problems Information is incorrectPrints, incorrect spelling and punctuationInformation has lost relevanceInadequate information on the topicInformation on the page is repeatedPart of text on pages not interesting - this is a unique creation of nature.


Baikal, together with its surroundings, is a very beautiful place, one can talk about amazing landscapes and wonders for a very long time. This is a land with very picturesque nature: fabulous landscapes, bizarre capes, magnificent cliffs, as well as other beauties found here at every step.

The fauna of Lake Baikal is extremely diverse, since nature is preserved almost in its original form, and the indigenous people live in the traditional way. Thanks to this, this place attracts ecotourists from all over the world every year.

Wildlife of Lake Baikal

There is a huge number of animals, some of which can only be found in this place. For example, the seal - a cute animal, which has long been a symbol of this lake. Or golomyanka fish - completely transparent! In Lake Baikal, the animal world is represented by a huge number of various fishes, seal, etc. On the shore live squirrels, sables, deer, wild boars, foxes, which are very common for tourists. Wolves, bears and lynxes are kept away from the tourist trails. The birds are singing here all day long. And if we talk about fish, sturgeon, grayling, whitefish and omul are typical inhabitants of local waters.

Baikal seal

Here the only representative of mammals is the Baikal seal (or seal). And if we consider the problems of Baikal, then it can be noted that this animal is on the verge of extinction.

There are several hypotheses about how the seal appeared here. There is a version that it penetrated here from the Arctic Ocean during the ice age along the rivers, loaded with ice.

This amazing beast is almost all its life in the water, ascending every 20 minutes for a portion of fresh air. In winter, he breathes through special vents - small airways, which he creates by raking ice from below with claws of his front paws. The seal overwinters in the lairs, arranging them in the hummocky parts of the lake under the snow. There are more than 10 different ancillary products around the lair. They can defend from the main by tens of meters. It has been proven that the ability to make breathing is a congenital instinct.

The main food of the seal is golomyanko-goby fish. In the day she eats 3-5 kg ​​of fresh fish. An adult seal eats up to a ton of fish a year.

At about 4 years old, the female becomes mature. Males reach sexual maturity 1-2 years later. Seals have a pregnancy that lasts 11 months. Until the age of forty she is able to produce offspring.

In February and April puppies are born. They appear in the snow lair, on the ice, they feed on mother's milk. Basically, the seal gives birth to the 1st, sometimes two babies, whose weight is up to 4 kilograms. Cubs have white fur, which allows them to remain almost invisible in the snow.

The average weight of the seal is 50 kg, the maximum - 150 kg. The speed of a floating animal is up to 20 kilometers per hour.

Big golomyanka

In Baikal there live 2 types of golomyanka - small and large. These 2 species are found at considerable depths. They stay in the day at a depth of 500 m, rising to 50 m at night. Since the water of Baikal is very clean, you can see these beautiful pink fish shimmering with all shades of a rainbow about 20 centimeters in size. In golomyanka body translucent due to the huge fat content (about 45%).

She is a live-giving fish. In this case, in a large individual, the larvae are born in the autumn, while in the small one already in June. In a large golomyanka the number of larvae is about 4000, in a small one - 2500.

Fish live up to 5 years. The food is consumed by young fish and crustaceans.

Baikal omul

Omul - the main commercial fish. The clear water of Baikal allows four races of the omul to live in it: Chivyrkuy, Selenginskaya, Severobaikalskoy, and the embassy.

In the autumn, during the spawning period, all races set off on their own river. The course for spawning in the river begins with the equalization of the water temperature in August-September. In October spawning occurs at a water temperature of no more than 5 ° C. The development of roe lasts 8 months, and the slope of young larvae ends by the end of May. The juvenile omul, hitting the near estuarine sites, in the lower reaches of the rivers, in the sora, bays lingers here for 1.5 months, since in May-June these sites are characterized by the best water heating.

Juveniles in a warm shallow area intensively feed on small chironomid larvae, plankton, etc. The larvae become juveniles, and as soon as the waters of the coastal areas of the lake reach 11 ° C or more, the juvenile fry gradually disperses over Lake Baikal, whose animal world is so rich and diverse.

An omul becomes an adult in the 5th year of its life.

The sizes of fish of different races differ. The largest is the Selenga race. In summer catches, the average body weight reaches 404 grams with a body length of 35 centimeters. The smallest size differs North Baikal race, in which the average weight reaches 255 grams in summer catches.

The maximum weight of the fish is 5 kilograms.

Baikal sturgeon

The fauna of Baikal is very rich. Briefly speaking about him, it is necessary to tell about the Baikal sturgeon. It constantly lives here and is connected with the rivers mainly during breeding, which occurs in V. Angara, Barguzin and Selenga. Although he can live in rivers permanently, especially in the first 3 years. Juveniles further rolls into the lake. Within its borders, sturgeon is spread over a vast area. He mastered the shallow zone up to 200 m. During the spawning period, fish migrate along rivers almost 100 km from the mouth.

Baikal sturgeon grows relatively long. Males of puberty reach 15 years, while females are only 20 years old.

Once upon a time fish were caught, whose body weight reached 200 kilograms, at present a representative weighing up to 90 kg is rarely found. In females, the average body weight is 22.5 kilograms with a length of 160 centimeters, in males about 13.5 kilograms with a length of about 130 centimeters. The average fecundity of fish - 420000 eggs.

The composition of fish food is varied due to the wealth of Lake Baikal. The fauna that attracts sturgeon is worms, mollusks, spring-eared larvae, chironomids, scuds, shirokolobki, occasionally juvenile carp fish and perch.

Black Baikal Grayling

An endemic variety of Siberian grayling. Fish is distributed throughout Lake Baikal (Russia), especially near the mouth of the rivers, where it breeds. Lives at shallow depths (up to 15 m) near the coast, where there are rocky soils.

During warm periods, migrates to the largest tributaries of Baikal. At this time, the males get a colorful, bright outfit. In black grayling, spawning occurs in May. After that, the fish rolls into the lake, and fry and grayling larvae linger there for a long time. By the fall, they also slide into Baikal and the beds of large rivers.

In black grayling sexual maturity comes to four years.

Food: caddis larvae, chironomids, gammarids, mayflies and insects.

The average size is 250 mm with a body weight of 300 grams. The maximum length of black grayling is 530 mm with a weight of 1.2 kg.

White Baikal grayling

The endemic species of the Siberian grayling differs from the black by a lighter coloring and some biological features.

It dwells throughout the lake, while at the same time it is exposed to spaces in the mouths of large tributaries, mainly the northeast and eastern parts of the lake.

White looks more black. Its maximum weight is about 2 kg and more with a body length of about 600 mm. The average size of the fish is 300 mm with a weight of 500 g.

In fish, maturity comes to seven years. The average fecundity of the white species is 5 times more than black.

Spawning occurs in May when the water temperature is 14 ° C. At this time, the caviar is deposited on the sandy coastal shoals at a depth of about 50 cm. The fry and fish roll up in the same way as in the black grayling.

The food is the rich fauna of Baikal: larvae of spring vegetation, caddisflies, chironomids, mayflies, dragonflies.

Elk moose

The elk is the largest animal of the Baikal region. Its average weight is 400 kilograms, individual males weigh and 0.5 tons. Body length reaches 3 meters with height at withers about 2.3 m. At the same time, males differ from females in large size and also in that they have shovel-like, alternating annually horns. The most powerful horns appear in males for 15 years. In January, the horns fall, the growth of new starts in March.

Gon happens at the end of September. In May, the fauna of Baikal is enriched - calves are born to females.

Elks are kept in groups of 4-6 individuals or singly.

In winter, they feed on the bark and shoots of trees, in summer - a variety of herbs.

Musk deer is the smallest deer that lives on the shores of Lake Baikal. The fauna of these places is very diverse. Musk deer is of particular interest to many. The body length is 1 meter with a mass of about 17 kilograms. The hind legs are much longer than the front. There are no horns, although the males have curved, long canines.

Lives in the taiga, eats ground and tree lichens.

Gon occurs in November, pregnancy lasts about 190 days. One, sometimes two cubs are born.

Assessing the problems of Baikal, it should be noted also the rapid disappearance of this species. This is mainly due to the fact that it is actively hunting. This is due to the musky gland located in the males on the stomach. Musk is a gelatinous, thick substance with a very strong odor, which is used in perfumery and medicine.

Red Wolf

Red Wolf - Another animal that has practically disappeared from the territory of Russia. In the Irkutsk region is the northern boundary of the range of this predator. People lucky enough to see this rare predator say they look like a wolf, a fox and a jackal at the same time. Fiery-red color of the back in combination with a bright belly and paws, black tail make this animal very spectacular.
Do not underestimate his power: a large pack of red wolves can beat a leopard or a tiger.

Poaching, as well as the gradual moistening of the climate and the associated deep snow and the press of forest vegetation, have caused the reduction of red wolves in Russia.

Omul is the most numerous commercial species of the Baikal genus (sig species). The lake is inhabited specifically by the Baikal subspecies (endemic), its four populations: Selenga, North Baikal, embassy, ​​Chivyrkuy. Of the populations of the most numerous Selenga. Biomass completely totals 25–30 thousand tons. The Baikal omul is not the largest fish - it reaches a maximum length of 50 cm, and in weight - a maximum of 5 kg.

Golomyanka is the most numerous fish of Baikal, part of the food chain of the lake ecosystem. There is a big golomyanka and a small one. The large female is 25 cm long, and the male is 16 cm. The female and the male of small golomyanka reach 15 and 12 cm long, respectively.

Comephorus biomass exceeds biomass of all other Baikal fish by half. Golomyanka is a very interesting fish: without scales, without a swim bladder, viviparous (it does not spawn), translucent, lives at full depth (from the surface to the bottom, withstands water pressure of 125 bar) and is the main food for the Baikal seal and other fish . It feeds on plankton and other small organisms (a large golomyanka can eat a small one). Golomyanka by 35% (in muscles - more than 40%) consists of fat. Through its tail, you can read the text in large print. Small “growth” is more than compensated for by huge pectoral fins, reaching 200% relative to body size.

Siberian sturgeon

Speaking about the rare representatives of the fauna of Baikal, one cannot fail to mention its underwater inhabitants. Siberian sturgeon a rapidly declining subspecies of sturgeon, which lives in extensive shallow waters, in large bays and near the mouths of large rivers. Sturgeon in Baikal live up to 50-60 years or more, reaching 100-130 kilograms of mass, 1.5 - 1.8 meters or more. At the end of the last century, over 1000 centners of sturgeon were harvested in Baikal and in its rivers.

Barguzinsky sable

The sable is a legendary animal, spread not only on Baikal: it is found throughout the taiga territory of Russia, its birthplace is forests and mountains of Eastern Siberia. Sable fur - soft gold. He is handsome, durable, and from that valuable. The degree of value of fur depends on the color - the darker the better. Barguzinsky sable - the darkest.

In the USSR, the animal population on Baikal was almost completely destroyed, since there were no fishing quotas. Then they came to their senses and restored them to their original level (XVII century), and then went too far, and the sable multiplied too much, which upset the hunting balance. Full order in this area, it seems, has not been established so far.

At length, the sable reaches 56 cm, plus 20 cm of the tail (not the largest animal). Morning and evening is very active. He prefers to live in cedar forests, although he rarely rises into the crowns of trees.

At the beginning of the 90s, the sable skin at a fur auction in St. Petersburg cost more than $ 100, but by the end of the 90s its price had dropped to $ 62, as in developed countries more and more inclined to artificial fur.

Another representative of the animals of Baikal is a wild one. Elks live on the whole Eurasia, but on the lake they are rare and differ from other elks in their first size. Average the weight of an elk living on the lake is 400 kgHowever, the weight of many males is more than halftones. Height at the bottom of the withers is 2.5m, and the minimum body length is 3m. The most beautiful and powerful horns have a 15-year-old elk. Under favorable conditions, the life expectancy of corals is 25-30 years. They drop their horns in January, and new ones start growing in early March. The rut time is September-October, and the elk are born in May-June. Elks live in groups of 4-8 individuals, eat grass and shoots, and in winter - bark.

Interesting inhabitants of Baikal are small deer - musk deer, which are sometimes called "saber-toothed." Indigenous people tell the legend of how a deer fell in love with a lynx, and as a result of this love, musk deer appeared. These animals, like the seals, are on the verge of extinction. The reason is poaching. Males - the source of musk, which is the basis of many recipes in perfumery and medicine, and poachers hunt him, and therefore, for musk deer.

The maximum weight of musk deer is 18 kg, and the length of the body is 1 m. The horns are absent, but the males have fangs with which lichens are dexterously snagged from trees - the favorite food of deer. Gon starts at the end of October. Fawns are born 190-200 days later.

White-tailed eagle

The region of Baikal and its surrounding lands lies within the range of such a rare bird as white-tailed eagle It is the largest nesting predator of the Irkutsk region, and it is interesting because it has perfectly adapted itself to life near large rivers, lakes, marshes and even sea coasts, becoming a skilled fisherman. During the hunt for fish, the eagle sometimes for a short time sinks itself into the water. A serious threat to the species is the destruction of its habitats - deforestation (and burning) of forests near water bodies, destruction of wetlands, and poaching is also having a certain effect.

Today, this rare bird is protected both at the All-Russian and international levels.

At first glance, defenseless, clumsy creatures live in the world of Baikal and wolverine. In fact, they are fast, agile and merciless predators belonging to the weasel family. They look like a miniature bear. On average, wolverine grows up in length up to 1m.

This tireless hunter and traveler during the day can travel 40-50 km in search of prey. They serve him as food: birds, rodents, eggs, carrion. A predator can attack a dying or wounded deer.

Aboriginal people tell a lot of tales about the wolverine’s cunning and deceit, which is easily done with moose. There is no specific mating time, however, the wolverine's offspring produce, as a rule, in the winter in the tunnel she made in the snow. Interestingly, fathers somehow find out about what is happening and come. They take care of the family - they bring food to the female and the young. Female can give birth twice a year, but observations from 1969 show that this phenomenon is very rare. Wolverine has a lifespan of 10-15 years. On the lake they have only one enemy - the wolf.

Brown bears living in the beautiful world of Lake Baikal, grow in length to 2.5-3m, and at the withers have a height of 1.5 m and above. This leisurely beast is sedentary, although if necessary it can go in search of food up to 300 km and return. Baikal bears are omnivorous, but prefer fish. In hibernation can stay up to six months. Берлоги строят основательнее, чем европейские медведи. Четкого времени спаривания нет. За раз медведица приносит 1-4 малышей, которые первую спячку проводят с мамой. В заповеднике медведи живут 20-25 лет.

Рысь – хищное животное семейства кошачьих. Самая северная кошка нашей страны. Ее встречают даже за полярным кругом. Three species of lynx are known: Ordinary, Canadian (some scientists are not inclined to single out its separate species, but are considered a subspecies ordinary), Pyrenean is one of the rarest species of mammals.

Lynx is a real cat, although it has the size of a large dog. Body length reaches 80-130 cm, height at withers is 70. At the same time adult lynx weigh a little. Males in rare cases reach 30kg, but usually no more than 25. Females weigh 18kg on average. Paws are long and large, so that you can walk in the snow and not fall. The body is dense, looks short. The tail is also short. The head of the lynx is expressive, on the tips of the ears of the brush there is a well-known sign to almost everyone. Fur color depends on the habitat. Only spotting on the back and sides remains unchanged. And the color ranges from red-brown to smoky with tan.

Not every season breeds, cubs usually appear 3-5, the male does not care about the family. Food for lynx are: fox, hare, deer, eggs. Attacks from ambush. To wolverines retains neutrality.

Legendary snow leopard. This beast cannot be killed, even if it attacks. Protect the tourist is allowed with darts with sleeping pills. So this animal is rare. Since 1969, there have been no cases of attacks on irbis people. Predators hunt mainly for ungulates. Appearance resemble cats. Every beast has a chip. Weight ranges from 55 to 65 kg, body length - from 1.05 to 1.1 m. They prefer to mate from January to the end of March, the offspring appear after 100 days - from two to four cubs. Today, 49 leopards live in the reserve.

The fate of this animal is not easy, because the hare serves as food for many Baikal predators. The weight of the beast is 2.5-5 kg, and the body length reaches 0.5 m. They dig deep burrows - 8-9 m. They feed on plants, in winter they eat bark and branches. In the year the hare gives 3-4 litters of 2-6 hare. White hares live in large "families". Often come to the aid of their own kind.

Unique foxes live on the shores of Lake Baikal. Only here are red foxes react calmly to people. Seeing a group of tourists, they do not leave, but begin to "pose", stretching their faces in a smile. In return, the tourists leave them food, so the benefits of shooting foxes are direct.

This graceful beast is somewhat different from the relatives in European forests. The fox weighs 10-15 kg, and its torso is 80-90 cm long (without tail). Tail length - from 60 cm, it serves as a "stabilizer" during the run. Foxes live on Baikal for 15-17 years, although in other places their life expectancy is 3-10 years. Holes foxes are needed only for shelter from the weather or danger and for breeding. The fox can easily sleep under a bush. On Baikal, among other things, foxes eat fish, worms and larvae. There is no specific mating time, but they prefer to give birth in early spring. Kids are raised by both parents. Monogamous. Each family lives in "its" territory. If there is enough food, the "guests" are treated calmly.

Kulik - a sparrow one of the smallest sandboxes. Klyun its short, perfectly straight, quite boggy. The pinch is of medium length, the fingers are short, the wings are narrow, but not very long. The extreme pair of tail feathers, as well as their middle pair, is slightly longer than the rest of the steering gears. The bottom is white, the front part of the chest, goiter, throat, sides of the neck and cheeks with a reddish-buffy tinge and brown speckles. Primary primary black-brown, secondary primary white at the base and with black tips. In winter, sparrow waders have a grayish-brown dorsal side of the body, the middle parts of the back feathers are black, the ventral side is white, and in the area of ​​the goiter there is a dirty ocher coating and brown striation.

The sparrow wader nest is a simple fossa with last year’s crushed grass, often under a bush, sometimes on a dry sandy site. As a pavement can serve as the leaves of the northern willows. Often the nest is so poorly expressed that if you take out the eggs from it, you can not find the boundaries of the nest. In full, there are 4 eggs, which vary quite in color but, in general, are still brown-olive.

Laying eggs in these birds begins at. The last decade of June, puhovichki appear in the second - the third decade of July, sometimes at the beginning of this month. At the end of July - beginning of August one can observe already fully fledged, but often not flying chicks. However, even before the chicks are flying, broods of several families are often united in a common flock and begin to pre-flight movements on the tundra.

The common duck mallard is a large river duck, its size is about a domestic duck. The head of a male is black with a green tint, chestnut goiter, the beak is yellow and the paws are orange. Common mallard females are colored brown, with dark-colored mottled, blue “mirror” under the tail, pinkish beak with dark middle.

Common Mallard in Eurasia and North America is very widespread. It lives in various reservoirs with fresh water and rich vegetation, prefers places overgrown with reeds, cattails, reeds and duckweed, but having small spaces with clean water. Wintering mallard flies to warmer areas where water bodies do not freeze through.

In early spring, flies to the nesting sites. The nest is built near water, under the shelter of a windbreak, a dead tree, under a bush or a Christmas tree.

The female lays from 8 to 16 greenish-white eggs and incubates them for about three weeks. Ducklings can swim from birth, only by hatching from the egg and drying out, they immediately follow their mother to the water. Ducklings feed mainly on insects and worms, which are harvested in the thickets of coastal vegetation, where the whole brood of mallards is kept.

From the northern and middle regions of our country to warm regions, the duck flies away in late autumn. It is not uncommon for ducks to be found wintering right in the city, for example, on large industrial sites, where there is practically no danger to them in the form of other animals. On such wintering grounds, the mallard duck is always fed by workers, and the reservoir for it is served by ice-free quarries for wastewater from enterprises. And it is very strange that such dirty water suits them completely.

A characteristic feature of the ogari bird is its bright plumage of an orange-brown color in the main part of the body and whitish-ocher in the neck and on the head. Black tail and nadhvostiya have a greenish ebb. The beak, the iris and the legs are also black, like the flight feathers on the white wings. Rare and fine teeth are located along the edge of the upper mandible and mandible. A bird in flight can easily see the white spots of impressive size in the lower part of the wings (on the coverts).

This large duck on high legs with a short beak, long neck and proud posture looks like a small goose. In the mating season, the male has a characteristic black ring on the neck, which disappears during the seasonal shift of plumage, and the female - with light colored feathers on the sides of the head.

Another characteristic feature of ogarey is a noisy voice, vaguely resembling a donkey neighing. In flight, they make a deep sound "gang ...", turning into a dull trill. In females, the voice is sharper and louder.

Feeding the duck the burner finds for itself both in water and on land. Prefers plant food: seeds and green shoots of grassy plants and cereals. But do not hesitate and insects: locusts, fillies, etc. In the water it looks for mollusks, crustaceans, small fish and even frogs.

At the end of summer, on the harvested fields, ogaris pick up the seeds of sown winter crops or plow the roads, pecking up the spilled grain. Ogari prefer to look for food at night or at dusk, and rest during the day. Although Ogaris are exempted from parental care after 2 months after birth, they become mature and able to have their offspring only from the second year of life.

Herring Gull

A large, powerful white-headed gull with an “angular” head. In adult birds, "arrogant" facial expression. The bill is powerful, with an obvious bend of the mandible. It lives on the sea coasts, by rivers, lakes and swamps. Often found in cities and in landfills. Body length 55–67 cm, wingspan 138–150 cm, weight 717–1525 g.

In an adult bird, the head and underparts of the body are white in summer; in winter, the head and neck are abundant with gray or brown speckles. The mantle is light gray, approximately like that of a gray gull. The changeable black pattern at the end of the wing extends to 5-6 swing feathers. Extreme flight feather (tenth) is usually with a completely white end, the next (ninth) - with a sufficiently large pre-summit white spot. In many birds, white “tongues” on the inner webs of the outer primary flight feathers are sometimes combined with a white pre-peak spot on the penultimate flight feather (ninth). The black transverse strip on the fifth flywheel is often completely or partially absent. Eyes pale yellow. The eyelids are yellow, pink or red. The beak is yellow, with an orange spot on the bend of the mandible and with a whitish tip. Legs are pink, yellow or grayish.

Returns to nesting sites (on the Murmansk coast) in March. Nests mainly colonies, sometimes on the roofs of buildings. The female and male build a nest of moss, leaves, stems or twigs, which they find next to the nest. Egg laying starts from the first decade of May. In full clutch, 2–3, less often 1 or 4 eggs, the color of which is very changeable, brown or greenish with dark spots. Both parents incubate for 26–32 days. Chicks start flying from 38–45 days.

It feeds on fish, small mammals and birds, chicks and eggs, mollusks, berries, various kinds of waste, carrion. Often numerous at the dumps of domestic garbage.

Fritillary bird - inhabiting the forests of Russia. Grouse bird size, when compared with other birds, about the crow. The color of its feathers is gray and has transversal lines, due to which ripples go throughout the plumage.

Thanks to this ripple, he got his name. The male has a crest on his head and a black spot on his throat. The wings of the hazel grouse are dull and short. It flies for short distances, taking off creating noise, flapping its wings.

The area of ​​distribution of forests of Eurasia and Asia. Grouse is a bird that lives in pairs, preferring mixed and spruce forests. Leads sedentary, but in search of food can make short migrations. Hazel grouse, a bird that lives in the forest, spends most of its life on the ground, can run fast. And only if scare grouse, they fly up into the trees, and will long lurk in their crowns.

The grouse's nest is arranged on the ground, among the dead trees and windbreaks, in impassable forest areas. The grouse female lays 6-10 eggs, incubates them for about three weeks. Males do not take part in the incubation of eggs and do not care about the chicks. One female takes care of the hatched chicks. It protects them from predators and bad weather.

Insects and their larvae serve as food for the chicks, they also eat spiders. Grown up chicks, as well as adult birds, eat food of vegetable nature - grass seeds, berries, leaves, etc.

The winter period is the most difficult for grouse. In order to escape from severe frosts, the birds burrow into the snow, getting out of it only occasionally to climb trees and find food. In winter, hazel grouse feed on alder and birch catkins.

Golden Eagle is the largest member of its family: body length is 76–93 cm, and wingspan is 180 to 240 cm. Females, like most eagles, are larger than males. The maximum known mass of the female is 6.7 kg, and the male is 4.6 kg. When hovering, the rear edge of the wing of the golden eagle resembles the English letter S. The tail is more rounded and long than that of other eagles, it opens like a fan in flight. The plumage may be reddish-brown or dark brown interspersed with golden feathers at the back of the head and neck.

Most of the Northern Hemisphere. In Russia, it is found almost everywhere, with the exception of the Amur region. It lives in mountainous areas, forests, sometimes it can settle in the desert. It nests on forest islands surrounded by swamps.

Golden Eagles are serious predators. Golden eagles hunt for hares, foxes, young ungulates, various rodents and birds. Their worst weapon is powerful paws. The claw on the first finger of this predator reaches 7 centimeters in length; it is the bird that delivers the fatal blow to its prey. And also golden eagles are real strong people: they are capable of lifting prey weighing 15–20 kilograms into the air!

Golden Eagles quietly hover in the sky, looking for prey with their keen eyes. Having noticed a potential prey, the predators immediately switch to a fast flapping flight, and then swoop down with partially folded wings. They grab mammals on the ground, and birds can reach for takeoff. Most often, a golden eagle with one paw grabs a victim for the head, and the second - behind its back to break the spine. Enemies are practically absent.

Common moth

Common mink is a rather not large snake, its length reaches not more than 80 cm. The head of the snake is wide, the cervical interception is pronounced, the top part is covered with growths having the shape of a shield.

From there, and takes its name - shchitomordnik. In the facial part, between the nostrils and the orbit of the shchitomordnik there is a very heat-sensitive fossa. Pupils of eyes are located vertically. On the circumference of the body of this snake, there are about 23 rows of scales, of which 155-187 are ventral scutes and from 33 to 50 pairs of subtail tails.

The moth has varieties: rocky, watery, Ussurian, oriental.

The color of the common mink in the upper body is usually brown or brownish-gray, with transverse dark spots. The number of spots varies from 29-50.

On the sides of the snake has a horizontal row of small specks of the same dark color. The head part is characterized by a clear pattern of stains and a distinct dark stripe is outlined on the sides. The abdomen may be light, barely grayish, or may have a dark brown color, with specks of the same shades. It is rare to see individuals of the same color, richly burgundy or black.

Patterned snake

Thanks to its ability to adapt perfectly to the environment, it is common in many parts of the world. This creeping reptile can be found both in the Siberian taiga forests and steppes of Kazakhstan, and in the deserts of Iran and Afghanistan. In the mountainous regions of our former Soviet republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. Also lives in the rice fields of China. A distinctive feature is the beautiful pattern and the variety of colors and shades of body color of this species.

The general background is gray with black spots. The body is relatively thin and has a smooth surface to the touch, which is caused by the structure of the scales on its skin. It is also a distinctive feature of this amphibian from other snakes. The length of the body runner 1.5 - 1.8 meters. It is not poisonous and absolutely safe for humans.

Feels great in the aquatic environment and on the branches of trees. It prefers to settle in hollows of trees, rocky crevices and underground burrows. It swims and dives well. Sunbathing when cold, getting the necessary energy and warmth. When it's hot hiding.

It predominantly leads a daytime life and, like all reptiles for the winter, hibernates, this happens in September - November, depending on the habitat and weather conditions.

The snake, like almost all snakes, is a predator. It hunts small rodents, snakes and birds. Not being poisonous kills them before swallowing by suffocation. The skid is an excellent angler and includes fish dishes in its menu.

Also do not shrink from insects. With pleasure eats bird eggs, swallowing them whole. Frequent cases of cannibalism (eating their own kind).

Muskrat - semi-aquatic rodent of small size, weighing up to one and a half kilogram. It has a thick silky fur, which almost never gets wet in the water. The color of the animal varies on the back from black to dark brown, on the belly from gray to light gray. On the hind limbs, which are much longer than the front, are membranes. The tail is covered with scales, serves as a rudder, but its length is almost equal to the body. The life span of a muskrat is about three years, however, it can live up to ten in captivity.

The native land of the muskrat is North America. Now she lives in Eurasia, with the exception of the tundra and forest-tundra, and the rodent in Scandinavia, Italy, and Spain also did not like it.

Muskrat settles on the shores of fresh shallow water reservoirs with dense vegetation. But the water near her home should not freeze to the bottom. It feeds mainly on plant food, but if that is not enough, it can eat mollusks, small fish. Muskrat lives in burrows, the entrance to which makes under water. Dwellings often do two-story, in case of changes in the water level. Also muskrats build and storerooms for stocks for the winter. As a result, forming a whole network of underground tunnels. Less often you can find lodges built from plant stalks, branches of shrubs and silt. In height such dwellings reach one meter, the entrance to them, as in burrows, is under water.

Water vole

Water vole belongs to the family of hamsters. It received its name because it settles near water sources - by rivers, lakes and ponds. During the flood, this animal avoids rivers, preferring to live in meadows and gardens.

Этот грызун обитает практически на всей территории России – исключением является Дальний Восток, районы Крайнего Севера и Восточная Сибирь. На территории Евразии распространена до побережья средиземного моря. Для обустройства жилища активно роет норы, тем самым нанося вред садам и огородам.

Длина тела с хвостом – до 25 сантиметров, хвост может занимать более половины этой длины. Грызун имеет массивное тело и короткую тупую мордочку. Мех настолько густой и плотный, что уши едва виднеются под ним. У водяной полевки серо-коричневый окрас. Хвост животного покрыт короткой и жесткой шерстью.

The water vole feeds on succulent plant shoots, tree bark, earthworms, and garden crops - a large colony of these rodents can ruin the entire crop, since these rodents eat a huge amount of food. They also destroy trees, as they completely eat the bark at the very base of the tree. With these rodents, causing enormous damage to agricultural land, there is a struggle. Poisons do not have much popularity, as they can harm plants. Ultrasonic rodent repellers are often used on large meadows, various traps are arranged. People owning private small gardens often use cat rats to fight.

Altai pika

Vibrissae in Altai pika of medium length (50-65 mm). Strongly varying in color and size. Summer fur of a back of various shades of reddish and brown tones, winter - from brown to grayish, sometimes there are black copies. The belly is very dark with rusty patina. The soles are dressed in dark brown wool. Body length 170-250 mm, rear foot length 24-35 mm. The total length of the skull varies from 39 to 58 mm.

The front of the skull is short. The interorbital space of the skull is flat and wide (4.2–6.0 mm, on average 12% of the length of the skull). The brain box is flattened. The molars are relatively short. The opener is covered by the edges of the maxillary bones, the palatal and incisal openings are separated.

The semi-fossil remains of the northern pikas are known from the “Holed Stone” cave on the r. Chusovoy, that is, significantly south of the modern distribution of this species on the Ural Range.

The northern pika is found mostly in mountainous areas, on the barrows and in the taiga zone, especially when there are scree from large stones. In the north of Siberia pika settlements are sometimes not associated with stony places. Occupies sometimes significant colonies. Like other species, it makes stocks of grass for the winter, placing them under stones or in rock crevices. The voice is a sharp squeak compared by some observers with a scream of a woodpecker. Reproduction data is almost non-existent.

Blackfoot Groundhog

Black-capped marmot is a mammal of the squirrel family of rodents. This animal is also called the Eastern or Kamchatka marmot.

The length of the trunk of the black-capped marmot comes to 540 mm. As a rule, the length of the tail of the black-capped marmot is 28% of the length of its body.

In the fauna of Russia is the largest type of marmots. The coat is soft, thick and long. Upper body color is dark due to black-brown ends of guard hair. The bottom of the body is painted in ocher-rusty or ocher tones.

Wool on the sides has a light, fawn color. Fur in the back of the back is often painted in bright red shades. The top of the head is painted black-brown or black. The base of the vibrissae and cheeks are bright, sometimes with a reddish tinge. The ears are bright red, there are dark spots under the eyes, dark lips bordering. The tail below is dark, and the top has the color of the back.

In the marmot colony, there are usually 4–5 year old burrows, about 10 fatty (temporary) burrows and one wintering burrow. Colonies are located on the southwestern and southern low-snow slopes of the mountains, as a rule, at an altitude of up to 4,200 meters above sea level. The chambers and passages of the wintering hole are located at a depth in the layer of soil that freezes through. In winter, the temperature of this soil drops to –16 ° C, and in summer only a maximum of + 2 ° C warms up. In the summer, the best length of the moves is facilitated by their large extent as well as a large number of exits from the hole. Near the courses, the soil thaws 40 - 50 cm deeper than in other areas. Marmots carry out the internal decoration of the walls of the nest chamber using a mixture of dry grass and earth.

Wild boars differ from ordinary domestic pigs with a flatter body. (laterally), gray-brown thick bristles, which form into a mane along the entire ridge, with a black patch and two large sharp canines (in males). In the night, the boar's eyes give a dark red color. Youngsters up to 3 months of age walk striped. The trail of wild boars reaches a value from 12 to 18 centimeters and has a clear pattern of all four hoofs. When walking their hind legs usually fall into the tracks left by the front ones.

As a habitat, wild boars have chosen thickets of mixed plants, alders, hornbeam, oak, oak and pine forests.. In the steppes, preference is given to floods and low scrub. In the mountains in the summertime they like to climb to alpine meadows. Wild boars are typical for the entire European zone of Russia, excluding the steppes deprived of water and the extremely northern lands. Also common in Primorye, Amur, in the southern part of Siberia and the Caucasus. In recent years, moved inland to the northeast, reaching the Prikamye.

Wild boars feed not only on acorns, but also nuts, fallen fruits, bulbs of plants, rhizomes, insects and worms. If the opportunity arises, expand the "diet" at the expense of bird eggs, chicks, frogs, snakes, rodents. Often eat carrion, gnawing to the bones. They extract food from the ground, tearing it with fangs and a tough patch. In winter, swamps are chosen as the “food base”, where the soil is used not to freeze. To fatten wild boars go out at night, resting in the daytime.

Roe deer is a small relative of a deer with a beautiful physique, a pretty face and long ears. For most of the year, roe deer are kept alone or in small groups. During mating games, the male performs a routine ritual, chasing the female, which runs in a circle.

Roe deer are kept singly or in groups of up to ten animals. They are most active early in the morning and at dusk - at such a time they can be observed not only in deciduous and mixed forests and forest edges, but also in fields, marshes, heather meadows and in coniferous forests.

At the slightest danger, the roe lifts its head and attentively peers from whence suspicious sounds are heard, while its ears are directed exactly in that direction. Only male roe deer have horns. Characteristic horns with three processes appear in the second year of life of the males. However, only in the third year of the life of the animal, they reach full development.

Young horns have a soft, velvety skin, riddled with a thick network of blood vessels. In spring, the horns ossify, and the male seeks to cleanse them from the skin, shaking them against the trunks and branches of trees. Roe deer usually graze early in the morning and at dusk. She willingly eats grass, young buds on the leaves of trees. The animal captures food with lower incisors and a hard chewing roller on top (in ruminants, there are no upper incisors), and bites it.

In the fall, when grass becomes smaller, the roe eats more nuts and other forest fruits (acorns, chestnuts, blueberries, sea buckthorn, beech fruits). In addition, its winter menu includes acorns, as well as swede and other root crops grown in the fields - until the first young grass appears on the ground in the spring. During severe frosts roe nibbles young branches from trees.

In Europe, roe deer populations are relatively sedentary and only change pastures. In winter, they choose less snowy areas where there are more shrubs with young bushes. Populations that live in the mountains make seasonal migrations. In winter, they descend to the lower belts of the mountains, where they find more food.

Sable is a predatory animal with fluffy beautiful fur, a valuable object of hunting. This animal is one of the closest "relatives" of the pine marten - the sable resembles her in appearance, and their habits coincide in part. The tail, which is so effective in the forest or stone marten, this animal is only about a third of the entire body length. But this, as life has shown, was never of fundamental importance to humans, since the sable has a high value in sable.

The sable is not the largest mammal among the weasels. Features of its appearance are as follows:

  • The body length of an adult individual is 40–58 cm, while the female is usually somewhat shorter than the male,
  • animal weight - about 2 kg,
  • the head of the sable has a wedge-shaped form, visually looks large, the muzzle is pointed, the ears are large, with a broad base, triangular in shape,
  • paws of an animal are relatively short, and it is because of this that its back has a characteristic curvature,
  • the shape of the paws is wide enough, densely pubescent (especially in winter, when the fur covers even the pads and claws), which is connected with the peculiarities of the sable lifestyle.

The fur of the animal is soft, fluffy, thick. The color is relatively monochromatic - on the body is dark brown, on the paws and tail is black and brown, on the head usually slightly lighter than on the body. In winter, the fur is somewhat lighter, in summer it is darker, so its basic tone varies from yellowish-sandy to brownish black. There is no characteristic clearly defined throat stain, only in some individuals it is present and has a blurred, fuzzy shape and a lighter color compared to the main color of the fur.

No animal or bird hunts sable for food. But he has two main competitors during the hunt - columns and ermine. With them the sable divides rodents so delicious for him. Therefore, if he happens to meet with one of these predators, then in order to kill the undesirable "neighbor", the sable even leaves the prey caught and transfers attention to the enemy.

Whitefish is a fish of the Salmon family. Two subspecies live in Baikal - Sig-Pyzhyan and Baikal whitefish. They differ in the number of gill stamens and the number of scales in the lateral line. Sig-Pyzhian is a lake-river form and lives in constant migrations. It spawns in rivers, and feeds in the lake. The Baikal whitefish is a lake form, it feeds and spawns in Baikal.

Whitefish is distributed throughout Lake Baikal, but the largest number of fish lives in Barguzinsky, Chivyrkuisky bays, in the Selenginsky shallow water and in the Small Sea.

Sigov weight reaches 10 kg. Puberty in whitefish of the lake-river form occurs unevenly, males become sexually mature in the fifth or sixth, and females in the seventh or eighth year of life. The lake form becomes sexually mature in the eighth year of life. Fecundity ranges from 35 to 55 thousand eggs.
Sig-Pyzhian makes spawning migrations to the rivers from August to October, Baikal whitefish enter spawning grounds in the Chivyrkuy Bay and into the Mukhor Bay in September. Spawning lasts 2-3 months.

Adult whitefish eat mollusks, benthic gammarids, crustaceans, insect larvae, young goby fish.

Lenok is a fish of the Salmon family. Distributed throughout Lake Baikal and in its tributaries.

By ten years, the weight of the fish reaches 2 kg, and by fifteen - 5-6 kg. The largest of those caught was weighing more than 8 kg and a meter long. Lenok reaches sexual maturity at the age of six to seven years old with a body length of 43-46 cm and a mass of 700-1000 g. Fertility depends on the age and size of the female and ranges from 3 to 12 thousand eggs. Lenok spawning rises in the rivers flowing into Baikal. Spawning occurs in May-June in areas with stony-pebbly soil, at a water temperature of 2.5-9 ° C. at a depth of 0.5-1.5 m. The food of adult fish consists of insects, gammarids, caviar and small gobies, sometimes lenok eats small-sized water birds and mice that accidentally get into the water.

Taimen ordinary, or Siberian - fish of the genus Taymen of the family Salmon. Distributed throughout the lake. The length of the fish reaches 2 meters, weight more than 80 kg. Taimen typical predator. It feeds on fish, as well as small animals accidentally caught in water. It reaches sexual maturity at the age of 5-6 years. In the spring, fish rise to the headwaters of rivers flowing into Baikal, females lay eggs in pebble nests. The fecundity of female trout - up to 30 thousand eggs.

Davatchan is a genus of fish of the Salmon family. Inhabits the northern part of Lake Baikal, mainly in the area of ​​the Frolikha Bay and on the coastal areas from the Totma River to the Upper Angara, as well as in the lake. Frolikha, from which the river of the same name flows into Baikal. It is a subspecies of the Arctic loach. The fish reaches a length of 45 cm. Weight up to 1 kg. Sexual maturity comes to six years. Fecundity of females from 350 - 1300 eggs.

Golomyanka is a genus of fish of the Golomyanka family, including two species - the Big Golomyanka and the Dolykovsky golomyanka or the Small Golomyanka. Are endemic to Baikal.

Golomyankas are translucent, viviparous fish, without scales and swim bladder with a fat content in the muscle mass of over 40% in the Big Golomyanka and up to 9% in the Minor. Males are much smaller than females. The size of females in the Big Golomyanka reaches 25 cm, males - 16 cm. Adult fish feed on epishura, macrohectopus, bottom amphipods and their young. Golomyanka is capable of withstanding a pressure of 125 bar and therefore can live at the bottom of Baikal.

Most golomyanka offspring usually gives birth in the fall, Small in spring, after the lake is freed from ice. Golomyanka can produce up to 2000 fry. After the birth of the fry, the adults die. Golomyanka is food for many animals living in the lake. It feeds on the seal and omul.

What is Baikal?

So let's start from the beginning. Where is Baikal? This natural wonder is located in the center of the Asian continent on the border of Buryatia and the Irkutsk region. The lake extends from the north-east to south-west for 620 km and has a crescent shape. It is the deepest lake in the world, and also the largest reservoir of drinking water. The Holy Sea, as they call this lake, in 1996 was listed as a UNESCO heritage site.

Lake Baikal consists of more than 150 rivers and streams, and only one river Angara flows out of it. This is an amazing reservoir that never looked the same two days in a row. The lake, which is frozen for 6 months. When you become a face in front of this huge mass of water, you will understand how nature can be creative and mysterious at the same time. And we must thank Baikal for creating a paradise on earth, where natural laws control the lives of local residents and where the shaman gods have the final say.

Nature of Baikal: the overall picture

2630 species and varieties of plants and animals live on Baikal, two thirds of which are endemic. The richness and diversity of flora and fauna is due to the high oxygen content in the lake water, regardless of depth. The plants and animals of Baikal are very diverse: from the smallest representatives to the huge, from rare to widespread. For example, the smallest living creatures of Baikal are protozoa. These are single-celled organisms, of which there are about 300 species.

The vast water area attracts many birds, a total of 236 bird species were found there, including 29 species of waterfowl (ducks, gulls, gray herons, geese, swans).

The Baikal Taiga is home to a brown bear, ermine, sable, weasel, badger, wolverine and chipmunk.

One of the most interesting inhabitants of the lake is the seal (Baikal seal). This is the only representative of aquatic mammals on the lake. These animals reach a length of 120-150 cm and weigh from 65 to 100 kg. The closest relatives of the seals live in the northern seas, Lake Ladoga and the Caspian Sea.

Mysterious Baikal seal: predator of a deep lake

Seals in the modern world have a very important role. In comparison with their competitors, they have some important advantages: for example, unlike otters, seals are provided with a thick layer of subcutaneous fat, which is the best heat insulator. They are not as sensitive to environmental changes as manatees, and, what distinguishes them from dolphins, are able to live in freezing waters.

It is not known exactly how the seal got into Lake Baikal, but most likely it penetrated through Lena into the system of lakes bordering the ancient Baikal. Even today, the seals fall into the rivers and can safely swim a thousand kilometers. Thus, the Baikal seal even reached Mongolia across the Selenga River.

Even 4500 years ago, seals on Baikal were a source of food for hunters. Today, the capture of seal pups is completely discontinued, although commercial hunting for adults still exists. Today, the number of Baikal seals varies from 50 to 80 thousand units.

The seal life begins in late spring, babies are born the size of a human cub and can see the light even through two-meter-thick ice. The three-day baby is already learning to swim and play with fish and ice. When immersed in water, he should be very careful that the hole in the ice does not freeze. Within a month, the seal leaves its home and sets off on a journey through Lake Baikal.

When the ice melts, the seals often migrate across the lake, dive to a depth of 400 meters, catch 29 species of fish and crustaceans inhabiting Lake Baikal. The seals may not be as intelligent as dolphins, but they are also very smart. They know perfectly well the Baikal environs and are very fond of watching other animals while basking in the sun. The seal is a symbol of Baikal, and to see it alive is real happiness.

Attention! The Bears!

The nature of Baikal can be dangerous. The silent and dense forests of the taiga are the abode of bears. Yes, bears or teddy bears live on Baikal, as the locals affectionately call them. People treat these animals with caution, although they already take them for their own. An experienced hunter will never go into the forest without a weapon. Не удивительно, что медведей на Байкале называют хозяевами тайги.

В южных окрестностях озера Байкал, особенно в заселенных людьми местах, медведей не встретишь так часто, однако, двигаясь к северу, вероятность этого увеличивается. Больше всего медведей обитает именно в этой части, которая славится своей нетронутой природой и больше похожа на райское место. Меньшее количество косолапых обитает на гористом полуострове Святой Нос. Если вы хотите посмотреть красоты озера Байкал, но опасаетесь встретиться с медведями, то смело езжайте на остров Ольхон. There bears never lived and do not live. Only one teddy bear once wandered there when he forgot to fall asleep in the winter and crossed from the mainland to the island on an ice floe.

Lake dwellers

The lake has 50 species of fish. The most numerous group is bulls (25 species). The largest representative of the aquatic fauna is sturgeon. Sturgeon live in Lake Baikal at a depth of about 50 meters. They are the largest fish living in the lake. The average length of this Baikal fish is about 2 meters, and the weight can reach 20 kg. Sturgeon live an average of 60 years. Someone will not catch it yet, as there are a lot of fishermen in the area of ​​the Baikal Lake.

The most famous fish of Baikal is golomyanka. They have a transparent pale pink body, reaching a length of 15-18 cm. When they look, they seem to glow. Golomyanka serves as the staple food of the Baikal seals.

In addition, a large number of worms, mollusks, and crustaceans live there. These crustaceans are an important component in the diet of fish.

Plant world

The nature of Baikal will charm anyone. The lake is surrounded by beautiful mountain ranges that reach a height of 2,000 meters above its level. The coast is a bit rugged and stretches as far as 2100 kilometers. The lake itself consists of several bays and coves. In total, Baikal consists of 27 islands, the most popular of which is Olkhon.

On the surface and under water there are 600 species of plants, some of which are found only here. Typical Baikal vegetation can be found in the taiga. The lowest position is occupied mainly by pines and larch. Spruce and fir grow a little higher. In the south and in the river valleys you can see birch and aspen. The decoration of the local flora can be considered 7 types of rhododendrons. A lot of plants grow on Baikal, the fruits of which are widely used in the economy - raspberry, blueberry, cranberry, wild garlic, snake garlic, etc. Baikal is unique among lakes because fungi grow on its great depths.

Despite the fact that Baikal dries out gradually and non-stop, he invites his guests to admire the beautiful spectacle. The wild landscape hides many secrets and here you can be sure that man has not conquered nature.

When to come

If you fail to get to Baikal from January to May, when almost the entire surface of the lake is covered with ice up to two meters thick, then come in the summer. Most tourists choose this time of year, as this is the most favorable time for their expeditions - there is no sweltering heat here. The water temperature in the lake at this time rises to 15 degrees, a strong wind blows, which can cause waves on the lake up to 5 meters high and “mix” the water to a depth of 250 meters. In general, Baikal is especially beautiful in summer.

Climate of Baikal

Already in early October, the nearby mountains are covered with white snow carpet, but the water in the lake freezes only in early January. Due to the thickness of the ice, the lake can be moved by truck. Where still water is frozen, ice is transparent as glass. Under it you can see the fish. This phenomenon is rare, since the harsh cold creates a winding mosaic on the ice. The last remains of ice will melt only in June, but at the end of August the water can warm up to 15-20 degrees. The nature of Baikal may bring some "surprises". One windy day is enough for the temperature of the water to drop to 10 degrees again. Baikal weather can be treacherous every season. Sarma most often happens in winter and reaches the speed and strength of a hurricane. Frequent guests here are terrible winds that regularly beat the shore of Lake Baikal.

Baikal is amazing at any time of the year and in all its forms, but not always hospitable. For the most part, Baikal is austere; it enchants and inspires respect. Once you have been to the lake, you will want to come back here again and again. The nature of Baikal will not leave anyone indifferent.

Amazing animals of Lake Baikal

Considering the original appearance of the preserved nature of Lake Baikal, the animals here are a symbol of uniqueness and uniqueness. In the fauna of Lake Baikal fauna is represented in all its diversity. Currently, there are about 53 species of fish, the most common of which are grayling, omul and whitefish.

Each type of fish is unique in its own way. For example, the Baikal omul today is a delicious delicacy. Unusual, peculiar aroma and tender meat is praised in the whole world. In addition, the Baikal omul is the main commercial fish of Baikal and the object of sport fishing.

The rich natural diversity of Baikal allows living within the lake and its environs to a wide range of wildlife. Among which, the most notable species are:

The elk elk is one of the largest animals in the Baikal region. The weight of an elk can reach up to 500 kg. A distinctive feature of the males are the huge horns, which are annually changed to new ones.

Musk deer or small deer, no longer than 1 meter. The complete absence of horns is replaced by long canines.

The golden eagle is the most common in the Baikal region of the family of eagles.

The burial eagle is probably the most beautiful of the birds living in the Baikal area. The sacred bird of the local peoples. Strong paws, light colored head and dark plumage of the rest of the body - the standard for the entire family of birds.

Find out what animal lives only in Baikal

The Baikal seal is the type of seal that lives only in Baikal, that is, in fresh water. At the moment, their population numbers up to 100 thousand individuals. This is a very curious and intelligent animal that is easily trained and trained. It can weigh up to 140 kilograms and be up to 1.7 meters long.

The Baikal seal is the top of the Baikal food chain. The danger for her is only a man.

The seals can be hunted. Her meat is eaten, clothes are made of fur, and flippers are considered a delicacy.

The locals believe that the fat of the seal is healing and is used for lung disease.