Animals

Encephalitis in dogs: symptoms, treatment

The term "encephalitis in dogs" means a dangerous inflammatory process. Lesions of the brain and spinal cord become lesions. Zoologists have identified two main forms of this disease:

  • Initial form: the disease appears and progresses as a separate component.
  • Secondary form: the disease results from a complication after a viral infection has entered the body.

The inflammatory process is also classified according to the type of lesion: meningoencephalitis (the brain or its membrane is involved), encephalomyelitis (the spinal cord is involved), meningoencephalomyelitis (the spinal cord and the brain are simultaneously involved).

Provocateurs

Any disease, even the common cold, cannot appear on its own. Be sure to enter the body any provocateur, which gives impetus to its development.

Encephalitis in dogs can cause:

  1. Any viral disease, ranging from colds to hepatitis of complex form.
  2. Transferred head injury.
  3. Foreign body penetrated into the body.
  4. Parasites.
  5. Any neglected inflammation, most often the middle ear.

Every summer period tick-borne encephalitis is recorded in dogs (hundreds of cases). It appears only after an insect bite.

How to recognize the disease at an early stage?

It is important to determine the signs of encephalitis in dogs (tick if bitten) at the very first stage of the development of this disease. The sooner a caring owner does this, the more chances his pet will have a positive outcome.

It is worth guarding if the following symptoms appear:

  • Suspicious movements. They signal the possible occurrence of seizures and paralysis.
  • Changing the behavior of the dog. He becomes lethargic, drowsy and inactive. Lack of appetite and restless sleep are characteristic signs.
  • Significant increase in body temperature.
  • Discoloration of urine down to bright green.
  • Severe itching that constantly bothers the dog.

The most serious symptom is profuse vomiting or severe diarrhea. They are a sign that the disease is actively progressing in the body.

What actions should be taken?

If at the same time there are several signs of encephalitis in dogs, then you should immediately go to a veterinary clinic.

The specialist will do the initial examination of his patient, determine the coordination of his movements and general well-being. Next, you will need to conduct a number of diagnostic studies: ultrasound diagnostics, CT, EEG or X-ray, blood test, urinalysis, cerebrospinal fluid. If the inflammatory process is confirmed, then it will be necessary to undergo a comprehensive treatment.

Medical events

Treatment of encephalitis in dogs is selected depending on the extent of the lesion. First of all, you need to remove the edema from the brain area. Only strong medicines are able to do this (Pirosan, Veriben or Pyro-Stop). Simultaneously with this measure, measures are being taken to eliminate the focus of development of inflammation.

Another mandatory measure is the intake of antihelminthic drugs. Also used drugs that restore the work of the nervous system. For serious complications, a massage course will also be required.

As soon as the dog's condition returns to normal, it will be necessary to add biologically active supplements to the treatment complex that support the work of the kidneys, heart, and liver.

Symptom encephalitis in dogs, which can only be detected by ultrasound, is the accumulation of fluid in the spinal cord or brain. It is very dangerous and is fraught with the development of even more serious diseases. Mandatory measure of treatment is its removal from the body. For this pet give glucose or mannitol.

The main symptom of tick-borne encephalitis in dogs is skin irritation. Additionally, you will need to treat the affected areas with ointments, oils or creams.

Subspecies of encephalitis, the causes of development in dogs

Depending on the location of the affected area, there are:

  • meningoencephalitis, in which the inflammatory process captures the internal parts of the brain and the meninges,
  • encephalomyelitis, which affects the tissues of the spinal cord,
  • meningoencephalomyelitis, the affected area of ​​which includes both the brain and spinal cord.

The causes of the development of secondary encephalitis can be:

  • purulent otitis media (middle ear disease),
  • head injury,
  • bacteremia (blood poisoning),
  • sepsis (general infection of the body).

Primary encephalitis is most often caused by an infection that has entered the dog’s body, or a severe allergic reaction to toxins secreted by an infectious agent or parasite. The causative agents of the disease can be hepatitis viruses, rabies, leptospirosis, herpes. The parasitic fungi Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and some parasites can also cause inflammation of the brain tissue: the nematode Ancylostoma caninum, the worm Dirofilaria immitis, the roundworm Toxocara canis, the tape worm Systicercosis.

As a separate species, tick-borne encephalitis is considered, which causes the virus carried by the poritomorphic tick Ixodidae. Such a disease in dogs is not often diagnosed, but its mortality is very high. Up to 98% of dogs that have developed tick-borne encephalitis, die if you do not take urgent measures immediately after the tick bite.

The provoking factor in the development of encephalitis in dogs is usually the reduced immunity of the animal. The disease is more susceptible to young, under the age of 2 years and older, older than 8 years, animals. In the former, the immune system is still insufficiently formed, in the latter, its activity is already reduced.

Signs and symptoms

The incubation period for tick-borne encephalitis is from 1.5 to 3 weeks. The virus enters the bloodstream, causing red blood cell death. The first symptoms of the disease are:

  • lack of appetite,
  • loss of activity
  • fever.

As a result of exposure to the headache, there may be a lack of motor coordination, tremors, convulsions or convulsions, vomiting. General intoxication of the body with the products of vital activity of the virus and fragments of destroyed red blood cells can lead to renal failure and disruption of the urinary system. In this case, the urine of an animal becomes turbid, dark, there may be elements of blood in it.

With significant damage to the tissues of the spinal cord and brain, the pupil's reaction to light is disturbed, uncontrolled movements of the eyeball (nystagmus) occur, paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve or nerves of the chewing muscles may develop.

It is important to know! High temperature and worsening of the general condition can be observed for 1–2 days, then apparent relief sometimes comes. If you know that a dog has been bitten by a tick, you should not regard this change as a complete recovery. It is necessary to conduct an examination of the animal and, if tick-borne encephalitis is detected, it is necessary to undergo a course of treatment.

Immediate action when a dog is bitten by a tick

When keeping pets, in particular, dogs, you need to know how to act if the pet was bitten by a tick. Ticks are small arachnids that feed on blood. They are active in the warm season: attacking warm-blooded animals, ticks serve as a carrier of dangerous infections, including encephalitis.

In response to thermal radiation or the smell of an animal, the tick senses the victim at a distance of up to 50 m, and when it approaches the available distance it clings to the fur. Within 1.5 - 2 hours the insect chooses a place on the body of the animal where it is easiest to bite through the skin. This is usually the abdomen, neck, ears, or inner thigh.

The tick “twists” its proboscis into the skin until the “drill” reaches the blood capillary, and in order not to frighten off the victim, he injects an anesthetic. The parasite is sucked into the blood, gradually swelling, and then injects into the body of the animal the waste of its vital activity, and with it the viral infection. After which the insect pulls out its mouth apparatus from the animal's skin and disappears. To get enough, the tick takes from 2 to 10 hours.

If a tick is found on a dog, it must be removed immediately. They do this carefully, gently “twisting” the arthropod counter-clockwise with tweezers, as the tick was screwed in its proboscis in a clockwise direction. Some advise you to put oil or alcohol on the tick so that it suffocates and falls away. You should not do this: the dead parasite will remain on the skin with a proboscis screwed into it, and it will be more difficult to remove it. In addition, dying, the tick can release the contents of the stomach under the skin, which contains a large number of encephalitis virus cells.

Attention! Removing a tick should not be thrown away. The insect must be placed in a glass jar and taken to a veterinary laboratory for analysis. It is necessary to determine whether this tick is a carrier of the virus.

Diagnosis and treatment

A preliminary diagnosis is made on the basis of the inspection of the animal, the collection of information about the behavior and well-being of the dog in the last few days, previously transferred diseases. Specified diagnosis can be made after a series of laboratory and instrumental studies. Depending on the symptoms manifested, the following may be prescribed:

  • blood and urine tests
  • Ultrasound or radiography of internal organs,
  • CT scan,
  • bacteriological analysis of cerebrospinal cerebrospinal fluid.

Treatment of tick-borne encephalitis in dogs should begin immediately, as soon as it was confirmed that the tick that bit the dog is a virus carrier, even if the symptoms of the disease have not yet manifested.

Antiviral drugs are prescribed, and if there are signs of brain damage, restorative therapy is required. It consists in taking detoxification preparations, which cleanse the body of toxins, and hepatoprotectors, which restore the function of the liver.

Useful statistics: The treatment of tick-borne encephalitis in the early stage takes several days, and there are usually no complications. Launched disease is cured in 75% of cases, and recovery time is from one to three weeks.

Preventive measures

A tick can get on the dog even while walking in a clean, well-kept yard of the metropolis. Moreover, it should not be allowed to contact her with stray animals or run in the park on high grass. After each walk, especially in the warm season, you need to carefully inspect your pet.

Good performance in protection against ticks provide sprays, which contain substances that repel insects smell. These funds are applied to the dog's withers, and after the treatment are valid for several days. There are also special "anti-tick" collars, repellents on them are applied to the outer surface of the tape.

Inoculation of dogs against ticks is one of the new, recently developed methods of short-term protection. It is based on the development of immunity to the tick-borne virus, and can be used as a way to kill ticks when an animal is massively damaged. However, the large-scale clinical trials method has not yet passed, and therefore the question of the degree of its effectiveness and safety remains open.

You can also ask a question to the staff veterinarian of our site, who will answer them as soon as possible in the comments field below.

Varieties of encephalitis in dogs

Veterinarians distinguish several types of encephalitis diseases, which are distinguished by the place of occurrence and by the affected areas. There are the following types:

  • Encephalomyelitis - in this case, the brain and spinal cord are affected,
  • Meningoencephalitis - inflammation spreads to the brain of an animal and affects tissues, not to be confused with meningitis,
  • Meningoencephalomyelitis - affects the tissues of the spinal cord and brain of dogs.

In total there are two stages of the manifestation of the disease - it all depends on the cause of the occurrence of inflammation. The primary signs of encephalitis are as follows:

  • Viral diseases,
  • The presence of bacteria in the body,
  • Parasites (order of the simplest),
  • Infection is transmitted through the bite of an encephalitic tick.

The stage of the second type of encephalitis in a dog occurs as a result of the complication of other diseases:

  • Bacteremia,
  • Otitis or any other process with the presence of decay,
  • Weak immune system
  • Sepsis,
  • Head injuries and concussions.

Possible variant and heredity to encephalitis disease. In general, heredity is seen in breeds such as the Berne Bouvier, Yorkshire terriers, pugs, etc. These breeds need to be closely monitored and monitored for their health.

Symptomatology

Symptoms of encephalitis in dogs is a difficult question. The fact is that the symptoms manifest themselves only in the final stages and it becomes extremely difficult to fight the disease. While progressing, necrosis begins to form and primary symptoms of the disease begin to appear, which the experienced dog breeder will be able to identify on his own. If your pet has inflammation in the brain, it can manifest itself as follows:

  • The pet has cramps,
  • Paralysis of limbs
  • High temperatures,
  • Lethargy,
  • Apathy,
  • The pet is poorly nourished,
  • Vomiting and diarrhea accompanied by blood
  • Weakly responsive visual apparatus,
  • The animal begins to go blind,
  • Consciousness is disturbed
  • Epilepsy,
  • The color of urine becomes green or dull brown,
  • The dog goes unevenly, stumbles, loses orientation in space.

Signs of encephalitis in dogs are rarely manifested one at a time — as a rule, they represent a whole group of symptoms that should be a warning signal for a caring owner. In the absence of clear signs, it is difficult to diagnose the disease, but experienced doctors are able to do this very precisely. Timely access to a doctor will help prevent a tragedy and will help to treat a pet competently and effectively.

Encephalitis mites - harmful parasites do not sleep

Encephalitis tick in dogs is one of the most common causes of encephalitis in pets. After an infected tick digs into the body of an animal, the infection begins to spread. This disease is especially acute in the spring and summer, when the peak of tick activity comes.

The infection enters the animal’s blood within a few minutes after being bitten. In this situation, the faster the dog breeder reacts, the more chances to save the dog. Inactivity of doctors and hosts for 3-5 days is likely to be fatal. On average, the incubation period of the disease is about a month.

Among the key signs of the disease can be identified neurological crisis, which is a consequence of the impact of tick-borne encephalitis on the nervous system of the dog. As a result of the disease, the pet begins:

  1. Convulsions
  2. Paralysis of individual limbs
  3. Heat,
  4. Dysmotility,
  5. Apathy or aggression,
  6. Significantly increases the level of pain threshold.

There are a number of other signs, but these are basic and will help to quickly respond to encephalitis in dogs.

We diagnose the disease

To diagnose the disease, unfortunately, there is no clear list of symptoms, which significantly complicates its detection. Therefore, the doctor will not rely only on a simple examination and indicators of general tests. Your pet will be sent to a series of studies in the laboratory with the use of special equipment. But, not all veterinary clinics are equipped with the necessary devices. There are several effective methods for detecting tick-borne encephalitis in dogs:

  • X-ray examination of the head,
  • Radiography of the brain (contrast),
  • MRI,
  • Analysis of fluid borrowed from the spinal cord
  • Ultrasound,
  • EEG of the head,
  • Hematological type blood test
  • Liquor is collected for bacteriological analysis.

If the veterinary clinic is not able to produce all of the designated tests - you should not despair. Experts know how to help your pet and will do everything in their power. If there are signs of encephalitis after a tick bite in a dog, then specialists will quickly conduct a thorough examination of their patient. With the help of qualitative diagnostics, it is possible to identify the disease itself, as well as to establish the complications that it caused.

Treat dogs wisely

The treatment is prescribed by a veterinarian according to the results of the examination. Initially, the doctor prescribes procedures that will help get rid of the cause of the disease and which will contribute to the identification of possible complications. If possible, the doctor will prescribe medications that will reduce the available swelling.

The complex of procedures prescribed by the veterinarian provides for the following procedures:
Taking drugs that remove excess fluid and lower the level of the tumor. The most common solution is glucose or mannitol,
Taking medications that introduce the nervous system in an excited state - it is so possible to return to the dog its inherent reaction and sensitivity,

  • Ряд антигрибковых и антибактериальных препаратов, которые направлены на лечение энцефалита,
  • Лекарства, устраняющие раздражения на кожном покрове животного,
  • Гормональные инъекции,
  • Витамины и минеральные вещества.

Весь курс лечения проходит под строгим контролем лечащего врача. Self-treatment of a pet can only end up harming him.

Forecasts and possible complications

Encephalitis is a “mean” disease, which in its later stages can lead to irreversible consequences. Treatment, even timely, may not give the desired result. In the end, it is not necessary to exclude such risks as recurring illness with encephalitis or a variety of other diseases.

After completing the course of treatment, veterinarians recommend dog breeders to completely clean the animal’s circulatory system. This will prevent possible risks and will favorably affect the general health of the dog.

Preventive measures

To prevent a disease such as tick-borne encephalitis, it is recommended to take care of your pet's protection in advance. The market offers a huge amount of funds from ticks, fleas and parasites, which are sold in the form of capsules, collars, vaccines and sprays.

It is necessary to minimize the risk of injury, especially of the head. After each walk, it is necessary to carefully examine the pet's skull for the presence of parasites, abrasions, cones, etc. If they exist, it is recommended to take them under control or immediately consult a doctor.

Constantly monitoring the state of health of your pet, you can completely prevent the disease or identify it in the early stages. Also, you should not forget about the proper nutrition of the dog, about increasing its immunity - this is possible by adding vitamins and minerals to the feed. Thus, it will be possible to preserve the health of the pet and make his life fun and cheerful.

Where better to do it?

Caring dog breeders are wondering where it is best to treat their pet: at home or in the clinic. It is worth noting that inflammation of the lining of the brain is a serious disease that can cause a number of negative consequences. It is very important to track each stage of treatment and its effectiveness. Moving the patient over long distances is not recommended. The best option is to find an institution with the possibility of round-the-clock hospitalization.

What happens if time does not take action?

Encephalitis is a disease in which it is important every day. It is necessary as soon as possible to find a good specialist and undergo a diagnostic examination. If you do not take the necessary measures in a timely manner, the following negative consequences may occur:

  • Due to the large volume of fluid, the load on the kidneys increases several times. They have to do double work. Accordingly, in a few days after the manifestation of this disease, such a disease as renal failure will be felt.
  • Infection can enter the blood. Be sure to hold an event to clean it.
  • When encephalitis dramatically decreases the level of hemoglobin in the blood. The body perceives such a change as oxygen starvation. Within a few hours after its appearance, the work of the heart is disturbed.
  • The most common complication is chronic anemia.
  • Brain edema is the most dangerous stage of the disease, it is very difficult to eliminate, it can lead to the death of the animal.

As it turned out, the effects of encephalitis are very diverse. It is recommended to always monitor the state of health of your animal and to see a specialist immediately when the first symptoms appear.

Who is more exposed to the disease?

Are all dogs equally affected by encephalitis? Of course not. First of all, individuals with weakened immunity fall into the risk group. We are talking about the smallest (up to two years) and the elderly (from eight years) pets. Small breeds of dogs suffer from any diseases to a lesser extent than large individuals. It is necessary to take into account the place where the breed of your dog originated from. The warmer the climate in it, the more their body reacts to infections. These include the Bouvier, Maltese and Yorkshire Terrier.

Are there any preventive measures?

Dogs suffer from encephalitis very badly. They practically do not eat, constantly whine and lead a sedentary lifestyle. It is unlikely that a caring owner would want his animal to suffer so much. There are a number of preventive measures to help prevent the development of this disease.

  • It is recommended to wear a special flea collar around the neck of the animal. It has a peculiar smell that scares off parasites.
  • You should carefully study the risk group and determine whether the breed of your dogs falls into it. If she is there, she needs careful monitoring. Once every three months it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination in a specialized clinic.
  • One of the common causes of inflammation is a previous injury. It is required to observe the behavior of the animal and to prevent the occurrence of traumatic situations.
  • If the disease has a secondary form, then it is most likely caused by a serious middle ear disease. It takes several times a month to inspect the auricle.
  • In time you need to do the necessary vaccinations that will create a barrier that prevents the penetration of infection into the body.

Unfortunately, tick-borne encephalitis has not yet developed a sufficiently effective preventive vaccine. Therefore, you need to actively use special collars and drops on withers.

Some tips

Many dog ​​breeders have no desire to spend money on visiting clinics. It is worth noting that the treatment of encephalitis is not a cheap pleasure. Accordingly, the question arises whether it can be cured with folk remedies? Experts do not recommend this, as independent measures may aggravate the situation. Remember that in the case of such a disease sometimes it goes on the clock, the delay can simply kill the animal.

You should carefully observe the behavior of the dog. When inflammation of the brain complications progress very quickly. If new symptoms appear, then you should report them to the veterinarian.

It is recommended to feed the pet with natural products during the illness, they contribute to the restoration of energy.

It is necessary to check the wool and skin for the presence of harmful parasites, especially after walking in the woods.

It is required to regularly measure body temperature, at least once a week.

Encephalitis in dogs is a very serious disease that can lead to the most unpleasant consequences. Unfortunately, many animals are exposed to it. A loving owner should apply preventive measures in advance, observe the dog's state of health and, if necessary, go to a professional clinic, only in this case unpleasant consequences can be avoided.

Outbreak areas

Tick-borne encephalitis in dogs was first discovered in the territories of the Far East, in the region of taiga. Today, the foci of the spread of the disease are forests of Russia (Kaliningrad region, Sakhalin), Ukraine (Transcarpathia), Belarus (in all regions). Also ixodic mites live in Estonia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan.

Wild forest vertebrates and arthropods can also be carriers of the virus. In small rodents, mites reproduce, the larvae of which can parasitize on their skin for a long time. Cases of diseases are increasingly recorded in Australia, Hungary, China, Sweden, Finland.

About 14 species of ticks are carriers of encephalitis virus (Ix. Ricinus, Ix. Trianguliceps, Ix. Gibbosus, Haemaphysalis japonica, Dermatocentor silvarum). The most dangerous species of epidemiological significance and causing encephalitis in dogs are Ix. Persulcatus living in Asia, as well as Ix. Ricinus, living mainly in European countries.

Reproduction of the virus in the blood of the tick

Ticks disease carriers are not without reason, because it is in their bodies that the virus multiplies most intensively, since it is a favorable environment for their life. At the end of a month after a tick is infected, his concentration in the blood already contains 1000 times the concentration of the pathogen. But on the 6th day the virus penetrates all the organs of the insect. The largest number of viruses accumulates in the salivary glands, in the region of the sex glands and in the intestines. Ticks are able to transmit the virus to their offspring.

Dogs suffer from encephalitis, becoming infected by tick bites that feed on the blood of vertebrates. It is from the salivary glands that the virus easily enters the bloodstream, causing inflammation. Only adults can attack animals and people.

Danger of meeting with a tick

Ticks can be found walking with a dog: on the forest edges, glades, along the paths. Outbreaks of diseases are recorded in the warm season, when insect activity is increased.

Bloodsucker saliva contains a pain reliever, so the dog does not feel the bite, and the tick can safely eat 4-6 days before being detected. But even with short-term suction the virus has time to penetrate the blood. But the main cause of the disease are numerous bites of several ticks. Within one hour after sucking in the bloodsucker’s saliva, the same concentration of the virus is formed as in his entire body.

Another extremely unpleasant moment is that it is very difficult to spot an insect in dogs with long and thick hair, since the ability of the tick to climb into the most secluded corners is phenomenal.

Encephalitis in dogs: symptoms

Symptoms of the disease may be as follows:

  • fever,
  • darkening of urine color,
  • refusal to eat
  • erythema develops at bite sites
  • yellowing of the mucous membranes,
  • weakness,
  • convulsions
  • an increase in the size of the spleen and liver,
  • tremor,
  • loss of interest in the world,
  • hypersensitivity of the neck and head,
  • violation of motor functions,
  • blindness,
  • paralysis.

The virus through the blood very quickly enters the brain, affecting the nerve cells of the spinal cord, cervical. Gradually accumulating, causes inflammatory processes in the meninges and vessels.

Signs of encephalitis in dogs can appear suddenly, 2-3 weeks after the bite, this is how much the incubation period can last.

Correct tick extraction

If a tick stuck to the dog's skin is detected, it is advisable to extract the insect at a veterinary clinic. But when there is no way to get to the doctor, you can do it yourself using the following algorithm of actions:

  • calm the dog
  • limit the movement of the animal,
  • with the help of tweezers, grab onto the protruding back of the tick,
  • twisting movements gently get an insect.

Ticks should not be thrown away. It can be useful for research on the carrier of encephalitis virus. It is better to place it in a glass jar, tightly closed with a lid, so as to send it to the laboratory as soon as possible.

To diagnose with a microscope, it is necessary to deliver a live insect to the laboratory. To keep the tick alive, put a cotton swab dipped in water into a container. In large cities, there are methods of detecting viral carriage using highly sensitive PCR tests that allow you to use any material to detect the virus, up to fragments of tick paws.

It should be borne in mind that it is necessary to show the dog to the doctor as soon as possible in order to diagnose or exclude tick-borne encephalitis at the very beginning.

Diagnostic methods

Signs of encephalitis in dogs appear when treatment can already be ineffective. That is why the animal should be shown to a veterinarian immediately when a tick is found on his skin.

A qualified veterinarian may, upon visual inspection, suspect tick-borne encephalitis in dogs. Symptoms for an experienced doctor may be noticeable a few days after a tick bite. That, of course, is not yet a reason to start treatment without making an accurate diagnosis.

For the diagnosis of biochemical and complete blood count, microscopic examination. However, antibodies against the virus can be detected in the blood no earlier than 10 days after the bite. Radiography (craniography) or ultrasound diagnostics of a dog's head can also be used to detect changes in the brain. Only the correct diagnosis in time will help save the life of your pet through proper treatment of the disease.

The dog must be investigated for borreliosis or Lyme disease, piroplasmosis, which also carry ixodic ticks, in order to rule out all possible infections.

Pet treatment

Unfortunately, it is possible to recognize the disease too late, in order to predict recovery and successfully cure tick-borne encephalitis in dogs. Symptoms in most cases appear when it is too late to do anything. The only humane solution is getting rid of a beloved friend from torment by putting him to sleep.

But sometimes it is possible to diagnose the disease on time. Antibiotics based on cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones intravenously are used for the treatment. Well act on the virus, destroying the blood-brain barrier of cells, "Isoniazid", "Rifampicin."

Additionally, corticosteroids are prescribed to reduce inflammation, cause an allergic reaction and eliminate neurological disorders. As well as drugs that reduce intracranial pressure in dogs.

Only an experienced veterinarian should prescribe a treatment regimen and dosage of medications! Incorrectly chosen drugs can not only cure encephalitis in dogs, but also significantly aggravate the animal's health and result in death. The course of treatment is at least 3 months.

Vaccination dogs

Vaccination against encephalitis in dogs is not done, as it has not yet been possible to come up with an effective vaccine against the disease. It is hoped that in the future, scientists will still be able to create an effective drug to prevent the development of infection.

Disease prevention

The only effective method remains timely protection from attack and tick bites:

  • treating dogs with insecticoacaricidal drops (protection 2-4 weeks),
  • the use of insectoacaricidal collars (valid for several months).

Also the important point is to regularly thoroughly check the skin of the dog after each walk. Particular attention should be paid to the neck, ears, underarms and other hard-to-reach places.

The health and life of the pet in the hands of its owner. Caring for an animal is manifested not only in meeting its needs for food, walking and scratching behind the ear, but also in the timely prevention of dangerous diseases, in protecting the dog from blood-sucking pests, especially encephalitic ticks.

It is much easier to prevent tick-borne encephalitis in dogs than to observe the suffering of an animal during illness with conscience. Prevention is the main rule for maintaining the health of a pet, who will repay to its owner with tenderness, devotion and unselfish love, will always be cheerful and happy.

Causes of encephalitis in dogs

Encephalitis is an inflammation that affects the brain. In humans, this disease is caused by ixodic ticks, and tick-borne encephalitis can also occur. However, for dogs, these parasites are dangerous other diseases. Pet can get sick: piroplasmosis (deadly disease), Lyme disease or borreliosis, babesiosis.

Also, ascariasis can develop to brain inflammation (it develops during the migration of helminth larvae).

There are three forms of encephalitis in dogs:

  1. Meningoencephalomyelitis (affects the membranes of the spinal cord and brain).
  2. Meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain itself and its membranes).
  3. Encephalomyelitis (the disease affects both the brain and spinal cord).
Tick-borne encephalitis virus shell model

The risk group and how the infection occurs

In the risk group are, first of all, young animals up to 2 years old, since at this age dogs are most susceptible to the development of infections. The disease is dangerous for weakened pets who have previously received a cranial injury.

Veterinarians point out that small-breed dogs are more likely to develop the disease (bolognese, Yorkshire terriers, Russian toi, dwarf poodles, etc.).

The carrier and the main vessel that supports the life of the virus are ticks

Effects of Disease and Animal Care

The prognosis for encephalitis in dogs is always cautious.

In other cases, partial recovery occurs, in which lost functions are only partially restored. The earlier treatment was started, the higher the chances of an amendment. Many animals that have had encephalitis develop kidney or liver failure.

Antiviral therapy is carried out with the help of antibiotics that can penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

At the time of treatment, it is better to determine the animal in the hospital under the supervision of doctors around the clock. After improving the condition, therapy can be carried out at home, but under the constant supervision of a veterinarian.

It is better to transfer the dog to a balanced veterinary diet (Hills L / D for liver failure, Hills K / D for problems with the kidneys, Purina NC to maintain brain function, etc.).

What diseases cause ticks?

Encephalitis ticks are not dangerous for dogs, they can infect only humans. Inflammation of the brain in animals develops for other reasons.

Эти паразиты являются переносчиками других смертельно опасных собачьих болезней:

  1. Пироплазмоз или бабезиоз. Возбудители попадают в кровь животного при укусе клещом, вызывают разрушение эритроцитов и других кровяных клеток. Яркий признак пироплазмоза – потемнение мочи (она становится кирпичного цвета). Животное становится апатичным, кожа желтеет. Body temperature rises with an acute form. With late treatment high risk of death.
  2. Lyme disease or borreliosis. An infected tick bites a dog, and during its feeding, the pathogen enters the animal’s blood. This disease can be asymptomatic for a long time. With the acute form, the dog's temperature rises, severe pain in the muscles, joints swell up, arthritis develops. After 30-60 days, the infection spreads throughout the body, which leads to impaired function of the heart muscle and other vital organs.

Also popular drug in the form of tablets Bravekto.

Bravekto - a pill for fleas and ticks for dogs

Disease prevention

Prevention of encephalitis is the regular treatment of the animal from external and internal parasites. Regular vaccination against plague and rabies is also very important, since it is these infections that most often cause the development of brain inflammation.

Encephalitis is a serious disease, after which animals recover only partially. At the first sign, you must immediately show the dog to the doctor. The earlier treatment was started, the higher the chances of recovery.

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