Fish and other aquatic creatures

Fish cod family - species, description

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In our article we will tell about the family of cod fish. All its members have tasty and healthy meat recommended for dietary nutrition. Atlantic cod has the best characteristics. But other representatives of this family, for example, haddock, hake, blue whiting, pollock, pollock, are popular and favorite types of fish on our table.

Lots of meat, little bones

The habitats of this family of fish are the seas of the Northern Hemisphere. Especially often they are found in the Atlantic Ocean. The family of codfish includes individuals with a large head, low bones, small scales, and large livers. Many of them are mined in industrial quantities.

The chemical composition of these fish includes many useful elements: vitamins, fatty acids, phosphorus, iodine, calcium. Fleshy and low fat content allows you to use them in the diet. Fish can be cooked in different ways. Cod are good in fried, stewed, smoked and dried. There are many recipes that ordinary housewives and cooks use in restaurants.

Most useful

Atlantic cod is a well-known representative of this family. Such fish can reach a length of up to 1.8 meters, but, as a rule, it is caught before it reaches this size. It is distinguished from other fish by its fleshy tendril on its chin, olive-brown scales and white belly. Cod lives in the Atlantic Ocean, but is also found in the White and Baltic Seas. Not only dense and white meat is considered useful, but also cod liver, from which oil is prepared for medical purposes.

If you take such a substance regularly, you can improve your mood and mood, get rid of diseases of the joints, and increase your intellectual abilities. But it is better to use fish caught in ecologically clean places, since cod can accumulate mercury and arsenic, which means that its excessive consumption can be dangerous.

Tender fish

Haddock is also included in the family of cod fish. Its meat is delicious and more tender than cod. The body of this fish is dark gray with violet inclusions and is laterally flattened. The belly is white or milky silver. There is a dark spot between the pectoral and dorsal fins on both sides. Catch haddock in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. This fish prefers sea water, so it is almost never found in the Baltic Sea because of its desalination. Haddock most often lives near the bottom at a shallow depth. There she searches for her usual food - bottom mollusks, worms, echinoderms, fry and caviar of other fish.

It is worth noting that the northern whiting, which also belongs to the cod family, enters the haddock ration. This fish feeds on crustaceans and fry. It lives at a depth of 180-300 meters. Whiting is often found on the shelves of our stores. Someone eats it himself, but most often they buy this fish for cats who simply adore it. In addition, the cost of blue whiting is low compared to other members of the cod family.

Useful and inexpensive

Another favorite by our fellow citizens is the Far Eastern pollock. It is inexpensive and always in stores. But do not treat her with disdain. Like all members of the cod family, it is nutritious and healthy. Of course, her meat is a little dry, but a good housewife will find a way to rid her of this shortcoming. Eating pollock helps regulate metabolism, the amount of sugar in the blood. The meat of this fish has antioxidant properties, rich in iodine and chromium. Eating 100 grams of pollock a day gives you a daily iodine intake. Mining it in the Pacific Ocean, where it is found in large quantities.

Not only at sea

The bream is also a codfish. It mainly lives in fresh water. Although there are marine burbot. These fish have a long body, slightly flattened laterally, flat head, antennae on chin and upper jaw. Sea burbot lives in the Bay of Biscay, the Barents Sea, near Iceland, the British Isles and even near the shores of North America.

These fish are of two types - white and red. The best taste has the meat of red burbot. Its liver contains a large amount of iodine, although the meat itself is rather dry. However, this does not make it less valuable. River burbine meat on the contrary, tasty and soft. His liver is also considered a delicacy. The trace elements contained in this fish have a positive effect on vision, intelligence and nervous system. Habitat burbot is quite wide, it is common in our country. It is best to catch burbot in cold water in case of inclement weather, then it is most active.

Other cod

The cod family includes whiting. It dwells in the North Atlantic Ocean, in the Barents Sea, off the coast of Iceland and Portugal. Sometimes found in the Black Sea. The taste of this fish is pleasant and not inferior to cod or haddock. Along the coast of Murmansk, Norway, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, there is a changeover, although this fish is not very common and is not harvested on an industrial scale. On the territory of the Arctic Ocean inhabits the Arctic. This small fish prefers to live in cold water. Saika feeds on crustaceans, zooplankton, fry of other fish. She, like other cod, has a small tendril under her chin. The same distinctive feature is in the pollack. This fish can grow up to 1 meter in length. Food for her are other small brothers, crustaceans.

In our article, you learned about the family of cod fish. Surely many of the names turned out to be familiar to you. After all, this fish is a frequent guest on our tables. It turns out that you can save a lot if you often buy pollock, haddock, whiting, and not cod. They are just as useful as other members of this family, and they are cheaper.

Appearance

The cod family has a number of distinctive external features. For example, in representatives of this family, the presence of several dorsal fins, as well as the presence of one or two anal fins. The tail fin is considered the most developed among them.

As a rule, the caudal fin can be one with the dorsal and anal fins, or it can be separated from them. Interestingly, all of them have fins that do not have sharp, thorny rays. In fish of this family, enlarged gill openings are noted, as well as the presence of a whisker in the mandible region. The body of the fish is covered with small scales that are easy to clean. Basically, cod-like prefer to move in small flocks, with the exception of burbot, a freshwater representative of this family.

Of the 100 species can be distinguished completely different representatives, differing in completely different sizes. Species that feed on plankton are much smaller in size than those that feed on larger living organisms. The smallest of them is a deep-sea madikul, which can reach no more than 15 cm in length. The largest representatives themselves include such predators as the molvah and the Atlantic cod, which can reach up to 1.8 meters in length.

Habitats

Representatives of this family are found in almost all waters of the northern hemisphere of the earth, and only 5 species inhabit the seas of the southern hemisphere. All of them should be attributed to marine life living in salt water and, only burbot, prefers the fresh waters of northern Europe, Asia and America.

The highest abundance of cod is found in the eastern parts of the Atlantic, including the Norwegian and Barents Seas. In the Baltic Sea is found exclusively cod. Representatives of cod can also be found in the Black and Mediterranean seas.

Representatives of this family are unlikely to be found in the equatorial zone, but as many as three species of this family live off the coast of South America, South Africa and New Zealand.

What eat cod

Some species of fish prefer plant food, while others exclusively animal, because they are predators. Some of them, such as blue whiting, arctic cod, and Arctic Polina, eat zooplankton.

Pollock and cod feed on quite large living organisms. In these fish, the fat that they store in the process of feeding accumulates in the liver, which is a significant difference from other types of fish that do not belong to this family.

Each species of fish belonging to this family differs in that it has its own reproduction characteristics. Most of them lay eggs in sea water, although some of them that live in northern latitudes, choose spawning areas of water bodies for spawning. Not a large part of them, in order to put off caviar, goes into the rivers.

Representatives of this family begin to lay eggs only after 3 years of life, and some of them even later - after 8-10 years of life. They lay eggs for several years in a row, while laying off several million eggs at a time, although there are also such as navaga, which sets aside only a few thousand eggs.

Almost the majority of this family loves cold water and lay eggs at a temperature of about 0 degrees and mostly in the winter or towards the end of winter.

After the appearance of fry, some of them remain in place, and some of them carry away over time, therefore, from the first days of their life, the fry of these fish begin to spread throughout the seas of the seas and oceans. Interestingly, haddock fry use jellyfish to hide from their natural enemies. Throughout their lives, representatives of such a family carry out long migrations. This is due to some natural factors, such as sea and ocean currents, fluctuations in water temperature, including the availability of food.

Navaga Far East

This fish is of serious commercial interest. He lives in the waters of the North Pacific, as well as the Chukchi, Okhotsk and Japanese seas.

Far Eastern navaga is capable of growing in length up to 35 centimeters, although there are specimens larger and up to 50 cm in length, but very rarely. This fish prefers to be in the coastal zone, leaving it only to find their own food.

At 2 or 3 years of age can spawn. Caviar navaga only in winter, in conditions of the lowest temperatures.

Navaga populations are quite voluminous, so they are caught in large batches. It is mined 10 times more, compared with the White Sea navaga.

Navaga north

The main habitats of this fish are:

  • White Sea.
  • Pechora Sea.
  • Kara Sea.

Also prefers to be in the coastal zone, and for the period of spawning can be sent to the river. Despite this, the process of caviar throwing itself is carried out only in salt water, in winter, at depths of about 10 meters. The female spawn eggs, which firmly adheres to the bottom of the bottom, after which they develop here over 4 months.

It reaches a length of about 35 centimeters, although there are representatives that are up to 45 centimeters in length. The diet of the navaga northerly consists of fairly small crustaceans, worms, and small fish.

It is caught on a commercial scale in the autumn-winter period, since its meat has an unsurpassed taste.

It is the only member of the cod family that lives in fresh water. Like most cod, burbim prefers cool water, so it is most often found in the rivers and lakes of America, Asia and Europe.

The most numerous is the population of burbot in Siberian rivers, where it is caught both on an industrial scale and amateur fishermen. Burbot spawns only in winter when the pond is covered with ice. In the summer, prefers to hide in stones, burrows or in snags. With the onset of autumn, he begins an active lifestyle. Burbot is a night fish that does not tolerate sunlight. According to many anglers, at night it can be lured by the light emanating from the fire.

It grows burbot in length up to 0.6 meters, with weight up to 1.5 kg. Despite this, there are specimens up to 1.2 meters in length and weighing up to 20 kilograms. The diet of burbot is made up of larvae, crustaceans and small fish.

Haddock occurs in the northern part of the Atlantic and, mainly, in the coastal waters of Europe and America. Prefers to lead near-bottom lifestyle. The body is characterized as compressed from the sides. The body color is silver, with a black lateral line and a black spot located above the pectoral fin. The average length of the fish is in the range of 50-70 cm, although there are individuals more than 1 meter long. Haddock eats mollusks, worms, crustaceans, and also eats caviar of herring.

In the 3rd or 5th year of life, the females are ready for caviar throwing. Haddock fishing is highly developed and takes the third place after pollock and cod by the mass of fish caught. They catch it mainly in the North and Barents Seas. Catch volumes are estimated at about a million tons per year.

North whiting

It can grow in length up to 35 cm, although sometimes individuals come up to 50 cm in length. This fish grows too slowly.

It occurs mainly in the northeastern Atlantic, being at depths of 30 to 800 meters. The diet consists of fish fry, plankton and small crustaceans.

It is also caught on an industrial scale and is also sold in many retail outlets.

Southern whiting

This member of the cod family is somewhat larger in size compared to the northern blue whiting. It can weigh up to 1 kg, growing in length to 0.5 meters. Closer to the southern hemisphere, it prefers to be closer to the surface of the water, but the farther from these places it is, the deeper it occurs at depths of up to half a kilometer.

It is mined on an industrial scale, making mainly canned food from it, although many housewives brew it, bake and fry it.

It can also be easily purchased at the fish store.

Lead a pack life, being either deep in the water or closer to the bottom. It grows in length up to 70 cm, although there are individuals that are up to 1 meter long, and sometimes longer. It lives mainly in the northern waters of the Atlantic. Migrates across the Atlantic over considerable distances: with the arrival of spring it moves northward, and with the arrival of autumn it returns to the warmer waters of the Atlantic Ocean.

Pollock is also caught in large volumes. It turns out quite tasty canned food, called "sea salmon". This is due to the fact that pollock meat and salmon meat have a similar taste, but pollock meat costs much less.

Atlantic cod

This species of fish is already listed in the international Red Book and the Red Book of Russia. Atlantic cod grows in length to 1.8 meters, although the average size is in the range of 40-70 centimeters. Atlantic cod feeds on various crustaceans, mollusks, including fish.

Females of cod begin to lay eggs at the age of 8-10 years old, with a weight of 3-4 kilograms. She lives in the Atlantic Ocean. It is highly valued due to nutritious and healthy meat, including liver, rich in healthy fats. Delicious canned food is made from cod. Many are familiar with such a delicacy as cod liver, which serves for the preparation of delicious sandwiches and other cold appetizers.

In 1992, the Government of Canada imposed a ban on catching Atlantic cod, as its numbers declined sharply, which threatens the complete disappearance of this type of fish.

Pacific Cod

This member of the cod family differs from Atlantic cod by a larger head and smaller body size. It can reach a length of 1.2 meters, although there are mostly individuals, sizes 50-80 cm.

This cod species lives in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, the Bering Sea and the Sea of ​​Japan. Does not carry out long migrations, adhering to the water area of ​​these seas and the coastline.

Starts to spawn in the 5th year of life. The total life expectancy of about 10-12 years. Each female is able to lay several million eggs. It feeds on invertebrates, as well as fish. She is also caught in huge quantities. Its meat is delicious in any form: it is salted, smoked, fried, boiled, baked and made delicious canned food.

The presence of trace elements

The meat of these fish contains healthy minerals, such as:

When choosing one or another method of cooking fish, you should always remember that the task is to preserve the maximum of useful substances, without losing taste. This is only possible if the fish is eaten raw, boiled or baked. Naturally, the maximum of useful substances is preserved if consumed raw. To do this, it is simply salted or cooked in marinade. In order to cook correctly, it is better to use ready-made recipes, of which there is a sufficient amount. Still, it is better to resort to heat treatment. If you cook the fish in the oven, you can get a very tasty and healthy dish. В крайнем случае, ее можно зажарить и подать вместе с гарниром и овощами, хотя это будет не настолько полезно, да и на желудок может быть тяжеловато.

Представители тресковых считаются наиболее многочисленными видами рыб, населяющих воды Тихого и Атлантического океанов. В связи с тем, что мясо этих рыб не только вкусное, но и полезное, то их вылавливают огромными темпами, что отражается в показателях, связанных с миллионами тонн ежегодно. Если так и дальше пойдет, то наши дети могут и не увидеть на своих столах большинства морепродуктов.

Не менее ценная и печень этих рыб, поскольку многие полезные вещества скапливаются именно в ней. Since the meat is not fat, it can be used by almost all categories of people, and especially those who have gained weight. Only a personal intolerance to seafood can be a real obstacle to the consumption of cod fish in food.

Characteristics of the cod family

Representatives of this family are the most widespread species of Kamchatka coastal waters. A distinctive feature of cod is the presence of three dorsal and two anal fins, as well as the antennae on the chin.

Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma, English - Walleye Pollock, Jap. - mental sukeso suketodara). The body is progoniste, the head is small. The beginning of the first anal fin is behind the vertical of the first dorsal. Lower jaw protruding. There is a very short mustache on the chin. Caudal fin slightly emarginous, semi-lunar. The side line with a sharp bend, after the bend is intermittent. The body color is purple-olive. On the surface of the body are numerous dark spots (http://www.marinar.ru).

Treats rather large fishes, reaches the maximum size of 93 cm and weight to 5 kg. The maximum age is 16 years. Usually, fish over 8 years old are rare, characterized by prevalence in herds of 2-3 age groups (usually 4-6, less often 2-4 and 5-7 year olds). Pollock belongs to the fast-growing fish, especially the increase in length in the first years of life before puberty. The most common and most abundant species in the North Pacific.

The vertical distribution in the water column occupies an intermediate position between bottom and pelagic fish species. During the day, it can change its depth for hundreds of meters - from the bottom horizons to the uppermost layers of water. Nutrition refers mainly to plankton-eating fish species. It has a great commercial value. The annual catch varies in the range of 1-1.5 million tons (N. Fadeev, 2005).

Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus, English - Pacific сod, Jap. - madara, tara). The beginning of the second dorsal fin - under the beginning of the first anal. The upper jaw is longer than the bottom. The barb is well developed. The lateral line is light, slightly visible. The interorbital distance is 20-26% of the length of the head. Cone-shaped processes of the swim bladder are short, curved towards the midline.

Cod is a large and fast-growing fish. It reaches a length of 115-120 cm and masses of 18-20 kg, individuals of maximum sizes are often found in South-Eastern Kamchatka. The catches are more often represented by fish 50-80 cm long, weighing 2-5 kg. Pacific cod is a fast-growing and large fish, reaching a length of 115 cm and a mass of 18 kg. Fish with a length of 50-80 cm (about 80%) and a mass of 2 to 5 kg dominate in the catch. The maximum age is 15 years, however, such individuals are rare. The basis of catches are fish aged 2 to 6 years. The maximum recorded age is 15 years. The basis of catches in almost all areas of the Kamchatka waters is given by individuals aged 3-6 years, fish older than 8 years are relatively rare. Mass puberty of cod is observed on average at a length of 70 cm, at the age of 6 years. Cod is one of the most widespread and frequent species in the North Pacific.

The vertical distribution of cod is limited to a depth of 500-600 m, however, the occurrence deeper than 250-300 m decreases sharply. Usually commercial concentrations are located on the middle and lower shelf and in the upper part of the continental slope, in the summer between isobaths of 30 and 100 m, in winter - 100 and 500 m. The temperature range of habitat, in accordance with the area, is very wide. Cod is found in waters with temperatures ranging from minus 1.5 to plus 18.0 ° C. The maximum occurrence over the entire range, except for the southernmost margins, is confined to waters with temperatures ranging from 0 to 4 ° C. Cod seasons are fairly well pronounced.

Large cod is an active predator, it intensively eats pollock, herring, capelin and squid, but it can also be fed by benthic invertebrates (crabs, shrimps, worms). Due to the limited migration of large extent, cod can be attributed to relatively sedentary fish, therefore, throughout the whole range, it forms many local herds inhabiting relatively limited water areas (for example, bays of Eastern Kamchatka). Cod is a high quality commercial fish. At present, catch in the waters of Kamchatka up to 180 thousand tons of cod is possible (Fadeev N. S., 2005).

Far Eastern Navaga - Eleginus gracilis, Eng. - saffron cod, jap. - komai. The lower jaw is not issued in front of the upper. The barb on the chin, unlike cod, is poorly developed. The gap between the second and third dorsal fins is larger than between the first and second dorsal fins.

The food is mixed, consisting of benthic and pelagic crustaceans. Amphipods, decapods and euphausiids are of paramount importance in the feeding of navaga in western Kamchatka, likhety and fish are of secondary importance. On the northern shelf of the Bering Sea, it consumes mainly shrimps, gammaris and cumacers, and polychaeta and juvenile fish are of secondary importance. Juveniles mainly feed on copepods and hyperiids. In winter, during spawning, the intensity of feeding decreases sharply, but at this time the navaga eats its own eggs in large quantities (Fadeev N. S., 2005).

Sika, polar cod - Boreogadus saida, Eng. - arctic cod. Chin tendril short, thin. The eyes are large, their diameter is 20-32% of the length of the head. Tail fin with deep dredging. The lateral line is intermittent throughout. Numerous pigment dark gray, faint spots are scattered throughout the body. The belly is off-white. The cod has a slightly noticeable short and thin antenna.

Sika is a pelagic coastal mowing fish performing daily vertical migrations. In the morning and in the evening, the shoals are usually distributed at the ground, at night and in the daytime (8-16 and 21-4 hours) rise into the water column and keep in a dispersed state. Feed accumulations are confined to waters with temperatures ranging from minus 1.5 to plus 3.6 ° C, usually around 0 ° C, at depths of 20-50 m, in the mixing zone of water masses of Pacific and Arctic origin.

It feeds on planktonic and benthic invertebrates (hyperiids, mysids, gammarids, copepods), sometimes with young fish. Feeding accumulations are located in places of concentration of feed objects. Sika plays an important role in the nutrition of many arctic animals, in particular, beluga whales, seals and polar bears. She eats cod, flounder, pollock. At the same time, it is a food object for humans (Fadeev N. S., 2005).

Pollock lives in the Japanese, Bering, Okhotsk seas, in the hall. Alaska, near the Kuril and Aleutian Islands and off the coast of Japan. The distribution of adult fish to the north is limited to the strait between the Chukchi Peninsula and Fr. St. Lawrence, however, the young penetrate into the southern part of the Chukchi Sea. The southern boundary of the range along the Asian coast runs along the latitude of Wonsan (Peninsula Korea) and the province of Yamaguchi in southwestern Honshu. In ocean waters it extends to northeastern Honshu, rarely found to the south. On the American coast, in addition to the Bering Sea, there are clusters in the bays of Alaska and Puget Sound, to the south it is small in number, although it comes to the south to the hall. Monterey.

In the Sea of ​​Japan north of Wonsan and the Sangar Strait, pollock is found everywhere, spawning accumulations are found in the bays of Korea and Peter the Great, off western Sakhalin, along northern Honshu and Hokkaido, and along the coastal coast of Russia. In the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and the Bering Sea, it is found everywhere, including the most cold-water areas in the northern and western parts, near the Aleutian and Commander Islands and above the deep-sea basins of the same name. In oceanic waters, clusters are observed at the southern and northern Kuril Islands and at eastern Kamchatka. In the hall. Alaska's densest clusters are located at the islands of Shumagin, Chirikov, on the Albatross and Portlock banks. The largest breeding ground is located in the river. Shelikhov. South of the hall. Yakutat pollock numbers are noticeably increasing in the inland waters of British Columbia (N. Fadeev, 2005).

Cod. The area occupies the coastal waters of the entire North Pacific Ocean from the Korea Peninsula, Fr. Honshu and Southern California (USA) to Fr. St. Lawrence. On this huge area, it forms a series of local herds, confined to water areas with specific physiographic and oceanological conditions. Insulating barriers that prevent significant mixing of individuals of different herds, can be protruding capes, water with a negative temperature and the presence of bottom sticky caviar in cod, precluding its transfer by currents. Especially a lot of cod in the hall. Alaska and in the American waters of the Bering Sea (Fadeev N. S., 2005).

Navaga forms many local populations, which are particularly clearly differentiated during the spawning period. In the hall. Peter the Great is distinguished by the herds of Posyet, Amursky and Ussuriysky bays, on Sakhalin - the northern part of the Tatar Strait and Aniva and Terpeniya bays, in the Sea of ​​Okhotsk - the West Kamchatka, Shantarsky, Yamsky, Smoke-Hokkaido and others. from Kolyuchinskaya lips to the hall. Coronation Along the Asian coast lives from the Bering Strait to Wonsan (Sea of ​​Japan), occasionally penetrates the Yellow Sea. In Japan, it is found along the Sea of ​​Okhotsk and Ocean coasts. Hokkaido south to Cape Erimo. In American waters dwells everywhere up to the northern part of the hall. Alaska, rarely found in the southeastern part of the bay. The most numerous near the mouths of rivers, sometimes enters their lower reaches (Anadyr, Amur, Tyumen-Ula, Razdolnaya, etc.), as a rule, in high water (Fadeev N. S., 2005).

Sayka lives in the seas of the Arctic Ocean, in the Pacific Ocean in the northern part of the Bering Sea, where it reaches the southern part of the Karaginsky Gulf, and on the American side - to the hall. Bristol. South 62 ° С is rare. Most common in the Chukchi Sea, Bering Strait, Gulf of Anadyr and the hall. Norton (Fadeev N. S., 2005).

Sizes, puberty, spawning areas

The pollock in general is characterized by the autumn-winter-spring spawning with a shift to a later time in the northern parts of the range. It is characterized by seasonal migrations associated with certain stages of the life cycle. In the prespawning period, mature pollock concentrates near the breeding areas, at depths of 200-300 m. As the sex products mature, it moves towards the shelf, and by the end of the total spawning period, breeding individuals go to depths of 40-50 m. leaves the spawning grounds and is widely settled both on the shelf, at minimum depths, and over oceanic depths up to 2-3 thousand m (Fadeev N. S., 2005).

Cod. Spawning takes place in the winter-spring period: in January-May with a peak in February-April. In the western part of the Bering Sea and off the North-West Kamchatka coast, the spawning dates shift by spring (March-April). For breeding, cod moves away from the shores to the upper part of the continental slope, where it forms pre-spawning and spawning clusters. The growth rate and age limit of females is greater than of males. Females reach sexual maturity with a length of 55-85 cm, males - 50-80 cm, at the age of 3-8 and 4-9, respectively. Mass puberty (50%) is observed with a length of 70 cm and 6 years of age. However, in the southern areas of the range, puberty comes earlier, with a length of females 40 cm and ages 2-3 years. Fecundity ranges from 0.956 to 6.394 million eggs with a length of females of 52-95 cm, an average of 2.685 million. Spawning takes place in the winter-spring period from January to May, with a peak in February-April.

In the northern areas, the spawning dates are shifted by spring (March-April), in the southern ones - by winter (January-February). Cod caviar is developing above the ground, where it is in suspension. The incubation period lasts from 8 to 20 days, depending on the water temperature. In northern areas for breeding, cod leaves the coast on the continental slope, in southern regions it spawns in the shallow coastal zone.

In the northern regions, where the coastal waters in the winter period are very cool and the water temperature drops to negative values, the winter cod departs to great depths, where it then spawns. The cod of these areas is spring-spawning. In intermediate areas (southwest Sakhalin), cod for spawning comes closer to the shore. In warm-water areas, in the south of the range with cooling of coastal waters, cod for spawning approaches the coastline to shallow depths. Here the cod is winter-spawning. In general, dates and spawning grounds are related to water temperature. Cod during the spawning period avoids both negative and high positive (above 10 ° C) temperature values. As a result, the temperature regime largely determines the distribution area, seasonal migrations, depth and habitat of cod. Usually cod is found in areas with water temperature at the bottom from -1.3 to + 10 ° С. Optimal habitats are areas with a water temperature of 0 to 5 ° C (N. Fadeev, 2005).

Saika before puberty, annual growths average 3.5-4.5 cm, then decrease to 1.5-2.0 cm per year. Spawning begins in October, mass - in January — February in divorces, polynyas and cracks. Fertility from 5 to 35 thousand eggs, an average of 20.5 in the Bering Sea, and 19.7 thousand in the Chukchi sea. Saikas are often confused with pollock fry, but by the number of rays in the second dorsal, first anal, gill rakers on the first gill arch, pyloric appendages and vertebrae, they differ well. In the cod-ray in the second spinal cord 14-17, in the first anal 15-17, vertebrae 53-57, gill rakers 37-45 and pyloric appendages 20-37. Lives in desalinated waters, usually abundant along the ice edge and in broken ice at temperatures below or below them, over depths of 25-175 m. In the autumn-winter period, before spawning, it comes to the shores and sometimes enters the bays and lagoons of the Chukotka Peninsula . There are no differences in the morphometric signs of the cod of the Chukchi and Bering Seas, it is assumed that in both seas it belongs to a single population. Reaches a length of 34 cm, lives up to 7 years. The catches are usually dominated by 3–4 years (2+, 3+) in sizes 10–20 cm. Females are larger than males, the difference in modal sizes is 1.0–1.5 cm. The dependence of body weight on sizes in fish 10–5 22 cm (Fadeev N. S., 2005).

Navaga reaches a length of 54 cm and a mass of 1.3 kg (northeastern Sakhalin and the southern Kuril Islands). Large navaga lives also in the northwestern part of the Bering Sea, where individuals of 52 cm long and weighing 845 g occur. On the northern outskirts of the range (Neshkan Bay in the Chukchi Sea) specimens larger than 36 cm and 280 g are not found. In most areas, the catch is dominated by individuals 20–32 cm long, weighing 100–250 g. Only the southern Kuril Islands are dominated by larger navaga, 28–38 cm long and weighing 200–400 g. The age limit on otoliths was 15 years (Neshkan lip). Representatives of the southern populations of navaga usually have a shorter life cycle than the northern ones. The maximum age of navaga in the hall. Peter the Great and the southern Kuril Islands - 8, in the Sakhalin Bay - 10 years. The catches are dominated by 2-5 years of age, the interannual differences in age composition depend on differences in the yield of generations that make up the stock. In the first years of life, navaga has very high linear growths. The growth rate depends on the geographical latitude of the habitat. Navaga is most rapidly growing in the southern Kurile Islands and in the waters of western Kamchatka, where the yearlings, 2- and 3-year-olds reach an average length of 16.9, 28.4 and 35.4 cm. Slowed growth is characteristic of the navaga of the northern populations. The gains in the first two years of life of the navaga of the Neshkan Bay are - 5, the Tatar Strait - 6, and the southern Kuril Islands - 10 cm per year. In the hall. The patience of yearlings of an average length of 12.5, 2 - 20.2 and 3-year-olds - 27.2 cm. In the southern Kuril Islands, they are respectively 19.3, 28.3 and 34.0 cm. After puberty, linear gains sharply are slowing down. In the western Kamchatka navaga older than 3 years, they average 4-5 cm, in the north-west of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk - 2-3 and in the Chukchi Sea - only 1-2 cm per year. The maximum mass gains occur in the 3-4th years of life, after which the gains are reduced by 2-3 times. The generation reaches maximum biomass at the age of 2-3 years.

It becomes sexual maturity on the whole range at the age of 2-5 years. Mass puberty in the hall. Peter the Great, in western Kamchatka and in the southern Kuril Islands, occurs at the age of 2 years with a length of 23-27 cm. Sakhalin Navaga begins to take part in spawning at 2 years at a length of 17 - 19 cm, at 3 years (21-25 cm) almost all individuals mature. In the Neshkan Bay, mass maturation occurs at the age of 2-3 years, but even among 4-year-old fish the number of immature individuals can reach 70%. A high positive correlation between the yield of generations and the age of onset of puberty was revealed. At high numbers, the maturation of the navaga is delayed by one year. In the Neshkan Bay, the generation of a high population at the age of 2 years ripens by only 6–7, and the low - by 60–70% .5-year-old fish are all mature.

The fecundity of the navash of the Neshkan Bay with dimensions of 22-33.6 cm (2-7 years old) ranges from 14 thousand to 222 thousand eggs, the diameter of which after fertilization is 0.97-1.6 mm. Соотношение полов с длиной и возрастом изменяется от преобладания самцов в младшем возрасте и до противоположного соотношения в старшем. Перелом кривой полового состава, когда соотношение самцов и самок примерно равное, наступает в 4-6-годовалом возрасте. Коэффициент зрелости самцов перед нерестом составляет 14-15, самок — 18-20% (Фадеев Н. С., 2005).

Размножается навага в прибрежных водах, в заливах, бухтах, около устьев рек, в опресненных водах, но икра развивается нормально и при океанической солености.

В период нереста очень консервативна к температуре, икрометание происходит подо льдом при минус 1,6—1,9°С. Where there is no ice fast ice, navaga is absent, for example, on the Japanese-sea coast, o. Hokkaido, where the warm Tsushima flow. With a positive spawning temperature never happens. Spawning at depths from 2 to 10 m. According to unconfirmed information, spawning occurs in deep waters of 100–200 m in the southern Kuril Islands, which is explained by high temperatures in coastal waters. These data are doubtful, since suitable conditions (ice, negative temperatures) are created precisely in coastal waters.

The total spawning period is December — March, with a shift to a later date in the northern regions. Spawning in January — February off the northern coast of Hokkaido, into the hall. Peter the Great - in December — February, in the hall. Norton - in February — March and in the Neshkan Bay - at the end of February - the first half of March. Ground caviar, but not sticky, develops in suspension near the ground.

After spawning, the swoop spreads widely in coastal waters, does not go far into the sea, keeps mostly in a dispersed state, does not form clusters. Often comes to the mouths of rivers.

Classification

Scientific classification implies dividing cod family into two subfamilies:

  1. The subfamily Tristeps have 5 fins: 3 on the back and 2 more in the anal area.
  2. The subfamily burbot is distinguished by the presence of 3 fins., 2 of which are located on the back.

Habitat

The habitat of representatives of the cod family is extensive, they can be found in the following places:

  1. All seas, located in the northern hemisphere, are home to most species.
  2. Five varieties can be found in the seas of the southern hemisphere.
  3. Burbot is the only breed found in freshwater reservoirs.located in North and South America, the northern part of Europe and Asia.
  4. Eastern Atlantic - This is the place where a large number of species belonging to the family live.
  5. In the Baltic Sea a large number of cod lives, but she is the only member of the family here.
  6. The coasts of South America, New Zealand and South Africa are places where you can meet 3 breeds belonging to cod.

Equatorial waters are the only place where the cod family is completely absent.

How to catch more fish?

The main features of this process are discussed below:

  1. Most species reach puberty at 3-5 years of age., but cod and some other breeds are sent to the first spawning at 8-10 years old.
  2. Spawning lasts for several days.
  3. Cod and molva are distinguished by increased fertility., at one time they are able to lay over a million eggs. Otherwise, navaga breeds: during spawning, it lays only a few thousand eggs.
  4. All cod prefer cool water therefore, spawning occurs in winter or early March, when the temperature does not exceed 0 ° C.

The distribution of fish occurs during the first days of their life, since not all fry remain in the water column: many are carried away to other places by swift currents. Haddock fry prefer to hide behind jellyfish, which is their reliable protection against most natural enemies.

Representatives of the cod family can make several long migrations throughout their lives, traveling long distances. This is usually associated with a decrease in food supply in inhabited places, a change in the direction of currents or temperature.

Many cod have nutritional value, so they are bred on an industrial scale. Most of the fish are caught in the Atlantic, annual volumes reach 6-10 million tons. Haddock, Atlantic cod, pollock and pollock can be distinguished among the significant breeds: their fillet and liver containing a large amount of vitamins and nutrients are valued. Given the specificity of the habitat of these species, bottom fishing trawls are used for fishing.

Cod species

The cod family includes a large number of fish., below will be discussed in detail the common and famous breeds.

Gadikul is known for being one of the smallest cod, breed features are discussed below:

  1. Gadikul is a deep-sea fishwhich tries to keep the bottom surface.
  2. The main feature is big eyes.dealing with a third of the head.
  3. Average body size is from 9 to 12 cm., rare specimens reach a length of 15cm.
  4. Main habitat - The Mediterranean and the sea, located near the northern part of Norway.
  5. The breed is found in ocean waters, it can dwell at a depth of 200 to 1300 meters.
  6. Experts distinguish between the southern and northern gadikul, the only differences are in the anatomical structure, determined by the number of vertebrae and fin rays, as well as in the habitat.

Most of the members of this breed of cod live in the Atlantic and Mediterranean and try to keep close to European shores. Sometimes whiting occurs near the Crimean coast, there it gets randomly after strong storms.

Other features of this fish are discussed below:

  1. Average body length varies from 30 to 50 cm, some large specimens grow to 60-65 cm.
  2. Whiting is a predatory breed., the basis of its diet consists of marine crustaceans, fry and small adult fish.
  3. Fishing whiting settled in most northern seas.
  4. Whiting has a large number of natural enemies.: it is included in the diet of large predators and dolphins.
  5. The depth of whiting falls extremely rarely.he prefers to stay in the water closer to the surface.
  6. To the first spawning the whiting is sent at the age of 2 yearsDuring this process, it sinks to a depth of one meter. Reproduction begins if the water temperature does not fall below -5 °

Pollock is one of the most valuable and well-known representatives of cod, The features of this species are discussed below:

  1. The main habitat is the northern territory of the Pacific Ocean.where the most part of representatives of this breed is concentrated.
  2. Pollock loves to be in cool water, with strong warming, it can migrate to places with lower temperature conditions.
  3. Pollock spends most of the time at a depth of at least 600 meters, to shallow water areas or to the coastline, it is suitable only before spawning.
  4. Pollock is sent to its first spawning upon reaching the age of 3-4 years., reproduction can occur in the winter or summer - it depends on the characteristics of the habitat.
  5. Average body length is 50 cm, but some individuals can reach large sizes.
  6. Pollock is the most numerous representative of cod in the Pacific Ocean.. Well-established his commercial fishing, valued not only meat, but also the liver of this fish. In some places, for example, near the Japanese coast, it is not caught due to infection with various parasites.

Molva is a predatory fish, one of the largest representatives of cod.

Its main features are as follows:

  1. Molva is trying to keep near the bottom surface, it rarely rises above a depth of 500 meters.
  2. The body length of most individuals is 1 meter., although the largest specimens reach almost 2 meters.
  3. The basis of the diet is fish, giving way to the size.
  4. Molva becomes sexually mature very late, on its first spawning, it is sent only at the age of 8-10 years.

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Useful properties of cod

Meat of cod family fish is one of the most dietary, as the content of fat in it does not exceed 4%.

Therefore, dishes from these fish, in addition to excellent taste, are very useful for the human body.

Cod contains the following vitanima:

Trace elements

In cod meat contains such useful substances as:

Representatives of the cod family are one of the most numerous fishes inhabiting the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, therefore the catch of these fish is very active. And the only freshwater burbot among these sea creatures is the object of amateur fishing and industrial catch in Siberia.

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