Soviet heavy breed stands out for its size and massiveness, unwittingly attracting the attention of people. They carry loads of several tons on their backs. These strong horses are also used to transport heavy laden carts. They have many virtues, so heavyweights are considered unique. They are large in size and have endurance, which allowed them to become laureates of the honorary title of “horses of the heroic strength”, their character is distinguished by vigor, and their movements are graceful.
Soviet heavyweight - a unique breed of horses
History of origin
The first heavy horses appeared in the 18th century in Western European countries, later they were bred in Russia. One of the most popular heavy-duty breeds in the country is the Soviet heavy truck, which glorified Russian horse breeders. These horses, having a large and powerful physique, were brought out of Brabancons, which were brought from Belgium at the end of the 19th century, during Soviet times. Local working mares were crossed with Belgian heavy-duty trucks, resulting in an unusual breed of Soviet horses.
Kislovsky D.A. and Antsin I.A., professor and livestock specialist, many works were carried out concerning the development and improvement of the breed. The long selection and smart approach of the Soviet horse breeders significantly improved the existing characteristics of horses, which had developed muscles and strong bones, but their constitution was dry. Modern horses have become more unpretentious to the conditions of detention and feed.
The main purpose of removing heavy trucks was the need for rural farmers in horses who could be hardy at work and had the ability to carry heavy loads.
In the middle of the 20th century, the breed was improved from stallions that were grown in domestic stud farms. Approved the Soviet heavy breed, meeting the necessary requirements, in 1952. The "progenitors" of unique horses are less harmonious, large and sedentary. The mares of the new breed had a high coefficient of milk production.
Soviet heavy truck was originally intended for agricultural work.
The Soviet heavy horse is distinguished by its size and large growth.
- Growth in withers comes to 170 cm.
- Weigh up to a ton.
- It has a chest, differing in width and massiveness, and a muscular neck.
- Medium and proportional head.
- Developed cheeks.
- Wide nostrils.
- Medium, sometimes sagging ears.
- Short or medium neck, turning into a low withers.
- It has a soft back, allowing the use of a horse under the saddle.
- The presence of a wide and even waist, forked slightly drooping croup helps the horse to hold heavy loads.
- Strong hooves have the correct shape and are located on dry and muscular legs.
- Color - red, red-chalaya, sometimes - bay or bay-chalaya.
- Brushes on the limbs moderately overgrown.
- Most pomp and density of the mane and tail.
- Character - energetic and good-natured.
Soviet heavy truck possesses mostly bay or red suit
- The Soviet draft might be distinguished by the following incorrect setting of the legs: saberiness, clubfoot, and other defects that do not adversely affect abilities, but are avoided when they are engaged in breeding horses.
- The peculiarity of the breed are shortish hips, large hock joints, elongated shoulder blades, shortened headstock and wide melee.
Distinguishing characteristics of productivity
Soviet heavyweight is an early breed of horses, characterized by high productivity. Appreciated:
- Early maturity and high growth rate.
- Seen fast growth and weight gain in foals - yearlings have a weight of more than half a ton. At the age of 2 and a half years, they are already used for hard work, and after reaching five years they take part in special types of competitions.
- Representatives of the breed have long-term breeding use. In some females, offsprings appear even after they reach the age of 20.
- The advantages of horses is also in the fact that they can be fed with cheap bulky feed.
- Remarkable working qualities.
- For their content are suitable any conditions.
- Mares have a very high milk production.
Soviet heavyweight at the age of 1 year weighs about half a ton
Types of heavy trucks
Two domestic stud farms were engaged in breeding the Pochinok and Mordov breeds, as a result of which two natural types were distinguished with their own differences.
- The horses of the Pochinok horse farm have a pronounced heavy breed - massiveness, large long legs, the body is slightly lengthened.
- Horses, bred on Mordovia, retain the quality of suffolian horses, which have compact and dry bones.
The difficulties that have befallen heavy people in our modern times
Nowadays, when the equipment and automation that agriculture uses, horse labor was supplanted, the number of purebred animals began to decline, a decrease in demand and demand for the use of highly productive horse mares was observed. But in a number of European countries, the demand for Soviet heavy trucks has even increased markedly.
Our stallions and mares take part in international competitions, they are used to improve the heavy breeds.
In the middle of the 19th century, horses in the south of the Nizhny Novgorod region and in Mordovia were bred mainly to use their power. In these regions there was a need to haul wood and produce arable work. The locals used strong working horses of the breed Bityug and their descendants, which were obtained as a result of crossing with local mares.
The situation changed when, in the 19th century, heavy horses from Europe - Brabancons and suffolks - were delivered to the territory of Mordovia and the Nizhny Novgorod region. These were truly gigantic animals, their height at the withers reached 180 centimeters. Despite the heavy build, they were peace-loving and docile horses. But they had several drawbacks: the animals did not adapt well to the local harsh climate, and the constitution of their bodies was loose. As a result of cross-breeding stallions from Europe with local mares of the Butyug breed, foals with good data appeared. Although they were somewhat smaller than the Brabancons, they had a dense constitution.
During the Civil War, the supply of thoroughbred horses from Europe was temporarily halted. A breeding herd, formed from local horses of the Nizhny Novgorod region and descendants of Brabancons and suffolks, was kept at the Pochinkovsky horse farm No. 23 and in the Mordovian village of Obrochnoye. At that difficult time, no one was engaged in selection, and inside the tribe the horses randomly mated and produced new offspring. In the years 1934-1936, horse breeders noticed that the descendants of European horses looked at the stable genes of their ancestors. Then they decided to carry out work aimed at securing them. Soon the war began again, so the breed was not registered. Only in 1952 the registration was made, and the breed was named the Soviet heavy truck.
Appearance and characteristics
Horse Soviet heavyweight has a strong physique. These animals are tall, muscular. The average weight of a stallion reaches 900 kg. Looking at these animals, even an unknowing person in horse breeding will notice how powerful their limbs, chest and neck are.
Consider the main characteristics of the breed Soviet heavy truck:
- the average height of the stallion at the withers reaches 170 kg,
- weight - 900 kg,
- massive muscular chest,
- strong short neck
- a medium sized head that appears compact against the background of the body
- auricles are small,
- nostrils extended,
- cheeks well developed
- the back is wide, straight, moderately soft,
- croup powerful, forked, low,
- limbs short, powerful, hock joints massive,
- hooves large regular shape
- moderate brushiness
- hair in mane and tail is thick,
- The suit of the Soviet heavy trucks is red, bay, and also red-roan or bay-roan.
Attention! The representatives of this breed sometimes have a defect - incorrect setting of the hind limbs (clubfoot). This does not affect the performance of horses, but may cause rejection when breeding by tribe.
To understand how powerful and durable horses are, it is enough to imagine how, thanks to the efforts of a single animal, a 15-ton compound is moving from its place. During one test in the city of Tambov, a stallion named Force was able to carry out 23 tons of cargo at a distance of 23 meters. These figures help assess the strength and power of the Soviet heavy truck. That is why these horses can rightly be considered the property of Russia.
Care and maintenance of horses
Although Soviet heavy-duty and unpretentious, still need to know some of the features of care for these horses. Large animals need to be kept in a spacious stable. It should be dry and light. It is important to take care of a constant supply of fresh air. Around the stables equip walking platform.
Horse on the walking area
Since these animals are used in hard work, they get very tired. After each active walk or physical work, the hooves are washed by hoses and cleaned their nostrils from dust and mucus. The mane and tail also need care. Hair should be washed 2 times a week using special products. After drying, they are combed with a natural bristle brush.
Attention! Each individual should be regularly examined by a veterinarian. Horse breeders need to adhere to the vaccination schedule.
In order for the horses to be healthy, and the foals develop properly, they are provided with good nutrition. In the daily diet include:
- fresh grass
- root vegetables, vegetables,
- mineral supplements.
Mares breed Soviet heavy truck have a high rate of milkiness. During the period of lactation, they are able to produce over 3000 liters of milk. This is one of the advantages of the breed. Their fertility rate is at an average level - 75%. Mares can be done with stallions from the age of three, and be attracted to work from 2.5 years. Foals tend to gain weight quickly. Daily it increases by 1.8-2 kg. Due to this growth rate, six-month stallions weigh almost 500 kg.
Attention! Representatives of the breed Soviet heavy truck can be used for reproduction up to 17 years. In rare cases, mares are able to produce offspring and up to 20 years.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the breed is in crisis. At the stud farms where the herd is kept, the foals were no longer tested, and the number of livestock was significantly reduced. However, breeding stallions and mares are in demand in Europe. In Russia, some farmers also prefer to use the living power of horses instead of agricultural machinery, which requires a lot of money to maintain.
The history of the breed
Breed Soviet heavy truck belongs to the group heavy horses. They began to purposefully withdraw even in the Middle Ages for the transport of knights in full military equipment. Later, heavy trucks began to be widely used in various economic needs. Representatives of the Belgian Brabancons became the tribal material for breeding the new breed.
In the period of intensification of agriculture in the 30-50th. During the last century, there was an acute need for horses with a great traction. For this purpose, stallions of European heavy-weight breeds were brought to the Soviet Union. The offspring of their crossing with local mares combined strength and energy with endurance. Trials began in the mid-40s. At the beginning of the 50s, its features were finally formed and the main characteristics were identified. In 1952, the name "Soviet Heavy Draft" was officially assigned to the breed.
The cores of the breeding of these horses are the Republic of Mordovia, the Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Tambov regions.
Soviet heavy truck immediately attracts attention with its dimensions. It is distinguished by its height (up to 170 cm at the withers) and its muscularity. Adults have a weight of 0.7 -1 ton. However, the body is proportionally folded. The powerful, stable skeleton of the back and legs provides excellent lifting capacity. Among other things, the horse is suitable for riding under the saddle.
In 65% of cases, the color is red, less common is chaly (with a touch of light-colored hair), and a bay (brown suit of different shades). Horse decoration are lush tail and mane.
Some individuals have congenital abnormalities, expressed in the incorrect statement of the legs during movement (clubfoot, sabistskost). These defects, in general, do not affect the working ability of the horse.
Breed Soviet heavy truck has a calm temperament, quickly adapts to the new conditions. Does not require special care.
Conditions of detention and care
The horse will feel comfortable in a spacious, warm stable. Must be a paddock for walking.
Nutrition regular, properly balanced. In the diet should be equally present dry and juicy food, including cereals. For normal growth and development, foals are fed with vitamins and concentrates. As a treat or a reward for good work, give apples, carrots, sugar cubes. The adaptability of Soviet heavy-duty trucks to inexpensive bulky fodder makes them suitable for keeping in regions with a weak forage base.
Work horses require attentiveness to health. Periodic examination by a veterinarian is required. Vaccinations and vaccinations. The horses are cleaned daily, and the hooves rinsed with water. The hairy part is washed 1-2 times a week, then carefully combed with a brush to prevent tangling.
Reproduction and development
In 65-75% of cases, fertilization is effective and leads to pregnancy. Approximately 11 months later, foals are born. They are growing rapidly, successfully gaining weight.
Stages of development in the life of a horse:
- In the first six months of life, the mass of a Soviet heavy draft foal increases to 365-375 kg.
- One year old youngster weighs about 525-540 kg.
- From 2- 2.5 years old, young horses are gradually accustomed to moderate loads 20-30 below the norm. Three-year-olds begin to use as an adult workhorse.
- From the age of 5-6 years, heavy trucks can participate in competitions under a special program.
- On average, the productive life of the Soviet heavy truck 10-12 years.
- When they reach the age of 16-17 years old, their work qualities are noticeably reduced.
- Cases of sustained productivity in individuals up to 20 years have been recorded. The performance of the horse is directly dependent on the constitution, age, fitness, conditions and mode of operation.
Dairy and meat productivity
Mares of Soviet heavy trucks are famous top-notch milkiness. During the breeding of offspring (lactation period) 1 pedigreed mare produces about 3 thousand liters of valuable milk. Record holder of the Rowan breed for 338 days of lactation produced 6173 liters of milk.
Mare's milk is the raw material for the manufacture of koumiss. This fermented milk drink has long been popular with nomadic peoples. In the middle of the 19th century, the Russian doctor, N.V. Posnikov, documented its healing properties. There was a separate direction of medicine kumis treatment. Koumiss helps with diseases of the digestive tract, cardiovascular system. Antibiotic substances that are formed in it in the process of leaven, have a therapeutic effect in case of tuberculosis. "Drink of warriors", as in the old days called koumiss remains at the peak of popularity in our days.
If necessary, horses of the Soviet breed can be used to produce meat products.
Achievements of the representatives of the Soviet heavyweight breed are firmly established in the history of world horse breeding. Horses with excellent body parameters and showing high results in work, subjected to special tests. In time, which often set new records. The main verification test is designed to show the work of the horse. She needs to go a distance of two kilometers with a harness filled with a weight of 4.5 tons. Heavyweights inherited good speed from their European ancestors. They easily trot the cart with a total mass of one and a half tons.
The representative of the breed Soviet heavyweight firmly holds the 2nd place among the absolute world champions. The palm belongs to the British pug stallion Vulcan, who in 1924 shifted the weight of almost 29.5 tons.
Outstanding achievements of the Soviet heavy truck breed:
- in carrying capacity: Stallion Force 35 meters, carried a weight of 22991 kg.
- in the speed of delivery of the cargo at a trot: Ranet stallion covered a distance of 2 km in 5.72 minutes.
- in the speed of delivery of goods in steps: the Bison stallion walked 2 km in 11 minutes 51.8 seconds.
- for endurance: the mare Mermaid marched 2,13 km with a traction force of 300 kg.
Problems and Prospects
Late 20th century наложил пагубный отпечаток на развитие породы. Племенные хозяйства пришли в упадок. The number of livestock decreased significantly, which led to adverse genetic changes. Russian farmers prefer mechanization. At the same time, interest in breeding horses from foreign horse breeders remains high, which gives hope for the revival of the breed.
For the Soviet draft carriers, the saying "fit in the cart and under the governor" is still true.
Possessing colossal power, massive Soviet horses, capable of carrying loads, the mass of which amounts to tons, have always been popular. Many of the legendary heavy vehicles were withdrawn in Western Europe about two centuries ago. Russia, too, is famous for its heavy-duty horses. And the Soviet heavyweight - the horse breed is the most powerful and famous of them.
Derived by these Soviet hares heavyweights were through the process of crossing. In the Russian open spaces, Brabancons were already in the middle of the nineteenth century. But in Russia they did not follow the path connected with purebred breeding.
What was the reason for all this? Brabancons have a very loose and damp constitution. And they can adapt very poorly to the harsh domestic climate. Soviet horses have such a tendency to mokrets. For some of them, as a matter of fact, everything could have ended with the rotting of arrows and such important elements as the tissue of the limbs. But the crossing of wimps Brabancons with mares that were in the area, eliminated all these disadvantages.
In addition to all this, the somewhat rude physique of the Belgian heavy trucks could not satisfy the taste in Russia for true harmony of forms and brilliant horse beauty. So began the serious and productive work on the difficult creation of a new beautiful breed. And in this way, horses were created, which met entirely and completely, all the requirements of agriculture.
Removal of a heavy breed took quite a long period of time. The improvement of breeding, as well as its successful implementation, was largely contributed by Professor D. A. Kislovsky and livestock specialist A. I. Antsin. And only in the 30s of the 20th century appeared foals with stable genetic traits. At the same time, the need for blood of foreign heavy trucks began to disappear. The improvement of the Soviet breed was carried out with the help of horses raised in domestic stud farms. By the middle of the 20th century, there were no Brabancons in the country. In Pochinok and Mordovian stud farms, selection and training of young stock were carried out.
The Soviet draft horse is a breed of horse that significantly surpassed its ancestors. More proportional, compact in size and agile horses fully met the requirements of agriculture. 1952 was a landmark for them. It was then that the breed was registered.
Two stud farms were engaged in the removal of domestic heavy-haul Soviet horses. Accordingly, the results were different. Thus, two types of Soviet heavy trucks were formed, each of which has its own individual characteristics. Horses, bred at Pochinkovsky horse farm, have a massive build, elongated body and long large legs. The horses of the Mordovian Stud Farm are more dry and compact in size, because they have strong genes of English suffolks.
Actually, there is a little secret that makes this horse stand out from the rest. So, the Soviet draft force is simply ready to open its own unsurpassed power. As a workhorse, the Soviet heavyweeper cannot have a single opponent.
Large constitution and tall
But on various koumiss farms, fillies represent a bright and intense interest. As to the meat production, so here, too, is not available equal to this glorious breed. Indeed, in meat production, simply there is no equal in high precocity.
And now the “Soviet heavy horse” is already in a hurry to get a well-deserved recognition back in 1952. So the breed can be called relatively young. As for the popularity of the new horses, they responded to all their own very basic qualities. Then there were long breed improvements and many other interesting processes. Now we can say that progress has made such animals that are superior in all respects, very many in their own way.
The Soviet draft of all existing, the largest. At the same time, the head is, surprisingly, of medium size, and the neck is muscular, and has an average length. As to the withers, it is low and wide. Sometimes soft. The back is smooth, and the waist is wide. Croup drooping and forked. Wide chest.
Photo of the Soviet heavy truck red color
The Soviet draft vehicle is a breed of horse characterized by high productivity and rapid development. So the one-year-old foal weighs a little over half a ton. At the age of three he is ready for hard work. Sometimes it happens earlier, at 2 years and 5 months. And in 5–6 years, the foal can be sent to competitions.
The mare of this breed is able to give offspring even after overcoming the 20-year milestone. During the period of feeding the foal, it gives about 6 thousand liters of milk. And this is quite a lot, so the Soviet heavy horse mares are used to improve the work horses of other breeds.
In addition, Soviet heavy vehicles are unpretentious in terms of content. For them, cheap bulk feed is quite suitable.
Soviet heavy trucks successfully participated in competitions. Their achievements went down in history. The stallion named Force was especially distinguished at the competitions in Tambov, where in 1957 he covered a distance of 35 m with a weight of 23 tons. After this grand event, the Soviet heavy carriers constantly set new records until 1990.
Soviet heavy trucks now
The demand for Soviet heavy trucks is rapidly plummeting. The need for such horses has almost disappeared due to the widespread automation of agriculture. Their numbers are inexorably reduced, and stud farms are falling into decay.
However, abroad, Soviet heavy vehicles are popular, actively participate in international competitions and are used to improve other heavy breeds.
Brief description of the breed
It is possible to distinguish the Soviet heavy truck from other breeds by its massiveness and large stature, attracting the views of others. Few horses can boast such accomplishments and skills as this breed, which is capable of transporting loads of several tons. For a long time, horses are used precisely for such purposes as to carry heavy vehicles.
The weight of one individual can reach the mark in tons; in height, a horse will be no higher than 170 cm to the level of withers. The animal is characterized by a wide, powerful chest, a strong back and a well-defined neck muscularity. The head of the Soviet heavy draft is of medium proportional size, the nostrils are wide, the cheeks are sufficiently developed. Medium sized ears sit on top of the head, sometimes they have a drooping shape. The neck gradually passes into a low-set withers, the back of the animal is soft, ideally suited to the saddle. The horse can withstand heavy loads thanks to a strong flat lower back, and slightly drooping croup has a forked shape. Muscular and at the same time dry limbs end in even perfect hoofs.
The color and color of the Soviet heavy truck may be different, thicker and chaly, less often - bay with the same tune. The extremities are bordered with moderately grown brushes, and the mane and tail show pomp and volume. By the nature of such horses despair calm and good nature, but retain the energy and strength. In general, the distinctive features of such an animal are the short form of the hips, large hock joints, wide pasterns, with shortened headstock and elongated shoulder blades.
Maintenance and care
The Soviet heavy truck has no particular preferences, it needs a spacious stable, a place for walking and free running, clean drinking and regular food. In order for the horse to work for the good of man, the owner must take care of the health of the animal. First, a properly formulated diet and feeding will help the horse retain its vigor and power. Secondly, regular inspection of the horse after a hard day will prevent the risks of disease and injury. And several times a year, a heavy animal must be examined by a veterinarian, as well as by all routine vaccinations and vaccinations.
After active pastime of the horse, it is necessary to clear the nostrils from sweat and dust, as well as to wash the hooves from the hose to relieve fatigue. The mane and tail should be washed 1-2 times a week using an air conditioner and combed out with a natural brush. To keep your hair from tangling, you can braid it in braids.
Properly compiled diet of the Soviet heavy truck is the key to its strength and power, productivity and vigor. Heavy trucks need to be equally fed with fresh and dry vegetation, as well as in cereal crops. Therefore, the horse must be given daily grass and grain, as well as clean water. In order for the young foal to grow and build up its musculature, it is necessary to periodically feed the animal with concentrates and vitamin supplements. Horses love sugar, sweet beets and carrots, as well as potatoes.
Character and habits
Soviet heavy truck is famous for its kind of phlegm and excellent temper. And the energetic temperament allows the horse to work most productively in tandem with a man. In general, the temperament of the Soviet heavy draft is balanced, well-balanced, unpretentious and calm. Horses can easily make contact with new people, but they require a respectful and gentle campaign. Negative emotions and anger are not welcome in people, only “using the carrot method” can cause diligence and zeal in a horse.
The use of Soviet heavy trucks
All the horses of the world heavy horses were originally created in times of manual labor and prosperity of the agricultural industry. Therefore, the main purpose of creating a heavy truck is to help people in agricultural work and transport heavy loads over long distances. Different countries have improved their breeds in their methods and attitudes, but it is the Soviet heavy truck that can be considered one of the most powerful and seasoned horses in the world. The basis for any heavy truck was the breed Persheron, Shire, Cleydesdali or Brabancon from Belgium.
Speaking of the Russian draft, such animals were used in the work of private yards and in the yard, since such horses could cope with the most difficult tasks. And thanks to the calm disposition and flexibility of the horse could easily find contact with young children. In those days, the Soviet Union held special competitions, identifying the most powerful representatives of the Soviet heavy truck breed, and subsequently sent these leaders to agriculture.
Today there is no great need for horses that can pull such ton loads. The engineering of labor has changed stereotypes and priorities. Horses are increasingly bred in remote corners of the country from civilization for meat, as well as work in the yard, in logging and on farms.
Interesting facts about these heavy trucks
In order to get acquainted with the breed Sovetskiy heavy truck, you can get acquainted with the most unique information about these animals.
- Traction capabilities of one horse can be compared with a tractor T-40 AM. These horses can not only pull loads, but also work together with machines in agriculture.
- For any individual of this breed it is not difficult to move the weight of 15 tons from the dead center.
- In a 1957 competition in Tambov, a stallion named Force extended a weight of 23 tons along a 23-meter distance.
- Soviet heavy trucks show high rates of growth and fertility.