Insects

First hive where to start

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


Bees NOT pets: not a single bee can distinguish a host from a passerby. And yet they successfully propagated, receive products, guide the development. But it is necessary to understand beekeeping, only then you can use their instincts to your advantage.

This article contains basic tips for a beginner beekeeper: where to start, how to choose the bees, the type of hives, the right care, and more.

Where to begin?

With getting knowledge. It is required to have at least a green (but better - accurate and complete) understanding of beekeeping. Here will help books, articles, tips, beekeepers, their observations.

It would be nice to have the support of a nearby experienced beekeeper. Just have to try: to take the patronage of a beginner means to become a beekeeper for a year, to which not everyone agrees.

Beekeepers in the apiary with smoke

We select a place for a point. Behind the fence, preferably with growing trees (the shadow helps the insects to maintain the microclimate of the dwelling in summer), a good forage reserve, next to the house and other buildings - omshanik, a warehouse, a workshop.

Do not put an apiary in the valley: it contributes to the development of diseases. Well, if the building or a solid fence cover the hives from the wind.

Purchased tools and equipment. Some things you can do yourself, some that are used infrequently and are relatively expensive (honey extractor, wax refineries), you can borrow things, although it is better to have your own. But it is difficult to do without buying a minimum — a face (preferably two) mesh, a smoker, a beech chisel, a small amount of honeycomb, a wire for pasturing.

Examine the feed base. We take into account the area within a radius of 2 km from the future apiary, this is the radius of the productive flight of bees. Bees fly further (up to 5–6 km), but the time and honey costs as fuel, and the troubles that lie in wait for long-distance flight - birds, cultivated fields, possible bad weather, wasted time - reduce the impact of departure. The frequency of the honey collection is also important, significant non-fetal periods lead to theft: insects in search of food try to rob the neighbors. What can turn into an attack when a robbed family is destroyed, and stocks are dragged by robbers to their nest. In bezvalochnoe time increases and bee viciousnessthat can quarrel with neighbors, and the beekeeper himself is not a pleasure. Even in the absence of a bribe, families come to a swarm, do not work well.

Blending periods can be eliminated in two ways.

  1. Sowing honey plantsplanting nectar-bearing trees and shrubs that bloom in the right time.
  2. Nomadic - Moving the apiary to the area with the flowering honey plants.

We collect other necessary information.

All beekeeping work, one way or another, relate to these important dates.

We complete the first-aid kit. Not so for yourself (over time, the sensitivity to bites decreases), as for possible guests or passers-by stung by your charges. 1-2% of people are allergic to stings, so it is better to err. To avoid possible trouble.

Official registration. By law, you need to get a passport in the apiary, even if you keep the only bee colony.

Profitability calculation

Income part. This includes the cost of bee products.

  • Honey.
  • Wax.
  • Propolis.
  • Royal jelly.
  • Bee packages.
  • Uterus.
  • Pollen.
  • Bee venom.
Apiculture products

There are incomes unreliable, but possible. Payment for pollination or excursions in the apiary (if you find someone willing to pay). The sale of a submarine (dead bees) or wax moth larvae for "medical" purposes. In reality, the therapeutic effect differs little, if at all, from zero, but now the fashion for such a “treatment”.

Profit depends on the following factors.

  1. Directionality of the apiary. We work for honey collection or breeding of queens, getting milk, pollen or poison.
  2. Product pricing. And if the prices and the demand for honey are relatively stable, then another ... The price of the queens strongly depends on the time of cultivation and their pure breed, and it is documented. Poison and royal jelly, especially the latter, is a very specific product: you need to find a buyer and strictly adhere to the rules of receipt, as it loses all its amazing properties if it is selected incorrectly.
  3. Apiary productivity. It depends not only on the owner. Drought or unexpected frosts, like the weather in general, are not easily regulated.

There is also a profitable part, which is difficult to express in coins. The pleasure of messing with the bees. Increase the yield of his garden or vegetable garden. The positive impact on the health of their relatives and friends from honey and pollen, as well as stings (apitherapy is a real method).

The basis of the expenditure part.

  1. Purchase bees and queens.
  2. Hive acquisition, tools, equipment or lumber and accessories, if you make beehives, frames and other necessary things yourself.
  3. Construction or rental of premises: warehouse, workshop, omshanik.
  4. Cost of Supplies: drugs, sugar, honeycomb.
  5. Remuneration hired workers.
  6. If beekeeping is nomadic, transportation costs, watchmen, fuel.
People work in the apiary

There are also unplanned, force majeure costs: payment of a lawyer / tests / experts, if there are any problems with the law or additional expenses for an unexpected illness in the apiary.

Absolutely sure it is not possible to calculate future profit. If only because the nectar-bearing terrain varies year by year. But, preoccupied with the collection of information and planning out actions in advance (even better - by concluding contracts for the supply of products), it is easy to estimate future profits, if not to a penny.

Used hives

Hives (decks, houses, sapettes) are now used a little, their time has passed. It is worth choosing between vertically (one-, two-, multi-body) and horizontally (sun-beds) incremental hives. And also between made of wood or plastic. Foam polystyrene foam hives are becoming more and more fashionable.

Hive deck

Sun beds have a slight maintenance advantage: it is not necessary to lift heavy bodies, it is easier to inspect families. At the same time, they are more bulky, more lumber is consumed for manufacturing, and transportation is worse.

Beehive lounger

Ukrainian (Polish, Levitsky - different names for a sunbed on a narrow-high frame) are better for wintering, otherwise the same as the most used beehives for Dadanovsky, Rutovsky, Delovsky wide frames.

Corpus Ukrainian Hive

The choice of the hive is made on the basis of the following considerations.

  • The orientation of the apiary: for honey collection or breeding. In the latter case, designs are chosen that favor the maintenance of several families in the hive. For cores, special hives are made for a reduced (usually - a quarter of Dadanovsky) frame. The alpine beehive is good, too, on the frame of Roger Delon: the hull is similar in size to the nucleus.
  • Nomadic or stationary beekeeping supposed to
  • Is there (or planned to purchase, manufacture) case hoist. And is there any power to raise the full section? If you plan to tinker with the bees in old age, you should not make a choice on heavy wooden hulls of 12 Dadanovsky frames in each.

In any case, it is desirable to have hives of the same type for the entire apiary. It helps in the work, the body and the frame are interchangeable, there is no problem with rearrangements.

Biology of the bee family - the basis of beekeeping

Pchelosemya - a single biological unit. Separately, the bee, the uterus, the drone live for a long time, much less reproduce, are simply not capable.

Uterus - Mom to the whole family: only she lays eggs. All the rest are her children. Up to 3,000 eggs are laid per day (in the Italian breed, the record holders in this part) eggs, the total weight of which exceeds the mass of the queen. The queen is constantly accompanied by a group of bees called a retinue: they clean, feed, protect.

Queen bee

There is only one uterus in the family. In rare cases, there may be a very short coexistence of several: during swarming or in a landfill swarm, when several families sat down on one branch and transplanted into one hive.

A freshly womb is called barren.. On days 5–6, if the weather permits, she flies out to mate, where she is fertilized by several drones in flight. After that, it is called fetal. Their semen is stored in special tanks - testes. There are and artificial insemination methodwhen a liquid obtained from drones is injected into a carnated animal by a special syringe. Two kinds of eggs are laid: fertilized — from them are the womb and the worker bees, and the unfertilized — from these drones.

They remove the uterus from the usual fertilized eggs, but in special cells of larger volume - queen cells. Deal in food: they feed with a special biologically active liquid, royal jelly.

He lives for several years, usually two, then is replaced by a beekeeper. The reason - the old uterus worse lays eggs. However, without a shift, they live longer. Uterus can be tagged, put a drop of paint on the back, then it is easier to find. Besides, paint color shows the year of inoculation: 7 colors are used for 7 years, then the cycle repeats. In nature, the change of the uterus occurs in the following cases.

  1. Silent change. Several (usually 2-3) queen cells are laid, the bred individual replaces the old, sick, or mutilated. Such a change takes place without a perceptible change in the rhythm of the family, often unobtrusively to the beekeeper. Hence the name.
  2. Swarmy. Several dozens of queen cells are laid, the bred individuals are used for reproduction. On the eve of their exit from the queen cells, part of the bees with the old queen are gaining full gobies of honey. They fly out of the hive, graft onto an inanimate object (usually a tree branch), hang a little, go to a new place of residence. The first (with the old, fetal uterus) such a new family is called a swarm-pervak. Next - a swarm-third, a third-party, and so on. All but the first come out with barren womb. The number of released swarms is a breed trait. On average, northern rocks release 1–2 swarms, southern ones can erupt: let go of many small, low-value swarms.

  1. Fistulous. Withdrawal with a sudden loss of uterus. Some cells in a cell with future bees already living in them are urgently reworked. The larvae themselves feed up the royal jelly, and instead of bees, they produce uterus. The quality (on average) is worse, especially if the larvae of older age, have been eating regular food for some time, and not royal jelly. Of the larvae older than two and a half days, as they do not feed, working bees hatch.

Workers bees. Biologically it is underdeveloped females, they are not able to mate. Do all the work, except egg laying. There are failures in the life of the family. If the uterus is lost, but the new one did not work out, then a part of the bees, which had eaten, due to the absence of brood, the royal jelly produced by them, changes. Genital organs are increasing, bees are trying to carry eggs. Fertilized can not, therefore, all laid eggs - drone. The drones, bred in the bee cells, do not fit, stick out, they have to be sealed, not flush with the walls, but with curved, convex lids. Such brood is called humpback, egg bees - tinder bees, family - outtaken. What is sad: without urgent intervention by the beekeeper, the family is doomed to death, the existing bees gradually die off, and only the drones are brought out ...

The first time is to clean the intestines - the bee takes off on day 4. Usually, 7–8 days young bees work inside the hive, and they are called - hive. Then they begin to fly for a bribe, they become flying bees. The bee lives from a little more than a month in the period of the main bribe to a little more than half a year - hibernating, low-working bees.

Drone. Bees, male, derived from unfertilized eggs. There is no sting, it is not adapted to any works, and does not even do them. The only function is to see the flying womb and mate with it. It is in flight, in the hive do not mate. For the search, it has good eyesight and a good sense of smell, exceeding that of the uterus or worker bee. In the fall, the bees of the drones do not allow to feed, and when they weaken from hunger, are driven out into the street. Having drones in a winter club is a bad sign. This happens only in a batteryless or family with a very bad, old womb.

Drone

Drone develops longer than the uterus, ready for mating only 2 weeks later (the uterus - 5-6 days after leaving the cell), and in the cell it develops not 16, like a uterus, and not 21, as a working individual, but 24 days. Feed to hatch requires three times more than for the bee.

A normal family consists of a queen, tens of thousands of bees, hundreds of drones. This is in summer, in winter there are no drones. Bee weight - approximately 10,000 per kg. Heavy swarm bees, accumulated in the reserve full gobies of honey - 7 000 / kg.

Species composition

In nature, most species have single bees - leaf cutters, earthen and others, known only to specialists. The reason - you will not collect honey from them. Leaf cutters are bred for pollinating alfalfa and clover, but not often.

Beekeepers work with public bees. Small and (more often) large Indian bee, but most of all - honeybee, in Apis mellifera in Latin.

There are many breeds, the differences between them are noticeable. All of them are able to mate with each other, forming a cross between.

The choice is to be guided by the local or zoned in the place of residence of the breed. It is she who is best adapted to bribe and wintering in this area, with the latest, even the most wonderful breed can be problems. Plus worth considering features of the planned beekeeping. If you are going to grow breeding queens - we buy a specific (precisely the one that is going to grow) breed. And only her! In order to avoid receiving crossbred, not purebred queens. When the apiary is located in the country or when the apiary is kept as an emergency allowance (at school, technical school), gentleness is of great importance, even if due to medical productivity.

The acquisition of bees

Rare cases (inheritance, donated, flew by an abandoned swarm to the country) are omitted: unlikely. Really worth considering two ways of acquisition.

  1. Purchase. We get a specific breed, in the ordered time, with documents and the corresponding quality. Can not be purchased at firms, and from a friend beekeeper. Then there is a plus: there is an opportunity to bargain, at the same time get a couple of tips and agree on assistance, if that. Minus - there are no documents (usually), and the quality of delivery directly depends on the good faith of the seller.
  2. Swarm fishingMinus - a greater percentage of randomness of the result, variation in the quality and pedigree of the caught swarms. A plus - cheaper. And the excitement, even a little, warms the soul. With the right approach in an area rich in bee colonies, the method is quite reliable.

Works at the apiary on the seasons

Winter. Bees in the club, half asleep, barely alive, slowly eating honey stocks. Their goal - to endure, live to spring. Under spring, the uterus begins to read, the temperature in the brood zone is raised from the winter 14 ° C to 34 degrees required by the larvae. For bees, winter lasts from the last autumn (usually November) to the first spring (more often, March) flight. Understandably, in different localities in different ways, as applies to all other phases of development.

Spring. Overwintered individuals die off, new ones develop. Families are trying to quickly build up strength and begin reproduction. In some localities, commodity bribes from early honey plants are possible, if there are many of them. From forest raspberries in Siberia, for example.

Summer. Families are actively collecting food supplies. More - the bees breed, release swarms, or the beekeeper makes cuttings.

Autumn. The main task is to grow young, non-working insects that manage to survive until spring and have time to feed themselves a replacement. In rare places, late commodity bribes are possible - in the heather wastelands of Britain, but this is an exception.

Caring for bee families

Bees in guardianship as such do not need, will survive without human intervention. But a good beekeeper intelligently helps the family, due to which she will collect more honey, and will suffer less from unpleasant factors (winter, illness).

It is not possible to paint all the subtleties of care for the apiary in the volume of the article. And in short - given what was written above about the development of the seasons, the beekeeper helps the family with a minimum of loss in each specific period and the maximum achievements to carry out the necessary work. How? About this - in the relevant sections of our site.

Tips for a beginner beekeeper, mistakes, results

Usually beginner beekeepers, having read, having heard enough, having dreamed up, they choose in advance for themselves both the best hive, and the best breed, and the best way of beekeeping ... And cones are stuffed, disappointed at meetings with unaccounted factors ...

Printed Frame

It happens differently: having listened to a conservative beekeeper, they take innovations in advance, trying to accurately copy the work in the old manner of a mentor ...

Truth is in the middle. Will be true with the mind use the experience of generations of beekeepersboldly experimenting. There are no error free solutions. Будут и болезни, и разочарования, и слеты роёв, и неудачные сезоны, и гибель семей на зимовке. Заранее стоит настраиваться на положительный (а не идеальный) результат. Вот при таком настрое – пчеловодство принесёт и удовольствие, и прибыль.Sure to!

What should a novice beekeeper know

Even better, use the 8 frames of the middle box, because bees overwinter better in narrower boxes. There are at least many thoughts about using exclusion for the queen. You do not need it, and not bees. This may be important if you use different sizes of boxes for broods and honey, but you do not do it - the way it is. If you added a box over the brood, and the queen moved into it, than she clearly needed space.

Quite often, a swarm is grafted on a tree trunk, a fence, sometimes on the side walls of neighboring hives, there was even a case when a swarm gathered in a club on the ground before the entrance of the hive from which it had left. In these cases, just shake off the swarm to the rooi do not work. Then they are scooped up with a wooden scoop and a brush to sweep the bees. You can use a small sprig or bunch of grass. It is necessary to bring a swarm closer to the swarm and a scoop with great care to collect into it the maximum possible number of bees. Then hang the swarm nearby, turning the hole towards the swarm, and sweep the remaining bees with a brush. The digging of the swarm should be carried out with great care, trying not to damage the bees, and especially the uterus.

Queen's preludes artificially suppress the size of the brood and can lead to unnecessary swarming. Beekeeping Tip 6: Natural Swarming. All living things want to breed - for honey bees, it’s teeming. A swarm occurs when a hive splits into two and a half bees to find a new home. As a beekeeper, it's not great to watch your queen, and half of your bees fly away. Fortunately, beekeepers can model this division, creating a split or creating colonies of the nucleus. I also like to watch small bushes make new queens.

Often the uterus is outside, then you need to very carefully scoop the bees along with it and transfer it to the swarm. When removing such swarms, it is more convenient to use a swivel factory-made.

Sometimes, when trying to transfer bees to a roev, they literally pounce on a beekeeper. Perhaps this is because a large number of flight bees often join the swarm. Everyone probably saw in swarms of bees with a curb, which, it seems, should not be there. Such swarms are treated differently. The roevna is hung above the swarm with a hole down so that it is as close as possible to the swarm. Then the bees begin to drive the bees from below, they begin to move upwards and gradually go to the swarm. This procedure is quite lengthy, sometimes takes half an hour or more.

Means for working with bee products

Beekeeping Council 7: do not be afraid of the local Muts. It is no secret that most of our queens come from breeding programs in New Zealand or Hawaii. The queen's store bought is bred for honey production and disease resistance. Mutron will never win greyhounds, they usually have fewer health problems. When a new queen appears, she will mate with unmanned aerial vehicles in the vicinity.

Unfortunately, you will not have any control over which unmanned she can handle - good luck in a draw. Apiculture tips 8: Two hives are better than one. Creating two hives may be more expensive, but it will give you more options. The second hive gives you the opportunity to transfer honey, pollen or brood from a stronger or weaker hive. If one hive goes without a seed and does not have eggs to create a new queen, you can supplement it with your healthy hive.

When removing swarms from tall trees, you need to tie a string to the roevna and climb a tree with it, and then only raise the swarm on the twine. After the swarm is removed, the roe with the bees is lowered in the same way. It is much more convenient than climbing a tree with rooevna in their hands. It is more convenient to perform all operations to remove swarms together: one holds a swarm, and the second one shoots or shakes off bees.

Houses and care

The closer you can save your hives, the better. The more accessible your hives are, the better they will get. Apiculture Council 10: Inspect every 7-10 days. A strong hive can end up out of place, make the queen's cells, and reproduce in less than two weeks. The inspection includes opening the hive, checking that the bees have enough space, and physically removing and inspecting each frame of the brood.

With practice, you will be faster and more efficient. Beekeeping Council 11: Do not "love them to death" If you are like me, you will want to look inside your hive 10 times a day. Needless to say, the opening of the hive allows everyone to warm up and emphasize the bees - especially when they first try to establish.

After removing the swarm is placed in the apiary, barn or other cool place. If there are no buildings in the apiary where you could place it, you just need to hang it in the shade of a tree, into the breeze. If the bees calm down after a while and only a faint noise is heard from the roe, this means that the uterus is there, and in the evening such a swarm can be put into a hive. But if the bees continue to make a lot of noise and run around restlessly, fly out through the cracks, it means that the uterus has not gotten into the battlefield. Then you just need to open the swarm so that the bees return to their hive.

Evaluation of colony health based solely on the “bee movement” level

As a continuation of this tip - resist over isolation of your hives in winter. Sealing the hive too much will cause moisture to form inside the hive. Since there is so much to learn as a new beekeeper, erroneous actions are as inevitable as bee stings. However, failures make it possible to learn. I hope this list will make some of you follow in my footsteps. It is also a good idea to get acquainted with what is “normal” for your bees - in terms of traffic, as well as in terms of how many dead bees are near your hive.

WHAT DOES PASECA BEGIN FROM? HOW TO CREATE IT?

The value of bees in the farm

Beekeeping belongs to small branches of animal husbandry, as does rabbit breeding, goat breeding, and nutrition. But, unlike them, it is an indicator of the culture of farming. Without bees, 80% of all plants grown by humans cannot produce crops. This has long been understood in highly developed countries: Australia, England, Germany, Canada, the USA, the Netherlands, France, and Japan. In these countries, beekeeping is paid a lot of attention, and as a result, the highest crop yields in the world and the highest productivity in livestock are obtained. For example, in the United States, $ 180 million is spent on beekeeping a year, and due to an increase in yield, they receive an additional $ 20–30 billion.

This way, you can recognize any changes if and when they occur. Despite these advantages, observing from the outside will not replace the actual opening of your hive and the examination of the ridges inside. Often, if the problem is noticeable from outside the hive, it is too advanced to be corrected. Hive checks, when done correctly, will understand the problems early and give you the opportunity to correct them before they do too much damage, and they will also provide you with an excellent opportunity to learn.

Not recognizing celibacy

The process of opening your hive is stressful for the bees and violates the carefully controlled atmospheric conditions in the hive, so many experienced beekeepers conduct less frequent inspections in their older, more established colonies. The hive cannot survive without its queen, but a common misconception is that the colonies that have lost them will change its behavior so drastically that it will be obvious that something is wrong. You can observe the abundant movement of bees at the entrance and during the inspection, find a lot of honey and bees inside.

Honey, bee bread, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom - the most valuable products that prolong the life and health of people, are obtained from bees. Therefore, in all countries where the struggle for the health of the nation is being conducted, great attention is paid to beekeeping.

To beekeeping successfully developed, each highly developed country creates benefits for beekeepers. Thus, in the United States and Canada, farmers, gardeners, field growers, and vegetable growers pay the beekeeper $ 50 for each bee family, set on each acre of their area for pollination. In Germany, they do not take taxes from beekeepers, the state allocates sugar to them for feeding bees, at a price 10 times cheaper. This contributes to the fact that with a poor natural forage base of beekeeping, the country is saturated with bees, 70 bee colonies per square kilometer. The population of Germany prefers to eat honey instead of sugar.

Which hive to choose

But if you observe more closely, you will understand what actually happens when your colony loses its queen. Gradually your hive population will shrink. The first sign will be the absence of eggs, then the absence of young larvae, and ultimately your colony will not have broods at all. This may seem illogical, but you usually see an increase in the amount of honey and pollen, because without any larvae that need to be cared for, the bees are completely focused on their prey.

If your colony is too long, they will not reach the return point. So, that you should closely monitor this? Finding eggs in your hive means that your queen is active at least three days ago, and that she is laying down, which is her only important function.

In the Siberian peasant farms were from time to time apiaries. In 1792, Colonel N. Arshenevsky delivered 7 hives with bees from the Orenburg province to the western Altai (Bobrovka stanitsa, near Ust-Kamenogorsk). Already in the first year, 32 new bee colonies were obtained from them. The breeding process took place so quickly that by 1826 in the Tomsk province (the present territory of the East Kazakhstan, Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Kemerovo regions and the Altai Territory) there were 4.5 beehives per capita per capita. Honey in Siberia was cheaper than sugar. In a good year, 4.5 pounds of honey (72 kg) were produced per capita.

Leaving frames or placing empty items

The bees will build a comb in any empty place you give them. Equipment for hives is designed with this in mind - everything is right to save the bees only in the spaces that you want. built in two styles, designed to store eight or ten frames. If you put fewer frames than the field to hold, the bees will build a rogue ridge in empty space. And if you add a super, but do not stand in the frame, you get a box of cross-comb, attached to the roof of your hive, which is a real mess to correct.

Siberian merchants exported surplus honey to the famous Irbit fair for sale. At the fair, their honey was valued as one of the best. Because of its high qualities, it was supplied to the royal table.

Apiary is not only a biological plant for the production of tasty, healthy, medicinal products: honey, bee bread, wax, royal jelly, propolis, poison, but also an excellent solution to the problem of employment of the elderly, disabled and children. Seniors can live in the apiary and care for the bees. Beekeeping will prolong their life, make it beautiful and necessary. Another problem, equally important in the family of the farmer, small children will be solved.

Of course, there are always exceptions for each rule: some beekeepers may prefer to use one smaller frame in their boxes to give themselves more room to work with hives during inspections. As long as you evenly place your frames, everything is in order. In addition, one filing method involves adding a super blank and placing the feeder inside. If you do this, you must place the inner cover between the bees and this empty super with a feeder, and also take care to remove the super as soon as you no longer feed.

Whatever good nursery and kindergartens, the children in them get tired, do not feel the family, do not receive the skills and knowledge from parents and grandparents.

In the apiary, next to my grandfather and grandmother, in the fresh air, among flowers, birds, bees, butterflies, they learn hard work, love for the beautiful, learn from senior crafts skills and crafts. This way the national crafts and family traditions can be revived.

Cleaning honey too soon or too much

As a rule, do not take honey from the colony in the first year. Often, bees are not strong enough to make an excess amount, and they need every drop they need to make before winter. If your colony is strong and has abundant stores, then how much you can collect varies considerably by geographic location. In Southern California, I like to leave my colonies at least 40 pounds of honey. In cold climates, bees need about 100 pounds. It is devastating to lose a hive for starvation after harvesting honey, so be conservative.

The apiary is a great place for people with disabilities: they work with bees without hands, without legs, deaf and dumb, and cores. In the beautiful world of bees, in the fresh air and healthy food, in a relaxed atmosphere, a disabled person will forget about his misfortune and will live a full life of a healthy person. Beekeeping from childhood develops attention, accuracy, diligence, and wit in a person.

Check with local beekeepers about how much honey should be left with bees based on your region. But this is an exception: when you buy a package of bees in the spring, you have to feed them. A pack of bees is confused, weak and has no honey. To get them on their feet, it takes at least a month of consistent nutrition. If you do not, you are likely to lose a colony in the fall. If you are not in a particularly nectarous area, you usually have to feed the colonies of the nucleus. Unlike a package of bees, a nucleus colony has from 3 to 5 comb frames, a queen-laying and usually some honey.

Considering the extreme importance of beekeeping, many eminent people of antiquity and of our days recommended having an apiary in schools (Aristotle, I. Ushinsky, L. Tolstoy, I. Korablev, N. Stoletov, etc.).

It is no coincidence that the rural clergy and teachers were pioneers in the development of rational beekeeping and made many valuable scientific discoveries. Even during the heyday of well beekeeping, the clergy of Siberia had frame hives, sowed honey plants, produced artificial swarming.

Placing your hive in a quandary

If you do not dare to eat, let your core sit for a week, and then check if they are building a new comb. If not, you need to feed them. Feeding them is not always necessary, but if you notice that your swarm is not growing in size, it is a good idea to step in and feed them. When you place your hive, you want to find a smooth, clear space perfect in the sun. Consider also where you will find yourself at the entrance to the hive, where there will be a large amount of bee activity for about 5-10 feet.

Among the urban population of Siberia, there were many, and there were, inveterate lovers-beekeepers. For example, in Novosibirsk there are now over two thousand people.

Many of them have solid apiaries (from 30 to 100 beehives), receiving additional income, many times higher than salary. Most beekeepers have no more than 10 hives. This is enough to provide valuable medicinal products to members of their families.

You do not want to look at it in the next pool or in your garden. New beekeepers may have a slightly idealized concept of how beekeeping will look. You can see videos of experienced beekeepers checking their hives without a suit and think that you can do the same. Believe me, aged beekeepers have suffered, but they know how to keep bees alone and what to do if they act. Or maybe you did one inspection, during which the bees were calm, and you think you can leave to make the next one unprotected.

How to create an apiary?

In order to have an apiary, you need to invest some money in it. They are necessary for the purchase of bees, hives, honey extractors, knives, facial nets, smoke, bathrobes, etc. It is necessary to create an apiary with the acquisition of bees. This question is solved in a double way: slowly, at low cost, or quickly, with large.

At low cost, one should start with the acquisition of two or more families. Starting from the same family is a risky business, because if you handle the bees ineptly, you can accidentally crush the uterus, and the family will disappear. In the presence of two families, the batteryless family is added to the other and in the next year they will receive a second one.

From two families each year they receive one increment family, in 7 years the apiary will have at least 130 bee colonies. In addition to the increase in new families, there will be commercial honey that will pay for all the costs.

For an increased number of families, it is necessary to prepare a wintering place for 150 bee colonies, a stock of hives. In addition to bee hives, the apiary should have another 50% of empty hives.

To take care of the bees, you will need equipment: a smoker, a front grid (preferably three), a white robe for working with bees and black for rough work, a chapel chisel, two knives, a table for printing frames with honey, honey extractor, dishes for honey, and a solar wax refinery. Этот инвентарь будет служить 20-30 лет.

При больших затратах сразу приобретают пасеку в 50-150 ульев со всем инвентарем, пасечными постройками и оборудованием.

Не следует покупать пчел из Киргизии, с Кавказа и других южных регионов. Южные породы пчел физиологически непригодны для проживания в условиях длительной зимовки, и даже если они выживут, то продуктивность их хуже местных.

During 46 years of observing different breeds of bees and their hybrids, we found that in Siberian conditions, bees winter well, they seal cells with honey with a white lid; this sign is also called dry. If the signet is dark, that is, the wax cap is on honey and therefore has a dark appearance, such bees must die in the winter.

For beginner beekeepers, it is best to buy bees from local beekeepers who keep them for a long time, and the bees wintering without death. Bees can be bought throughout the year.

Acquisition of bees by the end of the season

Bees can be purchased at the end of the season - in August or early September. The risk of buying bees at the end of the season is that the nest can be poorly collected for the winter, and the quality of the feed will be unsuitable to ensure a successful wintering (honey, from rapeseed and other cruciferous). Therefore, when buying bees in the fall, you need to invite a knowledgeable beekeeper to help inspect them and give practical advice on what to do with them.

In September, bee colonies purchased in September should contain a queen bee and bees, completely covering 11–12 frames. In the hive should be 20 kg of honey

The presence of honey in the nest is determined by weighing the frame with honey; the weight of the honeycomb and the frame are subtracted from the total weight. Honeycomb white, without honey, with a frame weighs 0.5 kg. The honeycomb is darker, its weight is 800 g, the honeycomb with brood and sitting bees is 1 kg. For weighing honeycombs spring home scales are suitable for 6 kg with a division value of 100 g.

If bee families are offered, where all 12 frames (and in a hive-lounger and more than 12) are covered with sitting bees, you can pay for them more expensive, since next year they will receive honey and new families from them.

It is necessary to be afraid when buying bees by unscrupulous sellers who, under the guise of a strong bee family, offer a family blended from 3-4 families.

Buying bees in late winter and early spring

Sometimes bees are sold in the middle or end of winter. In this case, you need to know the condition of the bees. If they are standing in a wintergreen, you should look at the baby if there is diarrhea. Then shine a flashlight in the entrance and see how many dead bees are on the hive floor. Then raise the weatherization and lap covering the frame, and calculate how many small streets the family takes. If 6 or more streets and no diarrhea on the framework, such a family can be bought.

About the presence of honey in the family is easy to find out by examining the extreme limits. If they are filled with honey in full or even half, then the family is provided for them. If there is a family in the uterus, the bees sit on the frame tightly and quietly, and if you click on the wall of the hive, they unanimously respond to a knock and quickly subside. If there is no uterus, then the bees do not react to the click at all, or a prolonged noise is heard with “howling” notes of individual individuals.

The bees bought in winter should be carefully transported to themselves and on the first warm day put on the place where they will live permanently. Let them fly around, examine them in order to correct the noticed flaws.

If bee families sell in early spring, when they have already been exposed, in this case it is necessary to inspect each one and make sure that there is a uterus, determine the strength of families with at least 5 streets. Good families are those with 8 or more streets. Stocks are determined in the same way as when buying at the end of the season.

Early spring buying is the most profitable. The bees bought at this time in the summer will collect honey, both for themselves and for sale. With a good bribe in the very first year, the family will pay back all the expenses with honey. In addition to honey, you can also get a gain from a family in the form of a swarm or a new family by artificial means.

After the exhibition and fly-around, if you bought bees from an apiary located further than 4 km from yours, you can safely transport them and place them at the chosen place. If the apiary is located closer, then you must first take the bees to another place, no less than 10 km away, hold it there for 2-3 weeks and only then bring it home. If we immediately take them away, then all the flight bees will return to where they were bought, and only hive bees will remain in the hives, which will not collect honey and will not give any gain.

The maximum price of a bee colony is equal to the cost of 30 kg of honey.

Buying bees by swarms

Bee families in the spring sell very rarely. Most often offer swarms. Often, a deal between a beekeeper seller and a beekeeper buyer occurs in the form of barter exchange: the buyer gives a good hive, and the latter gives him a swarm.

Swarms are of different strengths, they come out of the hives from the beginning of June to the end of August, that is, they are early and late. It is advisable to buy an early one, since he manages to rebuild the nest, collect fodder for the winter, and even give commercial honey (therefore such swarms are more expensive). Late swarm does not always have time to rebuild the nest, and even more so to collect enough food for the winter. Of course, this largely depends on the strength of the bribe and the swarm purchased. The strength of the swarm ranges from 1 to 5 and even 6 kg. Practically no beekeeper sells a swarm weighing 5 kg, and even more so 6, they use such swarms in their households. An early swarm (from the end of May until June 15) you can buy any power. Even a swarm weighing 1 kg, bought on May 31 or June 1–15, manages to rebuild a nest for itself, to increase, that is, by the autumn it grows into a normal family.

Most often, early swarms are 2-3 kg in weight. Price depends on its weight. The later the swarm is bought, the stronger it must be, and the price for bees must decrease sharply. Later, swarms of 2 kg can be bought if there is a stock of land (dry land is a honey-free honeycomb).

It is better to pay more, but to buy strong swarms, that is, weighing 3 kg or more. The price of such a swarm should not exceed the cost of 20 kg of honey.

Buying bees by layering (artificial swarms)

The most frequent and affordable purchases are made by layering or artificial swarms. It is much more convenient. A person receives a layoff at any time, of any strength.

Therefore, it is necessary to agree with the beekeeper, how many he will sell cuttings, at what time and what strength. Layers can be transported from a distance in plywood or hardboard drawers, which are called packages.

There is a standard for packages or layouts. The most common 4- and 6-frame. The dimensions of the 4-frame package for a Dadanovsky frame are 435 × 300 mm: the package length is 475, width is 200, height is 390 mm. At the bottom and at the top inside the package, the combs are nailed in width so that the frames are inserted into the slots, that is, the latter are tightly fastened one from the other at a distance of 12 mm.

In the middle of the package is placed 2 or 3 frames with printed brood. On this framework there should be a uterus. Along the edges put the honeycomb, in which there must be at least 4 kg of feed. If there are few bees with frames, they are shaken off from two or three more, that is, in a package on all frames, bees should sit. The total weight of the bees in a 4-frame package should be 1.2-1.5 kg.

The dimensions of the 6-frame package: length and height are the same as 4-frame, width - 290 mm. In such a package, 4-5 frames with printed or closed brood, the uterus and the bees sitting on them are placed in the middle. On the sides they put on the frame, in the comb which contains 2 kg of feed and, in addition, shake off the bees in a package so that the total number is 1.5-2 kg.

If bee colonies are sold without hives, then 10-frame bags are made for the transportation of these families, their length and height are 6-frame, and their width is 375 mm. All frames with brood, bees and uterus sitting on them are transferred to such a package. The brood is placed in the middle, and honeycomb with honey at the edges. The rest of the bees are shaken off in a bag, covered with a lid and put in place of the hive from which the bees are being resettled. In the package open the entrance, all the bees are going to him. In the evening, when the bees cease years, the entrance is closed, and the packages are taken home.

The cost of early packages (May) is slightly higher than the July and August ones. The price includes honeycombs (frames), bees with a uterus and feed. Approximately early families are in the range of 20-30 kg of honey. Further - the later, the cheaper.

WHERE TO BEGIN TO BECOME A BEER MANAGER THIS SAME SPRING!

In the Urals, two breeds of bees are most popular and well known - the Central Russian and the Carpathian. The Central Russian bee is darker, larger and very efficient. However, has a reputation of angry. By the way, the bee, before attacking, warns with a special loud buzz, hoping that we will understand it and will not disturb the nest, therefore the malice of our native breed is very doubtful.

However, now there is an opportunity to purchase the Carpathian bee. On a fine day, she will calmly raise the frame for inspection. The color is lighter and smaller in size compared to Central Russian, it also works well in the honey collection, but it winters a little worse. I advise a beginner beekeeper to start with the breeding of this particular breed. Later, with some experience, you can work with the Central Russian bee, which you will surely love for its resistance to diseases and the ability to use even fine half a day among weekly storms for honey.

In fairness it should be said that the overwhelming majority of bee colonies in private apiaries are the so-called local bees. This kind of mongrels for the dog breeder, the result of the uncontrolled crossing of different breeds, which led to the loss of many valuable qualities of the source material. However, many experienced beekeepers are engaged in certain breeding work in their apiaries, discarding weak families and raising queens in families with the best indicators.

I have often heard about successful experiments of Magnitogorsk beekeepers with a Caucasian gray mountain bee. In her homeland, she is surprisingly benevolent; a child can play with her finger in a taped tape. However, I cannot say anything definite about her wintering and vitality.

In the Urals, it is illegal, more precisely, according to an ad in the newspapers, they sell imported Namangan bees, giving them almost an elite family. These bees fly fine, but they do not work well in the honey collection area. You should be very careful with these southern beauties.

So here we go. If you signed up for bees at the beginning of spring, then bee packages are brought around mid-May, by which time everything must be prepared. First of all, solve the issue with the arrangement of hives. It is recommended to start with a small number of families, but not with one, but with two. In the case of weakening of one family, it can be quickly strengthened with a part of another, without appreciable damage to the donor family, but the labor costs of serving two families will be only slightly more than with one.

And about bee packages. These are small boxes like parcel boxes with slots in the bee breathing walls. Usually, each fits four frames with bees sitting on them, in the framework of a little brood, it's kids, as well as food at the time of shipment. Bees about 10-12 thousand individuals, it is not very much. It is understood that such a family in good conditions will have time to gain the necessary strength for the period of maximum flowering. In general, it is quite real.

It is very important to place the apiary correctly. If you have your own house, one of the best places for an apiary is under the roof in the attic. Bees, as you know, love to work in the sun, and to live in the shade, these conditions are there the easiest for them to provide. On the beautiful pictures of the hive are right in the field. This is fundamentally wrong, since the temperature inside the nest rises, the bees spend a lot of effort, ventilating it, and these forces could be better directed to the honey collection. To inspect the families opposite the openings, holes are cut through, the bees feel great in the attic. In good conditions, the bee family is much calmer. It is not necessary to transfer the hive for the winter, the bees spend the winter in the attic perfectly. In addition, they will fly out of hives at a considerable height, without disturbing people and animals.

You can arrange points on the site, but only so that from the south side of the hive were shaded from the sun. Not far from the hives, it is imperative to make a drinking bowl out of a jar with water standing in the sun for a good warming upside down on the board. Before the openings, it is necessary to have 3 m of open space for the convenience of the summer of bees, which should be protected from animals so that they do not knock out the hive.

Bees live in apiaries in beehives, strong and dry wooden houses. Frames with honeycombs are placed inside the body of the hive, the honeycombs are a lot of wax cells, which are either filled with food, or brood is grown there.

Ideal when the beekeeper has the opportunity to build the hive itself. Purchase the boards, slowly drying them in the closet, then sawing, planing and assembling excellent hulls, not depending on anyone. This is not only much cheaper, but the possibility of creativity always stimulates mastery. On the other hand, quite a few beekeepers, instead of buying bees, regularly acquire only breeding queen bees, and the bee families themselves reproduce by various methods. A large part of it sets traps and catches stray swarms, some trade in such swarms. However, the first hive is better to get ready.

In our country, beekeepers successfully use three types of hives. This loungers, dadany and multicase. Among them are interesting options and variations. Sun beds are practically chests with a large number of frames placed inside in one row, usually up to 20 pieces in each. The design of this hive is old, it is easy to maintain, work with it is described in detail in the beekeeping allowances, it is often called the hive for retirees. For the whole summer, it is enough to approach the lounger on the plot several times, the large internal volume often allows two families to live in it, which winter well together. It is cheaper, but some work in it is inconvenient.

Hive Dadana. In addition to the main body, one or two so-called magazines are installed on the 12 frames on top. These are reduced in height, and therefore much lighter additional enclosures with less high frames, which allows the bee's nest to be concentrated in the main building, and the honey to be placed in special frames of the upper building shops. Such a placement of the frames improves the quality of honey, and it is more convenient to work with stores than with the frames of sun beds. For a good family, one main building is not enough, then sometimes a second store is put on top.

Modern, so-called multi-body beehives consist of several identical bodies stacked on top of each other. Shells are easier to Dadanovsky, so if you want, it is quite possible for one to serve many dozens of families. Modern technologies are based primarily on these types of hives. From my own experience I will say that making these beehives is easy.

After selecting and setting up hives, you need to purchase inventory: a smoker, feeders, a chisel, a face mesh, brochures for beginners. Having prepared everything you need, you can purchase a bee package. To do this, it is advisable to use the recommendations of an experienced beekeeper. A bee package is placed in a voluminous bag, preferably a wicker basket. The bag should not be tightly closed so that the bees are not stuffy.

Upon arrival at the place, the bee package is immediately taken out of the bag and put in a dark, cool place, trying not to disturb the bees. If individual bees began to climb out, you must quickly prepare for the family to relocate to the hive.

When moving bees to the hive from a person should not come unpleasant smell. Inside, the hive is rubbed with a piece of old honeycombs or melissa, very well inside sprinkle a little bit, for the smell, with sugar syrup. It is prepared as follows: boil 0.5 l of water, remove from the heat, allow to cool slightly and put asleep 0.5 kg of sugar, making sure that it does not burn.

The cover is removed with a crowbar or a large screwdriver. Try not to wake the bees out of the bag on the way to the hive, they cannot find their way into it and will die. Each frame set in the same order as they were located in the package. Empty space should be fenced off with a diaphragm-flap and put a couple more frames with empty cells. When all the bees are placed from the package into the hive, it is covered with a positum, and a feeder with syrup is placed on top of the poziozhka and the lid is closed. Bees begin to familiarize themselves with the neighborhood through the entrance. The next day, the bees will fly to pollinate the gardens in the area, but it is useful to give them syrup in the feeder. In syrup with each portion, add one tablet of ascorbic acid.

Keep clean, both in the hive and throughout the apiary. Collect and burn rubbish and litter of bees, clean the hive from dirt - the floor, walls, ceiling, wall panels, frames, landing boards, warming pads.

Work with clean hands, in a clean dressing gown, with a clean spare beekeeping outfit to replace. Keep the purity of all equipment used when working with bees. When pumping honey, keep in mind that it comes into implementation without any disinfection to preserve its usefulness and useful qualities.

Well insulate the bees' nests in the hives, especially the ceiling ones, which ensures that the families maintain an even optimal temperature that ensures the normal development of the brood and prevents its freezing. Warming up the nest of bees is very important in the spring, after the exhibition, in the autumn before harvesting for the winter and for the winter. It saves heat in the club, reduces feed intake, and, consequently, fecal load, which is especially important in the fight against Nozematosis

Watch for the integrity of the hive roof so that rain does not penetrate.

Ensure good quality and sufficient amount of food, which is especially important during wintering and in early spring, after the exhibition of bees and the first overflights. Do not allow wintering on honeydew honey. In the spring revision, remove raw, moldy honeycombs from the hives, if they show up. Летом обеспечьте пчел чистой проточной водой, при необходимости поставьте на пасеке поилку или организуйте индивидуальное поение пчел в ульях. Это предупреждает развитие имею­щихся на пасеке болезней расплода бактериальной, вирусной или грибковой природы.

Обязательно выполняйте все необходимые требования санитарии в пчеловодстве:

1) buy bees only from prosperous apiaries. Require when buying a certificate and veterinary certificate about the well-being of bees in relation to acute infectious diseases,

2) never use beekeeping equipment and former hives from other apiaries without disinfecting them,

3) do not feed the bees with honey from sick or unknown families in this regard. Suspicious honey is pre-boiled in half with water for half an hour,

4) do not place bees with dry land with traces of diarrhea and honeycombs with honey taken from sick families,

5) conduct an energetic fight against theft and bee attacks, as these phenomena contribute to the spread of disease,

6) keep on the apiary disinfectants, soap, sink, basin, bucket with a lid, cesspool with a lid,

7) store beekeeping products (honey, sushi, wax) in closed places inaccessible to bees,

8) carry out all sanitation activities in beekeeping in order to prevent the spread of contagious diseases of bees.

WHAT DOES PASECA BEGIN FROM?

When choosing a location for an apiary, a beginning beekeeper should take into account a number of points.

Bees should be far away from the road so as not to disturb passersby. The place for the apiary should be dry and ventilated, as damp cold air delays the departure of the bees in the morning and accelerates their return in the evening. In addition, it is more difficult for them to evaporate water from the nectar brought.

Failure to comply with these conditions adversely affects the medical collection. In low places with raw stagnant air, diseases are more common.

Bees do not feel well in an open area blown by the winds, especially east and northeast. In the spring, a cold wind blows heat from the hives, increasing feed consumption. A lot of energy is spent on maintaining the microclimate in the hive, the growth of families is slowed down. In the summer, on the contrary, unprotected beehives overheat in the sun, and thousands of bees switch to ventilating and reducing the temperature in their home. The stuffiness leads to swarming, but the swarms of the family are permanently turned off from the honey collection, their productivity decreases.

The best place for an apiary is a fruit garden. It is desirable to arrange the hives in it so that the morning sun illuminates the tap-holes, warms the front walls, and in the hot afternoon it would be covered by the shadow of the trees. Directly in front of the gaps should not be bushes and trees, so as not to interfere with the summer.

The distance between the hives can be from 1 to 3 m, depending on the location of the fruit trees. Bees remember their home well and do not interfere with each other.

If you work on a two-matched system, then the hive should be put in pairs, close to each other. This allows you to strengthen one family of bees and brood another, or, when necessary, combine them into one.

Hive is painted in different colors, mainly white, blue, yellow, which allows the bees to orient themselves better.

The apiary is surrounded by a plank hedge up to two meters or alive - for example, from wild rose, yellow acacia, hawthorn. The fence protects the apiary from the wind and, most importantly, causes the bees to rise higher and fly over people working nearby. The danger of stinging is significantly reduced, and the content of bees in the garden plot does not cause discontent among neighbors.

At the apiary is very necessary solar water tank. Bees consume a lot of water — in the spring for breeding honey and preparing food for older larvae, and in summer to cool the nest and maintain the necessary moisture regime inside it. Water collected by bees from other sources may contain pathogens of infectious diseases, in particular, spores of manure, which retain their activity for a long time. The drinker is set in early spring to fly around the bees.

Drinking bowls can be of various designs, including automatically feeding water as it is consumed. Water in them should not stagnate. It is necessary to ensure that it is always clean, otherwise the bees will find another source, and you will have to accustom them to visiting the drinker again.

It is good to have one beehive on the scales, he can tell a lot to the beekeeper. There is also a need for storage space for spare hives, shells and shops, inventory and equipment (honey extractor, container for honey, roevni, honeycomb, etc.).

It is necessary to solve the important question of hibernating their bees - in the wild or indoors. This largely determines the technology of beekeeping.

It is best to buy bees in early spring, in April or May. If at this time to get a strong family with a good supply of feed, in May and July, they can be divided into two families to prevent digging.

In recent years, wishing to engage in beekeeping becomes more. Beginners can be divided into two groups: having and wanting to have bees. It is better to buy bees (preferably two families at once) in the spring, in April-May. When receiving a family, it is necessary to agree with the seller about a set of frames and half frames, or only frames, but taking into account that they are enough for the socket and the second building. It is desirable that the honeycomb were with good bee cells.

For an inspection of the family being acquired and assistance in its transportation (from a distance of no less than 3.5-4 km), it is better to invite an experienced beekeeper. On your plot, place a beehive with your new family under a tree, on a stand 25-30 cm tall, with the entrance east, away from people’s passageways in order to avoid stings.

The best way to master the art of beekeeping is to go to assistants to a familiar beekeeper in order to learn how to handle bees and how to care for them. Of course, it is necessary to study the theory in advance, having read the necessary literature on beekeeping, it is worth subscribing to the newspaper “Apiary of Russia”. You should also purchase the necessary minimum inventory and equipment. It is impossible, in particular, to start breeding bees without a facial grid, robe and chisel. It is necessary to have spare frames, half frames, blanks for them, as well as stainless wire, which should be purchased only in Beekeeping shops.

The first inspections of hives should preferably be carried out with an experienced beekeeper. If the family is acquired with a hive, already replaced this year, then during inspections there is no need to disassemble all the frames. If there are already 8-9 frames in the 12-frame hive, then in the evening, without disturbing the family, just open the slats from the edge of the last frame and see which street of the bee. If the bees are already in the extreme of them, then it is time to expand the nest by putting a piece. The possibility of its production depends on the availability of a bribe. If there is no bribe, it is better to start feeding the bees with syrup, preparing the framework for expansion. If there are 8 frames in the nest, it is better to immediately increase their number to 12, adding 2 sushi and 2 halves (put in one).

At the beginning of the work on the expansion of the nest (according to the rule for inspecting the hive), it should be smoked into the notch, remove the cover, warming and bend the lap with two or three frames. If the extreme, second honey and goat framework without brood, they are pushed to the edge. To the brood frame it is better to put a good honeycomb with bee cells, then a frame with a wrinkle, then another honeycomb and a frame with a wrinkle. Substituted frames must be heated in a room, syrup should be poured into the honeycombs, and the syrup should also be sprinkled. Such framework bees accept better. You can expand the nest with two frames, then the remaining space must be warmed. This can be done if there are 7-8 frames in the family. But, if there are already 9-10 of them, then it is better to expand the nest to 12 frames.

When working with a hive-lounger with a large number of frames, the expansion of the nest is carried out according to the same principle. When the weather is warm, and the bees actively bring nectar and pollen, then when they master 10 or more frames, you can put 1 frame of the honeycomb in the middle of the brood frames or 2 frames at their edges at the hive. Although it is undesirable to disassemble the nest, but because of the need to have a supply of combs with this technique, it is good to use this technique, making a reserve of at least 1-3 frameworks of the honeycomb, even if not completely rebuilt.

When a family has mastered 10 frames, it is possible to give a foundation for detuning and to take it out after 1-3 days, but without brood. If the frame turns out to be with a small amount of seeding, then, in principle, it is common to remove this one and then give a new foundation. Such a frame will be needed later in the production of the second building. In beehives, sunbathing off the combs is easier and easier to do. Therefore, it is better for a beginner beekeeper to start with sun loungers, at least with 16-frame ones.

MANUALS TO THE BEGINNER BEERWORK: HOW TO WIN THE LOVE OF NEIGHBORS

To get an apiary on the garden plot or the cottage, you need to prepare yourself and others. To maintain good relations between gardeners and gardeners, it is necessary to respect them and monitor the state of the apiary and the bees in their area.

Make the hive beautiful, interesting, so that they please the human eye, because this is a summer cottage, a garden partnership. But everything must be done without pretentiousness in order to avoid envy. In private conversations, it should be said that the benefits of bees are much greater when pollinating plants than of the products obtained — honey, wax, pollen, propolis, and other products combined. After all, many townspeople, fully educated, can not distinguish a bee from a wasp. This is not their fault, but trouble. They do not know much, and they need help.

People are sometimes afraid of stings in panic, they are not used to buzzing a bee or a wasp, they shrugged it off right away. The wasp will forgive this, the bee will not. A bee will never fly away immediately, if not very angry. She will spin around, as if chasing away, and if you don’t wave your hands and calmly step back, everything will be fine. And when people respect you, they can forgive you a lot or simply fail to notice your failures when caring for bees.

We must interest the neighbors in the benefits of bees. Why don't you give me some honey for their birthday or other holiday? And from the first pitching - definitely! First of all - to treat kids. They most often suffer from stings, as they are extremely mobile and often do not pay attention to bees. Why not sell the excess honey to their summer residents at a price lower than the market price? Why not treat with caps or honeycomb, propolis? This is some kind of compensation to people for their panic fear of the “bite” of bees.

If you are ready to start bees, the first thing to do is to get acquainted with a good beekeeper who would help you gain experience in housekeeping. But before that, for a year or two, you need to prepare yourself: purchase inventory, a hive. Now there is a lot of good literature on beekeeping. The main thing is to really get carried away with this business, I would say, “to get sick of them,” you can't do without it. Without love, great respect for the bee is better not to take up this business. You have to be ready to endure the pain of sometimes dozens of stings and not be offended, and certainly not scold the bees, since you yourself brought them to such a state. It is impossible to approach bees "like a bear", you need to "negotiate" with them. Lightly smoke a little in the islet (give two or three good smoke clubs from the smoke), wait a few minutes until they get honey in the goiter, and even earlier choose good, not “evil” smoke (wind, poplar, linden, etc.) , and most importantly - not hot. To do this, put the raw rotters in the top of the chimney. Then quickly lift the lap and immediately smoke a little over the frame, and put back.

To start working in the future is also desirable with several frames, two, three, without opening the entire nest and, if possible, without releasing bees. It is necessary to work with open hands, without gloves, in order to understand and know how the family behaves when viewed. All movements should be smooth, measured. Everything must be thought out in advance, prepared. Clothes, hands, body, breath - clean, without harsh odors. It is better to rub hands with melissa or moisten with alcohol solution of propolis. Well, if a sting has happened, calmly take a flue and fumigate your hand with smoke, remove the sting with a scraping movement of the nail, once again fumigate your hand with smoke or rub it with melissa and calmly continue your work.

Bees are very confident beekeeper. You should try never to inspect the nest with a sharp drop in atmospheric pressure, before the rain and at sunset.

For the first time, it is necessary to purchase beehives and lodges and start bees of the Carpathian breed, which winters well in central Russia and is peaceful. But the Carpathian may disappoint you and punish you if you bring it to the point where the family enters the swarm. This can occur if you put a beehive in the sun, create a stuffiness and tightness in the hive, do not provide the bees with work on raising brood and building combs. The family entering into the swarm state, becomes as if sick, irritable. When the uterus starts laying eggs in bowls, the bees “stick” to you, spin, and sometimes sting. Goes to the neighbors. Which is very undesirable! After laying the queen mothers, as it were, calms down.

In the garden and dacha plot it is necessary to keep pure-bred Carpathian. Mixing bees are sometimes more vicious than pure-bred Central Russian. Therefore, it is necessary to learn how to get the queen itself. Families with young queen of the year swarm very rarely.

It is necessary to select the best queens and, first of all, the peace-loving because of the respect of neighbors. Medosbor on six acres goes into the background. The first place is peacefulness, the second is a good wintering and resistance to diseases, the third is honey collection, the fourth is nest cleanliness and protection of letkov, the fifth is light sign of honeycombs with full compliance with the exterior of the Carpathian breed.

A very important feature of the Carpathians for the garden-dacha plot is the ability of the queens to compactly spread brood even in multi-hives. There is no need to rearrange the hull during the season, to break the nest, as recommended in the literature. The care is simplified, time and labor are saved, and most importantly, the calmness in the apiary and the garden area is improved.

HELPING A BEGINNER

During the period of mass use of multiple hives (on a frame of 435 × 230 mm), beekeepers encountered a number of problems during the wintering of bees:

1) the club of bees did not pass from the first building to the second, as a result, in the first building, the family died of hunger in the presence of a huge supply of feed honey in the second,

2) the club of bees was divided into 2 parts. As a result, a part of the club with a womb remained alive, but there were cases of death of both parts,

3) due to the absence of bees in the second frame of the frame with printed honey, they were covered with mold, and the lower part of the frame of unsealed honey was saturated with moisture and often sour,

4) the absence of bees (club) in the second building led to the rapid crystallization of honey. A passing bee club couldn't use it for food,

5) there have been isolated cases of strong excitement of the bee family during the transition from the first building to the second, which caused diarrhea in bees.

The reason for the difficulties that arose was the size of the inter-shell space, which tore the nest into 2 parts. The first solution was to use frames with cropped shoulders and the lower bar, which fell between the frames of the upper hull. They became the lower part of honeycomb honeycomb, and thereby eliminated the interbody gap. Used one such frame for one family. After hibernation, folding hangers were nailed on these frames. In the conditions of the Voronezh region, there is no need to prepare a second building for the winter on a frame of 435 × 230 mm, so it is enough to put a half frame 435 × 145 mm. With such a feed extension, the family after the exhibition develops much faster and, moreover, the half-frame extensions are very convenient for obtaining honeycomb. Of the two extensions, the case for a frame is 435 × 300 mm. In the semi-frames, the lower bar is not inserted inside between the side bars, but is nailed to them from below.

In the semi-frame extension, the groove for the hanger of the framework is made so that the half-frames with the lower bars removed can become directly on the upper bars of the frames of the lower body. After wintering, sticks are inserted into the slots for the hanger of the framework, and the lower bars of the framework are nailed.

Such feed extensions can be used for any designs of hives, which allows to increase the height of the honey over the club and thus exclude the use of frameworks larger than 435 × 300 mm in the apiary. This creates in the hive the best conditions for the family of bees, especially in the early spring time. The use of 435 × 600 mm frames is unprofitable, especially on large apiaries.

When pumping honey, honeycombs can be avoided by reinforcing the cassettes with arcs. This is done as follows: galvanized wire with a diameter of 4 mm should be made of 2 arcs on each cassette, the ends of the arcs should be bent by 3-4 mm and tightened with aluminum wire with a diameter of 2-3 mm, the walls of the cassette should be bent inwards, while the frame should enter freely. The ends of the arcs should not touch the case of the honey extractor.

A good tool during the inspection of bee colonies is a chisel with a hook. With its help, the extreme frames are easily removed from the hive. This device replaces the frame holder. The chisel is made from a conventional chisel by changing its flat end. This hook can hook the frame, both under the shoulder, and under its main upper bar

May be a favorite thing for many years. The main thing is to decide in advance on whether you want to become a beekeeper for the sake of profit from the sale of honey or for your own pleasure?

Beginner beekeepers should be divided into two categories. Первые — решившие заняться пчеловодством, но при этом ещё не имеющие ни теоретических знаний, ни тем более практических навыков.

Средства для труда на пасеке

Речь идет о покупке дымарей и защитного костюма. Последний состоит из комбинезона и плотных нарукавников. Хороший костюм имеет светлый цвет, лучше всего, белый. You will also need a wide-brimmed mask equipped with a mosquito net tied under the chin. This useful accessory will protect both from bees and from the sun. With the help of smoke, you will kill insects by working with hives. Cones or grasses are put into the smoker, after which the “filling” is set on fire.

Bee care products

Before starting work on beekeeping, purchase a brush for sweeping bees, a swarm for temporary keeping of swarm insects, a bee remover that separates working bees from the honey body, a trellis that separates parts of the nests when working with a uterus, a marking cap for covering the uterus, a cage for temporary maintenance of the uterus, watering and feeding for a sugar syrup.

How not to disrupt the life of the bee family

In order not to cause great harm to bee colonies, the beginning beekeeper should become familiar with their vital features. What is worth remembering? To begin with, each bee colony has one own uterus. Its size is much larger in comparison with the size of working bees. All that makes the uterus - lays eggs of honeycombs, in the amount of about 1500 daily. The most reproductive uterus is one that has not yet reached the age of two. Working hours of reproduction begin from the first March days and last until frost. The uterus has a retinue of bees that clean and feed it. If the uterus dies, the swarm starts laying the queen for new growth.

As a beginner beekeeper, you should know about the drones. These lazy and fat bees mate with the uterus, after which they die - worker bees drive them out. The latter can be - flight and hive. Studying beekeeping, learn about their features in more detail. Hive bees work in nests; flight birds collect nectar, water, and pollen. However, some bees can start working for others. Labor forces change periodically.

Features of winter beekeeping and wintering insects

Roy begins winterization preparations in advance. He puts in the back of the hive supplies. Every beginner and experienced beekeeper should feed their "pets", pampering them with sugar syrup.
Winter beekeeping has several features. The main one is to choose the best way to store hives. You can start cooking Omshan for them. Or leave the hives on the street. Some professional and novice beekeepers keep them under the snow.

Even the beginning beekeeper heard that the apiary can be covered with hay. But this is a bad way to winter. Problems can begin with mice that will love the apiary for their living. If you do not want to ruin your beekeeping, do not start hiding the hive in a damp basement or bury them in trenches. Good ventilation is necessary for trouble-free winter beekeeping.

Winter beekeeping is dangerous because a beginning beekeeper may lose a significant part of their families. In some cases, beekeeping in winter time for a beginning beekeeper ends up in tragedy and swarms die completely. Cause? Not enough feed. Every beginning beekeeper needs to remember that it is required to leave about 20 kilos of fodder and 3 kilograms of high-quality honey on the hive. Problems of winter beekeeping can also begin due to the poor quality of insulation and insect diseases.

Beekeeping and feeding of bee colonies

Beginning beekeepers should start preparing bees for wintering from August. Preparation is to feed in several stages. One bee requires about 20 kg. Sahara. Save on beekeeping and feeding is not worth it.

Experienced and beginning beekeepers should not forget about spring feeding either. Sugar syrup is necessary so that the bees who have weakened over the winter can recuperate after a difficult period. It happens that beginning beekeepers forget about food, and then the bee begins to go ahead in time to search for nectar. The result is the death of an insect from cold air.

In some cases, it is worth starting feeding in the summer days. In the event that honey collection is absent due to rainy or cool weather.

Weekend Beekeeping: Pros and Cons

Always arouse the interest of gourmets of any age. The range of honey from different parts of the country of different colors and shades, density and transparency, aroma and healing properties and tempting tasting offers do not allow even the most capricious gourmets to escape from their embraces. To have among friends of "his" beekeeper who sells natural honey seems to be particularly fortunate against the background of numerous reports about the mass sale of fakes, often hazardous to health. Often honey connoisseurs, who are happy owners of suburban summer cottages, are thinking of acquiring their own miniature apiary in order to get this useful natural delicacy on their own.

Is it that simple?

What does the philistine know about the life of bees during the year? In the spring, the air barely warmed up, when the orchard was still not in color, only the buds opened, the bees began to circle in the willow's sticky greenery in search of glue and the first pollen. Individual trees, warmed by the sun, are literally buzzing from the bees. When fruit crops are thrown out of their flowers, green grassy grass is painted with simple wildflowers, the work of bees becomes really noticeable. One after another striped striped workers all over the site, diligently visiting and inspecting every flower. Tiny particles of pollen or nectar are carried to their distant home, carefully sorted and placed in honeycombs, accumulating the next harvest. After careful processing, the honeybees are ready for storage and sealed, which is the only sign of honey's maturity. With honey, honey beekeeper pulls out of a bee's nest, and soon the precious natural delicacy will be on someone on the table.

A person who dares to master this activity should appreciate his strength. A huge amount of information has been gathered about bees and the contents of the apiary, but the difficulties, like in any other business, are rooted in details that are understood only in practice.

Getting less than 3-5 hives does not make sense. The fact is that in the process of the spring-summer season, the beekeeper not only observes, but often actively intervenes in the lives of his pets, carrying out activities necessary for the even and timely development of bee families. Relying on his knowledge and experience, he regulates the amount of brood and feed for him, adding a framework to a weak family and taking it slightly off from the strong ones, inserts a framework with a honeycomb for uniform detuning of honeycombs and preparation for honey collection. With a small number of families, such manipulations can significantly weaken the donor family. With a small number of beehives and such an uncomplicated function, as a quick tie and the accumulation of the formed honeycomb framework - sushi, will be of considerable complexity, not to mention the banal collection of honey.

The efficiency and effectiveness of the apiary is due to the need for a large number of consumables, which are not profitable to buy in large quantities. They accumulate in the course of work year after year. This, in addition to the main inventory, is a good stock of frames with waxed and sushi, spare housings, sets of pillows and slats. With all the variety of components sold, manufacturing, assembly and debugging under their own conditions and the needs of the necessary components beekeepers take over.

How much time may be needed for an effective device in the operation of its own miniature apiary consisting of several hives depends on the diligence and attentiveness of the owner.

Who can breed bees?

If a person decided to engage in beekeeping, first of all to him must consult a doctor. The fact is that insect bites cause an allergic reaction, which can lead to an increase in blood pressure and other unpleasant moments. These should include physical activity. During the care of the bees, it is necessary to re-install heavy beehives with honey, to turn the honey extractor, or to carry boxes with frames.

In the presence of good health, great desire and the absence of an allergic reaction to bee stings, it is necessary to establish contacts with local beekeepers and discuss with these people the nuances of keeping and breeding honey insects. If you are going to engage in beekeeping from scratch, pay attention to the following nuances:

    1. Bees can be bred in rural areas with a sufficient number of honey plants. (acacia, linden, meadow grass, sunflower, buckwheat and others). Insects must collect honey and pergu, produce wax and propolis throughout the warm season of the year, so the beekeeper must deal with the feature of hives placement. They can be installed in one place or move on a specially equipped trailer to the places of bribe.
    2. Deal with the bees wintering method - on the street in warmed hives or in a specially equipped room.

In addition to the winterer may need other outbuildings:

  1. Beekeeper's workshop. This room is used for the manufacture of hives and frames, storage of honey extractor and other equipment.
  2. The room for storing sushi and a frame filled with perga, sugarwhich is used as a top dressing.

How to prepare before the first season

Do not waste time in vain. On long winter evenings, read books on beekeeping, wool the Internet and ask interesting questions to experienced beekeepers, harvest shells and frames, buy inventory.

While studying information about the life of bees pay attention to such moments:

  • features of the interaction of insects in the family, the function of drones, queen bees, worker bees,
  • artificial withdrawal of queens, the formation of layers,
  • the nuances of wintering,
  • methods of preventing swarming in honey insects,
  • features of the hive,
  • protection of bees from possible diseases and pests,
  • processing of the products obtained.

In detail familiarize yourself with the role of each member of the bee family, find out the stages of development of insects from larva to adult, learn to determine the age of the brood. Beginner beekeepers should learn how to properly select the type of hive that will be used in the apiary. If there are small bribes in a particular location, give preference to sun beds, multi-bodies are not needed here.

At the initial stage of breeding bees, it is recommended to buy 4-5 families, which will need to be provided with hives and a sufficient number of frames. In the future of the existing insects, you can make several cuttings and expand the apiary.

If necessary, during the warm period of the year, the number of bee colonies doubles, but a significant amount of honey cannot be obtained in this case.

Before the season You need to purchase at a specialty store or make the following tools and equipment yourself.:

  • frames with wire. on the lounger you need 25 pieces of such products
  • sushi sheets with a margin,
  • blockers letkov,
  • insulation (you can use pieces of mattress or padding pad),
  • forced boards,
  • beekeeper costume with a mask,
  • the smoker
  • chisel,
  • special brush
  • honey extractor
  • thick rubberized gloves
  • box for carrying the frame.

The nuances of buying bees

Buying bee families is desirable to conduct from the middle to the end of spring. So that the honey insects could not return to their former place, the distance from the point of purchase to the apiary should be at least 5 kilometers. To save money, they acquire layering with a young bee, which are placed on 4-6 frames. Strong families are more expensive, they are located on the 10-12 framework.

At the time of acquiring families, take a few frames with dry for stock. The young bee will quickly defer the honeycomb.

For the purchase of bee families is necessary prepare your own hives or carrying cases with frames. In the case of acquiring otvodkov seller will give you 3-4 blocks with brood and 1-2 sections with honey and perga. When buying full-fledged families, the buyer has the right to take away all the insects mastered by insects.

When selecting blocks, pay attention to the following points:

  • the brood frames should be drained by a working bee,
  • there are eggs and larvae of insects at different stages of development in the comb,
  • the presence of cells with leaky lids indicates the diseases of bees,
  • the buyer must be alert if insects with deformed wings are present in the hive,
  • at the slightest symptoms of disease, refuse to purchase a bee colony.

Find a queen bee in a new bee colony. After that set the frame with the queen bee, and then the other sections in order of location.

Inexperienced beekeepers ask about the bee species for the plant. Read about each type of honey insect. Talk to experienced beekeepers, find out which breed is best for breeding in a particular area. After purchase, the hive is securely attached to the trailer and begins to be transported.

How to install a hive with a new bee family

After the bee colony is delivered to its destination it is necessary to set the hive in a permanent place. It is best to place it in the garden, under the crown of the trees and not to rearrange, because the outgoing honey-bearing insects will not be able to find the right way to their home. Beehives are installed on special stands at a distance of 30-40 centimeters from the level of the soil; the tap-holes should look to the southern or eastern part of the world.

Destroy nests in the apiary with ants and mow the grass. Immediately set the bee drinker so that they can remember its location in the apiary.

If there are small weights, determine the weight of the control family. In the future, using the same scales, it will be easier to monitor the development of the family and the number of bribes. In the first days after transporting the bees, it is better not to disturb them, they should fly around and familiarize themselves with the new terrain.

Insect care make a special journalIn which the date of inspection of each nest and the results are recorded (the number of frames covered with bees, the sections with brood, the number of selected or added frames). For convenience, number the hives.

How is the first inspection

Inspection of the hive by the beekeeper leads to stress in the honey insects. Such operations recommended to hold at least once a week. The purpose of the inspection is to observe the development of the family, the timely expansion of the nests, the removal of queen cells or the giving of additional food. Kindle the smoke, put on a mask and protective clothing.

Inspection is carried out from the back or side of the hive, it is not recommended to be in front of the cabin.

To start, let the smoke into the taphole, after which you can remove the cover. Release more smoke, take a chisel and carefully remove the first frame, it is placed near the hive. Now pull and inspect the remaining sections. Some of them are eggs and formed larvae. Uterus search is not necessary, its presence in the hive is indicated by newly laid eggs.

Beginner beekeeper must learn to determine the age of the brood. You can learn knowledge from the special literature.

The brood nest should be located in the center of the hive. In its expansion during the first inspection there is no need. The only thing that a beginner beekeeper can do is to establish a frame with dry land between the brood and the perga section. The results of the inspection recorded in a special journal.

In the absence of a bribe, feed the bees with sugar syrup in sugar / water concentrations 1k 1. each family should receive up to 250 grams of syrup per day.

Tips from experienced beekeepers

Beginner beekeeper can take note of the following tips:

  1. Keep only strong families with a good womb. Such insects overwinter better, tolerate disease well.
  2. Each bee family must be provided for the winter with a supply of honey. in the amount of 4-5 kilograms per hive.
  3. To enhance honey insects In the hive constitute a few frames with brood at the exit.
  4. Expand your nests in time. When filling a significant number of honeycombs with perga or honey, the uterus will look for free places for egg-laying, which leads to a certain loss of brood.
  5. To increase the yield of honey will allow the apiary to be brought to melliferous plants. It is best if the bribe is located at a distance of 1 kilometer from the hives. At a distance of 3 kilometers, 3 parts of nectar are lost.
  6. During the overwintering period, the beekeeper must ensure good ventilation in the hives.that will prevent dampness.
  7. Keep an eye out for bees in the winter, if necessary, add top dressing.
  8. Bees should spend the winter on reduced nests. For insects establish several frames with honey, and also give a top dressing in the form of sugar syrup.

Beekeeping for beginners videos

Do not be afraid of difficulties. For many people, beekeeping becomes a favorite activity and the possibility of additional income. When caring for the bees, you will receive a lot of positive emotions and natural high-quality products, which strengthen the health of the person, increase his longevity.

Little about costs

In the world practice of beekeeping, a huge number of hives of different designs were tested. The most widespread are the hives of the Dadan-Blatt and Ruth system, which were taken as the standard. In specialized stores you can find frames and hives of these particular systems. Вне зависимости от размеров рамок, ульи бывают следующих конструкций: лежаки, корпуса которых представляют собой горизонтально расположенные ящики, и многокорпусные вертикальные ульи. Формируемое внутри улья гнездо из рамок утепляется специальными подушками в холодные периоды – весной, осенью и зимой.To work with bees, you will definitely need a protective suit and gloves for your own protection against bites, and from the tools - brushes for cleaning the frames from the bees sitting on them and a chisel for disassembling the nest.

To extract honey from honey frames, a special knife is used to cut the honeycomb wax caps. After printing, the honeycomb frames are placed in the honey extractor - a centrifuge with a mechanical or electric drive. During the rotation of the honey extractor tank under the action of centrifugal force, honey droplets are sprayed out of the opened honeycombs on its inner wall and, flowing down, accumulate in the lowest part of the tank, where there is a lockable opening through which the honey after distillation merges into a can.

Now, having made a list of the necessary equipment and inventory for your own country mini-hub, you can calculate the possible costs and evaluate your own prospects in beekeeping.

Start of beekeeping for beginners nature lovers

The first thing that a beginner beekeeper needs to do is to determine the place where bees are to be bred. The choice of the place of residence of bee colonies should be carefully thought out, and the area occupied by the hives should be fenced. The presence of a high (about 2 meters) fence that is able to protect the bee houses from gusty winds is welcomed.

The right choice of the location of the apiary, the presence of highly productive bee colonies, a high-quality product at the exit - these components allow us to consider beekeeping as a business. How to start an inexperienced beekeeper who wants to get not only delicious honey, but also a good income from the sale of beekeeping products?

Area and Mobility

The apiary should be away from industrial facilities and roads, in a natural area with numerous and varied honey plants. In the absence of the possibility of such placement, it will be necessary to export the insects to the melliferous places, which would entail transportation costs.

The area of ​​the apiary depends on the number of families. To accommodate 15 of these communities will need a plot of 3x5 meters. Hives must be placed at a distance of not less than a meter from each other. You can install them tightly along the fence or in special pavilions. Many beekeepers have hives staggered for easy access and ease of work.

Some tips on the location of houses

Novice beekeepers need to study a lot of literature, get advice from experienced specialists, put them into practice, taking into account the peculiarities of climate and terrain. The accumulated knowledge will ensure the proper management of the bee farm, to avoid unnecessary waste and losses in the future. How to start beekeeping from scratch?

  • Houses for bees should be placed in a dry, protected place on the sunny side of the site. Dampness should not be. This can lead to loss of families and deterioration of the final products: honey quickly absorbs moisture and loses its taste and valuable qualities.
  • Hives should be located facing south or southeast. Face or tray - it means a hole for departure.
  • Bees do not perceive all colors, so it is better to paint their houses in light colors: white, blue, beige, yellow.
  • Do not often move the hives, especially over long distances, and change their places. Bees are not well oriented in space and can be lost.
  • It is possible to incline the beehives only slightly, otherwise this situation may lead to the bending of the honeycombs. The slope is necessary only in cases when there is a danger of raindrops leaking.
  • If possible, the apiary is better organized away from television antennas and electrical wires.
  • In the drinkers for the bees, you can put pieces of foam or thin plates that can stick to the surface. This will make the water more accessible to insects, they will be able to sit on the "rafts" and drink.
  • To avoid the invasion of ants, you must install the hives on stands at a height of at least 30 cm from the soil surface, and lubricate them with engine oil or grease.
  • It should protect the houses from the scorching sun.

Beekeeper's clothes

Beekeeping beginners beginners connoisseurs of bees is the correct choice of working form, which should consist of gloves, a light-colored robe or overalls, as well as a hat with a mesh on the face. The choice of color and quality of clothing is very important: the bees are irritated by dark shades and the fleecy surface of the fabric.

A professional "robe" must meet all the requirements of sanitary standards, not have specific odors and reliably protect the body from possible bites. An important role is played by the high strength of the material and its smooth structure.

Choice of hives

Bee houses should be comfortable for the inhabitants, warm, well ventilated, have a place for feeding and drinking. Beehives can be bought, and you can make it yourself, given the particular climate in the proposed area. Novice beekeeping should be initially organized correctly, so you should pay attention to every little thing.

In working with bees, the beekeeper will not be able to do without certain devices: hand tools, tools for taking care of families and beehives, special containers and devices, which, in particular, include a smoker. The smell of smoke calms the bees, they do not like him and fly away for a while.

To care for bee colonies, you must have:

  • drinking bowls
  • feeders
  • brushes,
  • lattices,
  • cap for the uterus,
  • temporary places to keep the swarm.

For receiving, processing and storage of bee products will need:

  • special devices for printing honeycombs,
  • containers for heating cutting tools
  • honey extractor
  • sump
  • storage tanks
  • wax extraction and processing tools
  • devices for a stable location of the framework and prevent their loss (wire, hole punch, fasteners, and others).

Features of the bee colony

As you can see, it is completely easy to gradually master beekeeping for beginners. How to start choosing a family?

The beekeeper needs to have knowledge about the bees themselves and the characteristics of their existence and the distribution of responsibilities in the family.

  1. Uterus. Each such organizational cell has its own uterus - the main person in the family. It is much larger than the rest of the individuals and is engaged in the reproduction of the genus. The uterus lays eggs in honeycombs, which allows the swarm to exist and increase quantitatively. Has its own security and room service. A few bees feed her and clean up after her. The breeding process lasts from the beginning of spring to the first frost. The most reproductive is the 2-year-old womb. It is recommended to change the uterus every two to three years.
  2. Drones For mating with the uterus in the bee family there are drones. These are fat and useless bees that die after they perform their duties. Such individuals are derived from unfertilized eggs. Worker bees expel drones and destroy their larvae immediately after fertilization of the uterus.
  3. Employees. The bulk of the bee swarm are working bees, divided into flight and hive. Each worker bee has its own duties. Hive - work inside the house, and the flight is engaged in the collection and delivery of pollen, nectar and water. Striped insects do not have a clear distribution of responsibilities. Sometimes the flight begin to bother inside, and the hive go for prey.

Breed bees

Choosing the right breed of family will help the future beekeeper to make his debut in such a difficult but interesting process as beekeeping. A start has been made, the tool has been prepared, the hive has been installed - you can begin to choose a bee colony, the acquisition of which mainly falls on the spring period.

In order to properly conduct a beekeeping industry, it is necessary to understand the subtleties of the behavior planned for the placement of the family, its habits and characteristics. The geographical location of the site with hives should also be considered. This will allow to carry out work efficiently, to reduce the cost of care and get the maximum benefit. Do not ignore the advice of experienced beekeepers. Communicating with knowledgeable specialists will be able to prevent thoughtless actions and unforeseen situations in such important business as beekeeping for beginners. How to start choosing a bee breed?

Bees are divided into breeds, among which the most popular are:

  • Central Russian.
  • Krainskaya.
  • Gray Caucasian (mountain).
  • Yellow Caucasian.
  • Carpathian.

Each breed has its own preferences and characteristics, so before acquiring such families it is worth paying attention to their endurance in this climate.

In Russia, the most common is the Central Russian Forest, whose representatives are aggressive, but very efficient. They can easily winter, hardy to the harsh climatic conditions.

In the Caucasus, the gray mountain Caucasian breed is appreciated. These are peace-loving insects that prefer a warm climate, are less hardy and not adapted to the cold.

Beginners are advised to acquire the Krajina breed, which is similar in character to the Caucasian one. Very calm and non-aggressive insects. You can work with them even without a grid and smoke.

It is important to remember that you can not start several breeds at once.

Buying bees

The acquisition of bees requires special knowledge. Every living thing is subject to diseases, so in order to avoid spending money on further treatment, it is worth contacting a specialist or buying a family in a nursery. This will guarantee a healthy family and clean breed. It is not necessary to acquire unknown breeds, especially of foreign origin. Such bees are not adapted to local conditions, and care for them can be problematic. So, you decided to plunge headlong into such an interesting activity as beekeeping. How to start a newbie? With understanding the correctness of the terms in which you can make the purchase of bee colonies.

It is best to purchase them in the spring and summer, when there are already eggs, larvae and pupae. Such a family can give its first “harvest” already this year, and over the summer it will have time to stock up on everything necessary for winter existence.

It is necessary to transport and install ready-made frames with families in the dark when the whole family is assembled. It is not recommended to disturb bees before nightfall.

Proper observance of all the tips will help to organize the work of high quality and express themselves in such an interesting occupation as beekeeping. Where to start, how to succeed in this matter - in this article we gradually reveal the answers to such important questions.

Care instructions

How to start beekeeping? With quality care for bee colonies. You must regularly check the status of the ulv inside. A good sign is silence. The noisy behavior of bees suggests that something bothers them. This may be due to insufficient airing, improper climate, humidity and other reasons.

Do not work with bees after eating garlic, drinking alcohol, using perfume. Strong odors cause irritation and aggression of insects. You should not work with hives in bad weather. Bees feel the mood of a person, so work in the apiary provides for calm behavior, without too much fuss and fear.

Inspections are recommended to be held once in two weeks, to keep a journal in which to analyze changes in the behavior of bees.

If you are stung by a bee, then you should not make sudden movements. This will attract other insects and may trigger their attack. It is better to leave the apiary, as the bees smell their own poison too.

Work with the bees should be prompt, but without much haste. After removing the cover, you need to put a few clouds of smoke. This will calm the bees and make it possible to quietly change the frame. With a flick of the wrist you need to throw the bees off the frame or remove them with a special brush.

You should always have spare frames with you to immediately have time to replace them. It is not recommended during the inspection to move far away with the frames pulled out from the hive, and also to put them in a horizontal position.

Novice beekeepers should know that properly organized work in the apiary will not cause much interest among the bees, and they will calmly respond to the actions of the beekeeper.

Bee health and pest control

It is necessary to closely monitor the health of individuals and the microclimate in the hive. Ants, ticks and other individuals dangerous for the family should not be allowed to enter: wasps, hornets, caterpillars, birds, spiders and others that feed on the waste products of bees and destroy their offspring.

Diseases caused by microscopic pathogens and transmitted from insect to insect are of great danger to bees. To prevent them, beekeepers carry out prevention in the early spring, including her in planned care.

Also, the bees can get sick with improper organization of care, poor-quality feeding, violation of the rules of keeping, hypothermia, chemical poisoning.

Bees wintering: beekeeping for beginners

How to start preparing for the winter? Bees, like all living things, are preparing for winter in advance, stocking up with all the necessary nutrients. Caring beekeeper should contribute: feed them with cooked sugar syrup.

There are several ways of wintering:

  • in the hives on the street
  • in special places (omshanik),
  • under the snow.

It all depends on the climatic conditions and the breed of bees. Some beekeepers with the purpose of keeping heat in the hive fall asleep with snow. This is not always good, as it can trigger the appearance of mice. Also, do not bury or transfer the hives into damp basements or trenches. Remember that ventilation must be!

During the winter time, bees may lose part of their family, and sometimes the entire swarm. This may be due to hypothermia or hunger. Insufficient feeding or unheated houses can cause death.

The issue of providing bees with nutrition during the winter period should be attended to by the end of summer. Such work is carried out in several stages before the onset of the first cold days. One bee colony can consume 20 kg of sugar in the fall and winter.

With the onset of warm days in spring, you need to take care of your bees again so that they can quickly move away from winter days and gain strength. Therefore, food stocks must be constantly. If there is no feed, the bee is able to fly out after it and die because of the cold.

Top dressing can be carried out in the summer, when there is rainy weather, and there is no possibility to independently collect feed.

At first glance, beekeeping can seem very laborious and dangerous. But it is not so. Having mastered all the basics and secrets, applying them in practice, properly distinguishing and organizing the process, you can get pleasure from communicating with the bees. Work in the fresh air, the ability to constantly improve their skills will turn such an occupation into a pleasant and profitable business.

Tips for a beginner beekeeper Favorites

In our country, people of various professions are engaged in amateur beekeeping. All those who love nature, know how to appreciate it, take care and of course, who are not contraindicated bee stings. However, practice shows that not all people approach thoughtfully to practice beekeeping.

Often, it still happens when a sudden desire to deal with bees hastily "implemented", resulting in insurmountable obstacles: either the body suffers from bee sting allergies, because patience is weaker than pain from bees sting and fear overcomes desire, or late it turns out that breeding bees do not have the proper conditions. It also happens that not everyone loves endless worries, and there are a lot of them in caring for bees. After all, it's not for nothing that they say: "To keep bees is not lying in the cold." That is why a continuous loss is often obtained: the bees die, and with them the amount of costs incurred. To avoid this, I would like to give some advice.

WHO CAN DRIVE BEES
A true amateur beekeeper must combine deep knowledge and observation, love of work and the desire to improve it. He must be a good naturalist, a passionate nature lover and extremely careful in dealing with bees, have endurance and endless patience for bee stings.
The ability to drive bees does not come immediately. The difficulty lies not only in mastering the sophisticated methods of caring for the bees, but also in choosing the very ones that best suit specific environmental conditions.

HOW MUCH TIME IS NEEDED TO CARE FOR BEE
As for the expenditure of time, much, of course, depends on the skill of the person himself and on how soon stereotypical movements are developed in him while performing work.
Studies have shown that it takes 834 minutes to service 1 bee colony for 1 year. Therefore, it will take 5-6 hours to service 10 bee colonies for 1 week in the spring-summer period.

HOW MUCH TO PURCHASE FAMILIES BEES
This largely depends on the specific conditions and individual characteristics of the beginning beekeeper. It is best to start a lesson with 3-6 bee colonies. In this case, the process of mastering the technology of caring for the bees will be organically linked with the further growth of the apiary. Чем лучше начинающий пчеловод будет осваивать дело и входить в мир пчел, тем быстрее вырастет пасека до желаемых размеров.
Нельзя, разумеется, и в этом случае гарантировать от возможных ошибок, но шансов на успех, несомненно больше по сравнению с опрометчивым подходом к разведению пчел.

ГДЕ ЛУЧШЕ ЗАНИМАТЬСЯ ПЧЕЛОВОДСТВОМ
В том случае, когда начинающему пчеловоду представляеться возможность выбора местности для занятий пчеловодством, предпочтение надо отдавать той из них, которая больше всего подходит к условиям естественного обитания пчел. It is advisable to place the apiary in areas with vertical zonality, ie, near the hills, elevations. It is desirable that the entire radius of the useful summer of bees (2 km in any direction) is occupied by natural honey-bearing plants. It is good if the apiary is protected from the prevailing winds by the terrain, for example, with a slope to the south, or a forest belt, or a depression that is well-visible to the sun throughout the day, or a beam.

REQUIRED AREA FOR LOCATION
According to accepted recommendations, beehives in the apiary are placed at a distance of 3-4 meters from each other and 4-6 meters row from the row. As for the placement of hives on the plot, these recommendations are not everywhere acceptable due to the lack of vacant space. In these cases, the hive is placed tightly, that is, under the canopy of trees, along the solar perimeters of buildings, along fences, in specially constructed stationary or mobile pavilions. If there is a plot of 3x5 m on the estate, then it will be possible to place up to 15 bee colonies on it.

CLOTHES OF BEESHIPER
It must meet the requirements of sanitary hygiene, be comfortable in work, reliably protect the face and the whole body from bee stings. In the southern regions of the country, where the bees are more peaceful, the set of clothes includes: a front mesh and a white robe. However, in the areas of distribution of central Russian bees, instead of a dressing gown, they use overalls of gray thickened fabric, especially when transporting bees, when their irritability increases. Especially strongly bees are irritated by dark clothes with a fleecy surface, as they get entangled in a pile. They do not tolerate the smell of clothing, soaked with sweat, gasoline, smoke.
In foreign countries, the beekeeper’s clothing set includes gloves made of soft, dense fabric or rubberized, but it is very inconvenient to perform hive work in such gloves. Experienced beekeepers, inspecting bees, closely monitor their behavior and at the slightest signs of irritation pacify small portions of smoke. It is important to remember that the irritability of bees largely depends on the accuracy, hygiene and skill of the beekeeper. Many beekeepers get used to working without a facial mesh, but hair is always covered with a hat or a light beret.

PACIFIC DIARY
The beekeeper’s diaries and a journal help the beekeeper to take into account the state of bee colonies and upcoming work with bees. Records that are entered in the journal during the inspection of bee colonies help to fix certain errors and prevent them.
The beekeeping magazine provides an account of daily work carried out in bee colonies. The main purpose of these records is to individually study the productivity of each family of bees for mass selection at the apiary, that is, the selection of the most productive families and culling, as well as to detect deficiencies in bee colonies and to eliminate them in a timely manner.
On each bee family allocate 1-2 pages. In the upper part, the family number, year of birth of the uterus, its breed and origin are marked.
The columns provide for: month and date of inspection, what is given to the family (combs, bees, brood, honey or syrup, framework with wrinkle), what is taken (combs, bees, brood), what remains after the inspection (combs, bees, brood, ), the results of the season (obtained honey. wax, layering, rebuilt framework). Some beekeepers keep records on individual cards that are stored under the hive roof, and during the autumn revision these records are summarized. Viewing the journal before the next inspection of bee colonies restores previously planned work on the improvement of the nests and focuses on future work.

ABOUT WEATHER FORECAST
Especially needed for beekeepers weather forecast. They are guided, what work to plan on a working day: in shelter or in the wild, directly with the bees. A long-term forecast can help the beekeeper to build a work plan for the future: when to transport bees, when to prepare them feeding and in what quantity, to predict the nature of the main honey collection, etc. It often happens that the beekeeper does not have the opportunity to listen to (view) the weather forecast, as he is on a wander with the bees or starts his working day early. How to be in this case?. We must learn to predict the weather according to national signs that are passed from generation to generation.

How to behave with bees.

It seems that the community of amateur beekeepers could be much larger, people do not feel fear of stings of winged creatures. Indeed, the impact of a bee sting is always sensitive to any living thing. Any insect dies from the sting of a honey bee, and if irritated bees attack in large numbers, then a fatal outcome may occur for a large animal.
How can bees get so annoyed and what rules should be followed in order not to incur the wrath of bees?
In no case can not inspect the nest of a bee family in anticipation of the weather. Bees, for example, do not tolerate fuss, not only near their dwellings, but also in the area nearby. It is undesirable to be on the path of the summer of bees to their home without special need. A bee will pounce on a person who smells of sweat, onions, garlic, not to mention the smell of alcohol. After all, antennae antenna bees are able to catch even minor odors. Worried bees and drastic change bribe caused by cold snaps, torrential rains that wash away the nectar from the flowers. Black clothes, hair, the smell of their own poison irritate the bees. The last one is like a signal to attack. It is necessary to sting one bee, and many of its other relatives instantly react to the smell of the isolated poison. Driven into the body of an enemy, the sting of a bee comes off together with poisonous tanks. If it is not immediately removed, it will automatically contract for several more minutes, pushing the poison into the microscopic wound formed on the body.
As experience shows, to avoid pain from stings is almost impossible. You can only reduce their duration and in some measure prevent the growth of the tumor. For this, tampons moistened with hot and cold water should be applied alternately to the sore spot. If stings cause a persistent pain reaction, then andrenaline or ephedrine tablets should be used. If the pain turns out to be unbearable, and this happens during stings to certain parts of the head, especially in the ear, nose bridge, etc., then it is useful to lubricate the sting with a spirit of calendula tincture or 10-12% ammonia solution. You can resort to other means. For example, to the milky juice of a dandelion, 5% acetic acid, rub the sting site with mashed celery leaf.
A person who is constantly working with bees gradually develops immunity - the body’s resistance to stings. Some who have such immunity is innate. In any case, one or two stings during the inspection of the nest should not cause nervousness in the beekeeper, because it, this nervousness, will excite bees even more. We must continue to work calmly, without sudden movements, correctly using the main means of taming bees - smoke.
To inspect the nest, and it is carried out with a different purpose, you must be well prepared: to have a net on your head, a tightly buttoned robe, better than white. Some beekeepers wear gloves, but this is not always justified. Working with gloves is less convenient than with bare hands, and poison, in the case of stings left on gloves, is a strong irritant for bees.
Inspection should be done quickly, but without fuss. Before opening the nest, it is necessary to put two or three portions of smoke into the cell, preferably from linden, poplar and alder rotters (from fir and pine smoke is especially evil). Removing the roof of the hive and turning off the canvas for 2-3 frames, you need to put on top of them two or three clubs of smoke. Carefully remove the first frame, with a sharp movement to shake off the bees that have remained gently wiped off with a wing or sweeping brush, and it is best to make a small whisk out of the sprigs of forest cherry. The frame is put in a portable box, which, like all the necessary tools, should always be at hand. It is desirable just in case before the inspection to put the framework with a wrinkle or a piece of dry land to replace the damaged frames or, if necessary, to expand the socket. After inspecting 2-3 frames and putting them in place, you need to cover them with spare canvas. Then, lifting, inspect the following. When inspecting the framework, it is not possible to carry them beyond the dimensions of the hive, to keep it in a horizontal position, which may result in loss of the uterus, leakage of honey from unsealed honeycombs.
From each inspection should extract maximum information. According to the density of the sowing, determine the quality of the uterus, estimate the feed reserves, the need for land or foundation, etc. When the smoke is lightly fumigated, the bees behave calmly, and in good sunny weather they work on the comb without any notice of the beekeeper. After inspection, do not replace the old, impregnated with propolis, the lap with a new one - this is a blunder, which is often made by beginners. After all, it is only necessary to imagine how much time and effort it will take for the bees to reattach the lap to the frames, distracting themselves from other equally important matters.
Predicting the number of inspections is difficult. It all depends on the state of families, weather conditions, honey collection, and a number of other factors. The main thing is not to forget: without a special need to sort out the nest - it means to harm the family, disturb it, it happens, not for one day to disrupt the work of the bees.

Bee family and its functions.

Honeybees live in large families and belong to social insects. As a rule, each family of bees consists of a fetal uterus, several hundred drones (appearing in the spring-summer period for mating with barren uterus) and 20 --- 40--80 thousand or more working bees. The number of bees in a family depends on the time of year. The greatest number of them happens in the summer, before the main honey harvest is set, and the smallest - in the early spring, after wintering.
The life of a bee colony is closely connected with its nest, which the bees themselves build from wax. It is in the nest that bees grow young bees, drones and queens. By creating and keeping their nest in sterile purity (due to the special properties of propolis), bees keep food in it, and they winter there. One of the important parts of the nest are honeycombs. The nest of bees consists of several combs placed in a hive strictly vertically. Honeycombs for growing brood have a constant thickness - 24-25 mm. Bees build two types of cells: bees with a diameter of 5.3–5.7 mm and a depth of 11–12 mm, which serve for hatching bees, storing honey and perga, and slightly larger ones — drone 13–16 mm deep for hatching drones and storing honey. The diameter of the drone cells is 6.5 mm. In the summer, bees usually rebuild special cells in the form of bowls on the ribs and on the bottom of the combs. This is the basis of future queen mothers, in which bees hatch a queen Between the honeycombs (frames) of the bee I leave a space 12 mm wide (called the street). In those places of the nest, where bees add honey, honeycombs can be thickened up to 32 mm and more! Freshly built honeycombs are always light yellow in color. But over time, they darken, become even black, which the beekeeper must periodically reject, because after each hatching of bees and drones, cocoons remain in the cells, due to which the cells are made of smaller diameter and volume, and smaller bees are hatching into them.
The honeycomb of one nested frame measuring 435x300 mm contains 9600 cells, of which about 8000 cells are suitable for outputting brood. A fully filled honeycomb can hold 3.0--3.5 kg of honey or 2.5-3, O kg of pollen. A single honeycomb frame from a multi-body hive of 435x230 mm in size contains 6500 cells, where you can place 2.5-2.0 kg of honey or 1.5-2.0 kg of weed. In the nest of the bee family in spring and summer there is almost always brood: eggs and larvae on the bottoms of the cells (open brood), and grown larvae and pupae in sealed cells - printed brood. Printed bee brood differs from the drone in that the cells with pupae of working bees are sealed with even lids, and with the drone --- convex. Bee brood, honey and bee bread are placed on the comb in a certain order. For example, in honeycombs against the entrance area, where ventilation is better, brood is located, next to it is perga, and then honey. Honey in the nest is printed and open. Printed - this is mature honey, prepared by bees for long-term storage. Open honey is newly collected nectar or honey, specially liquefied by bees to feed brood larvae. Bees tend to have brood compactly on adjacent honeycombs. This makes it easier to maintain the heat and humidity conditions needed for the brood. Moreover, while there is no brood in the family, the temperature in the nest varies from 13 to 28 degrees Celsius. But as soon as the brood appears in the nest, the bees maintain a stable temperature in the range of 24-38 degrees. It should be noted that bee brood is very sensitive to temperature changes. So, with its decrease in the nest to +30, the development of the brood slows down by 2.5-3 days. Bees grown at this temperature have a shorter proboscis, shorter wings and other physiological abnormalities. But the temperature rise above +35 also has a inhibitory effect on the development of the brood.
Maintaining a relatively high temperature at a constant level is the most important biological function of the bee family. Humidity is also regulated by the bees themselves. It has been scientifically established that in time the main honey collection, when there is a lot of liquid in the hive, the humidity in the nest is maintained at 50-60%, and in the rest of the season -70-80%. In order to maintain this humidity, for example, during the period of dry summer weather, bees place freshly brought, liquid nectar around cells with brood, from which water evaporates easily. In the absence of a bribe, they bring water into the hive, which, mixed with honey, is laid out in the cells around the brood. And in extreme heat, they hang water droplets on the caps of the printed brood.
A bee family develops normally only if it contains all individuals: the queen, worker bees, drones and brood of different ages.

UTERUS.
As a rule, only one queen lives in the family. In size and weight, the queen surpasses all other bees. Depending on the breed and time of year, the length of its body varies from 20 to 25 mm, the mass of the fetal uterus is from 200 to 240 mg or more, the barren - from 150 to 200 mg. Bees cannot live without a uterus, and as soon as they discover its absence, anxiety covers them. Hundreds of bees set off in search of the missing mother (they search both inside the hive and outside), the nest is filled with an alarming roar. Its presence in the family of the bees is determined by a special smell - the uterine substance. This secret of the uterus and unites the bees, gives strength and organization in their working mood.
The main purpose of the uterus (but not the only one) is to lay fertilized and unfertilized eggs - and it does not perform any other work. Even her brain is less developed than that of bees. Uterus live up to 5 years, but already in the 3rd year their egg production noticeably decreases. Therefore, most beekeepers queens change in 1-2 years.

TRUNK.
Male individuals who are required in apiaries only for the insemination of young barren queens. The drones do not perform any other functions in the family. 1 kg of drones eat up to 15-20 kg of honey in their lives. Experienced beekeepers regulate their reproduction.

WORKING BEE.
These are manufacturers of beekeeping products. They are smaller in mass and volume than queens and drones. 10 thousand of these bees weigh about 1 kg. Bees live in the summer of the active period, an average of 35-45days, and in the winter - 6--8 months. All the numerous works are performed by worker bees: they bring water, pollen, secrete wax and build cells, grow broods, ventilate and protect the nest, air and clean the hive, process nectar and pollen, clean the cells and prepare them for egg laying, feed the larvae, bring propolis, etc. The main concern of the bees is the collection of nectar and pollen and the accumulation of forage reserves in the family. All working bees in the family can be divided into two groups:
- a group of hive (non-flying) bees that perform mainly work inside the hive. These are the youngest bees after leaving the cells under the age of 18-20 days,
- a group of field (flight) bees, which, in favorable weather and a bribe, fly into the field to collect nectar and pollen.
It has been established that the sequence of work performed by bees depends on their age and is conditionally divided: in the first three days of their lives, young bees clean the cells, preparing them for laying eggs there with the uterus.
To prevent disease of the offspring (larvae), these cells of the bee moisten with their saliva and cover with a thin layer of propolis. In the next (3-4) days, the same bees already feed the older larvae, preparing a mush for them (i.e. a mixture of honey and pollen or pollen feed). At about 7 days of age, the bees begin feeding the younger larvae (up to 3 days old) and queens with milk. At 12 --- 18 days of age, bees emit wax, build new honeycombs at the congregation, take nectar from bee collectors and process it into honey. At the end of the hive (non-flying) period, the bees perform a number of other works: litter is removed from the hive, the cells with honey and adult larvae are sealed with lids, the nest is protected from other insects (eg flies and wasps) and thieves from foreign families . Начиная с 18-20- дневного возраста пчелы активно занимаются поиском пищи и ее доставкой в ульи. При этом рабочий день полевых пчел длится до 17-18 часов в сутки. При наступлении обильного медосбора, например, в поход за нектаром вылетают и более молодые пчелы 6--10-дневного возраста.
Nature wisely endowed bees with such quality that when they completely wear out, become old, they usually die not in the hive, but in the field during the flight, or leave the hive themselves, crawling away from their home and thus freeing the family from removal of bee corpses (and in the summer, up to 1.5-2 thousand individuals die in each family per day). Selection of wax and detuning of honeycombs by bees is largely dependent on bringing nectar and pollen. And the bees build honeycombs both in the spring, during a minor bribe, and in the summer - during a strong honey harvest. To speed up the process and the accumulation of sotoramok (the beekeeper’s golden fund) to help bees in the nest, frames with a wrinkle are set up, i.e., thin wax sheets in which six-sided bottoms for cells are pressed. First, the bees gnaw out part of the wax, thinning the bottoms, and then lengthen the edges of the cells. For the detuning of the honeycomb at the base of the bee, they spend 2 times less wax. In families without a womb, bees do not build honeycombs.

The structure of the bees.

STRUCTURE OF BEES.
The variety of functions performed by working bees in the active period is caused by the requirements of life itself and is carried out instinctively.
The body of the bee is outside covered with a chitinous cover with the smallest hairs, which is at the same time its basis - the skeleton and protects the internal organs from injuries, temperature fluctuations, and the attacks of enemies.
To collect pollen from plants (protein feed), the bee is endowed, in addition to its shaggy attire, with a whole set of tools on the legs: baskets, scallops, brushes. The bee sucks the nectar from the flowers into the honey goitre with the help of a proboscis. Goat can hold up to 55 mg of nectar or 76 mg of honey, but in some cases, the bee lifts into the air more than its weight (110 mg).
Maneuverability in the air is provided by 2 pairs of wings, hooked in flight by more than 20 hooks, making up a single plane. To make it easier to stay in the air, she fills 3 air bags, located in all parts of her body: head, chest and abdomen.
To find the source of the honey collection, the bee has well-developed sense organs: smell, touch, taste, hearing, sight, and the sense of time (a kind of clock). This portable "managerial" complex consists of modified nerve cells specialized in the perception of a strictly defined stimulation. Cells perceive different kinds of “signals” through the eyes, antennae, auditory, olfactory and tactile receptors. With the help of the olfactory organs, the bee picks up the smell of flowers well within a radius of 1.5-2.0 km and quickly finds them.
The bee has 2 large faceted eyes and 3 simple, and only 5 eyes. With the help of simple eyes, the bee is oriented in the dark, and faceted - looks into the distance. Each facet of the eye (there are 4-5 thousand of them) perceives the object in a mosaic, that is, its insignificant part, and transmits to the "summing" device, depicting the whole object with its smallest details.
A bee sees in the surrounding space as well as a person, but not all the colors that the human eye perceives, it catches. Especially well it distinguishes between blue, blue and yellow, and in white even ultraviolet shades are caught. In contrast to human vision, a bee uses polarized light when flying, that is, it is oriented by the sun.
Bees clearly distinguish the shape of objects resembling petals, flowers, and the crown of a tree. However, bees do not perceive such geometric shapes as a triangle, square, rectangle, etc. Although the bee performs its functions instinctively, it also responds at danger. This helps her nervous system.
The nervous system of a bee consists of 3 sections: central, peripheral and vegetative. In response to stimuli, the nervous system triggers simple and complex reflexes - congenital or hereditary, that is, the bee flies away or uses the sting.
In addition to simple and complex reflexes, called unconditional, the bees develop conditioned reflexes in the course of its life. Conditional reflexes include “remembering” by the bees the location of the source of honey harvest, etc. With the help of the food conditioned reflex, bees are “trained” for spaying a desired crop (for example, clover). However, it is impossible to work out a conditioned reflex to one's own beekeeper; the life span of bees is too small. Nevertheless, it is established that experienced beekeepers sting less bees than beginners. The secret is simple: taking care of the bees, they know what annoys them, and do not allow deviations from the norm.
The bee's blood is a colorless liquid, there are no red blood cells in it - red blood cells. Unlike the blood of higher animals, the blood of a bee is called hemolymph. It spreads nutrients throughout the body, and removes decay products from it, promotes gas exchange between cells, ensures the constancy of acidity, plays a heat-regulating role in the body. Hemolymph can produce immunity - immunity to many diseases. The bee has an unclosed circulatory system. Having passed the abdomen and chest, the system opens in the head, and the hemolymph is further guided by the thoracic and abdominal diaphragms. The hemolymph movement gives a five-chamber heart (dorsal aorta). In a minute, a bee's heart makes 60–70 cuts (beats), 100 in flight, and 140–150 after a flight.
Breathing ensures the delivery of oxygen to all organs, tissues and cells of the body, where nutrients combine with oxygen (oxidize) and release the heat necessary for normal life. At the same time, the same system removes most of the final decay products of carbohydrates and fats — carbon dioxide and water. The air enters the body of the bee through small holes - spiracles, 6 pairs of which are located on the abdomen and 3 pairs - on the chest. After a third pair of spiracles, the bee exhales carbon dioxide and water vapor. The spiracles are connected to 3 pairs of air sacs located in the head, chest and abdomen (they play the role of lungs), and from the air sacs all over the body the bees disperse the trachea, which end in tracheoles. At 1 minute, the bee makes 40 respiratory movements, and after the flight - 120-150.
The bee feeds on honey (nectar) and perga (pollen). The composition of these products include all minerals, vitamins, amino acids, proteins, fats necessary for its vital activity. In the case when the food is intended for storage or processing, the bee brings it to the hive in a honey goat, and then “pumps” it into the cell. During the flight from the source of honey collection to the hive, some of the food from the honey goat enters the middle intestine through the valve (as a combustible material). This feed compensates for the consumption of muscular energy. In the anterior part of the midgut, the cells secrete digestive juice, and in the posterior part, they digest the constituents of the food (it performs the functions of the stomach). The valve of the midgut passes undigested food residues into the back intestine. The thin section of the intestine forms the rectum, where excrement accumulates, which persists in the bee throughout the winter period due to the catalase secreted by the enzymes of the rectal glands. 4 paired glands adjoin the anterior section of the intestine: the maxillary, pharyngeal, posterolateral and mammary glands. With the help of secrets secreted by these glands, the bee “prepares” royal jelly, invertase to process nectar into honey, a secret, dissolving wax and propolis, sugar crystals, as well as to moisten the tongue and spoon of the proboscis.
Between the posterior part of the midgut and the small section of the posterior intestine there are malpighian vessels that play the role of the kidneys. These vessels absorb from the hemolymph decay products - uric acid, uric acid salts, which then get into the rectum and through the anus, along with excrement, are thrown out by the bees during the flight.

Calendar beekeeper.

There is an erroneous opinion that beekeeping is a hobby of old men. Say, there are no physical loads, there is almost no time expenditure, well, except in summer to pump honey. But in fact, this is not the case at all. The romantic craft of a beekeeper, a fairy tale about honey rivers for one who undertakes this business, quickly turns into the prose of life. And here beginner beekeepers need to be prepared for all sorts of troubles and disappointments, to set up themselves to work constantly with their winged wards.
First of all, it is required to thoroughly theoretically be grounded, if possible get training on special courses, re-read a mountain of literature.
Secondly, it would be good to have an internship, working in the apiary of an experienced beekeeper, having tried to wax the frame and look at the nest, see not only the pleasure from the intoxicating aroma of bee nectar, but also revengeful stings.
And, of course, a person who has decided to join the ranks of beekeepers, should measure their capabilities in terms of time and physical exertion. We must immediately set ourselves up to be engaged not only occasionally, but constantly, and some work, especially related to moving hives into and out of the hive, alone will not be done.
What are the concerns of a beekeeper throughout the year by month:

JANUARY.
It would seem that the beekeeper to do this winter month? Bees in the wagon, and if in the wild, then alone, in the hives covered with snow. Rest the beekeeper. Of course, the beekeeper has no particular trouble in January. But this month we must not forget to check the bees. Observing silence and blackout (in the room should be only with a red lantern) to listen to how your players behave. If noise is heard in the wintera, and it comes not from one beehive, but from everyone at once, it means that general trouble is common. The reason for this may be poor ventilation, high humidity, etc. Finding out the cause of concern, it is necessary to eliminate it. If anxiety is observed in individual families, it is also required to determine its cause. Perhaps the ventilation in the hive is broken; It happens in the hive got a mouse. To prevent this from happening, the openings should be covered with a net in the autumn, and each hive should be covered with fir branches. To extract the mouse from the hive, you must put a mousetrap with bait near the entrance notch or try to get it with a wire hook.
If you, when cleaning the leaves of a podmor, found among the dead bees, grains of sugar, it means that honey has become sweet, there is a low humidity in the dwelling. in this case, you should put a piece of cotton wool dipped in warm water, beforehand, in gauze or other loose fabric. This operation should be repeated if necessary. If the bees overwinter in the open, it is also necessary to check whether the ventilation in the hives is not disturbed, to prevent thawed water from entering the entrails during thaws.

FEBRUARY.
The first half of this month usually proceeds also relatively calmly. The beekeeper builds up the base: he makes frames, melts wax, studies the special literature, visits the apicultural shop, that is, following the well-known proverb, prepares a "cart", because in the summer he won't have enough time for all of this. By the end of February, when the bees begin to come to a more or less active state, the uterus will gradually begin laying eggs, and the feed intake will increase. And if in one family or another the honey reserves are scarce, it is necessary to feed it.

MARCH.
First month of spring. For the beekeeper - this is the most alarming month. How did the bees winter him? Rather, to release them after months of imprisonment. Such thoughts pursue him day and night. And now the air temperature began to rise to + 8-10 degrees. Already in advance, a few days before this time, the beekeeper had scattered hay, sawdust, and peat at the site of the beehive exhibition, so that the snow would give way to glade. In one of the warm, sunny days, it is better in the afternoon, when the air is well-made, hives endure. what a revival comes around! Thousands and thousands of winged creatures rise into the air. Hello Spring!
If in one of the families of the flight was not friendly, the bees almost do not rise into the air, crawling along the walls with swollen abdomens, then this family needs urgent help. Ask an experienced beekeeper how to act in this situation, as soon as possible you need to clean the hive, put clean canvases, and under them heated printed honeycombs.

APRIL.
This month bees are completing cleaning flights. Their active work begins not only inside the house-factory, but also outside it. In a place well warmed up by the sun, it is necessary to install a watering bowl, give each family additional feeding. When making a revision of the nests, it is necessary to clean and disinfect them. During this period, it is required to regularly monitor the behavior of bees daily, if possible. Their well-being will be testified by good years to the first honey-bearers - willow and coltsfoot.

MAY.
From early morning until sunset, the beekeeper has a job. It is necessary to examine the nests, and this is a laborious, painstaking work. Bees at this time, as never before, bring up brood more than ever, because others must come to replace the dead during the winter and in large numbers in order not only to prolong the life of the family, but to give this life to a new family. The beekeeper requires high efficiency, it is impossible to yawn, it is necessary to press a new framework, expand the nests, take measures against unwanted swarming, prepare new hives, create nucleuses. In short, the work a great deal.

JUNE.
In the bees - it's time to swarm. The beekeeper is especially busy time. It is necessary to prevent the loss of swarms, build up families, replace old queens with yearlings, unite weak families into honey jars, in a word, approach the honey collection fully armed.

JULY.
It is time the main bribe. The beekeeper takes care that the pace of the bees does not decrease. Too often it does not terrorize cruise workers, in a timely manner removes sealed frames from store extensions, replacing them with dry land, siphons off honey, creates stocks of honey and frameworks for families going to winter.

AUGUST.
The month in which there comes a sharp turn in the fate of the bee family. The main bribe ends, the number of bees as a result of intensive work in July significantly decreased. the beekeeper must take care that the uterus do not stop laying eggs, that is, to give an incentive feeding in each hive.
It is important to fully inspect and sort out the nests. Later it will be very difficult. Bees are becoming very aggressive. The number of frames should be left appropriately for the strength of the family (10-12), form a supply of full-frame frames, select the old frames for subsequent reflow, and, if necessary, warm the hives.

SEPTEMBER.
Honey plants have faded, a rarity these days and pollen, its bees take from the last flowers. The uterus stops laying eggs. The last brood is coming out. The beekeeper needs, according to observations made throughout the season, to differentially prepare each family for wintering. Make sure that the club is formed not from the edge of the nest, where the poor, light frames are inserted in the center. Nearby, on the sides, there should be several full frames.

OCTOBER.
Formed bee club. Only rarely on sunny days do bees fly the last flight. At this time, it is important to protect the houses from wind and damp, to put barriers against mice.

NOVEMBER.
Come cold. Bees are in winter rest. It is time to bring the hives in the winter houses. Previously, these rooms need to be well prepared: make a reliable blackout, think over effective ventilation, protect yourself from the penetration of the rodents in the wintering place.

DECEMBER.
Bees in the wintery. Well, if the room temperature is maintained from +2 to -4 degrees. Humidity should be maintained within 80-85%. Dampness in hives - death for bees. Therefore, it is best not to close the hives with the covers, but to put store extensions on the nests, to put warming cushions of moss in them, to nail a small metal mesh over the shops. This will help prevent formation of condensate over the nest.
As you can see, beekeeping provides the beekeeper who embarked on this path, year-round employment. Many beekeepers, even experienced ones, draw up a work schedule for each month with their wards.

Tribal work

FUNDAMENTALS OF BREEDING WORK IN BEEKING.
In breeding work with bees, as with other living organisms, they use mass selection of families, selection by the quality of offspring, selection by origin, and breeding. But the honey-bearing members have very significant biological differences that make selection difficult. In the bee colony, in addition to mature individuals - the uterus and the drone, there are also non-breeding females - working bees, which constitute the bulk of the individuals of the family, performing all the numerous work in the hive and creating significant volumes of specific products (honey, wax, etc.) . But the worker bees do not give offspring, all hereditary features are concentrated in mature individuals - the uterus and the drones. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate families by the productivity of worker bees, and to propagate through individuals, in the production of products not directly involved. Thus, the selection is carried out on the work of some individuals of the family, and reproduction - according to the data of others.
Каждая пчелиная семья с маткой, рабочими пчелами и трутнями — биологически сложная система, отличающаяся от себе подобных своими индивидуальными особенностями до тех пор, пока в ней находится одна и та же матка, то есть каждая семья имеет свой генотип, и потому даже дочери от одних и тех же родителей не бывают совершенно сходными между собой, всегда имеются различия как между потомками, так и между родителями и их потомством. After each change of the uterus in 1.5-2 months. (in summer conditions) all bees change, and the family acquires new qualities corresponding to the genotype of the new uterus. Even greater diversity (variability) is observed in families in the apiary, it would seem, having one population of bees.
If you carefully watch the bee colonies in the apiary, you can see, very soon, how different they are in terms of the intensity and nature of the flight activities, in relation to the environment (external objects, weather conditions, etc.). This phenomenon is called the phenotypic variability of organisms. Honey bees are characterized not only by breeding individuals, which only leads to an increase in the number of bees in the family, but also by swarming (the second type of breeding), leading to the production of daughter families. It has been established that polyandry takes place in a honeybee, the essence of which is that the uterus mates at the beginning of its life not with one, but with 8-10 (sometimes with 15) drones.
In a normal family, only one uterus lays fertilized eggs. In her body the unfertilized unlearned, i.e. genetically homogeneous eggs, however they can be fertilized by sperm of different drones located in its sperm receiver. Therefore, the uterus generates heterogeneous offspring. To determine the origin of bees on the paternal line, if you do not control the process of mating of the uterus with the drones, it is almost impossible. The uterus mates in the air during the flight, which basically excludes the possibility of closely related mating, which would be inevitable if the uterus mated inside the hive, but at the same time, the control over the mating of uterus with the drones is very difficult. Escaping from the hive, the uterus can meet with drones from bee colonies, located at a considerable distance from the mating site. Sometimes such places are located 12-14 km away from the uterus hive.
The factors contributing to the selection of bees include the time of development of individuals (worker bees — 21 days, uterus — 16-17, drone — 24) and the change of bees in the family during the spring-summer period of 35-45 days. By planting new queens in families, one breed of bee can be replaced by another. From the reproductive uterus with high fecundity, it is possible to withdraw many thousands of uterus-daughters during the spring-summer season and to ensure quick large-scale selection work.
The possibility of culling unsatisfactory bee colonies is facilitated without major disruption of the apiary's economic tasks. To do this, it is enough only in the first half of the season to replace the uterus of an unsatisfactory family with another one, with selection features. It is possible to change the queens every two seasons of their work in families, and, consequently, the terms of obtaining and testing subsequent generations of bees can be much shorter than in many other living organisms. In beekeeping, it is possible (with sufficient isolation of bee colonies from neighboring apiaries) to successfully select only the maternal line, since due to the haploid origin of the drones, a completely similar selection will be conducted along the line of the drones, only its effect will affect 1-2 years later.
The main tasks of breeding in beekeeping are obtaining high quality bee colonies with a wide opportunity to increase their productivity, since the results of the beekeeper's work largely depend on this. Consequently, a good bee family should have a high working capacity, the ability to grow rapidly in order to reach the peak of development to the main honey collection, non-sluggishness, gentleness, disease resistance, ability to tolerate the winter, use all plants, including those that are difficult to reach for the winter. bees, to fly in different atmospheric conditions, good life expectancy of working bees, etc.
The success of the breeding work is determined largely by the source material. The diverse populations of bees existing on the territory of our country, differing in the sum of economically useful traits, having a specific range and adapted to certain natural and honey-gathering conditions, are mainly the product of prolonged exposure to environmental conditions. Nevertheless, since the emergence of beardny, and then apiary beekeeping, and especially when kept in collapsible frame hives, the evolution of bees has been accomplished under the direct influence of a beekeeper. The huge variety of natural and economic conditions on the territory of the state and the colonization of many areas by bees contributed to the formation of a number of valuable native breeds of bees.
Over the past decades, attempts have been made to develop the "cultured" breeds of the honeybee and some results have already been obtained. The Prioksky pedigree group has successfully established itself, combining the main beneficial properties of a gray Caucasian mountain breed with winter hardiness and endurance of the Central Russian bee breed. When conducting breeding work in beekeeping, two main methods of breeding are used: purebred (uterus and single-breed drone - purebred offspring) and mating (uterus and different kinds of drone - crossbred progeny). Mass selection is used as the main form of selection, including:
- annual identification in the apiary of the most productive bee colonies,
- consolidation of identified economically useful traits in identified families by creating optimal conditions for their maintenance,
- breeding queen bees and drones in families that meet the tasks of breeding (productivity, winter hardiness, peacefulness, etc.), without allowing the withdrawal of drones in ordinary families,
- culling of ordinary families, replacing them with layering from the best and breeding families with high-breed queens.
To identify the most high-quality families (productive and with good winter hardiness), each spring and autumn each year, each bee colony is evaluated or quantified by productivity, winter hardiness, etc. For this, all apiary families are divided into 3 groups.
The first group should consist of the most highly productive, most hardy in winter-hardiness families who collected no less than 1.5 times more honey than the average hive indicators with the swarms received from them or the swarms that left them. After the families of this group, after receiving queens and drones for the purpose of their reproduction and the creation on their basis of families with high productive and winter-hardy performance.
In the second group, ordinary families are brought together, each of which, together with the increment obtained from it, collected from 80 to 150% of honey compared to the average plow data. These families are used only for production.
The third group includes unproductive and unproductive families, each of which with its cuttings or swarm collected at least 80% of honey compared to the average plow gross honey collection. Such families are culled by combining 2-3 families into one, leaving one of the queens. 20-25 days before the end of the main honey collection, the uterus of the united family is placed in a cell and left in the middle of the nest. By the end of the honey collection, the bees in such a family remain few and are attached to the next family.
If families with mothers-daughters received from the first group, next year will prove to be no worse than their parents according to the same indicators, then such families belong to the breeding core of the apiary.
Continuous mass selection, combined with good conditions of detention, allows for complete breeding renewal of bees for 3–4 years. At the same time, it will take two years to replace the queens in the second group with daughters from the bee families of the first group. The effect of heterosis, or the improvement of one or several traits in the cross-breeding descendants, is a random occurrence during mass selection due to the additive action of genes present in both parents and joined in the cross-breeding descendant as a result of crossing. In the first generation, such desirable traits as efficacy, tenderness, longevity, resistance to diseases, etc., may increase. In families that have queens with a clear manifestation of heterosis, in winter the submorphine is much less, they master the hulls or store extensions better and, as a rule, produce 20–30% more products.
However, in subsequent generations, the acquired traits are split, which in practice leads to a significant decrease in the quality of the family and production (the malice of bees, their tendency to theft can increase, and this is why every two years it is necessary to work to further improve the bees in families of the first group .
The advantage of mass selection is its simplicity, so that such selection can be applied to any apiary in any number of families. At the same time, when mass selection takes place in 3-4 years, closely related mating (degree of inbreeding) and, as a result, a sharp deterioration in all quality indicators of families, is not excluded. In such cases, variegated brood is found in the combs of these families as a result of the emergence of diploid drone larvae in the cells, which are eaten by bees and where the uterus lays eggs again, so the uneven-aged brood appears on one cell. This is especially observed on isolated apiaries. In order to prevent such a phenomenon, once every 2–3 years, both the breeding queens and the subsequent brood from families with such queens, brood daughters or drones are replaced.
Good results are also provided by a one-time pedigree update of bees. The essence of it is to get from the nurseries of breeding queen bees, with which to replace the former queen in all families in the same year. When carrying out selection work in beekeeping, they often resort to the method of individual selection with the inspection of families by posterity. A tribal family is considered a family only if it is not only itself distinguished by high productivity and other positive traits, but also transfers these valuable qualities to the offspring.
The first problem solved by a beekeeper during individual selection is to isolate 2–4 bee colonies that are distinguished by the highest productivity, other economically useful qualities and typical signs of a zoned breed. From each of them, 30-50 mother daughters are taken out, who are placed in families in the same conditions. These queens are mated on an isolated point so that the set of drones is the same for all tested queens.
Groups of families with daughter queens are created equally favorable for their development and work conditions, their productivity and other useful features are carefully taken into account. By the end of the 2nd year of work, data are obtained on winter hardiness and average productivity of families with uterus daughters, obtained from each of the progenitor mothers put to the test. Comparing among themselves the main indicators of the family of all groups, the bee families of the group that have distinguished themselves with the highest rates are distinguished. Consequently, the progenitor of the uterus of families of this group can be considered tribal - it gives its valuable qualities to the offspring. It is also used for the subsequent reception of queens-daughters or drones. For greater certainty, the progeny of the progenitor queens are evaluated by qualitative characteristics over a period of two years. During this time, the ancestor uterus can grow old and even die, so her offspring (queens and drones) are taken out for mating at an isolated point, they get 10-15 dam-daughters, which are placed in bee colonies, using for reproduction the best families with these wombs. Their heredity is closest to the heredity of the progenitor uterus put to the test. If, due to the absence of an isolated item, it is impossible to carry out controlled mating, then the best families with its first generation uterus-daughters are used for reproduction. All the economically beneficial traits of bee colonies can be most fully manifested only when favorable conditions for their housing, feeding and care are created for them.
One of the most important requirements of breeding and breeding work and improving the quality of bee colonies is an abundant supply of food to bees. For this, it is necessary to provide the bee families with a sufficient honey base from a combination of entomophilous crops with natural honey plants. Only with the observance of these principles, regular transportation of bees to additional sources of honey collection can the heredity of such important features as honey productivity and other production capabilities of bee colonies be fully manifested. Each experienced bee colony must be provided with a standard number of combs, loaded with work so that it cannot come to an undesirable instinct of swarming. Taking out bees to honey collection or planting honey plants on the grounds adjacent to the apiary is the most powerful means of preventing swarming.
An important issue of breeding work is to increase the winter resistance of bee colonies, for which they use wintering bees at low temperatures (0 + 2 ° C) or in the wild. We should not forget that for the manifestation of the economically useful signs of bees, it is necessary to observe the basic requirements of sanitation and hygiene. A change of nests, at which old, defective cells are rejected and the family is gradually being transferred to new ones, is one of the main requirements for maintaining the strength and health of the family. If any disease is detected, measures are urgently taken to conduct treatment and preventive measures. All these requirements are particularly complete and are primarily performed in relation to the test families. In order for the bee family to fully manifest its individual qualities, it is necessary to provide it with the possibility of individual growth and development. With strict selection, it is necessary to limit herself to creating the necessary conditions for her, but not to cause abrupt changes in her condition.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send

zoo-club-org