Plants

Animal World Tundra

Answers and explanations

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The vegetation of the tundra consists primarily of lichens and mosses, the occurring angiosperms - low grass (especially from the family of cereals), shrubs and shrubs (for example, some dwarf species of birch willow, berry bushes, blueberries).

Typical inhabitants of the Russian tundra are reindeer, foxes, bighorn sheep, wolves, and lemming izai-Rusaks. There are few birds: Lapland plantain, white-winged plover, red-sided horse, piper, young snowdog, polar owl and white partridge.

Rivers and lakes are rich in fish (nelma, chir, omul, whitefish and others).

Polar fox

Polar fox is better known by another name - the arctic fox, which is famous for its snow-white fur coat. Polar foxes are much smaller in comparison with their forest counterparts. The body length of the arctic fox is 50-75 centimeters, while it has a gorgeous tail 25-30 centimeters long.

The polar fox - the arctic fox is an elegant decoration of the arctic tundra.

White and blue foxes are distinguished, in the latter the colors of the body are darker coffee or gray with a bluish glow. Due to its beautiful fur, arctic foxes are valuable commercial animals. The most valued blue fox.

Killer whales are marine mammals. Superbly adapted to survive in the harsh conditions of the tundra. Killer whales feed on high-calorie foods, thanks to which an insulating layer of fat accumulates in their body. This fat makes life easier in icy waters.

Due to the presence of a huge layer of subcutaneous fat, killer whales do not freeze in icy water.

In harsh conditions, the nature of the killer whales tempered, no wonder they are called killer whales. They attack dolphins, sea otters, pinnipeds, sea lions and even large whales.

Sea lion

Like killer whales, sea lions are adapted to life in icy tundra waters. The individuals are quite large and have a good fat layer. Males weigh about 300 kilograms on average, and females weigh up to 90 kilograms. With such massive sizes, sea lions are successful hunters.

The sea lion is an animal that has also adapted itself perfectly to living in the harsh conditions of the tundra.

But gophers have very small sizes. The body length of these small rodents does not exceed 14-40 centimeters, but they are protected from the cold by a thick fur coat. In order not to die in the winter time, gophers make large stocks of food from the seeds of herbaceous plants that they feed on when everything is covered with snow.

This is another small rodent family of hamsters that live in the cold tundra. They are not afraid of frost due to the smooth fur and thick layer of fat. They remain active throughout the year, and they winter in nests that are made by snow. During the day, this small animal eats twice its own weight. They feed all day with short breaks, and also store food for the winter.

Little fat Lemming is not afraid of severe frosts, because it is protected by warm between and subcutaneous fat.

Seals, like sea lions, have settled well in the vast tundra. They spend the summer on the shore, where they continue their race, and then return to the ice again.

The body of the white whale is covered with a thick layer of skin, the thickness of which reaches 15 centimeters. Such thick skin protects beluga whales from damage when they swim among the sharp ice. And they don’t overcool by giving them a layer of subcutaneous fat, which is 10–12 centimeters thick.

Seals and belugas do not freeze in water due to the thick fat layer.

The wintering of belugas is not easy, they constantly have to maintain polynyas so that they do not freeze, as these animals periodically need to rise and breathe fresh air. Ice they punch strong back. But sometimes the wintering for them ends tragically, when the polynyas are covered with too thick a layer of ice, and the beluga whales have in the ice captivity.

Elk and reindeer

Both of these species are common in the tundra, they are native inhabitants of northern latitudes. Most often, moose and reindeer migrate in winter to warm regions. Elks can eat bark in winter, so having a large layer of snow is not a problem for them.

In reindeer, the main protection against the cold is warm wool and fluffy undercoat.

Reindeer hair is warm, the undercoat is very fluffy and thick, guard hair length is 1-2.5 centimeters. The hairs inside are hollow, which improves heat insulation, in addition, they allow the animal to stay afloat when it passes the river ford.

Arctic white

This species of hares is well adapted to life in the polar terrain. Paws have a special shape, so that hares can easily move through the snow and not fall through, and also not to slide on the ice.

Arctic hare fur is fluffy and very warm, so they do not freeze in the cold. The color is completely white, only the tips of the ears and the nose remain black, so the hares are invisible among the polar snows.

Both by their morphology and behavior, arctic white hawks are perfectly adapted to the arctic climate.

They have longer incisors than ordinary hares and are well suited for cracking icy plants. Arctic whites are active all year round, they do not hibernate.

Polar bear

Polar bears are just those animals that many people associate with the Arctic. These large predators have an impressive store of fatty deposits that they accumulate in the spring and summer, thanks to which they survive the winter starvation months.

Wool is devoid of pigment coloring, translucent hairs allow only ultraviolet light to pass, improving thermal insulation properties. The hairs are hollow inside, so the coat is very warm.

The soles of the polar bears' feet are also lined with wool, so they do not freeze or slide on the ice.

Between the fingers there is a swimming membrane, so that polar bears can hunt for prey in the water.

Polar bears make seasonal migrations. In the summer, they retreat closer to the pole, and in winter they move further south, climbing to the mainland.

In winter, polar bears can lie in a den. Mainly pregnant females hibernate, and it lasts 50-80 days, and males and young females hibernate every year, besides its duration is less significant.

Gray wolf

Gray wolves are the progenitors of sled dogs, with the help of which people walked through the snow. Gray wolves are larger than their southern relatives.

The fur of gray wolves is thick, fluffy, it consists of two layers. One coat consists of undercoat, including waterproof down, which warms the body. And the second one consists of guard hairs that repel dirt and water.

The low thermal conductivity of fur helps gray wolves to survive in harsh winter conditions.

During the period of starvation, gray wolves can switch to frogs and even large insects, and in winter a large percentage of the diet consists of vegetable foods - wild berries and mushrooms.

Ermines live in the tundra of Europe and North America. They have a protective coat color: in winter it becomes completely white, while the tip of the tail remains black. These animals are solitary, they climb and swim perfectly.

The ermine swims well and climbs, but essentially it is a specialized land predator.

Musk oxen live in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Siberia, Norway and Sweden. They have an incredibly long wool, so they are not afraid of life in the north, they can endure even the most severe frosts. Wool hangs down to the ground, covering the legs. It consists of two types of hairs: the outer long and coarse, and inside is a soft and thick undercoat. The undercoat is called giviot, it is 8 times warmer than sheep's wool.

Musk oxen have long and thick wool that hangs almost to the ground and protects from the fierce arctic cold.

White or polar owl

These birds are spread throughout the tundra. The color of the polar owls is white, camouflage with a large number of black patches. Thanks to this color, white owls are well camouflaged in the snow.

In winter, polar owls fly to the forest-tundra and steppe zones. Also in winter, they can fly into settlements. But some individuals remain in nesting places in winter, sticking to areas with small amounts of snow and ice.

Grasshoppers and mosquitoes

Grasshoppers inhabit almost the entire globe, tundra is no exception. On the territory of the tundra there are 12 species of mosquitoes that are active in the summer.

It is not surprising that mosquitoes in the tundra also exist, and they are much fiercer than those who live in warmer regions of the country.

Tundra wildlife protection

The plants and animals of the tundra are very vulnerable, they must be carefully treated, since it will take years for the biotope to be restored in harsh conditions.

The animal and plant world of the tundra needs protection.

Today, the Red Book contains a large number of animals whose home is the tundra: the Chukchi ram, the white-footed loon, the white goose, the Chukchi polar bear, the red-breasted and white-faced brant, the white goose, the white crane, the pink gull, the small and American swan.

For the protection of animals in the tundra, Arctic reserves were made: Lapland, Kandalaksha, Taimyr and others.

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Reindeer

This enduring animal can be called one of the main inhabitants of the tundra. Without it, it would be very difficult for the local population. Reindeer belongs to the artiodactyl mammals.

From the appearance of the animal, one should distinguish his elongated body and neck and short legs disproportionate to such a constitution. Such a structure makes the animal not ugly, but rather peculiar. They are large and a bit smaller. The first live in the Far North. The second can be seen in taiga Siberia. Their distinctive feature is the horns, which are inherent in both the deer male and the female. This nomadic animal migrates throughout the tundra, depending on weather conditions and season.

Many of them have become pets and are a valuable craft for the local population. Deer have enemies in the face of the wolf, wolverine, arctic foxes and bears. The deer live about 28 years.

Belukha - an animal with a very memorable appearance. It has an almost white skin without any patterns. Only young individuals, newly born into the world, have dark-blue skin, which eventually brightens to gray, and then to white. They grow up to 6 meters in length and reach a weight of 2 tons.

These animals are "companionable", gathering in flocks of up to thousands of individuals during the feeding period. By talking to each other with a multitude of sounds and even using facial expressions, belugas confirm the status of a very quick-witted animal. They are easily trained and widely represented in dolphinariums around the world.

Belugas are born off the coast, and spend most of their lives at their place of birth. Observing the movements of tagged individuals, the scientists determined that the white whale remembers the place of its birth, periodically returning there. On the shore, beluga whales ride on pebbles to exfoliate dead skin. The width of the skin reaches 20 cm and does not stretch as it grows, so the animal needs to get rid of its upper layers.

In the summer, they stay in shallow water because of the abundance of food and warm water, and in winter they go north to drift ice. Wintering takes place at the edge of the ice cover, although animals can swim several kilometers beneath the ice, breathing through the ice-holes. To prevent these areas of open water from freezing, beluga whales break through a crust of ice, which can reach 10 cm.

But still, the risk of suffocating or not finding time for a wormwood is present, and for some belugas the wintering ends tragically. Also in winter, belugas are of great interest to polar bears, which jam animals through thin ice. Beluga contains a lot of fat and for bears such prey is an exceptional success.

The fox resembles a fox, only it has small round ears, a short nose, and it is also smaller. In winter, the animal is dressed in a bright white fur coat, only curious eyes and the tip of the nose with dark spots stand out on the white face. The winter fur of the arctic fox is long, fluffy, thick. Even the soles of his paws are covered with wool. And in the summer it is grayish-brown, shabby and thin. At this time, he raises offspring and is constantly looking for food. In the summer, the arctic fox hunts on land, but in the winter, the ice can leave the coast hundreds of kilometers deep into the ocean.

The animal eats everything that manages to get. He picks up the remains of food for a polar bear, steals eggs from birds - behind them he climbs rocks, eats berries, plants and even algae. Emptying the supplies of polar explorers, if he can get to them. But his main food is lemmings. When there are a lot of them in foxes, up to twenty puppies are born in burrows, which they dig themselves. Under the ground, they have digged entire labyrinths of tunnels with nesting chambers and many exits. Puppies, when they grow up a little, crawl out of the hole for food, which parents bring to them, and after six months they catch up with their weight and begin to live on their own.

polar Wolf

This white handsome man is no different from his fellows in his appearance, except for the light colored coat with light additions of red. In addition, the polar wolf has a bushy tail that resembles a fox.

With the help of this color wolf is masked in the snow and can be close to its victims. This wolf has a rather impressive size, with females usually smaller than males.

The polar wolf has 42 powerful teeth, which inspire fear even to the most courageous hunter. With these teeth, an animal can easily crush even the largest bones. As the others tundra animals, the polar wolf has learned to survive in such difficult conditions.

The saying that wolf legs are fed is appropriate in this case. Having strong legs, the animal can overcome rather big distances in search of food or chasing its prey. Wolves are picky about food. Moreover, they can do without it for about 14 days. This schooling animal is still a thunderstorm of all the inhabitants of the tundra. Lives short, no more than 7 years.

In the waters of the Arctic Ocean lives the largest pinnacle mammal - the walrus leading the herd way of life off the coast of Franz Josef Land, Novaya Zemlya, in the Laptev Sea, Chukchi and Bering seas. Despite its clumsy appearance, it cleverly and quickly swims in coastal waters and moves over land.

The length of the giant's giant body can reach 5 m, and the mass - 2 tons. The most characteristic feature of the walrus are long powerful canines, weighing 2-4 kg each, representing a formidable weapon in a fight with a polar bear. This five-meter sea animal usually attacks a bear from below, plunging fangs into it at all their length.

The walrus is not afraid of icy water and cold arctic climate. His body, which has a thick fat layer and thick skin (3-5 cm), is well protected from hypothermia, which allows him to sleep not only on the icy coast, but also in the sea. The air-breathing hypodermic sac, which is connected to the pharynx, helps him stay on the water during sleep. The walrus sees poorly, but it has a good sense of smell, thanks to which it feels the approach of danger. In the event of an alarm, the whole herd rises from its place and rushes into the water in a panic. The crush often kills several individuals, whose carcasses become food for polar bears.

Walrus skin is covered with sparse, hard hair. On the upper lip in several rows are moving thick vibrissae, equipped with a large number of nerve endings. Vibrissae are organs of touch, with the help of which the walrus probes food on the seabed, catching various mollusks, crustaceans, worms, less often small fish. The bodies of swimming and diving in walrus are flippers, while the rear flippers can tuck under the body, which allows the animal to push off from the surface of the ice.

Walruses start breeding at the age of five and only once every 3 to 4 years. The female gives birth to one cub and gently takes care of it for about a year, until the walrus has fangs.

Excessive fishing on these animals led to a reduction in their numbers, and in some places even to complete extinction. Therefore, walruses are listed in the "Red Book of Russia" as rare, endangered animals.

Light colored birds with reddish-brown backs, the size of a sparrow. Where there are people, there you will meet these funny, friendly pichugs - sometimes even at the North Pole, at the dwellings of polar explorers! "Tewey, Tewey" - spread their silver trills over the tundra. And residents are happy: "Spring is coming!".

In the meantime, the snow is lying, the little birds cleverly run from plant to plant, pecking up the seeds. In the summer, when the tundra turns green and hordes of insects appear, birds switch to animal feed. Chicks are also fed by insects.

In Punochek thick warm fluff under smooth feathers - they and uneasy cold. But in the winter, they still fly south to where there is more food. Flying over Central Russia, the little buds descend to the fields in order to fortify themselves with the seeds of plants. And after them the winter quietly sneaks up here ...

Tundra wolf

In the northern expanses of the Arctic and tundra many animals live. Here live various types of mammals: from small rodents to large bears.

There are also predators. На вершине пищевой цепи находится волк. В тундрах обитает подвид волка – тундровый.

Тундровый волк является один из крупных подвидов в семействе волков. Взрослая особь может достигать веса до полусотни килограмм. Длина тела составляет до 140см, самки чуть меньше. Окраска шерсти меняется в зависимости от сезона и возраста животного. In winter, it is almost white, with small dark spots on the face or back. Old wolves get a reddish shade of wool, it persists in the winter.

Winter skin more dense and thick. In any season it is very long and soft. Under the influence of the sun by the end of winter, the wolf's skin fades and becomes almost white.

The tundra wolf can sleep on the cold stones, buried in the snow. They do not dig burrows, they can only settle in the already created minks of other animals. Tundra wolves live in packs of up to 20 adults. Most often in the pack live the descendants of the leaders: alpha male and alpha females. Sometimes they can take solitary wolves into their pack. The rigid hierarchy determines the position of the wolf and its "duties". Young wolves under 2 years old enjoy great standing and respect in the pack.

In the alpha male in large flocks there are "alternates". Usually 3-4 large adult wolves. They help keep order and quell riots. In the hunt, each wolf also has its own task: some are being hunted down, others are driving their prey, only a leader can kill a large animal. Wolves make their way through the snow in a chain, leaving a trace only from the leader, the rest should step on the track, not giving out the number of the pack. Wolves form a married couple for life with one wolf. Only the leader and his alpha female can have offspring. If other couples want to have offspring, then they must leave the pack and create their own family. In the spring for several weeks, the alpha male and female leave the pack and spend time together to make a new offspring.

Tundra wolves inhabit most of the territory of the tundra part of Russia from the Kola Peninsula to Kamchatka. Prefer tundra fields, can occur in the taiga and on the coasts of the northern seas. Can also be found in Scandinavia.

Gaga-comb

The male of this marine duck has a bright, comb-like growth on the forehead, which has attracted the attention of females from a distance. The female is painted modestly, because it is she who will have to hatch chicks, and she should not attract attention.

Combs make nests on elevated places in the tundra, lining them with their down. Down they lay eggs when occasionally go to feed. The eider has a light, warm fluff, she plucks it from her abdomen. The male leaves the duck as soon as she sits on the eggs. A comb hatching ducklings and with them goes to the tundra lakes, there is safer for them and more food. And when the chicks mature, everyone moves to the open sea.

Diving, eider rowing and paws and wings. They collect crustaceans and mollusks from the bottom of the sea, swallowing them together with shells. They eat bottom insects, sometimes fish. In the spring - crowns and blueberries left over from winter. Birds winter in the open sea, among polynyas. They live eider comb only in Russia.

The Baikal seal is a representative of the family of seals, which is the only mammal in the world that lives on Lake Baikal. She also feels rather well in freshwater, unlike her relatives. As an individual got into the lake, no one can answer for sure; there is only an assumption. They may have come here from the Arctic during the last ice age, when the rivers of Baikal were connected to the Arctic Ocean.

Body length 120 - 130 cm, weight about 80 kg. From birth, the animal grows to 18 years. She has a gray color streamlined body, belly a little lighter. The fur is short, thick and very warm.

Strong short legs in the form of flippers, small head, short tail. On the front legs there are strong claws, on the back they are smaller and thinner. For swimming, it uses flippers of the hind limbs, the front ones play a minor role, such as turning or braking. On land it moves with difficulty and awkwardly, but it floats well. The seal has no outer ear. It dives to a depth of 400 meters, under water is easily 30 minutes, while the nostrils and the internal hearing aid are closed by a special membrane. Sight, hearing and smell are well developed.

Whiskers (vibrissae) help with the hunt, they, like the nose, pick up water fluctuations and changes in the chemical composition of water. Leads mostly aquatic lifestyle.

On land, they choose to relax, bask in the sun and most importantly give life to the young. She has a rather thick layer of fat accumulation of 12 cm. In winter, animals do not come out of the water, they make holes in thin ice through which they breathe. It feeds on fish.

The pregnancy of the female will last 11 months. In March, in snow holes one is born, rarely two babies, which are pure white. The weight of one cub is about 4 kg. With mom, he will stay in the den for about 2 months, until the snow shelter collapses. The cub all this time eats fat nutritious milk and quickly gains weight.

Arctic white hare

This polar hare is considered the largest among its brethren. There are some other differences between the hares. The length of the ears of the Arctic is much shorter than all the others, it helps his body to keep warm.

Their front paws are equipped with sharp and curved claws, with which they dig up the snow. Under the snow, the animal finds food, even if it is deep enough due to its excellent sense of smell. The main enemies of the animal are ermines, wolves, arctic foxes, lynxes, white owls. They live Arctic hare no more than 5 years.

Whitefish is a fish belonging to the salmon family. Valuable commercial fish. There are more than 40 species of this family, but to distinguish them is quite problematic. After all, it lives in rivers, lakes of America and Europe, as well as northern Asia, where there are completely different conditions of existence. Scientists distinguish whitefish by the conditions of life, places and terms of spawning of fish, by taste
The body is covered with medium-sized scales and compressed in the sides. The mouth is very small, and there are no teeth in the upper jaw. In other parts they disappear quickly, they are always very poorly developed.

It requires pure and oxygen-filled water with a temperature of 15 degrees C. Oxygen should be at least 8 mg / l. It feeds on plankton, and large whitefish feed on fry and small fish. The mass of the annual fish reaches 100 grams, and the body length is up to 30 cm. The mature fish is considered to be 3 years old.

The skua lives in the arctic and antarctic tundra. Here the bird nests in the warm season. In winter, the flocks of skuas move closer to the sea coast. Representatives of some species of skua wait out the winter even within the Southern Tropic.

The skua looks like a gull, but differs from it in larger sizes. In addition, skuas have darker plumage and a large skin-covered beak. The length of the body of the skua is about 55 cm, and the wingspan reaches 135 cm. Due to the powerful wings, the skua shows miracles of agility during the flight, attacking the victim in the air until it takes away its prey.

Skuas are often compared to pirates. They also appropriate someone else’s food, as well as sea robbers. Such behavior of skuas is due to the fact that these birds do not know how to fish on their own, so they take the catch from other birds. These birds bandits attack birds not only in the air, but also on land. They often ruin bird nests. In starvation time, they even eat their own laying.

Skuas feed not only on bird eggs and fish, although it is precisely this food that feathered robbers prefer. While wandering throughout the open sea, skuas eat any seafood indiscriminately. In the course are crustaceans, clams, worms and even the meat of dead marine animals. In pursuit of other birds, they force them to burp out their prey and take it away. Do not give up on berries growing in the tundra, as well as from human food garbage. There are cases when south polar skuas have become so accustomed to feeding on food waste that they took them from the hands of polar explorers who keep watch at the Antarctic stations.

This name does not quite correspond to this animal. Weasel is a small but predator, distinguished by its dexterity and ferocity. Wool animal brown-red shades.

In winter, weasel dresses in a snow-white fur coat with a long nap. On strong short legs of an animal, sharp claws can be seen, with the help of which an animal moves around trees without problems and breaks the holes of mice. For movement weasel uses jumps. She looks around at the terrain, climbing two hind legs.

For petting, it is important that there is plenty of food around her. She will not live in a place where there is no one to hunt. It has a good appetite and in a matter of days it can massively destroy a whole population of rodents.

In winter, the animal moves in the snow tunnels. And in the case of large frosts, it may not appear on the surface for a long time. Weasel should not be faced with wolves, foxes, badgers, martens and birds of prey. Lives animal about 8 years.

White partridge

In winter, this bird wears plumage the color of snow. Even her paws are covered with feathers - as if in white down valenochkah - and do not freeze, and do not fall into the snow. In the winter, strong strong claws grow on the fingers, snow rakes the partridge with them, searches for food: buds of dwarf birch and willow. She sleeps in the snow. It dug in so that only the head sticks out. When there is not enough feed, partridges gather in huge flocks and move to the forest tundra. And so that in flight they would not lose each other, their undertails are decorated with coal-black feathers. A bird is flying, in front is a black beacon.

With the arrival of spring, birds arrange nests on dry hummocks. The female sits on eggs, and the male protects its nesting site. By the summer, birds from Snow White turn into piedles - they change the winter plumage for summer, easier and darker. Yes, and chickens they are colorful, nimble. In the colorful swamp mosses they are difficult to notice. The kids catch insects, and parents eat seeds, berries, grass shoots and vigilantly guard their offspring. Nestlings grow quickly, in two months young partridges in size already catch up with their parents.

Northern Fur Seal

The lifestyle of males and females of northern fur seals is very different. Adult males never move far from the islands in the Bering Sea region, where their rookeries are located. Females travel annually to travel around the ocean and fish. Some females even reach the shores of California. Northern fur seals are much more mobile on the ground than seals, because they can bend their hind limbs under the body.
In the water, they also move differently than seals: the northern fur seals row in circular movements of the front flippers, while the rear seals mainly perform the function of the rudder. It is known that the hearing, taste and vision of the northern fur seals are very well developed, but so far they have not managed to figure out how they are oriented under water.

Northern fur seals spend most of their lives feeding on the fish-rich northern waters of the Pacific Ocean. Fish is the basis of their menu. In addition, northern fur seals prey on cephalopods and crustaceans. Like other pinnipeds, they find food with the help of vibrissae, which quiver as the prey approaches, from which waves pass in the water. Shivering is transmitted by a nerve ending. During the mating period, females regularly leave their young alone, leaving for sea to be fed, being absent for 7-8 days. Often they are removed to a distance of 160 km from the coast. Seals swim, rest and sleep in water until they get to the places rich in fish. There they hunt.

The first in the area of ​​rookery appear bills. They fight among themselves for the best sites. Uterus appear on rookeries in the middle of May and early June. They go ashore, where they are expected by cleavers, who are trying to capture and drive more females into their harem. Harem females are jealously guarded by shackers. During the first 1-4 days after the appearance on the rookery, females give birth to young. The baby weighs about 2 kg, its length is 50 cm.

Salmon is the most famous type of salmon. This large beautiful fish reaches one and a half meters in length and 39 kg of weight. The body of salmon is covered with fine silver scales, there are no spots below the lateral line. Salmon in the sea feeds on small fish and crustaceans, and entering the river for spawning, it stops feeding and loses weight. Marital attire is reflected in the darkening of the body and the appearance of red and orange spots on the sides of the body and head. In males, the jaws elongate and bend, and a hook-shaped protrusion forms on the upper jaw, which enters the recess in the lower jaw. Salmon feeding grounds are the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean.

From here it enters the river of Europe for spawning, from Portugal in the south to the White Sea and the r. Cary in the north. Along the American coast, salmon is spread from the Connecticut River in the south to Greenland in the north. In the Pacific there are several species of the genus Salmo, but they are few in comparison with Pacific salmon of the genus Oncorhynchus. Earlier, salmon was extremely numerous in all rivers of Europe, where there were suitable breeding grounds. Walter Scott mentions the times when the Scottish farm laborers, hiring for work, made it a condition that they should not be fed too often with salmon. Hydro-construction, river pollution with household and industrial waste and mainly over-fishing have led to the fact that this condition is easy to satisfy in our time. The number of salmon has now dramatically decreased, and artificial breeding in special fish farms is widely used to maintain the herd. The course of salmon in the river is quite complicated. In our rivers, which flow into the Barents and White Seas, from August to the freezing, there is a large autumn salmon. Her sex products are very poorly developed. The course is interrupted with the onset of winter.

polar bear

This animal is considered the largest among its fellows. His body is clumsy and angular. In all seasons, the animal has the same white-brown color. The skin consists of wool and undercoat, which saves bears from severe frosts, and also makes it possible to be in ice water for a long time.

This only initially may seem that the polar bear is clumsy and clumsy. But understanding comes when you see how cleverly this giant is swimming and diving.

Overcoming huge distances in search of food, the bear cleverly hunts. It is very dangerous for humans. Meeting with a polar bear promises big trouble.

Such an enmity in an animal probably comes from its subconscious. After all, people are the cause of a large drop in the number of bears due to poaching shots. Among the other inhabitants of the tundra, the bear has no enemies. Life expectancy of an animal in nature reaches up to 30 years. In captivity, it can increase to 15 years.

The ermine is a close relative of the marten, so it has many similarities with this animal: a long thin body, short limbs, equipped with tenacious sharp claws, a pointed muzzle, sharp teeth and rounded ears. The paws of the animal have membranes that facilitate the movement of ermine in the snow.

The animal is small and weighs between 80 - 270 grams. The length of its body reaches up to 38 cm, including a third of the length of the body is the tail.

A wonderful snow-white ermine has a winter season, and in summer the animal acquires a reddish color on the back and a yellowish color on the abdomen. But the tip of the tail always remains black.

The favorite habitats of the ermine are the polar and temperate latitudes of the northern hemisphere. Practically in all European countries this animal is found. It is not only in the Mediterranean countries. Among Asian countries, ermine is found in Afghanistan, Iran, northern Japan, China and Mongolia. In the Americas, this animal lives in Canada and on the island of Greenland.

His ermine helps his ermine to hunt: smell and sight. It is mainly the ermine female that pulls the prey from the burrow, since it is much smaller than its size and easily penetrates the rodent's burrow.

Ermine - polygamous animals and all responsibility for carrying and raising children lies on the female. After the mating games, pregnancy begins, but the ermine, like many other mustels, has the germ until the spring in a conserved state, and later its development begins. The female ermine gives birth to 3 to 17 young, completely helpless, which she feeds about 2 months. Already at the age of 3-4 months, the young are able to independently produce their own food. Despite the high fecundity, the ermine is listed in the Red Book. This animal has always been the object of hunting because of its regal fur.

Tundra swan

In size is the smallest among the waterfowl relatives. They feed on algae, fish and riparian vegetation. Grace, elegance of birds have become symbols of beauty.

Created pairs of swans are inseparable for life. Large nests are built on high ground and are lined with feathers and feathers of other birds. Chicks are not left alone and protected by strong wings and beaks.

The young grow stronger in 40 days. A short summer hastens the birds. The Little Tundra Swan is listed. Animals of the Red Book of Tundra. Bird shooting is prohibited.

Snow sheep

The bighorn sheep (rattle) is a hoofed ruminant that belongs to the family of bovids. The weight of an adult male can reach 150 kg. Снежный баран обитает в горной местности Сибири, Сахалина и Камчатки. Численность вида в 2017 году составляет чуть больше 100 тысяч особей по всему земному шару. Подробное описание поможет вам составить более точную картину.

Снежный баран, или толсторог, обладает крупным сбитым телосложением. В силу того что территория обитания животных – по большей части высокогорные хребты, их строение больше схоже с экстерьером горных козлов нежели с ближайшими родственниками. Шейный отдел укорочен, поясница длинная и широкая. The changes also affected the distal legs: they also became shorter.

In the warm season, the body of the Bighorn sheep is covered by a short fur. In the fall, the process of changing the coat begins, but outwardly it practically does not manifest itself. Already in September, an active growth of the spinous undercoat occurs. Fluffy hairs and guard roots have a lighter color, so by the onset of cold weather there is a change in shade of wool due to breaking off the upper part of guard hairs. In the summer, when there is enough grass under the meadows, the weight of the sheep is significantly higher than in winter.

The bighorn sheep reaches sexual maturity by 2 years. The birth of young animals falls on a warm season. Lambs develop quickly and adapt to grassland feeding. Already at the age of 1 month, most of the livestock refuses milk and completely switches to adult feed. Fertility is low: the female for 1 time leads mainly one lamb.

The structure of the digestive tract in the Bighorn sheep is the same as that of domesticated representatives. The length of the intestine is 30 times the length of the body, so pets can eat a sufficiently large amount of feed. A powerful chewing apparatus allows sheep to eat not only juicy greens, but also thorns, as well as all sorts of spikelets, gently separating the branches even close to the ground with their teeth.

The musk ox is a unique animal, unique in its form, preserved from the times of the Ice Age. Its name determined the similarity with the bull and the ram. Scientists have proved that the musk ox is an intermediate link between them, although it is much closer to sheep in its genotype.

The musk ox received its second name because of the characteristic smell emitted by the infraorbital or orbital glands. The musk ox lives in the dry, harsh Arctic belt of Canada, Greenland, as well as Norway, Russia and Alaska, where they were brought by humans to restore livestock.

The body of musk ox strong, squat. Powerful head firmly planted on a thick neck. The ears are pointed, the eye sockets look to the sides, the eyes are dark brown. Horns converge on the forehead with a powerful base and are designed to protect against enemies and battles during the rut. The horns grow to six years old, bending down, first down and forward, and then up and out. The limbs are short with two main hooves, small lateral hooves and wide heels. This structure allows you to move well on slippery crust. The long and very warm wool consists of down, intermediate, guard and guide hair.

The musk oxen feed on grasses, sedge, and willow. They are able to extract dry plants from the snow with their front hooves.

The main natural enemies of the musk oxen are polar bears, wolverines and wolves, as well as the man, because of whose activities they were partially exterminated and listed in the Red Book. Today, the livestock of musk oxen is restored by reintroduction and is constantly monitored.

White Crane (white crane)

The White Crane - Siberian Crane is the rarest species of cranes, which is endemic to the northern regions of Russia. Slender bird, covered with white plumage, with high and stable legs. Nest in the Tyumen region, and for the most part in Yakutia. Winters in India and China.

The total weight of 5-9 kg, wings in a span of 230 cm, the height of the bird reaches 140 cm. It has a long body, a thin elongated neck and a small head. The tips of the wings are decorated with black wing feathers, noticeable during the flight. It has an oblong red beak. There are four fingers on each leg. Only the middle and outer fingers are connected by membranes.

The existence of the white crane is endangered. To improve the population of Siberian Cranes, the International Union for Conservation of Nature listed them in the Red List. They are also in the Russian Red Book. The total number of individuals in the wild nature of Yakutia is somewhere around 2900–3000. The depressing position of the West Siberian Siberian Cranes - there are only about 20 individuals in nature.

Excessive intelligibility in the environment, makes it difficult to save Siberian Cranes. The bird avoids the presence of people, leaving the nest when a person approaches. In food, Siberian Cranes are not picky. The spring and summer diet consists of small rodents, eggs and chicks of other birds, fish, insects, cranberries, sedges and cotton grass (underwater). During the winter migration they feed on plant food.

Lemmings are small mouse-like rodents, famous for their unprecedented fecundity and amazing migrations. Lemmings belong to the family of hamsters and are systematically close to voles and hamsters, but with mice they have a more distant relationship. In total, 4-8 species of these rodents are distinguished.

Lemmings are small animals, but still noticeably larger than mice, their body length is 12-18 cm, the tail is short - only 1-2 cm. They very much resemble well-known hamsters with their build: small beady eyes, short sensitive vibrissae ("whiskers" ) and the same short legs. In hoofed lemmings, claws on paws expand and become wide by winter, besides, they are also bifurcated at the ends - hence the name “ungulate”. Lemming hair is short, their fur has no value. Coloring in different species varies from gray to brown.

Lemmings live exclusively in the cold latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The hoofed lemming is circumpolarly distributed, that is, its range covers the north pole with a ring, the other species occupy separate areas of the tundra. For example, the Norwegian lemming is found only on the Scandinavian and Kola Peninsula, the Siberian dwells in the tundra from the Northern Dvina to Eastern Siberia, the Amur lemming is found exclusively in Eastern Siberia, and the brown one only in Alaska and northern Canada. Like all rodents, the lemmings live alone, meeting each other only for mating, which, however, happens often. They are active almost around the clock.

Most of the time, lemmings live sedentary, occupying certain parts of the tundra. Each animal in its plot digs a hole in the upper layer of soil thawed from the permafrost, sometimes the lemmings make half-open nests of branches and moss in deepening the soil. From the hole in all directions, tiny paths, trodden by the animal, diverge. Lemmings prefer to move along such paths and completely eat away the greenery around them, in the winter they also follow these summer paths, breaking through the paths under the snow. In the winter, lemmings do not hibernate.

American ground squirrel

The American ground squirrel is a species of small rodent from the squirrel family. It is found in the tundra and is the prey of foxes, wolverines, lynxes, bears, and eagles. In the summer it feeds on tundra plants, seeds and fruits to increase fat before hibernation. By the end of the summer, male gophers begin to store food in their burrows, so that in the spring there is something to eat until new vegetation grows. Burrows cover with lichens, leaves and wool of musk oxen.

During hibernation, the gopher's brain temperature drops almost to the freezing point, the body temperature reaches -2.9 ° C, and the heart rate decreases to

1 beats per minute. The temperature of the colon and blood becomes minus. Hibernation in adult males lasts from late September to early April, and in females from early August to late April. Body temperature decreases from 37 ° C to –3 ° C. The coat color varies with the season. The fur is soft and velvety, and protects the animal from cold winds. Its homeland is the North American arctic tundra, and the main habitats are located on the slopes of mountains, lowlands of rivers, lakeshores and mountain ranges. Gophers prefer sandy soil because of easy digging and good drainage.

Flipper

Flat-nosed little beetle - a bird from the genus flat-nosed little beetles of the family of snipe. Distributed in the arctic regions of Eurasia and North America. It is a migratory bird, which is unusual for waders, it migrates mainly along oceanic routes, winters in tropical seas. Come back from the end of May to the second half of June.

The flat-toed fin is about 21 cm in length, with lobed fingers and a straight beak, which is somewhat thicker than that of a round-headed finch. The mass of the male is 42–51 g, the females are 57–60 g. The wings are 12–14 cm long. The females during the breeding season have a black color on the upper body and a red color on the bottom, with a white spot on the cheek. The beak is yellow, with a black tip. Young individuals are light gray or brown from the upper part, the lower part of the body is the color of buffalo skin, there are dark spots on the eyes. In winter, the plumage is gray-white.

Females are larger in size than males. They chase males, compete for breeding grounds, and actively protect their nests. The nest is located near the water. The female lays from three to six olive-black eggs and migrates to the south, after which the male begins to incubate the eggs. Nestlings, as a rule, are able to feed themselves, and they can fly already by 18 days of life.

During feeding, flat-nosed swimmers often swim in a small, fast circle, forming a weak whirlpool. Sometimes they fly in the air, catching insects. In the open ocean, feeding near whale populations. Outside the nesting season often travel in flocks. Flat-flippers often can be tame and easily accustomed to humans.

Kamenushka is a species of duck family. From other ducks, they are distinguished by the color of their plumage: dark drake with rusty-red sides, white lunate spot in front of the eye, white collar, white spots and stripes on the sides of the head and on the body. His head and neck are black and dull. The female is also dark, with three white spots on the head.

Kamenushka is widespread in northeastern Siberia, the Far East, Northwest America, Greenland, and Iceland. Inhabits the highlands, mainly the river of the glacial zone. On the most part of the range - migratory bird. It winters at the Pacific and Atlantic coasts located to the south of the nesting sites. In winter, it keeps to the sea by rocky shores.

Kamenushka is an animal-eating duck, feeding on insects, crustaceans, mollusks and other animals, for which, as a rule, dives. Keeping high in the water, raising its tail, flies faster and easier than most diving ducks. The voice of a drake during the mating season is a loud double-syllable that is difficult to convey and even harder to describe. In a flock of birds they talk in quiet quacks, similar to the voice of a mallard.

Due to the small size of the stone does not have any significant commercial value, with the exception of some wintering areas. The indigenous peoples of Siberia do not touch this beautiful duck at all, since many of them have a belief that kamenushki are the souls of drowned children.

Falcon Peregrine Falcon

Falcon Peregrine Falcon is widespread - it is found in almost every corner of our planet. Subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon inhabit Australia, North America, Europe and Asia, and Africa (except for the zone of tropical forests). The least rare in South America.

Peregrine Falcon belongs to the group of "real falcons". It is the second largest bird of the falcon family; only the gyrfum grows larger. Sapsan is endowed with a wide chest, dense plumage and a strong skeleton. His muscular system is well developed. The peregrine falcon has large, pointed wings, long fingers, a short tail and tails. The claws are strong and sharp, sickle-shaped.

The weight of an adult peregrine falcon varies from 700 to 1200 grams. The wingspan is 85-120 cm, the size of one wing is about 30-40 cm, the total body length can be from 40 to 50 cm. Males are about a third less females.

The color of the male and female is almost the same. The back of the predator is decorated with a cross-gray pattern on a gray-brown background of different shades, the loins and undertail are painted in lighter shades. Feathers of wings of dark brown (almost black) color. On the inner side of the wing you can see a red or brown pattern. The belly of young peregrines is red with brown longitudinal variegated stripes. Claws are black, paws are yellow. The beak is black at the tip and gradually brightens to the base.

Peregrine falcons are predominantly inhabitants of open spaces - they do not dwell in deep forests. Often nest near the forest, in the valley of the rivers, it is not rare that the bird is found in the cities. Nests are usually not built, occupying the dwellings of other birds. Nest mats are not used. Often, the peregrine falcon nests are located on tall trees or rocks, as well as on tall buildings, if the peregrine falcon lives in urban areas.

With the exception of the peregrine falcons inhabiting the warm southern lands, all other representatives of the species are nomads. With the onset of cold weather, they move further south. Only peregrine falcons living in the warm southern areas are sedentary.

Red-breasted Goose

Red-breasted goose belongs to the most unusual species of birds that have ever lived in our country. This is a Russian endemic, that is, this bird does not occur in any other country. It lives in Siberia, with more than 70 percent of all red-breasted geese concentrated on the Taimyr Peninsula. About the unusual and beauty of these birds from ancient times around the world are legends. Let us cite several cases of keen interest in the red-faced geese. In 1723, Peter I sent an expedition to Siberia and ordered that from there he brought as many animals and plants as he had never seen before.

Among the animals delivered to the tsar were “kozark - black wings, korishnevy goi”. These birds were known before (apparently, thanks to the explorers), then they were called the red goose. In the 1960s, India wanted to buy several red-breasted geese, offering two elephants instead.

A red-breasted goose is a small bird resembling a goose. Body length 55cm, weight up to 2kg, wingspan 130cm. Sharply distinguishes it from other birds beautiful plumage, so attracted kings, foreigners, and just wildlife lovers. The head, back and belly of this goose are black, with white stripes on the sides. The neck and chest (goiter) have a red-brown color, framed by a white stripe, on the cheeks there are the same red-brown spots, around which there is also a white stripe.

Undertail is white. The beak of a red-breasted geese is quite small, it is painted black. Like other geese, red-breasted geese go to warm lands for the winter. Previously, they wintered on the coast of the Caspian Sea, but today they fly only to the Black. They arrive in their native places not earlier than the second half of June, and fly away already in September, thus, “at home” they live no more than three months a year.

A red-breasted goose leads a daytime life, sometimes in the middle of the day the flock temporarily stops searching for food and goes on a watering place. These geese spend the night in water, although they can sometimes remain on land.

Eagles are birds of prey from the subfamily of buzzards of the family hawk. Eagle species are widespread on all continents except South America, but 2 species and 1 subspecies are listed in the International Red Book. Eagles prefer to dwell near the reservoirs. Unlike eagles, these birds have a naked ass.

Orlan is a massive, majestic bird. She has a body length from 70 to 110 cm, wingspan is 2-2.5 m, weight is in the range from 3 to 7 kg. The beak is large, hooked, the tail and wings are wide, the legs are strong, without plumage, with curved long claws. The pads on the paws are rough, which is necessary for the bird to keep slippery prey (especially fish). The plumage is mostly brown with white parts of the body. In some species, there is white plumage of the head, shoulders, tail, body. Yellow beak.

The basis of the eagle's diet is fish and waterfowl. Large fish weighing from 2 to 3 kg (salmon, pike, carp) usually become the prey of an eagle; from sea-water birds, the eagle hunts gulls, herons, geese, storks, ducks, flamingos. The eagle is looking out for its victims from tall trees or in flight around a pond.

Having spotted the prey, the predator approaches it very quickly: it thrusts its long claws right into the air in birds, and cleverly snatches the fish from the surface of the water, but never sinks under water. If there are many fish in a pond, then up to ten eagles can hunt at the same place. With such a joint hunt, birds often steal or take prey from each other.

Eagles are very widespread and are not found only in Antarctica and in South America. Birds of this species always keep close to water bodies: they do not fly off the coast of rivers, lakes, seas, inland. This is explained by the fact that the eagles produce their main food in the water or near it. The sea eagles are sedentary birds, but in cold winters, when the waters freeze, they migrate south.

Body length 50 - 95 cm, weight 1 - 2 kg. Wing length 34 - 42 cm, wingspan 120 - 135 cm. Females are larger than males. Plumage dense, pockmarked. Gray-brown color with white specks on the back, head and wings. The belly of a bird is white with a rare transverse dark pattern. Throat and cheeks white. There are white krechety with dark specks. The beak is short, curved down at the edge of the mandibular tooth. The eyes are large and dark, the vision is excellent. Legs are yellow, half-fledged, sharp bent claws on fingers. The tail is long, the wings are pointed.

They live in Europe and North America. Живут в тундре и в северной лесной зоне. Ведут как оседлый, так и перелетный образ жизни. Из северных районов птицы кочуют в лесотундру.

Образуют пары на всю жизнь. Охотятся в одиночку. Они питаются в основном птицами, их основная пища белые куропатки. В голодное время ловят грызунов. Охотится на птиц в полете, пикируя вниз на лету. Он хватает жертву сильными лапами, затем ударом клюва убивает её и поедает, устроившись на ветке или скалистом камне. In general, it is a silent bird, but in an alarming state it makes hoarse sounds “hhek”, “heekk”. Flies fast, often flapping its wings. Krechen strong and enduring, intelligent and cautious.

The nest does not twist, occupies strangers - ravens or other large birds, and has been using it for several years. If necessary, can repair the building. The bird lays the cup of the nest with moss or grass. And can arrange a nest on a rocky ledge. The mating season begins in April. Soon, the female will set aside 2-4 ocher in red-red egg spots. He incubates one for a month. The male provides her friend nutrition. Nestlings are born in white fluff, they will spend two months in the nest, during which time the down will be replaced by feathers. Parents feed the kids together, protect and educate. Then the chicks leave the nest and stand on the wing; they learn the skills of hunting mother and father. By September, the family will disintegrate, and the young birds begin an independent life.

Tundra Horned Lark

Its size is somewhat larger than the sparrow (body length up to 20 cm, wingspan up to 37 cm). Thanks to the original design and the black “horns” of feathers, the birds are well distinguished from all other representatives of songbirds. Sexual dimorphism is mild. The male is slightly brighter than the female, it has a monochromatic pinkish-red crown.

Nesting area is intermittent, occupying high latitudes and certain parts of the mountain ranges of Eurasia and North America

It inhabits mountainous and dry flat tundras and steppes, avoiding low and wet areas of tundras and steppes. For nesting birds choose moss-lichen or dryad-moss areas on the tops and slopes of tundra hills with clumps of grasses and spots of bare, clean, rocky soil. They arrive in mountain tundra with the appearance of the first protalines. The nest is located quite openly, usually next to a tuft of grass. The nest is built from grass, plant fluff, sometimes there is wool of rodents, deer, and extremely rarely - feathers. In clutch there are from 2 to 5 eggs of ocher-gray color, with small uneven specks of gray or brownish color. Both adult birds feed. After leaving the nest, some chicks are driven by a male, others by a female. Nestlings are fed by insects. In winter, they eat various seeds, picking them from grass sticking out of snow, from hay, picking them up on the roads. At the end of the summer, vyvodki roam, which gradually unite in autumn in large flocks. In the south of the nesting area, birds can winter.

Sperm whale is the largest representative of toothed whales: the body length of males reaches 20 meters with a weight of about 60 tons, females - 13 meters and weight of 30 tons. The origin of the species name is probably associated with the Portuguese word cachola, which means “big head”. It is difficult to argue with this fact, because the square head of the sperm whale is about a third of the length of the whale's body. The square shape of the head is given by a spermaceti pillow, which can weigh up to 6 tons. There is still no consensus about its purpose: someone claims that the pillow is used for echolocation, others that it plays the role of a swimming bladder.
The lower jaw of the sperm whale is much narrower and shorter than the muzzle, but it can open up to 90 *, and is covered with at least two dozen pairs of conical teeth. There are practically no teeth on the upper jaw.

The upper part of the body and the side of the whale are covered with wrinkled skin, the color of which varies from grayish-brown to black-brown (in the video below it is clearly visible). The dorsal fin is weakly developed, and is more like a hump, the tail is large, the pectoral fins of a rounded shape are wide and short.

This whale belongs to the few animal species that can be found almost anywhere in the oceans, almost as much as the blue whale. This is largely due to what sperm whales feed on, since its main prey - squid and octopus - are found almost everywhere. Also occasionally stingrays, small sharks, cod, pollock, and some other sea fishes get into the sperm whale's menu.

For prey sperm whale can dive to a depth of 3 km, which is a record for mammals, and can stay at a depth of up to 2 hours. It is here that he encounters giant octopuses up to 10 meters long, after contact with which large scars remain on the body of the whale.

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