Sheep tolerate a little cold and bad weather, and from spring to autumn may well be kept in an open pen, from which they will not run away due to the herd instinct. However, by the onset of cold weather, a sheep shed should be built and equipped, so that the animals feel comfortable all year round, and they multiply better. What are the requirements for the arrangement of koshara and how to build it with your own hands?
General room requirements
The main thing to ensure in the sheepfold is the constancy of temperature and the absence of drafts. Animals feel most comfortable at a temperature of + 6 ... + 9 ° C, in winter it should not rise above + 12 ° C. In order not to see through the wall, the walls should be reliably insulated or at least plugged in all the gaps, in regions with mild and relatively warm winters it is not necessary to use thermal insulation. If winters are harsh, heating equipment may also be required.
Sheepfold for Sheep
You can make a large room for keeping the sheep as warm as possible by raising the floor above the ground - an air cushion will noticeably reduce heat loss. This is especially important in the part of the building intended for lambs - it should be best protected from the cold. The easiest way to accomplish this is if a kosara for sheep is built on a pile foundation - the floor will then be on logs.
In addition to lambs, special temperatures are required:
- Castrated sheep, more cold-loving,
- Young, not giving birth to females - also live in cooler conditions,
- Pregnant sheep require more heat, up to + 18 ° C.
In addition to the cold, the shed should be protected from moisture. For this you need high-quality roofing and tightly locked windows and doors without gaps. In order for the air in the room not to be excessively humid or dry, the catarr needs to be regularly aired; in a large barn it may be necessary to organize the supply and exhaust ventilation.
The organization of the hood in Kashar
The area should be sufficient to ensure that there are enough separate compartments for each animal - the sheep should feel roomy, their tightness affects their health and reduces the productivity of their breeding. The height of the ceilings should allow it to stand up to its full height, otherwise it will be inconvenient to tidy up the scoop.
Feeders, drinkers, stalls and nurseries in the sheepfold
Settle sheep for sheep, starting with the stalls. The room is divided into compartments with the help of boards made of chipboard, OSB, MDF or other similar material. The height of the fence - about 70 cm. You can also use group content, dividing the barn into large compartments, in any case, for each animal should fall (taking into account the space for equipment installation):
- 1–1.5 m2 - for females giving offspring in the spring,
- 2–2.5 m2 - for females with winter offspring,
- 3 m2 - for rams and sheep with lambs,
- 0.7–0.8 m2 - for lambs up to 1 year.
Next to the stalls, a long sheep feeder is installed, from which several animals can be eaten at once, each animal should be 35 cm long. The side of the feeder, facing the stalls, is covered with a grate with such a step between the rods, so that the sheep could stick their head, but did not crawl entirely - this will protect the hay from trampling. You can make a sheep feeder with your own hands and completely out of the gratings: take 4 bars 130 cm long each, join them in pairs crosswise, then join the crosses longitudinally with supporting beams. After that, rails with a cross section of 40 × 40 mm with a pitch of about 30 cm are installed between the supports.
Long sheep feeder near the stall
Feeding troughs for feeding sheep with hay can also be made from any suitable materials at hand - metal gratings, a playpen, etc. However, animals need not only hay, but also waste grain crops, corn cobs, and root crops. How to make a sheep feeder suitable for such a crumbly feed?
In this case, instead of a feeder, nurseries are made in the form of a trough of wooden boards. From below to the manger attached legs, strong enough so that the sheep could not turn them over. Inside you can put a special plastic container. In the same way the drinking bowl is made for sheep. Its volume should be large - each animal drinks up to 10 liters of water per day. Smaller nurseries can be adapted for mineral supplements, some farmers instead regularly sprinkle salt on regular feed.
Shelter paddock for sheep
Even if sheep are raised in stalls rather than grazing in pastures, a place should be provided for walking in the open air. It is necessary to release animals on the street both in the summer, and in the winter if there is no strong frost or snowfall. Regular walks have a positive effect on sheep metabolism, improving their productivity.
Shelter paddock for sheep
The optimal parameters of the paddock:
- The area is 2–4 m2 per animal, or 3-4 times larger than the main house for sheep,
- Fence material - wooden poles, metal wire or mesh, necessarily smooth, so that the sheep do not cling to it with wool,
- The height of the fence - 1.5 m,
- Location - on the south side of the room.
It is not necessary to make too large a sheep pen. In this place should also be installed feeders with a canopy that protects the hay from rain.
Do-it-yourself construction: construction stages
As a rule, the sheepfold is built from wood or brick. Floors can be made of clay or earth, but also better from wood. For the roof any economic material is used - roofing material, slate, corrugated board or metal tiles. Wall decoration can be made with any safe decorative material.
The best base for a sheep room is a concrete column foundation. It is constructed in the following order:
- The territory is marked
- Pits are being dug at the installation sites,
- A sand layer with rubble 15 cm thick is poured into each pit.
- Wooden formwork is made around the pit,
- The pit is filled with concrete.
The parameters of the piles - length, diameter, depth of laying, quantity, need for reinforcement - are calculated on the basis of soil features, room size and mass, etc. All of this is brought into the project, which can be compiled by special organizations.
On stilts, covered with a layer of waterproofing, a framework is constructed of wooden beams. The framework consists of a horizontal trim of the floor and vertical supports of the walls. Each element is mounted on pillars using anchors or reinforcing pins inserted into the concrete during the pouring phase. The bottom trim should be done with a slight slope, so that the floor could then freely drain waste.
The walls are made of bricks or assembled from wood, the boards or panels of which are fixed on the crate fixed on the vertical supports of the frame. For exterior decoration, you can use clapboard or any other cheap lumber, from the inside, insulation (mineral wool) is laid on the walls, which is then sheathed with MDF or chipboard.
The walls are also made window openings at a height of 1.5 m from the floor. The size of each window is about 1.5 m2.
The sheep's stable is covered by a roof, the construction of which takes place in several stages:
- The top frame of the frame is made, similarly to the bottom of the bar,
- The truss system is installed on the trim,
- On rafters made obreshetka.,
- Fitted roofing material.
Attic in the dwelling of animals is not necessary to do.
The best flooring option is a slatted floor with slots between the boards through which the waste will fall. Such a construction will eliminate the need for regular cleaning of the room. The slots should be 20–25 mm wide, the height of the covering above the ground should be 8–10 cm.
Lattices are laid on the logs attached to the piles. From above, they are covered with straw bedding.
When the construction of the sheep-house is completed, additional equipment is installed - ventilation and heating. For heating the shed, you can use a gas boiler, mounted in the next room for security. Sleeves that extend around the perimeter of the barn are moving away from it.
Requirements for the construction of the sheepfold
What is a good sheep farm?
First of all, the building must meet the following requirements:
- Match the number of livestock. Animals should not be closely, for this reason, the size of the building is determined depending on the number of the herd. Calculations are made in accordance with how much space each animal needs. For example: rams - 2 m, sheep - 1.4–1.6 m, sheep with nursing lambs - 2.5–3 m, lambs on a separate content - 0.3–0.4 m.
- Be warm enough. Adult sheep and sheep, as well as lambs older than 45 days should be kept at a temperature of at least 3–6 degrees. In the compartment for lambing and where the offspring are from birth to 45 days, the temperature is maintained from 12–15 degrees.
- Well lit up. In the compartment for lambing and in the warming room, additional lighting is needed; here it will be necessary to install artificial light sources. In the remaining parts of the room there is enough light penetrating from the windows.
- Carcass Sheepfold for sheep do it yourself.
Maintain a certain humidity. In order for animals to feel well, in places of general content the humidity of the air must be 75–85%, and in zones of lambing this figure corresponds to 75–80%.
At the design stage, it is necessary to take into account all the factors listed, to calculate the construction area, make drawings and determine the amount of materials needed. For those who do not have enough experience in construction, it will be useful to attract more experienced people to assistants.
It is important to know that pregnant females must be kept in a warmer place than the rest of the herd.
Stages of construction
Most often, sheepfolds are built of brick or wood and have a T-shaped or U-shaped. The work is performed in stages, in accordance with a previously developed plan. How to build a sheepdog yourself?
The initial stage of building a sheep house with their own hands.
There are such stages of construction:
- Foundation laying. Without a solid foundation to build buildings is not recommended, in this case, suitable base of concrete columns. In the process of pouring into each column is inserted a pin of metal, it is necessary to further secure the floor.
You need to do the work like this:
- mark the territory designated for the construction of the pegs,
- at the location of each of the pegs, make small depressions into which the formwork is installed,
- pour concrete formwork.
- Frame installation. After pouring the foundation, a waterproofing material is placed on it. From above they sew a bar trim, on which they subsequently fix the frame of the walls.
- Wall decoration. Wall frame sheathed with clapboard, siding or profiled boards. The inner surface of the walls is insulated with mineral wool or other available material, this will help protect the room from drafts and retain heat.
- Formation of the roof. For the roof you will need profiled, slate or tile. First, wooden transverse beams are laid, longitudinal boards are filled with them, and then the roof is covered with the selected material.
- Windows and doors. The windows in the sheepfold are placed at a distance of 1.5 m from the floor, while their size should be about 1.5 m in height and 1 m in width. This will ensure good illumination of the room. The number of openings depends on the size of the building.
The doorways are wide, so that 2-3 animals can freely pass if they walk alongside. The best option would be to install a double gate with a width of 2-2.5 m on the hinges.
Doorways in the sheepfold should be wide.
After completion of the main stages of construction, you can proceed to the alignment of the equipment necessary for the maintenance of the livestock.
We also recommend to read how to build a pigsty with your own hands.
In this article you can learn how to make a winter chicken coop http://ferma-nasele.ru/zimnij-kurjatnik-na-10-kur.html.
To ensure a comfortable livestock population, the placement of the necessary equipment should be done as follows:
- Form pens, dividing the space with shields.
- Take care of the ventilation of the sheepdog by installing the hood in the room.
- Put a gas boiler or stove to maintain heat in the cold season.
- Set in the center (or in each pen separately) trough.
In order for the sheep to receive food in sufficient quantities, it is necessary to proceed from the required sizes for each animal, for example:
- for rams and ewes, the required width of the compartment and the height of the board are 0.4 m, and the depth is 0.3 m,
- for lambs up to 45 days, the width of the feeder and the height of the bead is 0.2 m, and the depth is 0.15 m,
- for offspring older than 45 days, the feed compartment is 0.2 m wide and depth corresponds to 0.2 m, and 0.4 m along the board height,
- for animals for fattening, the width of the feeder is 0.3 m, the depth is 0.2 m, and the height of the bead is 0.4 m.
- Install drinking bowls, taking into account the fact that an adult consumes up to 10 liters of water per day. Thus, for a herd of 30 heads, no less than 3 drinkers of 100 liters each will be needed, and for a herd of 100 individuals, 10 pieces of 100 liters each are needed.
If feeding is not done individually, then the width of the compartment for each animal should be at least 0.35 m.
It can be noted that the construction of the sheep-houses with their own hands is not a matter of particular complexity. The main thing is to make a detailed construction plan, complete the drawings and calculations, and you can build a good building to keep the livestock.
From this video you can learn how to equip the sheepfold.
Dependence of plow area on livestock
It is possible to breed these animals not only on extensive spaces, but also in the conditions of limited areas. The size of the paddock is entirely dependent on the sheep stock, which it is planned to contain.
The best combination is the following: for one ewe - no less than three square meters, for one ram - five and about 2 square meters for each head of the young. However, not everyone is able to create such conditions, so the main requirement is that the area per animal be at least 0.8 square meters.
Basic requirements for land and land plot
Land under the pen is best to choose on a hill, for example, on a hill.
In such a pen will not accumulate rainwater with sewage. It spreads around the edges, freeing up a clean place for grazing.
The plot for the construction of the pen should be rectangular or square.
The soil on it must have a hard surface, otherwise the feet of animals will get stuck, which increases the risk of injury. Yes, and clean the hard area easier and the quality of this cleaning will be much higher.
It is important that the selected land is not far from the reservoir, but in no case should this reservoir be standing.
It would be good to equip a well on the territory of the pen with the possibility of pumping water from it through drinking troughs (sheep do not drink standing water).
For the construction of the corral needed wooden poles, poles and boards, as well as a chain-link or metal-plastic for the device fencing.
The best wood for wooden parts of the pen is pine, resistant to rain and wind. It is also necessary to provide fixtures for the fence and gates.
Be sure to organize in the pen a canopy to shelter animals from the weather or the hot sun.
So, you will need:
- wooden poles and pegs,
- fasteners (screws and nails),
- gate loops,
- slate or roof tile roofing,
- sand and cement. These materials are needed for fixing the support pillars and in cases where the farmer plans to concrete the surface of the pen.
Making a fence for the pen
It is necessary to fence the paddock from all sides, so if there is a sheep shed on the construction site, it can be used as a fence on one side. This will save on fencing materials.
The height of the fence should be at least one meter (the figure of 1.4 meters is considered optimal). The supporting pillars should be well fixed in the ground (preferably cement). The distance between adjacent supports should not exceed two meters. It is possible to increase this gap if a weak electric current is passed through the fence.
The fence itself can be a chain-link net or ordinary boards, although in large farms they prefer to use wire (passing current through it).
Определившись с площадью участка (исходя из данных выше рекомендаций), по его периметру устанавливают столбы. Их количество следует посчитать заранее исходя из материала ограды. Крепить столбы в земле лучше с помощью цементного раствора. Затем монтируется само ограждение (если это – сетка, то лучше её хорошенько натянуть). The fence is attached to the supports either with wire (mesh) or nails (boards or mesh).
The mesh is attached to the pole with metal wire or nails. Also for the device fencing, you can use the profile sheet, but the grid is preferable, as it freely passes the air. After installing the fence mounted gates. They are always made with two wings, as this helps in separating from the flocks of sheep, lambs and separately - sheep.
The dimensions of each leaf are from one meter in width and from one and a half in length.
Final arrangement of the pen
The corral is not just a fenced plot of land. Inside it is necessary to build a shed of the same materials as the fence, with the exception of the arrangement of the roof.
The roof of the canopy is made flat, as the roofing material is usually used either slate or metal roofing. When choosing a roof for a canopy, you should be guided by its weight, since a strong wind can throw off the roof on animals.
If it is heavy, the sheep can be maimed.
Tarpaulin, which heats up less in the heat (compared to the same tile), is best suited, while in winter it withstands a large amount of snow.
The canopy can be made open from four sides, but in cold weather a canopy better closed from three sides is better.
The surface of the pen should be firm, better - earthen. Some farmers concrete or pave the floor of the pen. This is permissible, but quite expensive, besides in the heat of the concrete and asphalt are very hot. If the area of the paddock allows, you can concreate it half, and leave half as it is. Among other things, it is necessary to put comfortable drinkers and feeders, which can also be made independently.
When arranging the pen, you should immediately foresee the possibility of its convenient and simple cleaning.
Sheepfold for Sheep
In the more severe climate, one open shelter is not enough to keep sheep and the construction of a closed building is required. Such a room for sheep in the south of Russia is called koshara, in the middle and northern regions - a sheepfold or a cattle-shed.
Such a structure is also calculated based on the number of the herd. An adult male needs from 1.6 to 2.3 square meters of space, and a female needs from one to one and a half. An ewe with cubs requires a separate stall ranging from 1.3 to 1.7 square meters.
Such a room for keeping sheep should meet several simple requirements: good protection from drafts, the presence of good ventilation, low humidity, separate stalls for females with offspring on suction.
The temperature regime in the cold season should provide for a minimum temperature of not less than plus five degrees, and in the compartment for enveloped queens with calves - not less than plus 12-15 degrees. In addition, this room should be equipped with drinkers and feeders, as well as provide for the possibility of its high-quality cleaning.
The sheepfold, as well as the pen, should be located next to the pastures, so that in case of natural anomalies to be able to quickly hide the flock.
The height of this room depends on the breed - if the sheep is small, then about one and a half meters, if large, then up to two.
You can choose any material for construction - from wood and brick to modern industrial sandwich panels. Also, experts advise to make a vestibule in the sheepfold to protect against cold air from outside. Sheep housing should include the organization of a walking yard. It should be located on the south side, there is also a way out of the sheep house. The width of the exit gate must be at least ten meters.
And, of course, in the room it is necessary to equip feeders and drinkers, as well as cover the floor with dry bedding of tyrsa and hay.
If there is a possibility, a heating system should be organized in the sheep house.
How to build
The first thing you need to do is create a sample project. Thanks to him, you will pre-select the optimal size, make calculations necessary for the construction of materials.
The size of the future sheep house will depend on the number of sheep, so it can be calculated like this: for one animal you need one and a half square meters, and if there is a sheep with lambs, the area increases to 3 square meters. m
Of course, keeping less than ten sheep will not bring any income to the owners, it will simply go to zero, so it’s absolutely pointless to engage in the construction of a small sheepfold. For this reason, this article will consider the option of a sheep farm with 100 heads.
Sheepfold construction - simple task
To build a sheepfold, you will most certainly need a solid foundation, which should serve as the foundation. There are various types of foundation, and so that you do not encounter difficulties when choosing the right house for the sheep, you should immediately say: you need a foundation “concrete columns”.
How to make it? Follow your own project clearly so that the construction goes smoothly:
- mark the pegs on the territory selected for the sheepdog,
- dig a small hole in the place of each peg,
- set the hole in the formwork
- pour concrete
- insert metal pins into all posts to fix the floor to them in the future.
Well, were you convinced that making a foundation with your own hands is not so difficult at all?
Frame and walls
With the construction of the frame to cope anyone. The foundation must be laid with a waterproofing layer, and on it a framework of wooden bars. That's all!
To make the walls for the sheepfold, you must:
- install the support beams, taking into account the size of your sheepfold for us with 100 heads,
- on them to nail a wooden crate,
- upholster the outside with siding,
- the inner side to lay insulation. Mineral wool plays an excellent role.
Sheep should be warm and dry
Some are frightened by the fact that they will have to do the roof with their own hands. In the majority view, the construction of the roof is something incomprehensible, but the truth is far from rumor, as always. To make the roof, you should:
- place the transverse beams on the walls from above, so that the pitched roof system is attached,
- install crate on rafters
- lay the roofing material on the crate.
You might think the scheme is simple - pour concrete, and that’s a great floor. You can do this, but in this case the sheep can get seriously sick. Concrete is a very cold material.
Soft floor is also not an option. He must be firm. “I can use wood,” you say. No, because the boards will soon begin to rot, and you have to periodically spend a lot of money on repairs.
Situation hopeless? No, the solution lies on the surface: you need to combine concrete and wood material. Pour the concrete and lay it on top with boards.
Sheep need natural flooring
Doors and windows
The construction of a barn for 100 heads approached the stage of building windows and doors.
Windows need to be located at a distance of one and a half meters from the floor. Regarding size, it is better that they are large enough, because animals need light.
The ideal option for entering the sheepfold would be a double hinged door. Through such doors without problems several sheep can pass at once.
Basic requirements for sheepdogs
For the construction will have to spend a lot of money. Therefore, when it comes to the situation of the house inside, many people refuse insulation, naively believing that the sheep, because of the presence of warm wool, will do without it. And this opinion is wrong. Despite the wool, sheep do not like drafts, it can adversely affect their health. So you have two options: either not to neglect the insulation, or to make sure that each gap is carefully sealed. In winter, a thermometer in a sheepfold should in no case show less than 12 degrees Celsius.
To make it easier for you to do the cleaning, there should be no compartments in the sheepfold for 100 heads where you will be forced to bend down.
Warm sheepfold - a pledge of healthy livestock
How to arrange equipment?
If you were able to design a house for the sheep with your own hands, then you will definitely cope with the equipment:
- to form individual pens, partition off the sheepfold with wood shields,
- equip barn volume drinking bowls. For 300 goals you need at least 30 drinkers, each with 100 liters,
- in each room (if there are several) to put the hood,
- For heating, locate a gas boiler or stove in the sheepfold.
The article described the process of building a sheep house for a hundred animals. To build a sheep house for 300 heads, you need to do the same procedure, just calculate other sizes.
You have learned how to build a sheepfold, and you can safely grab hold of tools, stock up on materials and get down to business. Follow the scheme, pay attention to the details, and everything will work out.
Koshara - blind sheep and herd instinct
In fact, the maintenance of sheep, in comparison with other types of animal husbandry, is a very easy task, the main thing is to have pastures near it, where sheep can be fed and in the meantime harvested hay for the winter. It is this factor that stops many farmers, since the fields in our time are rarely empty. However, when there is an opportunity, sin to let it go!
Koshara (barn) sheep by and large need only in the cold season, but in summer a small fence around the perimeter is enough so that the animals do not disperse.
However, this behavior is completely uncharacteristic for them - sheep are purely herd creatures, therefore, in principle it is not recommended to keep less than 10 animals! This is explained by the unimportant vision of the sheep - seeing close to him their own kind, the sheep will never run away to the side. However, no matter how large the herd, it will always be quite defenseless against threats from predators, so if the same wolves live in your area, it is better to drive the flock to a closed room even in the summer.
The herd instinct does not leave the sheep even inside the skins, therefore, compared with other domestic animals, a lot of individuals can be kept in a small area - the sheep feel comfortable even if they have to cling to each other. Inside the barn you need to make at least a few pens, for those cases when you need to separate the sheep for lambing or sick animals from healthy ones.
It is very important in a kosara to get rid of all possible places that sheep can damage their wool or scratch. - This is all kinds of sticking nails, knots, wire. Under the coat you will not notice the wounds, and it can seriously fester, and you should not spoil the presentation of the fleece. Now directly about the construction of the barn!
Barn for the sheep with their own hands - so that the sheep do not miss!
Kosharu can be combined with a goat shed - the habits of these animals are similar to sheep, and they are also compatible in size. The only difference between goats and sheep is that the first are able to stand up for themselves, so they are even recommended to be grazed together. The conditions of detention of both can be quite spartan - due to the warm sheepskin and wool, they withstand frost well, but if you have planned lambing for the winter, you should warm the shed well at this point if you have not done so yet.
For sheep, hard floor is important - staying in soft soil for a long time adversely affects their ligaments and general health. Most often, the floor is covered with boards in a kosher, but this is not the most durable way. The concrete floor will last much longer, but we all know how cold it sometimes is! The best option is to lay boards on the concrete floor! In addition, the concrete floor is much easier to adjust in such a way that the sewage flows down the specially designated groove into the specially designated pit.
Where to store hay - combine business with pleasure!
Koshara is best to provide a large attic with convenient wide entrances - this is where it is best to store stocks of hay for the winter. On the one hand, food will always be at hand, on the other - this is a very good attic weatherization. A shed for sheep is usually built from what is - tame animals are not prone to destruction, nibbling or demolishing the walls, so you can even build from a fairly soft clay-straw block.
The windows in the shed should be made at such a height that even an adult individual could not jump and break the glass. It is better to make them low, but wide - then the height will be decent, and there is enough light. Doors should be made as wide as possible - again, returning to sheep's "blindness" and the herd instinct, the sheep will climb right through even into a narrow door, injuring their neighbors in the flock and themselves. Wide doors will allow to avoid such trouble. Do not forget to make ventilation in the shed - stagnation of air will contribute to the accumulation of moisture, and this in turn will lead to increased susceptibility of animals to various diseases.