Savannah is an unusual world that lives by its own unique rules and laws. Everything is surprising in it: in winter, the cold season is not called here, but the dry period, when there is a sharp shortage of water, and in summer the rains can go non-stop for weeks. Such drastic weather changes affect nature, subjecting it to its own rules. The landscape picture is completely different in such periods, and even animals behave differently.
Sometimes here you can see landscapes of amazing beauty, and at other times they become dull and desperate. These contrasts have always attracted people and forced them to return to the unknown world of savannah, to see again amazing animals and plants, which can be found only in this natural area.
In conditions of lack of moisture and food, animals need to be more endurance and be able to overcome huge territories in order to get their food. Savannah is an ideal place for predators, because low grass makes it possible to look around and see where the prey is hiding. However, there are interesting representatives of the fauna, eating plant food.
The largest animal
It is in the savannah that the largest land animal on Earth lives - the African savanna elephant. Its average weight is 5 tons, but in 1956 the largest representative weighing 11 tons was recorded! On the face there are huge curved tusks that are formed from the front teeth. Their weight averages 100 kg. The tusks were always very valued by man, so the elephant population was mercilessly destroyed, and this process did not stop even now.
Elephants are social animals. It is believed that their herds are the most united in the whole kingdom of the fauna. They take great care about sick or wounded family members, help them to eat and support, if it is difficult for weak relatives to stand.
There is an opinion that only elephants from the entire animal world have a burial rite. Realizing that their brother is dead, they cover it from above with branches and earth. It is surprising that in this way they “bury” not only representatives of their families, but also unfamiliar elephants from other families, and even people. Similar and other, no less interesting facts about the life and death of these animals are described in detail in the book “Among the Animals of Africa” by the famous zoologist and naturalist-writer Bernard Grzimek.
Another feature similar to humans is the love of having sex. These African inhabitants have sex all year round, although they can only be fertilized for a few days during the rainy season. Males show courtship so that the female is supportive of them. Pregnancy among elephants is the longest on earth and lasts almost 2 years - 22 months. Elephants feel the approach of childbirth and can accelerate them by eating a special kind of grass that causes contractions.
Cubs are born blind, so they are funny holding on to mother's tail, so as not to get lost.
The black mamba is colored brownish gray, which makes her name wonder. In fact, the word “black” arose not by chance: this color can be seen on the inner surface of the mouth, when a snake rushes at a person to bite him. This amazing representative of reptiles reaches an impressive size, growing up to 4 meters, and it can move at a speed exceeding the running speed of many people - 20 km / h.
There are not so many snakes with such strong poison in the world: after being bitten, the black mamba crawls away for a while and waits for the poison to paralyze the victim. Previously, after the bite of this snake, people could not escape and died in torment, but now a special antidote has been developed that can prevent death. The only difficulty is that the serum must be entered during the first minutes after the bite, otherwise it will not save the bitten person.
The hunting skills of these snakes are manifested from birth: half an hour after the kids hatched from eggs, they are able to attack the victim and inject deadly poison into it.
Unlike other types of mambas, this species does not live in trees. However, she found for herself a less exotic house in the form of empty termite mounds.
The first picture that arises in the head at the thought of the savannah is the graceful king of beasts - the lion, resting after a hunt. This predator is rather lazy: he will never make an extra move unless he is already hungry.
During the mating season, the female and male leave the pride and make love joys for a week. All this period they do not hunt and starve, losing much weight. In this case, their copulation occurs at intervals of 15 to 20 minutes. Sometimes the number of matings reaches 100 times per day. After the love period ends, the lions for a long time recover their weight.
These cats sleep surprisingly much: 20 hours a day, like domestic cats. In a good mood, they can purr and bask in the sun, but when the lion becomes enraged, he publishes a roar that spreads over 10 km in the area. Only with the help of a roar can he scare away animals that are dangerous to females or cubs.
Most often, lions hunt at night. This is caused by a very sharp night vision, which is almost as good as daylight. Since most of the victims cannot boast of universal vision, the chances of success of the lion's night hunting increase many times over.
Savannah became home to many record holders. These include giraffes - the tallest animals on the planet. Their height is from 4.6 to 6 meters, most of which falls on the neck.
Females of giraffes often arrange kindergartens, in which babies are supervised by several adults, and the rest are sent at this time for food. After the first are fed up, they replace the hungry "nannies."
Giraffes sleep only 60 minutes a day, sometimes they can do it standing up. Despite such a short duration of sleep, the spotted inhabitants of the savannah never yawn: they are the only animals who cannot do this.
An ostrich cannot fly because of its impressive weight, but it runs so fast that it is slightly inferior to the flight of some birds. At a speed of 70 km / h, he shows surprising mobility: if he so wishes, he can drastically change the direction of the run, without slowing down at all or slowing down the pace.
This kind of record belongs to the record in the size of the egg: in a half-kilo ostrich egg would easily fit 2.5 dozen chicken. The male settles the nest, and all the females he fertilized lay there. During the day, they sit on the nest, and at night, caring dad takes over the baton and heats the eggs with his body.
When the chicks are in danger, ostriches can be cunning and show amazing acting data, depicting a wounded and weak creature, taking the predator away from the kids. At this time, the children are rapidly running towards one of the adults and hiding their heads under a large wing. Then the ostrich leaves the bewildered predator and returns to its herd.
The Cape aardvark is puzzling in its appearance: it feels like it has put together body parts of different animals. With its body, it resembles an anteater, its long ears are like a rabbit, the snout is borrowed from piglets, and the tail is taken from a kangaroo.
An amazing animal has such an original shape of the nose in order to eat the termites, which hunt at night. He has a wonderful sense of smell, thanks to which the aardchild unmistakably finds the termitaries and devastates them. During the night, he can overcome about 50 km in search of tasty insects. Termites are not afraid of aardvark, as its skin is so thick that it cannot bite through its insects. They stick to the sticky tongue and go straight to the stomach.
The body of the aardvark is quite impressive: it can grow up to 2.3 m. If it is driven by a natural enemy, it shows tremendous power with which it can dislodge the enemy with claws, beats its hind legs and very quickly tumbling forward.
One of the main symbols of savanna are amazing trees - baobabs. It is difficult to establish the age of the oldest specimens, because these trees do not have annual rings, therefore it will not be possible to establish their age in the standard way. According to general estimates, Baobab scientists can live for about a thousand years, but radiocarbon analysis gives other figures - 4,500 years. During their lives, they manage to build up a huge spreading crown. In the winter, they shed their leaves, but not from the cold, but from drought.
The blooming of baobab is an amazing sight. The process continues for several months, but each flower lives only one night, so during the day it will not be possible to see the blossoming baobab. Since most insects are asleep at night, these flowers are not pollinated by these flowers, but by the bats that live here.
Baobab has one more surprising property that is rarely found among trees: after cutting the main trunk, the baobab is able to take new roots and re-take root. Often, storm-felled trees that remain forever in a supine position often survive in this way.
Formerly, the aborigines considered dragon trees to be enchanted monsters. The reason for this was the amazing property of the dracaena: when her bark was scratched or incised with a knife, a red resinous juice, resembling blood, began to ooze out. The name "dracaena" is translated as "female dragon".
Previously, resinous liquid was used for embalming, and now this juice is used on an industrial scale to prepare the production of red pigments, paints and varnishes. Found dracaena application in medicine and cosmetology: it is used as a component for the treatment of gastric diseases and skin problems.
The dragon tree has a very slow growth, but over the decades, some representatives have reached enormous proportions. The amazing “umbrella” form of the crown is formed only after flowering, and before that the dracaen grows with a single trunk. The foliage is very densely located in the crown, so at the foot of the dracaen, heat and tired people and animals often find rest in a solid shadow. The plant from its natural habitat has spread throughout the world as a houseplant, because it is very careless in its care, but it looks attractive and exotic.
Savannah is filled mainly with pampas herbs. But among them there are absolutely amazing representatives. These include ivory grass. This plant can reach a height of 3 meters, creating barriers for large animals, and for small ones acting as a reliable shelter and at home.
Elephant grass grows near shallow reservoirs. When they dry up, it can massively cure from a lack of moisture, blocking the channels of streams or small rivers. She is afraid of coolness, so the ground part dies off immediately with the first cooling. The root system of this grass penetrates very far into the soil, rooting to a depth of 4.5 meters, where it draws water. After droughts with the arrival of the first rains, it quickly grows anew and serves as food for many animals: zebras, antelopes, giraffes and other herbivores.
People do not overlook it, using elephant grass to prepare some dishes, applying it in construction and growing it as an ornamental plant.
The savannas of the world keep many secrets. The traveler, who has decided to visit these places, will have a lot of amazing discoveries that will allow him to understand the romance of the safari and appreciate this harsh but attractive world.
14 Cabbage Romanesco Broccoli
Romanesco is one of the cultivated varieties of cabbage, belonging to the variety group that cauliflower is. According to some reports, is a hybrid of cauliflower and broccoli. This type of cabbage has long been grown in the vicinity of Rome. According to some reports, it is first mentioned in historical documents in Italy in the sixteenth century. Vegetable appeared on international markets in the 90s of the 20th century. Compared with cauliflower and broccoli, romanesco is more delicate in texture and has a softer, creamy-nutty flavor, without a bitter note.
13 Euphorbia fat
The fat euphorbia is a perennial succulent plant of the Euphorbia family, resembling in appearance a stone or a green-brown soccer ball, without thorns and leaves, but sometimes forms “branches” or suckers in the form of strange-looking sets of spheres. Can grow up to 20-30 cm tall and up to 9-10 cm in diameter. The fat euphorbia is a bisexual plant, it has male flowers on one plant, and female flowers on another. For fruit set, cross-pollination is required, which is usually done by insects.
The fruit looks like a slightly triangular trio-upset, up to 7 mm in diameter, containing one seed in each nest. When ripe, it explodes, scatters small, round, speckled gray seeds 2 millimeters in diameter, and the pedicels after scattering seeds fall away. in bright sun or partial shading. Plants are very well hidden among the stones, their colors blend with the environment so well that sometimes they are difficult to notice.
Tacca is a plant of the Tackov family, growing in a wide variety of ecological conditions and numbering 10 species. They settle in open and highly shaded places, in savannas, in thickets of bushes and in rain forests. Young parts of plants, as a rule, are pubescent with the smallest hairs, disappearing as they mature. Plant sizes are usually small, from 40 to 100 centimeters, but some species sometimes reach a height of 3 meters. Although takka is becoming increasingly widespread as a houseplant, it should be borne in mind that it is not easy to successfully keep such rooms in the rooms due to the particular demands of the plant on the conditions of detention. This family is represented by the Tacca family, which numbers about 10 species of plants.
- Takka peristonadrezannaya grows in tropical Asia, Australia, in the tropics of Africa. Leaves up to 40-60 cm wide, from 70 cm long and up to 3 meters. A flower with two covers, large, reaching 20 cm in width, the color covered with light green.
- Tacca Chantrier grows in tropical forests of Southeast Asia. Evergreen tropical, herbaceous plant, reaching 90-120 cm in height. The flowers are framed by maroon, almost black, bracts similar to the wingspan of a bat or butterfly with long threadlike antennae.
- Takka whole-leaf grows in India. The leaves are wide, glossy, up to 35 cm wide, up to 70 cm long. The flower with two covers, large, reaching 20 cm wide, the color covered white, purple strokes are scattered on a white tone. The flowers are black, purple or dark purple, located under the bedspreads.
11 Venus flytrap
Venus flytrap is a species of carnivorous plants from the monotype Dionea genus of the Rosyanka family. This is a small herb with a rosette of 4-7 leaves, which grow from a short underground stem. Leaves ranging in size from three to seven centimeters, depending on the time of year, long trap leaves usually form after flowering. It feeds on insects and spiders. It grows in a humid temperate climate on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It is a species cultivated in ornamental gardening. Can be grown as a houseplant. It grows in soils lacking nitrogen, such as swamps. Lack of nitrogen is the cause of the appearance of traps: insects are the source of nitrogen needed for protein synthesis. Venus flytrap refers to a small group of plants capable of fast movements.
After the prey is trapped and the edges of the sheets are closed, forming a “stomach”, in which the process of digestion takes place. Digestion is catalyzed by enzymes that are secreted by the glands in the lobes. Digestion takes about 10 days, after which only an empty chitinous shell remains from the prey. After that, the trap opens and is ready to catch new prey. During the life of the trap, on average, three insects fall into it.
10 dragon tree
The dragon tree is a plant of the Dracaena genus, which grows in the tropics and subtropics of Africa and on the islands of Southeast Asia. Grown as an ornamental plant. An old Indian legend tells that a bloodthirsty dragon who attacked elephants and drank their blood lived a long time ago in the Arabian Sea on Socotra Island. But one day an old and powerful elephant fell on a dragon and crushed it. Their blood mixed and moistened the earth around. At this place trees, called dragon trees, grew, which means “female dragon”. The indigenous people of the Canary Islands considered the tree sacred, and its resin was used for medicinal purposes. Смола была обнаружена в доисторических погребальных пещерах и в то время применялась для бальзамирования.
На его толстых ветках растут пучки очень острых листьев. Толстый ветвистый ствол высотой до 20 метров, диаметр в основании до 4 м, обладает вторичным ростом в толщину. Each branch of the branching ends with a dense beam of densely arranged grayish-green, leathery, linear-xiphoid leaves 45-60 centimeters long and 2-4 centimeters wide in the middle of the plate, somewhat narrowing towards the base and pointed to the top, with prominent veins. The flowers are large, bisexual, with a coronoid, anisotal perianth perianth, in bunches of 4-8 pieces. Some trees live up to 7-9 thousand years.
9 Gidnora African
The genus Hidnor includes 5 species growing in tropical regions of Africa, Arabia and Madagascar, it is not very common, so just walking around the desert, you will not find it. This plant is more like a mushroom until its unusual flower opens. In fact, the flower is named after the mushroom gidnor, which in Greek means: mushroom. Hydoron flowers are quite large, solitary, almost sessile, bisexual, and blind-free. And what we usually see on the surface of the soil and call a flower.
These features of color and structure, as well as the putrid smell of flowers, serve to attract carrion-eating beetles. Beetles, climbing into the flowers, crawling in them, especially in their lower part, where the reproductive organs are located, contributing to their pollination. Often, female beetles not only find food in flowers, but also lay eggs there.
The inhabitants of Africa - willingly use the fruits of the Hydnor as food, like some animals. In Madagascar, hydori fruits are considered one of the best local fruits. Thus, the carriers of seeds of hydori are the most diverse animals and people. In Madagascar, the flowers and roots of Hydnor are used by locals to treat heart diseases.
In general, hydnor leads an underground lifestyle, its roots, some of which are underground stems, go deep into the ground, form a network around another plant and stick to foreign roots. Plants of the genus Hydorus parasitize on the roots of various plants. In particular, African hydor prefers various types of euphoria as host plants. The plant itself reaches the size of 10-15 centimeters.
Baobab is a species of trees from the genus Adansonia of the family Malvaceae, characteristic of dry savannas in tropical Africa. The life expectancy of baobabs causes controversy - they have no one-year rings by which one can reliably calculate age. Calculations performed by radiocarbon analysis showed more than 5500 years for a tree with a diameter of 4.5 meters, although according to more careful estimates, baobabs live for about 1000 years.
In winter and during the dry season, the tree begins to consume moisture reserves, decreasing in volume, dropping foliage. From October to December, baobab blooms. Baobab flowers are large - up to 20 cm in diameter, white with five petals and purple stamens, on hanging pedicels. They are revealed in the late afternoon and live only one night, attracting bats with the scent of pollinating them. In the morning, the flowers wither, acquiring an unpleasant putrid odor, and fall off.
Next, elongated edible fruits, which resemble cucumbers or melons covered with thick, hairy skin, develop. Inside, the fruit is filled with sourish powdery pulp with black seeds. Baobab dies in a peculiar way: it crumbles and gradually settles, leaving behind only a pile of fiber. However, baobabs are extremely tenacious. They quickly restore the flayed bark, continue to bloom and bear fruit. Felled or fallen tree is able to start new roots.
7 Victoria Amazonian
Victoria Amazonian - is a large herbaceous tropical plant of the Nymphaeaceae family, the largest waterlily in the world and one of the most popular greenhouse plants in the world. Victoria of Amazon was named after the English Queen Victoria. Victoria Amazonian is found in the Amazon River Basin in Brazil and Bolivia, and is also found in the Guyana rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea.
Huge water lily leaves reach 2.5 meters and, with a uniformly distributed load, can withstand a weight of up to 50 kilograms. Tuberiform rhizome is usually deeply recessed into the muddy bottom. The top surface is green with a wax layer that repels excess water, also has small holes to remove water. The bottom of the purple-red color with a grid of ribs studded with spikes to protect against herbivorous fish, air bubbles accumulate between the ribs, helping the sheet to float. In one season, each tuber can produce up to 50 leaves, which grow, cover a large surface of the reservoir, blocking sunlight and thereby limiting the growth of other plants.
The flowers of Victoria Amazon are under water and bloom only once a year for 2-3 days. Flowers bloom only at night, and at dawn they descend into the water. During flowering, the flowers placed above the water, when open, have a diameter of 20-30 centimeters. On the first day, the color of the petals is white, on the second they are pinkish, on the third they turn purple or dark crimson. In the wild, the plant can live up to 5 years.
6 California Sequoia
Sequoia is a monotypic genus of woody plants of the cypress family. It grows on the Pacific coast of North America. Individual instances of redwoods reach a height of over 110 meters - these are the tallest trees on Earth. The maximum age is more than three and a half thousand years. This tree is more known as “mahogany”, while plants of the related species Sequoia de Hendron are known as “giant sequoias”.
Their diameter at the level of the human breast is about 10 meters. The largest tree in the world is “General Sherman”. Its height is 83.8 meters. For 2002, the volume of wood was 1,487 m³. It is believed that he is 2300-2700 years old. The highest tree in the world is Hyperion, its height is 115 meters.
Nepentes is the only genus of plants of the monotype family Nepente, which includes about 120 species. Most species grow in tropical Asia, especially on Kalimantan Island. Named in honor of the grass of oblivion from ancient Greek mythology - nepenfa. Species of the genus are mostly shrubby or semi-shrub vines growing in wet habitats. Their long, thin, grassy or slightly lignified stems climb the trunks and large branches of neighboring trees tens of meters in height, bringing their narrow terminal racemes to the sunlight.
Different types of nepentes jugs differ in size, shape and color. Their length varies from 2.5 to 30 centimeters, and in some species it can reach up to 50 cm. More often, jugs are painted in bright colors: red, dull white with a speckled pattern or light green with specks. The flowers are small and inconspicuous, actinorphic and unleveled, with four tricoloric sepals. The fruit is in the form of a leathery box, divided by internal partitions into separate chambers, in each of which seeds are attached to the column with fleshy endosperm and a straight cylindrical small embryo.
It is curious that large nepentes, in addition to eating insects, also use dung of animals, stupid animals, which climb onto the plant as a toilet, in order to enjoy the sweet nectar. Thus, the plant forms a symbiotic relationship with the animal, using its droppings as fertilizer.
4 bloody tooth
This mushroom, related to agaric mushrooms, is similar to chewed chewing gum, oozing blood and smelling of strawberries. However, it is not worth eating it, because it is one of the most poisonous mushrooms on earth, and even just by licking it you can be guaranteed to get serious poisoning. The mushroom gained fame in 1812, when it was recognized as inedible. The surface of the fruit bodies is white, velvety, with small depressions, becoming beige or brown with age. On the surface of young specimens, drops of poisonous blood-red liquid protrude through the pores. The word "tooth" in the title - not just. The fungus has sharp edges that appear with age.
In addition to its external qualities, this fungus has good antibacterial properties and contains chemicals that thin the blood. It is possible that soon this fungus will become a substitute for penicillin. The main feature of this fungus is that it can feed on soil juices and insects, which are attracted by the red liquid of the fungus. The diameter of the bloody tooth cap is 5-10 centimeters, the leg length is 2-3 centimeters. Bloody tooth grows in coniferous forests of Australia, Europe and North America.
3 Amorphophallus titanic
The three leaders among the most unusual plants of the world are closed by a large tropical plant of the Amorphophallus family aroid, discovered in 1878 on Sumatra. One of the most famous species of the genus, has one of the largest inflorescences in the world. The above-ground part of this plant is a short and thick stalk, at the base is a single large leaf, above - smaller ones. The leaf is up to 3 meters long and up to 1 meter in diameter. Petiole length 2-5 meters, thickness 10 cm. Matt green, with white transverse stripes. The underground part of the plant is a giant tuber weighing up to 50 kilograms.
The aroma of the flower resembles a mixture of smells of rotten eggs and rotten fish, and in appearance the flower resembles a decaying piece of meat. It is this smell that attracts insect pollinators to the plant in the wild. Flowering continues for two weeks. Interestingly, the cob at the same time heats up to 40 ° C. Tuber during this time greatly depleted due to overruns of nutrients. Therefore, it needs another dormant period of up to 4 weeks in order to accumulate strength for leaf development. If the nutrients are scarce, the tuber “sleeps” after flowering until the next spring. The life of this plant is 40 years, but it blooms during this time only three or four times.
Velvichiya amazing - relic tree - is one species, one kind, one family, one detachment Velvichievyh. Velvichia grows in the south of Angola and in Namibia. The plant is rarely found further than one hundred kilometers from the coast, this approximately corresponds to the limit reached by the fogs, which are the main source of moisture for velvichii. Its appearance can not be called either grass or bush, or tree. The scientific world learned about Velvichiya in the 19th century.
From a distance, it seems that Velvichia has many long leaves, but in fact there are only two of them, and they grow throughout its plant life, adding 8-15 centimeters a year. In scientific works, a giant with a leaf length of more than 6 meters and a width of about 2 was described. And its lifespan is so long that it is difficult to believe. Although Velvichia is considered a tree, it does not have annual rings, like on tree trunks. Scientists have determined the age of the largest Velvichiy by the radiocarbon method - it turned out that some specimens are about 2000 years old!
Instead of social plant life, Velvichia prefers a lonely existence, that is, in a group it does not grow. The flowers in Velvichia look like small bumps, and in each female cone there is only one seed, and each seed is provided with wide wings. As for pollination, the views of nerds here are different. Some believe that insects carry out pollination, while others are more inclined to the action of the wind. Velvichia is protected by the Namibian Conservation Law. The collection of its seeds is prohibited without special permission. The whole territory, where Velvichia grows, was turned into a National Park.
1 Rafflesia Arnoldi
The most unusual plant in the world is Rafflesia Arnoldi, a species of parasitic plants from the Rafflesia genus of the Rafflesian family. It is found on the islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan. Rafflesia Arnoldi blooms with single flowers, which are among the largest on the planet: their diameter is from 60 to 100 centimeters, and their weight is up to 8 kilograms. The rafflesia flower is colorful. It consists of five fleshy, thick, pancake-like petals of a poisonous red color with white growths like warts. A brick-red flower blooms right on the ground for a very short time - only 3-4 days. The smell and appearance of rotting meat helps to attract pollinators - dung flies.
This plant has no roots, no green leaves, where there would be a process of photosynthesis. Rafflesia is not able to independently synthesize the necessary organic substances, so it receives everything it needs for its development, parasitizing on damaged roots and stems of cassus vines: it produces filaments similar to mycelium, which penetrate the tissues of the host plant, without bringing the slightest harm. Rafflesia seeds are tiny, no more than a poppy seed. How they are introduced into the host's solid wood is a mystery. Rafflesia grows slowly: the bark of the liana, under which the seed of this parasitic flower develops, swells only after a year and a half, forming a peculiar bud that ripens in a bud for 9 months.
Acacia savannas are often also found in Africa. This is mainly whitish, Senegalese, acacia giraffe. Thanks to its crown, which has an oblate shape, the tree began to be called umbrella-shaped. Adhesives contained in the bark are widely used in industry, while wood is used to create expensive high-quality furniture.
Continuing to talk about savanna plants, I must say that its business card is baobab. The tree reaches a height of 25 meters, has a thick trunk (in diameter up to 10 meters), as well as a spreading huge crown. Not long ago, a baobab giant was discovered in Africa with a trunk diameter of 44 meters and, moreover, a height of 189 meters. Such savanna plants are long-livers, some have an age of 5,000 years. Baobab blooms for several months, while each flower lives only one night. They are pollinated by bats.
Savanna plants are quite diverse. Among them are oil palm. This plant has a lifespan of 120 years. It is worth making a reservation that the pulp of its fruit contains about 70% of the oil used in soap making. When incision inflorescence get juice used for making wine.
Features of the animal world
Savanna plants and animals are always interconnected. The vegetable variety listed above is food for the main amount of herbivores. The main part of them are antelopes:
You can always see herds of Grant and Thompson and zebras around wildebeest. All herbivores are excellent prey for various predators. Cheetahs, lions, hyenas and leopards maintain their balance by being on top of this food chain.
On different continents, savannahs differ in their floristic composition, but they are united by the similarity of some features: the presence of the main grass layer with an abundance of xerophilous cereals, as well as the upper rare layer of trees and shrubs that grow alone or in small groups.
one of the highest and relict, long-lived trees on our planet Earth, since the height of many of them can reach 110 meters. Growing evergreen sequoia can over 3 500 thousand years. Forest habitual to many may seem like a simple field of grass compared to the forests of these titans.
The plant is known for its largest inflorescences in the world. The ground part of this plant is a shortened, but rather fleshy and thick stem, at its base is one - a single leaf, above - smaller leaves.
Its leaves can reach up to 3 meters in length, with an almost meter width, its rhizome is a giant tuber in size, reaching almost 50 kilograms in weight. The flowers of the plant are very ugly, because they resemble a piece of decomposing meat rather, and the smell does not please - it is the aroma of rotten fish and eggs.
Here is such an unusual rating of amazing plants - unusual and surprising.