Next, the caviar is either left with the manufacturers, or transferred to a jig box, the volume of which should be about 20 liters. In the case of transferring caviar, the aquarist takes all the care of it. A weak aeration is established in the trough, above the masonry, a fungicidal septic tank, methylene blue (to a slightly blue color) is added to the water.
The incubation period for caviar is about 50 hours, after the larvae start to hatch. On the fourth day, the larvae begin to swim. From this time on, they begin to be fed, first with live dust, then gradually with larger feed.
It should be noted that the color of the tiger astronotus in nature cannot be met, since this variation of coloring is artificially derived. And it appeared as a result of the reverse selection of the red astronotus in the direction of the natural color. The bizarre orange patterns were very much loved by the public, making tiger astronotus the most popular variety.
Oscar has a massive fleshy, slightly flattened body. The background color is dark and decorated with bright red-orange divorces. At the base of the tail stem there is a large black dot with a red border - an “eye”. He got a tiger astronotus from wild ancestors, thanks to him he received another name - the eye-shaped astronotus. On the head there are large expressive eyes, a large forehead and a wide mouth.
The last two types are also quite popular, and not without reason - the graceful and white astronotus looks luxurious. The only lack of albino forms is sensitivity to light, therefore it is recommended to keep them with dimmed lighting.
White variation of Tiger Astronotus color
As a rule, keep the Oscars in pairs in large aquariums. During puberty and spawning there may be skirmishes and outbursts of aggression. Pick up neighbors for astronotus is quite difficult, but still possible. This makes sense only if the aquarium is spacious, which allows to reduce the snagness of astronotus and other fish.
In order to reduce the level of aggression, all fish are recommended to start from adolescence.
Suitable Astronotus Neighbors:
- content of heterosexual astronotus will help reduce their aggression towards each other and reduce the number of skirmishes,
- large chain catfish, such as brocade,
- three hybrid parrot,
- large, aggressive tsikhlazomy,
- piroshchenny piranha pacu.
Small and peaceful fish species astronotus fit except in the form of food.
Before you buy such a colorful and fascinating fish, you need to be prepared not only for large financial investments, but also to accept a creature with its own individual character. But it's worth it, because the tiger astronotus is amazing.
Astronotuses belong to the category of rather large aquarium fish, and in natural habitat their body length can be 35-40 cm. When maintained in aquarium conditions, such an ornamental fish grows to a length of 15-22 cm, has large eyes and a head, and also has a pronounced and rather convex frontal part. The color of the astronotus is very diverse. Red decorative type of astronotus has become widespread. Juveniles vaguely resemble their parents, but it has a coal black color with white divorces and the presence of a small stellar pattern on the whole body.
It is interesting! The well-known albino breeding form and a very common red astronotus type with white fins, common in most amateur hobbyists, is often referred to as the Red Oscar.
Most often, the color of the general background varies from grayish-brown tones to charcoal black, with the presence of scattered and large spots, as well as a variety of shape and size of yellow stains, which may have a pronounced black border. The base of the caudal fin is characterized by a large black spot, framed by an orange stripe, which resembles the appearance of a large eye. There is an assumption that it was thanks to this very peculiar astronotus “eye” that they were honored with the specific name “Ocellatus”, which means “eye” in Latin.
The natural habitat of all representatives of this species is water bodies in Brazil, as well as Venezuela, Guyana and Paraguay. Astronotus was first brought to Europe almost a century ago, and in Russia such fish appeared somewhat later, but almost immediately became incredibly popular with aquarists.
It should be noted that the ornamental fish has very successfully acclimatized in southern America, where it belongs to the popular objects of widespread sport fishing. Virtually all large farms that specialize in breeding different types of ornamental fish are closely involved in the breeding of astronotus, especially such a sought-after variety, like the “red Oscar”.
Perhaps the most popular and well-known cichlids in the conditions of modern aquaristics, astronotuses are deservedly right. Such fame was won first of all by sufficiently developed intellectual abilities of ornamental fish, which are bright representatives of the perch-like order and the cichlid family. According to their owners, astronotuses are able to recognize their master and even allow themselves to be stroked, as well as being fully trained in some simple tricks.
Aquarium preparation, volume
For home astronotuses to be healthy and happy, the aquarium water must be warm and clean, with a temperature range of 23-27 o C. For this reason, you must purchase a special thermometer and heater. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that too long an astronotus content in excessively warm water may well cause oxygen starvation in a decorative pet, followed by rapid damage to the nerves and heart muscle. Long stay of fish in too cold water very often affects the immune system, as a result of which astronotus becomes susceptible to many serious and fatal diseases.
It is interesting! In the process of choosing a filtering system, it is very important to pay increased attention to the performance of the unit, and the purchased device should easily cope with cleaning a sufficiently large amount of dirty water.
For the maintenance of adults it is recommended to purchase an aquarium with a volume of at least 140-150 liters for each fish. Among other things, it is necessary to take into account that representatives of the perciformed order and cichlid families are able to produce a sufficiently large amount of waste during their life, so it will be necessary to install a good filtration system in the aquarium and perform 20-30% aquarium water weekly replacement. Only high-quality filtration can prevent the accumulation of heavy toxins in the water, so from time to time it is required to clean the aquarium filters. Acidity should be 6.5-7.5 ph, and water hardness should not exceed 25 dH.
The main feeding ration of adult astronotus is presented:
- large enough bloodworm,
- lean meat
- crushed bovine heart,
- fillet of sea fish varieties,
- special artificial food intended for large cichlids.
All adult members of the perch-like order and cichlid families are quite voracious, therefore, to avoid developing problems with the stomach and intestinal tract, it is recommended to feed such pets only once a day. It is very important to arrange decorative fish fasting days.
It is interesting! Feeding members of the perch-like order and the family of cichlids with beef heart can be no more than once a month, which will prevent the development of obesity and promotes stable reproduction of adult individuals.
Additional recommendations for feeding astronotus include introducing into the diet of aquarium fish a corset, lively medium-sized fish, tadpoles and frogs, squid and shrimp. Also, the food should be enriched with vegetable feed in the form of mashed black bread, oat flakes, chopped spinach and lettuce leaves. It is necessary to take a very competent approach to the question of alternation of all types of food, including not only protein, but also the main vegetable components. However, preference is recommended to give only live middle-sized fish.
Reproduction and offspring
The main, most pronounced differences of adult males of astronotus from sexually mature females of this species:
- Astronotus females are characterized by a more rounded abdomen area,
- males have a greater distance between their eyes,
- the anal fin region of the female’s posterior part has a pronounced pear-shaped form, and the analogous part of the male, as a rule, is smooth and does not have any noticeable bulges,
- most often, males of astronotus are somewhat larger than females of this species of similar age,
- male ventral fins are somewhat longer and have a markedly pointed appearance on the end part than the fins of females.
- The frontal area of the male is often more convex than the female’s forehead.
All the signs listed above are relative, but they can be used as a basic guideline. Fish reach sexual maturity at the age of two years. For reproduction astronotus allocated a total aquarium with a minimum volume of 300-350 liters. or separate spawning 180-200 l with a good filtration system, as well as aeration. At the bottom it is necessary to lay a large and flat, clean stone for spawning. Immediately before spawning in females, a marked ovipositor appears. Adult fish spawn ten times in a row, with an interval of about a month, after which they must rest for eight weeks or a little more.
It is interesting! Astronotus fry grow and develop very unevenly, and among other things they must be sorted in a timely manner so that the larger individuals do not eat the smallest ones.
Successful breeding of astronotus suggests their enhanced feeding of various diets of animal origin, including insect larvae, bloodworms, earthworms, small-sized pieces of lean beef and small live fish. The temperature of the content should rise smoothly by a couple of degrees, and low, but round-the-clock lighting is also required. Part of the water is replaced by boiled. The calf laid by the female is fertilized by the male. The masonry can be left in the care of the parent pair or moved to the incubator. All astronotuses are almost ideal parents and guard their offspring around the clock, removing unfertilized eggs and feeding skin secretion of fry.
Astronotuses are among the rather unpretentious and disease-resistant aquarium fish. However, members of the perch-like order and cichlid families may well be exposed to non-contagious and contagious diseases, most often of bacterial and fungal origin.
The first type of disease is most often associated with impaired conditions of maintenance or nutrition and includes hole disease, or hexamytosis, manifested by erosion of the head and lateral line. In this case, all the affected areas are characterized by the appearance of cavities and cavities. The alleged cause of this disease is a lack of vitamins, calcium and phosphorus, as well as an inadequate diet and insufficient water renewal. For treatment, Metronidazole is used and a transfer is made to the most balanced type of diet.
It is interesting! Representatives of this species live within twelve years, but with the maintenance of the technology of maintenance and rules of care, as well as timely and proper prevention, aquarium fish are quite capable of living for about fifteen years or more.
Infectious or parasitic diseases of astronotus involve the introduction of quarantine measures. It is categorically undesirable to use river fish as the source of some dangerous and serious parasitic diseases in the astronotus feed. Soil of natural origin must be boiled before placing inside the aquarium. Vegetation and decorative elements are treated with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate.
According to experienced aquarists, in order for astronotuses to feel as comfortable as possible, it is necessary to create many places where the fish can hide.
Representatives of the perch-shaped order and the cichlid family like to independently rebuild all the interior decoration in an aquarium according to their preferences, so they often rearrange decorative elements, including snags and stones. Therefore, sharp or dangerous decorations should be completely excluded.
It will also be interesting:
As the practice of keeping astronotus shows, the moth is advisable to use for feeding the young, and adults need large live food. Earthworms should be pre-cleaned in water of earth and dirt. In addition, protein minced meat is well suited for feeding cichlids, which is made from lean beef, squid meat, pieces of liver and heart, and then frozen.
It is important to remember that astronotuses are predatory fish, therefore they should be provided with foods that are as rich in protein as possible.. Nowadays, there are quite a lot of varieties of various special feeds in pet stores, but under natural conditions such representatives of the fauna feed on small fish, so when preparing rations, preference should be given to just such food. You can also use for this purpose insects and aquatic invertebrates, fresh and frozen or sublimated feed.
Important! The amount of food given should be such that the astronotus can eat it in a couple of minutes. Excess feed is not eaten and spoils the aquarium water, causing the development of various diseases.
In general, astronotuses are very beautiful and smart enough fish that, with proper feeding and proper care, are capable of pleasing their host with interesting behavior and some attachment. The optimal space, clean and warm water, the presence of secluded places and protein-rich food make it possible to keep such an unpretentious and very interesting pet for many years of life and health.
Types and description
The astronotus is a fairly large representative of the cichlid species, the value of which reaches 40 cm, in the aquarium a little less - 25–30 cm. It has an oval flattened body and a bright color, which depends on the variety.
At first glance it may seem that the fish have no teeth. Although predators such as piranhas, they come out. The fact is that in cichlid so-called pharyngeal teeth, very imperceptible and small, but sharp. Therefore, the fish can bite very painfully.
There are several types of astronotus:
Brindle. The progenitor of all species of these tropical fish with a gray or brown body and bright crimson or red spots, sometimes with black edging. The fish has large fins, and near the tail there is a vague spot, similar to the eye.
Astronotuses can adapt to the environment by changing body color.
Albino. From the title it is clear that this is a white fish with orange and scarlet patches and large red eyes. This species has large and rounded dorsal and anal fins.
The eyes of an albino astronotus can be pink or red.
Vualevy. The color of this representative is uneven and may be different. The breed has a particularly long fins, creating an unusually spectacular impression when moving.
Vulic astronotus is more prone to parasitic disease due to the structure of the fins and tail
Red. Differs in uniform coloring and lack of spots. It can be bright red and orange. The fins are medium in size with black borders around the edges.
Astronotus red - the most common fish species
Gold. This species appeared as a result of selection and looks different from red only in color. Scales of such astronotus golden and yellow flowers.
Gold astronotus differs from red only in body color
Astronotus belong to the category of predatory fish. They are considered one of the smartest representatives of aquatic fauna and are called "aquarium dogs." Fish eventually get used to the owner and watch him.
It is believed that astronotus eat only the food, which gave the owner. But according to the observations of aquarists, this point of view is somewhat exaggerated. Fish feed from the hands of others, but at the sight of outsiders behave cautiously and keep close to the shelters.
This breed cichlid choose those who do not like the bustle in the aquarium. The movements of the astronotuses are smooth and measured. Вместе с тем они очень агрессивны, особенно в период взросления. По свидетельствам владельцев, представители этой породы цихлидовых могут с открытым ртом бросаться на стекло. Так они реагируют на своё отражение или на посторонних.Settle them together with small and medium representatives of the underwater world is impossible.
Astronotuses get along badly even with each other. Possible intraspecific aggression. Therefore, it is better to settle the fish in separate pairs. Astronotuses can live alone, but in this case it will not be possible to fully observe the habits and behavior of aquatic inhabitants.
Advantages and disadvantages
Before deciding on the acquisition of astronotus, it is necessary to weigh all the pros and cons of such an event.
The maintenance of these underwater inhabitants is quite difficult. Owners of such breeds of fish will have to face the following difficulties:
- a large aquarium with a capacity of at least 300 liters,
- installation of a powerful cleaning system
- the need for frequent water changes
- Difficulties in distinguishing individuals by gender,
- Astronotus hardship with most of the fish,
- the inability to decorate the aquarium with plants.
Nevertheless, astronotus has advantages:
- Intellect - it is interesting to observe the behavior of fish, which are among the most socially sociable underwater inhabitants.
- Omnivorous - they eat fresh, frozen and granulated food from the store.
- Longevity - live astronotus with proper care up to 15 years.
What to feed
Astronotics eat everything that they put in their mouths.
These aquarium dwellers are omnivorous and voracious. Given that cichlid species belong to predatory breeds, 2/3 of their diet should be protein.
Fry are fed with small worms and moths. The menu of matured individuals is more diverse - in the diet include sea fish, beef heart and liver, squids and shrimps. Experienced aquarists do not advise giving meat to chicken and other warm-blooded animals, as it is poorly absorbed by underwater inhabitants.
Of the permissible products make stuffing, but the grinding should be large enough. Often cichlid food simply does not notice fine food, the products remain at the bottom of the aquarium and pollute it.
Adult individuals eat earthworms, which should be pre-soaked, locusts, snails, crickets, and even frogs.
Some, as food for predators, specially grow small fish — swordtails, guppies, and platies.
Vegetative food is obligatory in a diet. This is a source of vitamins for astronotus. Fish enjoy eating lettuce, spinach, green peas, zucchini and Peking cabbage.
Do not refuse fish and special food from the store. But for predators choose food in large granules. It is also recommended to add vitamins to the diet.
They feed the astronotus twice a day. Useful for fish and fasting days. It is important to understand that these representatives of the underwater world do not control the amount of food eaten. It is recommended to give them as much feed as they can absorb in 2 minutes. Overfeeding fish is highly undesirable, it will harm their gastrointestinal tract.
An adult well-fed individual on proper nutrition can live without food for a long time. Aquarists say that the astronotus can easily survive a month of hunger strike. But the fry such discharge is better not to arrange.
Diseases and treatment
Hexamytosis in astronotus can lead to the death of the fish
Like other inhabitants of the underwater world, astronotus are subject to a number of diseases. Particularly susceptible to negative factors are varieties bred by selection — red and gold astronotuses, as well as albinos.
The most common cause of fish diseases is improper feeding and feeding, contaminated biotope. Therefore, the first thing they do in any case is a complete replacement of water. On the question of further treatment, it is necessary to turn to specialists who prescribe drugs, taking into account the peculiarities of the state of astronotus.
The necessary conditions
The downside of the astronotus is that it has to be kept without plants or used artificially.
In nature, astronotus lives in warm and dark freshwater bodies. A similar environment must be created for aquarium fish. It should be noted that the maintenance of these inhabitants of the underwater world will require a large capacity - at least 150 liters of water per adult. Only in such conditions can cichlids be able to actively grow and multiply.
Coarse sand, pebbles, crushed stone or gravel are used as soil. It is important to ensure that the stones do not have sharp edges. These fish love to dig in the ground and can get hurt.
In comparison with other cichlidean ones, astronotus water quality is rather picky. Acidity does not matter much for their vital activity. As well as for the maintenance of other breeds, a compressor and a filter are installed in an aquarium with astronotus.
The recommended temperature for the content - from 22 to 30 degrees. Astronotuses like heat, but can survive at a temperature of 16 degrees, if there is no sudden cooling of the water. It is important to monitor the cleanliness in the cichlide tank. Since adults reach sizes of 25–30 cm, they leave behind a large amount of waste products.
To maintain cleanliness in the aquarium, it is necessary to siphon the soil once a week and replace 30% of the total water in the aquarium. It will be useful to install a second filter and a powerful aeration system.
Not all plant species can withstand the proximity to astronotus. Fish tear the stems and dig up the rhizomes from the ground. Therefore, preference is given to stiff-leaved and floating species. But they will periodically have to be put in place, as the underwater inhabitants from time to time dig up algae. Desperate owners often use artificial plants, securely securing them at the bottom of a large stone.
For decoration, you can take large stones and snags. It is important for the astronotus to organize several shelters. So the fish will feel calmer and safer.
Another important nuance - a reliable cover in the aquarium. Astronotus is a large and strong fish. As an adult, he may try to jump out of the tank and slide the lid if it is not powerful enough.
Who get along in the aquarium
To the question, with whom it is possible to settle an astronotus, aquarists jokingly answer: "With those who do not mind." Small fish have no chance to survive in such a neighborhood. Any creature that cichlid fits in his mouth will serve as food for predators.
The best cohabitants for these representatives of aquatic fauna are predatory and large fish species. If the capacity is large enough, it may be recommended to add to the astronotus mastazembelus, chromis, tsikhlazomu, cyrinidus and clown char.
Astronotus rarely get along with scalars. However, it all depends on the nature of the fish.
In some cases, individuals behave so aggressively that if they do not eat, then they simply kill unwanted roommates.
Fearlessly addicted to cichlids can only large mail soms. It is possible to keep calm with astronotuses and thorny fish - synodonts and pterigoplichts.
Breeding at home
In order to start breeding astronotus, it is necessary to correctly determine the sex of the fish by contacting a specialist.
For the breeding of the astronotus you need to provide all the necessary conditions. It should start with the purchase of several fry, having previously agreed with the razvodchikom that after the formation of a pair of other fish can be returned. By two years, fish reach maturity.
How to distinguish the female from the male
In the natural environment, the male differs from the female by its larger size, pointed fins and bright colors. In artificial conditions, it is very difficult to determine the cichlid sex. You can try to do this for a number of signs. However, it is only possible to single out a female at the time of spawning.
Characteristic features of the male:
- eyes are far apart
- more prominent forehead
- long dorsal and anal fin,
- flat back with no noticeable bulges.
By size, the sex can only be determined if the individuals of the same age have grown in the same aquarium. In this case, the male will be larger. When buying in the store for such a sign do not pay attention.
Breeding and spawning
At first, the fry feed on the skin secretions of the parents.
Before breeding, the couple is deposited in a separate aquarium and stimulate spawning by raising the temperature and frequent water changes. Before spawning, the color of the fish becomes brighter, and the male can behave aggressively. So that he calms down, the pair is divided for a couple of days with a glass partition.
For spawning a flat stone is laid in the center of the aquarium, which mature individuals clean their lips. The female lays eggs, which are taken care of by both parents: they fan the fins, throw away the spoiled eggs, protect the newly formed larvae. It is important to ensure complete peace of fish during the spawning period. Astronotuses are fearful and in a panic can eat caviar.
The larvae turn into fry after about a week. At this time, they can begin to feed daphnia and Cyclops. In addition, newborn fish feed on skin secretion produced by their parents in the first days after spawning. It's funny to watch as youngsters try to keep close to adult fish.
Fry grow unevenly, so they need to constantly sort and sit down. By a month of age, astronotuses, as a rule, reach 2–3 cm. When growing fry, they are careful that the water is not too soft. The total hardness below 1.5 mEq / l threatens fish with all sorts of diseases.
How many live at home
Astronotus is called aquarium long-livers. Their life expectancy, subject to the necessary living conditions, reaches 15 years. Up to 12 years, these underwater pets do not lose the ability to reproduce.
For those who are willing to devote sufficient time to caring for an aquarium, astronotuses will become a real pride. And watching the life of these large, beautiful and intelligent fish will bring a lot of pleasure.
Habitat in nature
Astronotus was first described in 1831. His homeland in South America: in the Amazon, in the Paraná River, Rio Paraguay, Rio Negro. Artificially brought to China, Australia, Florida, where he quickly acclimatized and began to exterminate native species. In its natural range it is considered a commercial fish, the taste of which is very much appreciated.
In nature, he lives in various biotopes, both in large rivers and in canals, ponds, lakes with a silt or sandy bottom. It feeds on fish, crayfish, worms and insects.
The astronotus fish has a strong body, an oval shape with a powerful head, and large, fleshy lips. In nature, they can reach 35 cm in length, but less in an aquarium, about 20-25 cm. With good care, astronotuses live 10 years or more.
Individuals living in nature are usually painted modestly, dark in color with orange spots on the gills and back. The caudal fin has a large black spot, edged with orange, for which they got their name - oculate. Both wild form and man-made are famous for their ability to quickly change color under stress, during a fight or protection of the territory.
Juveniles differ from their parents in coloring; they are dark with white spots on the body. As already mentioned, there are many different color forms: red, tiger, albino, marble.
Although the aquarium astronotus is an interesting and easy-to-keep fish, it is important not to be deceived by its size in the juvenile age, as well as its peaceful behavior. Most Oscars are sold in sizes of about 3 cm and at this time are contained in a common aquarium with other fish. However, do not be fooled and do not buy yourself an astronotus in a common, 100-liter aquarium! It grows very quickly, for normal development it needs an aquarium volume of 400 liters, and to feed it is quite expensive. In addition, it is a predatory fish that needs to be kept as a pair in a separate aquarium or with large neighbors in a very large aquarium.
But do not be upset. If you are firmly sure that you want just such a fish, then it is easy to contain astronotus, and in return you will get a beautiful, intelligent and almost hand-made fish.
In nature, these fish are omnivores, they eat a variety of food, including: insects, larvae, zooplankton, plants and algae, fish, invertebrates and amphibians.
In an aquarium, this is extremely unpretentious in feeding fish, although it is preferable to give them animal feed. It is best to feed with artificial high-quality food for large cichlids - pellets, pellets, tablets. The benefit of them is now a wide choice, from Chinese to European manufacturers. Additionally, give live or frozen food. They love earthworms and crawls, but also eat crickets, shrimps, fish fillets, mussels, tadpoles, grasshoppers and other large food. Naturally, they are given fish as well, for example, guppies or veiltails, but this is best done only if you are completely sure that the fish are healthy and will not carry the disease.
Astronotuses are very greedy and insatiable fish, so it is important not to overfeed them, otherwise illness and death are possible.
At one time, the cichlid was fed meat of mammals, but now it must be avoided. The fact is that due to the high content of protein and fat in such meat, it is poorly digested by fish, leading to obesity and dystrophy of the internal organs. It is better to feed the same beef heart once a week in order not to overload the fish.
Maintenance and care in the aquarium
Keeping aquarium fish astronotus is simple enough, provided that you provide them with fresh and clean water. The aquarium is a closed system and regardless of its volume, it still needs cleaning and maintenance. Over time, the level of ammonia and nitrates in the water rises, the fish slowly poisoning. Since they are very sensitive to poisoning with these substances, it is important to replace about 20% of the water in the aquarium every week and siphon the soil. In the ground accumulated remnants of food, rot and often because of this, the most problems with the content of astronotus.
Remember that the astronotus in the aquarium litter in the process of eating, the remnants of food scatter in all directions. For example, they spit out portions of fish, although the same tablets are eaten almost completely. So if you give live fish food, then you need to siphon the soil and change the water more often.
Young astronotus will comfortably live in an aquarium of 100 liters, but when they become adults, they will need 400 or more liters. If you plan to keep a couple for breeding, and even with other large fish, you need a much larger aquarium to reduce the number of fights. Astronotuses love water with a high oxygen content, but do not like the flow, so you need to either use aeration or supply water from an external filter through a flute located above the surface of the water.
Since the fish is very large and quite active, make sure that the equipment and decor are installed securely, and even better have protection. Heaters are best closed with large stones or other decor. Oscars can make a game with a decor, attacking it, but because of its size it can end in decor badly. If your fish are prone to this behavior, then you can deceive them by throwing any object that will distract their attention from the equipment.
As the soil is best to use the sand that they love to dig. Plants are not needed, they will either be dug up or eaten. However, you can try to plant in the pots hard-leaved species, such as Anubias.
And yes, if you are thinking of creating a certain scape in an aquarium so that everything looks beautiful, then remember - the main one in the aquarium is not you, but the oscar. Astronotuses will dig up and transfer everything that they see fit.
It is highly desirable to cover the aquarium, thus you will avoid splashes during feeding and your fish will not jump out.
- Parameters for content:
How to distinguish the sex of astronotus? To distinguish the female from the male is very difficult. Guaranteed, only during spawning due to the presence of the female egg ovipositor. Razvodchiki usually buy about a dozen of youngsters and grow them together, thus the fish themselves choose a pair. It is believed that the female astronotus is smaller than the male, but this is a relative sign. The real difference is the appearance of the egg deposit, with which it deposits eggs. But, it turns out a vicious circle - as it appears only during spawning. Just look at the photo below to see how similar they are.