Birds

How to hatch chicks in an incubator: the secrets of farmers for good brood chicks

The use of incubators for breeding poultry allows chicks to be removed in significant quantities without the use of chickens. This method of breeding is significantly different from placing chicks under the hen.

This method of breeding obeys certain rules and laws, and the process requires constant monitoring by breeders.

Pros and cons of using an incubator

Get young (newborn chickens) for feeding can be three main ways:

  1. Buy ready brood in the farmers market,
  2. Breed young with hen chickens,
  3. Catch young stock using an incubator.

The price of hatchlings in the market includes all the costs of chickens, so this method is considered the most costly, and the use of chickens requires the participation of an experienced farmer.

The main advantages of using an incubator include:

  • Low price
  • Comparative ease of operation
  • The possibility of breeding a large number of chicks,
  • Low labor costs.
Modern incubators make it possible to breed hundreds of chickens on a monthly basis, in order to breed the same number of chickens with the help of laying hens, such chickens would require several dozen, and taking care of them has a number of difficulties.

The disadvantages of using an incubator include the need for a continuous supply of electricity and constant monitoring, but use of uninterruptible power supply units and automation of incubator maintenance processes allow to level these minuses.

Equipment installation

Regardless of whether the incubator is manufactured independently or purchased from a store, there are a number of necessary requirements for it:

  • The incubator must have a thermostat, a thermometer and a device for controlling humidity,
  • The frame of the incubator should be made of wood or eco-plastic,
  • The incubator should be kept in a dry and clean room with a constant temperature from +15 to +22 degrees,
  • Must have removable walls and covers with protection against falling inside or offset,
  • The dimensions of the non-automated incubator must be at least 30 centimeters in length and width.
  • There should be adjustable vents in the walls of the incubator.

The minimum dimensions of an incubator without a pallet with the function of autoturn are necessary for quick and easy turning of eggs by hand.

The thermostat is a heating device for maintaining the temperature inside the incubator within the required standard at each stage. The adjustment should be smooth and allow the temperature to change by a fraction of a degree. All heating elements and wiring must be isolated from the water tank to maintain the desired level of humidity.

Eggs should be of approximately the same size, since the incubation period depends on the size, and with equal sizes, all chickens will hatch with a difference of a couple of days.

It is important to remember that the eggs chosen for incubation should have no external damage to the shell in the form of chips and cracks, and the eggs should not have an unpleasant smell. Eggs should be discarded if there is a smell:

  • Mold
  • Rotten
  • Grapes
  • Strong odor of alkali.
Before buying eggs, you should check using a special device, an ovoscope, which allows you to identify some pathologies in the embryo and discard such eggs.

On a lumen of an ovoskop, a healthy egg must have a transparent protein, a pronounced yolk in the center of the egg, which moves freely when it is rotated. As well as an air bubble located near the inner wall.

Pathologies that can be detected by an ovoscope include:

  • Stains
  • Bacterial cuff,
  • Krasyuk,
  • Tech
  • Bloody inclusions
  • Prisushka.

Spots look on a gleam through an ovoskop as dark inclusions in the sizes from several millimeters to one and a half centimeters. These inclusions indicate damage to the egg contents by putrefactive bacteria. Bacterial cuff in the form of a uniform greenish tint also indicates the unsuitability of the egg for breeding chickens.

Krasyuk is characterized by a red-tinged egg in the lumen of an ovoscope and the absence of a yolk, which indicates a violation of the integrity of the yolk and its spreading.

Ascicle is the sticking of the yolk to the wall of the shell and its fixation when the egg is turned against the light.

Tech is characterized by dark inclusions in the egg due to damage to the thin membrane.

Bloody inclusions indicate damage to the blood vessels of the embryo and a high probability of development of a chicken with abnormalities, so eggs with even minor blood stains should be discarded.

You should know that eggs laid in the evening are not recommended for incubation, as they are less viable than the morning eggs, due to the peculiarities of the effect of daily rhythms on the hormonal background of laying hens.

Incubation stage

After installing the incubator and buying eggs, you can proceed to incubation. For this you need:

  1. Rinse the incubator with a disinfectant solution,
  2. Dry and air the incubator,
  3. Turn on the heating device and the autoturn pallet (if available) one day before the laying of eggs to check whether the temperature condition is stable.
  4. Simultaneously with the test inclusion of the incubator, purchased eggs must be brought into a room with a temperature of +25 degrees to equalize the temperature inside the eggs,
  5. After the day, lay the eggs in the incubator in a horizontal position,
  6. If there is no autoturn function in the incubator, it is necessary to mark the eggs with a cross and a zero on both sides before laying the eggs.

You should know that when pre-curing eggs in the room before laying, the temperature in this room should not rise above 26.5 degrees, otherwise the chickens may develop developmental pathologies.

The whole stage of incubation is divided into four main periods:

  1. Initial (from 1st to 8th day),
  2. Main (from the 8th to the 14th day)
  3. Final (from the 15th to the 18th day),
  4. Hatching period (from the 18th to the 20-21th day).

At the initial stage, the formation of cardiovascular systems and embryos of vital organs takes place. Blood vessels and the heart are visible on the lumen of the ovoscope, but it is not recommended to remove the eggs from the incubator during this period. At this stage, it is necessary to turn the eggs every 5 hours; the ventilation windows should be kept closed. Temperature should be maintained in the range of 37.8 - 37.9 degrees, and the humidity should be 55-65 percent.

In the main period, a skeleton skeleton and muscles are formed in the embryos, the beak is released. When switching to the main period, it is necessary to increase the frequency of egg turning (every 3.5 hours), and also to start airing, opening the holes in the walls for 6 minutes twice a day. During ventilation, it is recommended to turn off the heating element for better air circulation.

Humidity should be gradually reduced so that by the end of the main period it was 45%. The temperature should be maintained in the region of 37.3 degrees (the tolerance is not more than 0.1 degrees). On the 10th day, the eggs should darken with the lumen of the ovoscope.

At the final stage, internal tissues and organs consisting of highly differentiated cells are finalized. At this stage, the temperature should be left unchanged, and the ventilation time increased to 15 minutes. It should begin to increase the humidity of air up to 55%, and the eggs should be turned over six times a day.

By the end of the final stage (on the 18th day), the first cursed eggshells should appear, and a faint noise can be heard inside the eggs. With the appearance of curses, you should stop turning the eggs and increase the number of airings to four per day. The temperature should be reduced to 37.0 degrees. When hatching the first chicks from the incubator, remove the container with water.

During the entire incubation period, temperature and humidity should be monitored every hour (in the absence of an automated thermostat) or every 4 hours (with an automatic regulator).

Possible difficulties

The main problem arising at the stage of incubating chickens is the violation of the temperature regime. This violation can be of two types:

Most often, the temperature in the incubator falls due to a power outage, a malfunction of the automatic thermostat, or a voltage drop in the network, which often happens in garden and dacha settlements. To avoid a sudden de-energizing or voltage drop, you must install a voltage regulator and have a backup power source in the form of a battery.

Critical for chickens is a drop in temperature below +35 degrees.

If the electricity is turned off and the temperature drops, it is urgent to take the following measures:

  • Close the vent holes completely,
  • Cover the incubator with hot water heaters,
  • Troubleshoot the network.

Hot water bottles will help maintain the temperature in the incubator within one and a half hoursfor which you need to restore electricity.

Overheating is no less dangerous than cooling, since at a temperature above 43 degrees the protein begins to fold. If overheating, you need to quickly open the incubator cover and turn off the thermostat for 30 minutes, then restore the previous mode. Overheating occurs most often due to a malfunction of the automatic thermostat relay, so it must be replaced in order to prevent reheating.

Do broilers rush and should they be left for this purpose? The answer is in our article.

Detailed instructions for building a chicken coop for broilers are here.

Brood care

After hatching, do not immediately remove the chickens from the incubator; let them dry out and adjust to the open space. It takes about 30 minutes.

Then the chickens are placed in a box with a height of 0.5 m, at the bottom of which a thick cardboard or natural fabric without a pile is placed. In the center of the box set the heating pad with a temperature of about 39 degrees, for this use:

  • Automatic heaters,
  • Hot water filled bottles
  • Glass three-liter jars, heated lamp on top (only for daytime).

As the bottled water cools, it needs to be changed.

In the first days of life, it is important to observe the temperature and light conditions, gradually preparing the chickens to live in natural conditions.

The temperature on the first day is maintained at 35 degrees, gradually reducing it to +29 by the third day of chickens and to +25 by the end of the first week of life.

In the room for the hatched chickens, you should install lighting at the rate of one lamp 100 W per 7 sq. M. m. premises. The first day the lighting is kept on constantly. From the second day, for the formation of natural biorhythms in chickens, the day-night mode is set with the lights off from 21.00 to 6 in the morning.

At the time of turning off the lighting box with chickens covered with a cloth to keep warm. It is important to ensure that the floor in the room is not cold.

To feed the chickens to start in the first day of life, for feeding use:

  • Millet,
  • Yolk of eggs ground with semolina,
  • Crushed barley.
Food for chickens should be as crumbly as possible, and water can only be boiled with water.

From the second day you can add low-fat cottage cheese, crushed wheat to the ration, and instead of water, give kefir, diluted with water in half. You also need to give the egg shells, after clearing it from the inner film and grinding. The shell is necessary for the normal functioning of the digestive system and calcium intake.

On the third day of life, you can begin to give greens, best in the form of dandelion leaves or liver grass.

For normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and the prevention of diarrhea, once every 2-3 days chickens should be watered with a yarberry decoction.

For nutrition, you can also use special feed, they contain all the necessary vitamins and nutrients in the right proportions.

So, breeding chickens with an incubator is an economical way to get young animals for beginners and inexperienced poultry farmers. To obtain healthy chickens, it is necessary to exercise careful control at all stages of incubation, as well as to ensure proper care of the hatched chicks in the first days of their life.

The principle of selection of eggs for the incubator

Successful completion depends not only on the efforts of the owner, but also on the quality of the selected eggs. That is why, before breeding chickens in an incubator, pay utmost attention to the pledged material. You will be surprised, but the artificial process begins with chicken. You need to make sure that the hen is not sick and does not have an infection or genetic diseases. Otherwise, the genetics of the chickens will also be violated. Next, pay attention to these indicators:

  • no smell, and there may be deviations - caustic, moldy, putrid and other "flavors",
  • freshness - you can keep them until the bookmark is not more than a week,
  • compliance with the rules of storage - the temperature is not lower than 10-12 degrees, and those who have been in the refrigerator can already be disposed of,

  • form - for chicken slightly narrowed at one end without grooves and growths,
  • no damage - carefully examine the shell for cracks or chips, found - remove,
  • normal weight is about 50-60 g, because of overly small stunted chicks will appear, and large ones may turn out to be two-handed.

Important! The egg shell is porous so that air can penetrate through it, and it also has its own special microflora. Never rub eggs or wash them.

Possible egg disturbances during transmission

Checking a bookmark necessarily involves scanning with a special overscope device. In the process of scanning should pay attention to the changes and differences in shades of content. You should find the air chamber and the yolk. Often it is located in the center or a little closer to the blunt tip. Do not take specimens in which the yolk is adjacent to the shell inside.

The chamber for air is in the dull tip. Its normal volume spoon, and if it is smaller, but such an egg should not be taken. Eggs in the selection, as well as in the process of hatching chickens should be inspected, utilizing specimens with abnormalities in development. Before starting the process, remember what pathologies of embryo maturation are.

  • Stains. They tend to appear under the shell of the shell, and are caused by various kinds of bacteria. The specks can be of different sizes and shades.
  • Bacterial cuff. This is a bacteria defeat of decay, in which the protein becomes greenish, and liquefied. The whole egg is opaque in this case.
  • Prisushka. When it yolk pops up and tightly dries to the inside of the shell. The egg at the same time sharply and unpleasantly smells.
  • Bloody stain. On the surface of the yolk and in the middle of the protein, various kinds of blood inclusions are observed.
  • Krasyuk. When the lumen of the contents looks like a monotonous mass of reddish hue, but the yolk and the air chamber is not.
  • Tek. Developed after damage to the shell under the shell during storage for more than 24 hours.

Important! If any of these problems are detected, the egg requires immediate disposal. Boil or fry for eating such instances can not.

Loading eggs into the incubator

Immediately before leaving the eggs in the home incubator, the material and the instrument should be prepared. The internal surfaces of the device are thoroughly disinfected and ventilated, and the eggs are left to lie at room temperature for about 8 hours so that they warm up slowly and evenly. Mark with a marker or felt-tip pen a blunt end with a cross, so that it is easier to control the process of turning over.

Optimum conditions of detention

The correct temperature and optimum humidity must be kept constant in the device. Even fluctuations in 0.5-1 degrees can lead to inhibition of embryo development and even to their death. After loading, the temperature should rise to 37 ° C for 3-4 hours, and after that it will change several times, depending on the ripening period.

Incubation algorithm

The maturation of the embryo at home consists of 4 stages. For each of them there are some rules of content.

  • Stage 1 (1-7 days). The formation of the circulatory system, the heart and the initial form of the internal organs. At this stage, airing is not required, but by the end of the term, the embryo already needs oxygen. The temperature norm is 37.8 ° C, and the humidity is kept at around 55%. Eggs turn over 4 times a day, that is, every 6 hours. At the same time, it is extremely undesirable to open the device.

Important! It is better to supply the device with an automatic scrolling tray.

  • Stage 2 (8-14 days). In this time period, the beak and the skeleton are already formed at the embryo. The temperature remains in the same position, but the humidity in stages for 3-4 days should be reduced to 45%. At that, it is necessary to change the position of eggs every 4 hours, which means 6 times per day. Airing is necessary to ensure access of oxygen 2 times a day for 5 minutes.

  • Stage 3 (15-18 days). Переворачивайте закладку 6 раз в 24 часа, при этом проветривайте уже 15-20 минут дважды в день. Увеличьте уровень влажности до 50%, а температуру оставьте прежней. При удачном выведении цыплят, уже в конце этого срока они начинают издавать едва различимые звуки и поворачиваться под скорлупой.

  • 4 этап (19-21 сутки). Яйца поворачивать не нужно, так как цыплята уже довольно сильные, и делают это самостоятельно внутри. Airing time is about 5 minutes twice a day. Humidity increase to 65%, and reduce the temperature to 37.3 degrees. At the end of this time period, the chicks are hatching.

As a rule, chicks hatch from miniature eggs first. After that, they need to be given time to dry out, gain strength, and only after that the brood moves either under the hen or under the red lamp.

Control and possible complications

To your attention are the secrets of farmers who systematically breed chickens:

  • Even the most modern device and the most attentive owners are not insured against emergencies. To protect yourself and the brood from unforeseen interruptions in electricity, buy incubators with an additional alternative power source.

  • If the appliance overheats for a while, open the appliance door and cool the contents.
  • When supercooling, place the camera with hot water heaters for a couple of hours.
  • Follow the schedule of care, carefully observe how many days have passed since the bookmarking, at what stage.

  • Do the first scanning with an otoscope for 6-10 days, since only on the 6th day you should see the blood vessels and the heart, and on the 11th day the contents should dim on one side.

Important! As soon as the chick peeled through the shell, it is absolutely impossible to help him. You can not scratch, chip off the shell, as the chick must cope on their own.

  • Do not be sad, sometimes it happens that novice chickens receive as a result only a third of the chicks from the tab.

Now you have learned how to get the chicks right in the incubator. Your attentiveness and compliance with the rules will allow you to get a good brood. Or maybe you have advice and recommendations to readers from personal experience? Share in the comments.

What breeds of chickens can be hatched in an incubator at home?

In terms of incubation, it is possible to grow chickens of most breeds, both meat and egg. Popular among poultry farmers are such breeds as:

  • Chickens Brahma. Incubation of chickens Brahma proceeds according to the standard scheme.
  • For the conditions of the incubator fit eggs COBB - 500.
  • High hatchability in chickens master gray.
  • Kuchinsky yellow chicken is suitable for breeding in an incubator.

Incubation of chickens Lohman Brown at home is excluded. The scheme for the removal of this industrial cross-country is too complicated.

Features breeding chicken Loman Brown

The hatched yellow chicken from the chicken egg Loman Brown does not inherit the qualitative attributes of the parents. This is due to the peculiarity of breeding breed Lohman Brown. If you try to create the necessary conditions for keeping young stock, you can save only some characteristics of the breed, but this is not enough for business efficiency.

The Germanic breed of chickens, Lohman Brown, is well established in Russia and is popular with farmers.

For breeding chickens Lohman Brown poultry farmers buy chicks or hatching eggs from genetic poultry farms.

Features breeding chickens KOBB - 500

The most popular Broller chickens - COBB - 500. This is due to the high survival rate of chicks - 97%. Also for chickens of the KOBB - 500 breed are characterized by a yellowish skin color and a quick weight gain. Farmers slaughter COBB chickens - 500 already on reaching 1 month. For the incubation of eggs COBB - 500 fit the scheme given in this article.

Incubator selection

The device essentially replaces the hen chickens, so that artificial incubation will bear fruit, the incubator must meet a number of requirements:

  • the ability to maintain the desired temperature and protect against temperature fluctuations,
  • preservation of suitable humidity
  • airing function
  • automatic mode support,
  • function of permutation or rotation of the trays.

Automatic incubators are expensive, but they practically free the farmer from work. There are mechanical and homemade incubators.

Even if you follow all the rules of incubation, the chick will not hatch out of an obviously unfit for hatching eggs or a sick individual will be born. Before proceeding with the inspection of the eggs themselves, you must make sure that they were laid by a healthy chicken.

Egg selection criteria:

  • Smell, or rather its absence. Any sharp smell (rot, mildew) should alert.
  • Size - a sickly chicken is likely to hatch from a small egg, and a large one may turn out to be a double yolk. Suitable egg weight - 50/60 g.
  • Form - must be perfect, bumps and dents are excluded. They are also rejected too round or vice versa oblong.
  • Freshness - the egg should be demolished no more than 7 days ago. An egg is suitable if it was stored at a temperature not lower than 10-12 ° C.
  • Damage to the egg is not allowed. The presence of cracks and dents in the shell indicates its unsuitability for incubation. Spots of dirt in large quantities should also be alerted, in a small amount they are permissible.

It is strictly forbidden to wash or rub eggs, as the shell microflora can be easily damaged.

Whether an egg is suitable or not, a special egg scanning device, the ovoscope, will help. With it, you can easily check whether the yolk and the air sac are properly positioned. The yolk should be located in the middle or slightly closer to the blunt edge. The air bag is located near the blunt end. An egg is not suitable if the yolk is too close to the shell or the air sac is less than a teaspoon.

Translucent eggs at the stage of selection, as well as during cultivation, can reveal various pathologies of embryo development:

  • The presence of bacteria in the egg can produce spots of various colors and shapes.
  • An opaque egg indicates damage from putrefactive bacteria — a bacterial cuff.
  • Prisushka - if the yolk prisokh to the shell and the egg has a pungent odor.
  • Blood inclusions - a signal of the presence of pathology.
  • The uniform structure of the orange color and the difficulty in viewing the yolk and the air chamber indicate the presence of a dye.
  • If the membrane shell was damaged, translucency will show the flow.

Egg laying

Eggs must be kept in a warm room before being placed in the incubator. The temperature of the eggs themselves should be 25 ⁰C.

The incubator should be cleaned and sanitized during preparation for laying eggs. It is recommended to check in advance the mode of incubation. The temperature in the incubator before laying should reach 36 36C.

Egg laying is most often done with a blunt end up. If the incubator is automatic, then follow the tilt of the tray, the temperature and humidity is not necessary. When using a mechanical device, you need to monitor the indicators yourself.

Horizontal laying of eggs is possible; in this case, the trays should be rotated 180 degrees.

It is best to start laying eggs in the evening (around 6:00 pm) with large eggs. After 4 hours, lay medium, even after 4 hours the smallest. So brood will be the most uniform.

First period

At this stage all important organs are formed. The first three days it is necessary to maintain the temperature at 37.8 - 38 ⁰С, humidity - 65-70%. On day 4, the temperature must be reduced to 37.5 ⁰С, and humidity to 55%.

If the incubator does not automatically turn over the tray, then it is necessary to perform turns up to 3 times per day at regular intervals. This should be done carefully and without delay. As a reminder, you can make notes on the egg.

Third period

This incubation period is characterized by the fact that the embryo has a down and a horny layer on the claws. The temperature can be reduced to 37.2 - 37.5 degrees, the humidity is kept at a high level - 70% and higher. The necessary microclimate conditions are additionally created by fans.

At this stage, the chicken in the egg is checked on the ovoscope. The circulatory system should be visible.

On the 19th - 20th day, it is necessary to turn the eggs to the side, leaving enough space. More eggs do not turn over.

The fourth period

During this period, you can observe how chicks hatch. Chicks tear the air bag, then the shell. First, the chick captures the air, and then publishes a squeak. After that, the chickens open their sockets, and they come out of the egg.

Hatching chicks are transferred from the incubator under the hen or into the brooder.

Inspection of chicks

Inspection of egg species is carried out six hours after hatching, meat chickens are assessed after 10 hours.

A newborn chick should have the following external signs:

  • the umbilical cord is closed, there are no traces of blood,
  • the yellow chick is shiny and soft to the touch,
  • eyes not muddy,
  • hard beak
  • the wings are tight to the body,
  • Chicken is active, reacts to noises.

If the breeder is important is the sex of the chicken, then there are several simple ways to determine the sex of the chicken:

  1. If you take the chick by the scrub or the legs, the cockerels will hang peacefully. Chickens in the first case will tighten the legs, and in the second pull your head up.
  2. In terms of incubation, chickens hatch first.
  3. In the hen, the long feathers on the wings alternate with the short ones, and in the rooster the feathers are of the same size.

In an industrial setting, in order to distinguish the rooster from the hen, they inspect the cloaca of chickens for the presence of a sexual tubercle.

For farmers engaged in breeding egg chickens, it will be interesting to learn how to determine the sex of a chicken by egg:

  1. The definition of the egg shell from the side of the sharp edge - by the presence of tubercles and a ring when probing, it can be concluded that the rooster will hatch.
  2. While the egg is being examined by an ovoscope, attention should be paid to the position of the air sac. If it is located strictly in the middle, then a male individual will hatch from the egg.

Care for chickens after incubation

The incubation of chickens in the incubator also involves caring for the chicks until they are sold or before they get stronger - the first week of life.

When the yellow chick is born naturally, the chicken is caring, the responsibility for the chicken after incubation falls on the shoulders of the poultry farmer. The first few days the chicks are kept in a box.

The content of chickens in the first 7 days of life requires compliance with several rules:

  • Temperature mode. Keep newborn chicks should be at a temperature of 30 ⁰C. After 5 days, it can be reduced to 28 ⁰C.
  • Lighting should be around the clock.
  • Hygiene. Care must be taken to keep the box clean. On the bottom of the paper creeps or soft fabric, which changes daily. After 5 days it is better to transfer chicks to cages with a fine-meshed floor and a patella panel.
  • Landing density Daily chickens will feel comfortable when seating 25-30 animals per 1 sq. M. It is necessary to increase the space from 4 weeks of age.
  • Feeding. It is necessary to begin feeding not earlier than after 12 hours. Cornmeal is ideal as a first meal. On the second day, other cereals (semolina, wheat) and non-fat dairy products are added. From the third day greens are added. In order for the yellow chicken to eat grass easily, it is necessary to scald it with boiling water, chop and mix it with cereal. It is necessary to carry out feeding in the first week of life every 2-3 hours.
  • Drink. The main source of drinking is clean water. In the first hours it will be useful to feed the chickens with glucose solution. Starting from the second day, you can pour sour milk from the drinker.

Defective

During the selection, as well as during the period of chickens hatching in the incubator at home, it is necessary to inspect the contents and dispose of eggs with developmental pathologies. Before breeding chicks in the incubator, remember the possible violations during the maturation of the embryo.

Usually appear under the shell, caused by various bacteria. Spots may have different shades and sizes.

Bloody stain

At the same time, blood inclusions are present on the surface of the yolk or in the protein.

When ovoskopii content looks the same with a reddish tinge. Yolk and the air chamber is not visible.

Pathology develops after damage to the membrane of the membrane during storage for more than one day.

When any of these pathologies egg must be disposed of, fry or cook them for eating cannot be.

Incubation period

From the moment of laying eggs their incubation begins. The incubation period ends after the last chick has been bitten. The incubation of chickens in an incubator differs from the elimination of goslings in terms of incubation, the maintenance of temperature and humidity.

Control of incubation conditions

The temperature and humidity in the chicken egg incubator must be monitored every hour. Even a slight change (0.5-1 ° C) will result in a slower growth or death of the embryo. After loading the eggs, the temperature should rise to 37 ° C in 3-4 hours. During the entire incubation period, the temperature and humidity will change several times.

Incubation schedule

Embryo maturation is divided into 4 stages, briefly given in the table of incubation of chicken eggs in the incubator.

Stage 1 - from 1 to 7 days. Formed heart, circulatory system and the beginnings of internal organs. During this period, airing is not required, but by the end of the embryo oxygen is already needed. The best temperature is 37.8 ° C. Humidity is maintained at around 55%. Eggs need to be turned every 6 hours, that is, 4 times a day. At the same time, it is not recommended to open the incubator.

The incubator is better to provide a tray with automatic turning of eggs.

Stage 2 - from 8 to 14 days. During this time, a skeleton and a beak are formed at the embryo. The temperature is the same as in the previous period, but the humidity is reduced in stages over a period of 3-4 days to 45%. Change the position of the eggs should be every 4 hours - 6 times a day. You also need to ventilate the eggs for oxygen, this should be done 2 times a day for 5 minutes.

Stage 3 - from 15 to 18 days. It is also necessary to turn the eggs 6 times a day, while airing is increased to 15-20 minutes, too, 2 times a day. Humidity is increased to 50%, the temperature is made the same. At the end of the period, with a successful breeding, the chickens begin to make barely audible sounds and roll over in the egg.

Stage 4 - from 19 to 21 days. First of all, they stop turning eggs, the chickens are strong enough and do it themselves. Reduce airing time to 5 minutes twice a day. Humidity is increased to 65%, the temperature is reduced to 37.3 ° C. At the end of this period, hatching occurs in the incubator.

If you follow all the listed rules and monitor the operation of the instruments, then the brood will turn out to be numerous. From small eggs chicks are selected first. After hatching, the chicks are allowed to dry out, gain strength, after which the chickens from the incubator are moved under the hen or heater. The conditions in it for chicks are not suitable. After all chicks hatch, the incubator is cleaned and disinfected.

Control and likely complications

Even the best quality incubators and responsible owners are not insured against emergencies. To protect yourself and your eggs from power outages, purchase incubators with a spare power source. If the offspring is overheated, it is necessary to open the incubator for a while and cool the eggs. When supercooling, you can impose a hot water heater on the camera for 2-3 hours. Minor fluctuations in temperature and humidity will not destroy the young, but all these procedures should be carried out immediately.

Of course, be sure to adhere to the grooming schedule for the eggs, and you also need to carefully monitor how many days the chickens hatch in the incubator. Crosses and toes on the eggs should help orient in turning the eggs.

It is also necessary to control the development of chickens with the help of ovoscopy. All defective eggs must be disposed of immediately. Translating is recommended to do on the 6th and 11th day. On the sixth day, blood vessels and the heart should be visible. On the eleventh day, the egg with the sharp side should darken.

All the nuances of incubation.

In this part we will tell you the most useful information about the incubation process, the table and the modes, we will consider later, now we will understand the duration of this process and the periods, and there are not a lot of them 4. As you probably know, chickens are born already 3 weeks, exactly 21 days after the bookmark, what happens at this time:

  1. The first week of the development of the embryo.
  2. 8-11 day, the second period.
  3. Day 12 - the first chicks squeaks.
  4. Hatching process.

Embryo Development in Chicken Egg

zoo-club-org