Pig breeding is popular with both farmers and owners of private farms. Today breeds of pigs of various directions are bred. Therefore, buying pigs or parent flocks, choose the option that meets the requirements of the breeder and is suitable for specific conditions. The most popular are bacon animals, which include the highly productive breed of Duroc pigs.
The breed Duroc was bred in the 19th century by the efforts of the American pig breeders, who set the main task of getting the animals maximum productivity. When breeding, Guinean red pigs and Berkshire were crossed. Their offspring was carefully selected, and as a result of a systematic breeding for 3-4 decades, we managed to get pigs with persistent breed characteristics. Officially, duroc breed pigs were registered in the USA in 1883.
External data of animals
The pig has a characteristic appearance. The main distinguishing feature is chestnut color, not peculiar to other breeds and inherited from Guinean ancestors. In some animals it is almost cherry.
Duroc has a cherry color
The length of the body of the female reaches 180 cm, and the males up to 185 cm. The line of the back looks like a slightly convex smooth arc. Ham is well developed. Legs are strong, straight. A neatly shaped head, not large, not having a steep drop from forehead to nose. The ears are directed forward, partially standing with hanging tips.
Duroc ears have bent tips
The mass of animals is indicative. Boars gain weight up to 380 kg, and some record individuals - up to 410 kg. Sows weigh from 300 kg to 350 kg. The female brings in an average of 10 to 15 piglets. Breed description is attractive for pig breeders, therefore Duroc pigs are always in demand.
All breeds of productive animals have pros and cons. Merits Durok are:
- Precocity (surpasses even remontant body pigs),
- Delicious meat,
- Uniformity of mascara,
- Grazing allowance
- Calm character
- Survival in groups.
Duroc pigs also have disadvantages, which are significant for a number of breeders and become the reason for the refusal to purchase representatives of this breed. Disadvantages These pigs are:
- Heat loving - the pigsty is heated for them, even in the south of Russia, as sub-zero temperatures for African-rooted pigs are fatal,
- The need for high protein foods,
- Complicated care unlike other bacon rocks,
- Predisposition to rhinitis (runny nose),
- The high cost of animals.
Because of the minuses, representatives of the Duroc pig breed are often bred on an industrial scale or on private farms specializing in the sale of meat, with livestock of 100 heads, when all investments in a heated pigsty and feed will pay off. Also, when keeping these animals it is necessary to take into account the costs of various vitamin and mineral supplements to feed.
The characteristic of the Duroc breed of pigs attracts them with early maturity, but for rapid growth they need special feeding. The diet of the animal is diverse, and it consists of:
- Fish waste
- Meat waste
- Milk products,
- Bone flour,
- Fish flour,
- Bean cultures,
- Grain - in small quantities,
In warm times, duroks are fed in the morning and evening, and in the cold - they also add day feeding. For the day, the pig should eat about 2.5 buckets of feed. Feed the feed is not highly recommended, as there are few nutrients for it, and the animals gain weight very slowly, so the cost of feeding is very significant.
Clean water from pigs should be available at all times. Replace it should be 1 time per day, and when contaminated - always. In strong heat, it is necessary to replace the contents of the drinker 2-3 times a day, so that animals always have the opportunity to cool down by using cool water.
To raise animals in their own farm for breeding pigs for commercial purposes is unprofitable. Due to the complexity of keeping a sow, the sale of young stock does not justify the cost of it. If breeding is planned to produce piglets that will be fed for meat, then it is profitable.
The hunt for a Duroc sow is manifested in the same way as for females of other breeds. The period suitable for mating lasts two days. On the first day, the female with the boar is not reduced. The optimal time for mating is the second day of the hunt. At this time, the sow is mixed with the male 2 times to obtain good fertility. The pig reaches sexual maturity at 8 months. Then spend the first mating.
During pregnancy, the female needs a particularly fortified diet. Additional portions of vegetables and fruits are introduced into her diet. The premix dose rises. Sow requires daily walks in the fresh air. In bad weather, she needs to walk in a street indoor aviary.
Duroc on a walk
From the very first days of life, the piglets need mineral bait, because they do not have enough substances contained in the composition of the mother's milk for full growth and development. Piglet leaves the female at the age of one month. From the same moment it is sold.
Subtleties of content and care
In areas with a warm climate, where even in winter the temperature does not fall below 0 degrees, the content of Duroc pigs is not difficult. If in winter temperatures are below zero, the pigsty must be heated. You also need to ensure that there are no drafts in the place where pigs are kept, which are fatal for them and quickly cause disease.
Pigsty for pigs of breed Duroc has to be warm
In addition to a good pigsty, durokam need to provide a spacious paddock for walking, on which animals will be able to collect pasture. Duroc pigs should walk in the open air every day, otherwise they will begin to decay. Above the part of the aviary, it is necessary to install a shed so that in the rain the animals can breathe air and not get wet.
Boars must be isolated from pregnant females. In the pigsty, wooden floorings, filled with a thick layer of hay or straw, make up animals for rest.
Dyurokov vaccinated against the same infectious diseases as representatives of other breeds. However, they tend to runny nose, and from it, even with proper maintenance, to save livestock is not always possible. The main symptoms of rhinitis are:
- Nasal mucous discharge, clear and very sluggish (snot),
- Red eyes,
- Decreased appetite.
If you do not start treatment at this stage, the sick animal, due to the blockage of the nasal passages, begins to breathe exclusively through the mouth, completely refuses to feed and drastically loses weight.
Duroc pigs are susceptible to chronic renitis
To combat the runny nose, pigs are washed with a solution of manganese and injected with antibiotic drops. Animal nutrition enriched with vitamins, iodine and zinc. Feeding is carried out as usual. If after 2-3 days of treatment there is no improvement, an immediate appeal to the veterinarian is necessary.
Animal Choice and Cost
When purchasing a purebred pig, you must read the documents of the seller. It is good when he can give a pet a passport, as this is a guarantee that the pig will turn out to be the Duroc breed. Choosing piglets of Duroc breed, you need to pay attention to the following:
- The correctness of the bite,
- Cutaneous parasites,
- Clean ears
- Discharge from the eyes and nose,
- External defects.
It is necessary to carefully examine the selected pig so that an unscrupulous seller does not sell a fake (henna-colored pig) or an individual culled. If possible, you must see the parents of the pig. Ask the seller whether the pig is accustomed to the usual feed. If there is no purchase, it is better to refuse, since during the period of abrupt change of feed there is a risk of losing the animal due to intense diarrhea and dehydration against its background.
Video: Freedom Farm Bacon: Duroc breeding pigs
The price of durocs is high compared to other breeds. For an average pig, they require $ 20-25, and for adults, depending on the degree of their eliteness, you need to pay from $ 220 to $ 450. Elite breed animals with awards from international exhibitions cost several thousand dollars.
In the world there are more than one hundred different breeds of pigs. In pig breeding there are four main areas of breeding:
- Breeds of universal productivity. These include animals meat and greasy direction. This is the largest group. They give numerous offspring in the shortest possible time.
- The second group includes pigs bred for meat and bacon direction. It also includes the Duroc pig breed (see below). They get lean meaty pork.
- Lardy - have excellent fattening qualities. In the carcasses most of the fat.
- Decorative - these include minipigs and micropigs. Of great economic importance, they do not have. Bred for the maintenance of pigs as indoor pets.
All groups of animals are in demand.
Brief description of Duroc pigs: large animals of red color, compact and strong build, with a pronounced meat exterior.
The original animals that served to breed Duroc pigs were brought to the American continent by numerous immigrants.
The ancestors include Guinean red pigs from the west coast of Africa. Large animals covered with soft reddish bristles were crossed with Portuguese and Spanish individuals. Later Berkshires were brought to America. They were distinguished by a reddish, sometimes sandy suit. These animals also took part in the formation of a new breed group.
The result of numerous and diverse crosses were animals with certain breed characteristics. The systematic tribal work was continued with them.
Parallel work was carried out in two states - New York (Duroc) and Jersey (jersey). Initially, both breed groups were divorced independently and had different characteristics:
- The individuals of the jersey were large, late, with a rough bone. Had a crest along the back, weakly pronounced, small head, broad hanging ears.
- The breed of dyurok pigs (photos are placed in the article) was smaller than jersey animals. Distinctive features of duroks were precociousness, thin bones, excellent meat forms and very high feed allowance.
Over time, the animals crossed among themselves. A new breed was obtained, slightly less than a jersey. From the New York representatives, they inherited the backbone of elegance and earliness. Duroc was officially registered in 1883.
Today, Duroc is a breed of pigs, representing large, hardy animals, perfectly adapted to grazing.
Duroc (pig breed): a characteristic of external signs
- The body is wide and deep, of moderate length (up to 180 cm), with a well-made ham.
- Strong constitution.
- The back has an arcuate shape.
- High strong legs, with a straight "elephant" postavami.
- Head with a curved (not much) profile, with full ganache, ears hanging meat.
- Color is red with variations of shades from golden to dark cherry.
If initially Duroc was greasy, then thanks to the many years of breeders' efforts and systematic breeding selection, modern animals have become more meat-oriented. This was demanded by consumer demand.
The ability to live in fresh air significantly reduces the cost of maintaining and breeding pigs. The breed is subject to the disease "atrophic rhinitis", which determines the breeding area of animals - dry and warm climate. Unfortunately, no drug preventive measures save from atrophic rhinitis.
Duroc (pig breed): benefits
Breeders have worked on securing the necessary qualities. The advantages of animals include:
- fast growth,
- early maturity
- carcass uniformity
- high quality meat
- the possibility of grazing,
- calm temper.
Durokes have proven themselves in industrial (user) crossing. Excellent performance in such hybrids:
- large white breed of pigs and meat breed of pigs Dyurok,
- The pig breeds Landrace and the beef breed of pigs are Duroc.
Industrial cross-breeding provides magnificent mestizos that can grow quickly and pay for feed costs. Excellent meat quality and resistant transfer of their properties to offspring allow you to rely on Duroc pigs for breeding new breeds.
Duroc is a breed of pigs, distinguished by stability, and is one of the four best in the world. The number of livestock ranks second. It is most widely spread in the USA, Europe, and China. Due to local customs that do not allow Muslims to eat pig meat, there is practically no Durok breed in the countries of the Middle East.
As flaws are noted:
- fairly low fecundity (on average, 9 piglets),
- demanding in the selection of the right diet (need protein nutrition),
- predisposition to atrophic rhinitis (runny nose),
- incorrect postav limbs.
The dry and warm climate provides healthy livestock of pigs and high yield of young stock. Duroc is a breed of pigs, reviews of which in terms of meat productivity cannot be negative. Gentle, with layers of fat, the so-called marble meat is especially in high demand among consumers.
Protein food ensures the formation of the correct body constitution and high nutritional quality of meat, for which the Duroc breed is famous. Pigs should be provided with proper protein nutrition, otherwise the growth of animals may slow down. The body will weaken and, as a result, the pig breeder will receive sick underdeveloped animals instead of the expected profit.
The ability of pigs to find in the pasture vitamins, minerals and other essential nutrients contained in the grass, contribute to the proper development of the body of the young. Organic food provides the formation of high-quality tasty meat.
For feeding use:
- combined silo
- cereals (they should not be abused, otherwise the meat will be too greasy).
The number of feedings in the winter period is increased up to three times, in summertime they are limited to two. If you adhere to this dietary schedule, you can get a uniform carcass of excellent meat with a thickness of bacon not more than 1.5 cm.
In terms of volume, an adult eats up to 2.5 buckets of food per day. This includes dairy products, vegetables, waste from the table and other available feed.
For guaranteed fertilization of sows, experts recommend mating on the second day of hunting the female. The first sign of hunting is anxiety of the animal, its physical activity increases, the female refuses food and water.
Heat and dryness - these conditions are required by the Duroc breed. Pigs are kept in warm rooms. When farrowing, the air temperature must be maintained at least 25 o C. The pigsty must be insulated, put dry litter on the floor (as a rule, sawdust). If necessary, in the winter, apply additional means of heating.
Taking into account the fact that the number of piglets born is small (up to 10 heads), mothers milk is enough for them. To improve its absorption, piglets are given special supplements with vitamins. It should be noted that sows are very caring towards their offspring.
With proper care and maintenance, up to 92% of piglets survive. This is a high figure.
Best of all for the advantages of breeding this breed can say its productivity. Duroc is a pig breed whose performance characteristic is as follows:
- high precocity - 100 kg can reach to 6 months of age,
- average daily gain can reach 950 grams (the record was fixed at 1016 grams),
- average fertility is assessed as satisfactory,
- the survival rate of young stock is 92%,
- temper is calm,
- sows have very well developed maternal instincts,
- wonderful taste of meat, homogeneous carcasses,
- the weight of the boar reaches 370 kg, sows - 320 kg,
- slaughter yield more than 80%
- salted pork fat does not exceed 2 cm.
Animals are difficult to maintain in the climatic conditions of Russia. Wet and cool weather can provoke the development of atrophic rhinitis. But with all the requirements of the breed content, including abundant protein nutrition, the result will be excellent.
It makes sense to grow Duroc for pig meat. The breed of pigs, reviews of which confirm the viability of using animals of this particular breed group both as an independent breed and as improving for the local livestock.
The history of the breed Duroc
This breed was bred in the USA, on the basis of a wide variety of genetic material of pigs brought to the North American continent during the period of colonization. The basis for creating pigs Duroc became Guinean breed, brought to America from Africa, characterized by short bristles, an unusual red color and rather large size.
Improving the characteristics of Guinean specimens is due to their crossing with Pyrenean relatives and British representatives of the Berkshire breed, often with a reddish color.
Selection was carried out spontaneously. There was no unified control over this process. Farmers crossed the Guinean breed with others at their discretion. As a result of collective selection work, Duroc pigs were bred.
Due to various crossbreeding combinations, the breed did not initially differ in monotype. It traced two branches, similar in appearance and other characteristics.
The first was formed in the US state of New Jersey. Due to the terrain on which it originated, this branch of the breed was called Jersey. The animals were distinguished by a large bony system and large hanging ears. Weak expression had a ridge running along the spine. A characteristic feature of these representatives was late maturity.
The second branch, formed as a result of uncoordinated selection, appeared in the US state of New York. The size of such individuals was somewhat smaller than that of Jersey, they had a more refined constitution, but the rapid attainment of marketable weight and the percentage of meat was quite high. Such representatives began to be called Duroc.
The breed of pigs Duroc was bred in the United States by crossing different breeds.
Over time, farmers crossed these two branches. The result was a hybrid purebred pig. In 1983, the breed was officially registered. As its name, it received the name Duroc-Jersey, which reflected the contribution of the work of farmers of both states in its cultivation.
These pigs were characterized by increased fat production. But the selection work did not stop there. As a result of crossbreeding, the characteristics of the breed were improved. In particular, improved meat quality. Inconvenient double name reduced to a shorter form - Duroc.
Today, the number of livestock of such a breed of pigs ranks second in the world meat cattle breeding. It gained the greatest popularity among farms in the USA, China and several European countries.
Main breed characteristics and photos
The appearance characterizing the breed has the following features:
- big ears hanging forward
- back arched
- characteristic color from dark red to golden, rarely with tan, but without white,
- large sizes of individuals
- massive legs and rear ham.
In the adult state, the representatives of both sexes have practically equal sizes. The length of the males reaches 180-185 cm, while the female individuals are only 5 cm less than them. The live weight of the boar can be 3.6 centners, and the pigs about 3 centners.
In one litter, the female produces an average of 8-9 piglets. But this is considered the smallest number of births of domesticated pigs. However, by the well-developed instinct of motherhood and the calm disposition of the sows, this negative characteristic is fully compensated.
Taking into account the fact that newborn piglets weigh about 1.1 to 1.6 kg, and the average daily weight gain is from 750 to 950 g, by the age of two months the litter weight can be 190 kg. During the first 6 months of fattening, the piglet gains 100 kg. It is established that with a balanced diet for pigs Duroc, the cost of feed per 1 kg of weight gain is 3 kg 750 grams.
The percentage of meat mass varies depending on the quality of the fed food and is 60-79%, and the output of fat reaches 15%. The thickness of the sebaceous layer in the spine is 1.8 cm.
During the first 6 months of fattening, the piglet gains 100 kg.
How to choose a purebred mumps
Purebred specimens of the Duroc breed to purchase from us in the country is not easy, although its population ranks second in terms of prevalence in farms. This is due to the fact that breeders, trying to obtain more numerous offspring from one sow, cross individuals of the Duroc breed from a representative of other meat breeds of pigs used for rearing.
This circumstance calls into question the purchase of a livestock of Duroc pigs without the presence of accompanying documents from the seller. Individuals may resemble purebred representatives of the breed, but there will be no other features that characterize such pigs.
Wanting to buy thoroughbreds, it is wiser to purchase them in specialized farms engaged in breeding. When selling pigs, sellers will necessarily provide the necessary supporting documentation, indicating the pure blood of the individuals being purchased. Also, staff will explain the features of their cultivation. At the same time there is a guarantee that the animals will indeed have the characteristics of the purchased breed.
Pigs Duroc better to acquire in the breeding farms.
Breeding pigs Duroc
This breed of pigs is undemanding to care. The minimum that should be ensured by the growing population is a well-groomed and warm pigsty with a spacious walking area. The quality characteristics of this meat breed will be enhanced by the possibility of free movement in the open air during the warm period of the year.
Usually, a walking area is arranged near a pigsty, for animals to freely choose their location. This reduces the cost of having to set up such canopies with sheds that protect pigs from the sun and rain. In addition, there is no need to force the herd from the premises to the open enclosure and back.
The requirement for the construction used as a pigsty: cleanliness, and insulated walls, so that there is no need to equip the heating in cold periods. High-quality ventilation of the room, sufficient lighting and space should be provided.
Of paramount importance for the effective cultivation of Duroc breed pigs is their proper feeding. The speed of weight gain by young animals is ensured only with a balanced diet in sufficient quantities. In such conditions, piglets reach a weight of 1 center already at 6 months of rearing.
Only with proper and balanced feeding do Dyuroc pigs gain weight well.
For this breed it is necessary to ensure the receipt of such feed:
- food industry waste (meal).
In addition, it is desirable to add in their diet dairy products, bone, fish meal and beets. For the complete assimilation of nutrients, two meals a day are carried out in the summer, and in the other seasons of the year three times a day.
The inclusion of a large number of grain crops (oats, barley, corn) in the diet of pigs of the Durok breed can provoke obesity, which ultimately results in a large percentage ratio of the amount of fat in the slaughter weight, as well as a reduced quality of meat.
What diseases are affected Duroc pigs
Duroc pigs are disease resistant, haunting other breeds.
Atrophic rhinitis is a dangerous disease for pig Duroc.
The most vulnerable to them is atrophic rhinitis, in which the nasal mucosa is inflamed. In consequence, the disease leads to deformation of the bones and other pathological complications.
The disease is caused by pathogenic bacteria. The most susceptible diseases are piglets. Adult pigs are more resistant to infection. Infection occurs upon contact with a clearly ill individual. The ability to become infected increases with non-compliance with the rules of feeding and housing. In large farms, the disease spreads slowly, but if no action is taken, it can reach 50% of the population.
As a preventive measure, when a sick pig is found, remove it from the rest of the herd and take steps to cure it. If emergency assistance is required, piglets are treated with antibiotics with prolonged action.
Comparison of advantages and disadvantages
The weighty advantages of this breed are evidenced by their numbers in the world statistics on the number of pigs.
Breeders prefer Duroc for such positive characteristics:
- The rapid achievement of commercial weight. Already by half a year the necessary weight is gained, which is 1-2 months earlier than among representatives of most other breeds.
- Achievement of meat quality characteristics due to adaptation to walking pigs Duroc.
- The presence of fatty layers between the fibers of the meat gives juiciness and improves the quality, making it softer.
- The calm temperament of the Duroc breed simplifies its cultivation, both within a small farm and in industrial farms.
To take the first place for the Duroc breed in the distribution among farms is hampered by such characteristics:
- The problem of breeding these pigs in the northern latitudes with a cool climate due to susceptibility to atrophic rhinitis.
- A small number of piglets in one litter. On average, there are 8 of them, which is less than that of ordinary mongrel sows.
- Increased feed requirements to ensure meat quality.
This breed is not suitable for breeding in those farms that breed and sell young stock. Since one sow per year produces about 20 pigs, while from other breeds an average of 30 heads. In order for the meat to be of a certain condition, a special diet is required for feeding a balanced diet of pigs Duroc,
Which breed of pig is better: Duroc or Landrace
Landrace breed was bred in Denmark and is considered one of the best representatives in bacon meat cultivation. It is quite difficult to say which of these breeds is superior to the other. If we compare them, it can be noted that landrace is more fertile than Duroc. In one litter, an average of 12 piglets appear in a Danish sow, which is 4 more than in the American breed.
The weight of an adult pig Duroc can reach 360 kg with a meat yield of up to 79%, while a representative of the Danish breed weighs 300 kg, with getting standard meat 70%.
Ladras is considered to be one of the best bacon pigs, but for her the selection of a balanced feed is very important. In Duroc meat tender and juicy, but subject to the rules of feeding.
In the photo is a representative of the bacon pig breed Landrace.
Feedback from farmers and breeders
Helena. I bought 2 pigs Duroc. Grown very big and good-natured in nature. Barbecues are excellent. The meat is beautiful, tastes like rabbit. The main problem is where to put it.
Alexander. I wanted to have Vietnamese piglets, but I saw a Durok breed and decided to breed them. It is quite difficult to find breeding pigs. Specialized farms are very few. I had to buy from abroad. I made all the necessary documents and now I started breeding pigs Duroc. I sell breeding piglets. They are in demand from buyers.
We offer to view the program dedicated to the meat breed of pig Duroc. Enjoy your viewing!
The history of the breed of pigs Durok
The place of appearance of the breed are the United States. In the era of the colonization of the North American continent, migrants from around the world brought with them many different species of farm animals, including pigs. So, at the disposal of American breeders was the richest variety of genetic material.
When creating the Duroc breed, predominantly red pigs were used, and the Guinean pigs introduced into the New World from western Africa became the base parent breed for it. African pigs were quite large, unusual reddish color and short stubble.
To improve the characteristics of Guinean pigs were also used their Pyrenean relatives. In addition, the modern breed of pigs Duroc carries in its veins also the blood of English breeds, first of all, Berkshires, among which there are also individuals with a reddish color.
It should be noted that the selection work and the crossing of Guinean pigs with other breeds occurred spontaneously, without any centralized control. Thousands of farmers across the country worked on improving livestock, each of whom acted at his own discretion. This is one of the reasons why today it is impossible to unambiguously identify the author, the time and place where the Durk pig breed appeared. In fact, it is the result of collective work.
Since a long and varied selection was carried out by many farmers, the breed was not originally as monotypic as it usually is. Pigs were bred, having a generally similar appearance and characteristics, but because of the inconsistency of the breeding work, two main breed branches were traced.
The first was the pigs that were most prevalent in the state of New Jersey. In honor of this region, the breed began to be called jersey. These were large late-ripe pigs with coarse bones and rather stiff bristles. Characteristic features of the breed were wide overhanging ears and a weakly pronounced ridge running along the spine.
Another pig breeding branch is most prevalent in the state of New York. These pigs were noticeably smaller in size than the Jersey, had a more refined physique, but they were precocious and gave a high yield of meat. Pigs of this type were called Durk pigs.
Over time, the farmers decided to cross both branches and bring out a single purebred pig. The resulting hybrid was officially registered in 1883, with the name “Duroc-Jersey breed” chosen. Thus, it reflected the equal contribution of farmers and breeders of both states.
The pigs resulting from the crossing had a pronounced greasy direction. But gradually the breeders, who continued to work on improving the characteristics of the breed, increased their meat qualities. In addition, over time, the bulky and inconvenient double name was supplanted by a simpler form — the Duroc.
Today it is one of the most sought-after breeds, ranking second in the world in terms of the number of livestock. Most actively these animals are bred in the USA, Europe and China.
Characteristics of Duroc Pigs
Representatives of this breed are easily recognizable for a variety of characteristic features in appearance. They have long, hanging ears and an arched back. They are also distinguished by the characteristic red color - all shades between dark red and yellow-golden colors. While there are individuals with scorching, but in any case, no impurity of white.
A characteristic of the Duroc pig breed would be incomplete without mentioning that they have a strong body constitution and generally large dimensions. Both male and female individuals have almost the same body length: 180-185 cm in males and 5 cm shorter in females. Live weight reaches 3-3.6 centners in adult boars and 2.4-3 c in females. These pigs have strong legs with massive hams.
Duroc is considered not very prolific breed. For one litter, a sow brings on average about 8-9 piglets, which is the lower limit of the norm for domestic pigs. On the other hand, this disadvantage is compensated, firstly, by a well-developed maternal instinct, and secondly, by the calm character of the sow. All together it gives a quiet caring sows, well caring for piglets.
Duroc is a meat breed of pigs, and it belongs to the category of early ripening. This is achieved both due to the large mass of newborn piglets (1.1-1.6 kg), and due to the high rates of average daily weight gain (750-950 g). By two months, the total weight of the nest can reach 190 kg. Fattening piglets confidently reach a centner of body weight in just six months. With a balanced diet, feed costs per 1 kg of weight gain are only about 3,750 g of feed.
The output of meat, depending on the diet is 60-70%. In addition, another 10-15% is fat, the thickness of which above the spine can reach 1.8 cm.
Purchase and maintenance of dyrok pigs
Although this breed is the second largest on the planet, in our country it is not that easy to acquire purebred Duroc gilts. In Russia, farmers and cattle-breeding complexes prefer to cross the pigs of this breed with others in order to increase the average offspring, which is small in duroc. Thus, buying animals "from hands" without accompanying documents can easily run into a mixture that looks like Duroc pigs, but does not correspond to their initial characteristics.
If purebred pedigreed Duroc pigs are needed, it is wiser and safer to get them from a specialized breeding farm. They will not only provide all the accompanying documentation that guarantees the relevant characteristics of the piglet being bought, but also suggest how to properly organize the maintenance of Duroc pigs on the farm.
In fact, there is nothing extra-complicated in the care of these pigs. A clean warm pigsty and a spacious walking platform - this is the minimum that animals need. Walking in the open air will benefit Duroc pigs if they are released during the warm season. Walking improves the well-being of animals, and the ability to move qualitatively improves the characteristics of meat products.
Выгульную площадку рекомендуется делать непосредственно впритык со свинарником, чтобы животные по собственному желанию могли выходить на прогулку и возвращаться назад в помещение. Так отпадает необходимость строить навесы от солнца и дождя, или принудительно перегонять животных туда-сюда.
Что касается самого свинарника, то к нему не предъявляется никаких особых требований. In general, the same rules apply as for all other pigs - cleanliness, warm walls (so as not to have to be further heated), high-quality ventilation, lighting, and a sufficient amount of free space.
Features feeding dyrok pigs
The most important thing you need to know about caring for Duroc pigs is feeding rules. The breed is considered to be early ripening, since the piglets are gaining a centner of weight in just 180 days. However, this figure is only achievable when feeding pigs with high protein feed.
The optimal feed for this breed are potatoes, legumes, silage, and various food waste, such as meal. It is also highly desirable to include in the diet dairy products, including milk, beets, as well as bone and fish meal. The power mode in the winter - three times, in the summer - two times.
Experts caution against the abuse of grain crops during fattening of the Duroc piglets. A diet consisting largely of oats, barley or corn will cause obesity, increase the percentage of fat in the slaughter mass and reduce the quality of the remaining meat.
Advantages and disadvantages of the Duroc breed
The fact that the pigs of this breed are in second place in the world in terms of the number of livestock, speaks of its advantages. No wonder all over the planet is actively bred these pigs. However, as follows from the description of the Duroc pig breed, they also have certain disadvantages, due to which they, apparently, will never be able to come out on top.
So, the main advantages of the Duroc breed are:
- High precocity. Animals achieve a mass of commodities by the end of the sixth month of life. Most other breeds reach these values 1-2 months later.
- Fitness for walking. Pigs of this breed do not just love to walk in the fresh air: walks bring tangible practical effect, qualitatively improving the characteristics of meat.
- High initial meat quality. According to many, the meat of pigs Duroc is the best pork, because the high content of fat in the muscles makes it softer and tastier.
- Balanced character. Duroc - one of the most peaceful pigs. This character trait greatly simplifies care for them both in the conditions of a large livestock complex and on a small farm.
Among the shortcomings that restrain the growth of popularity of this breed are the following:
- Susceptibility to the common cold. Atrophic rhinitis is a fairly common disease among animals of this breed. For this reason, Duroc pigs are problematic to be bred in the northern regions of Russia, where they would have to be kept in closed rooms all the time.
- Low fertility. One sow produces an average of about 8 piglets, which is smaller than that of the simplest outbred pigs.
- Demanding on the diet. Without a high protein content in feed, these pigs are not able to show their full potential.
Prospects for breeding in Russia
As already mentioned, the susceptibility of pigs to duroc atrophic rhinitis significantly limits the geography of their possible breeding in Russia. For these animals, the southern regions of the country are quite suitable, as well as with certain reservations, the middle zone. But in the north they grow no sense.
In addition, the Duroc breed is not suitable for those farms that specialize in the sale of piglets. Due to small farrowings, keeping breeding sows and boars is impractical. While pigs of the usual white breed bring about 30 piglets per year, the Duroc is able to give a maximum of 20.
Finally, again, the need for protein-rich food makes itself felt. If the farm is not able to provide the animals with the right balanced diet, there is no point in dealing with Duroc pigs.
Basic parameters and standards
Judging from the photo and description of Duroc breed pigs, it is impossible to confuse them with other species. These are large, strong animals with dense short bristles covering practically the entire surface of the body.
Color inherited from African ancestors. The suit varies from golden yellow to dark red color. On the body there may be burned brighter shades, but the presence of pure white spots breed standard is not allowed. The animal has a long body (about 180 cm), a relatively small head and a slightly arched back. Ears of medium size, directed forward. The tip of the ear is sharply bent down. (this is a breed trait). Snout a little "snub". Legs are tall and strong. The ham is massive. The weight of an adult female reaches 240-300 kg, boar 300-360 kg.
Young females are suitable for mating, starting from eight months of age.. According to reviews of livestock breeders, sows of this breed have practically no problems with fertilization. They are quite easy to bear childbirth, do not need the help of a veterinarian.
A significant disadvantage of the breed is recognized low fecundity. A single farrow produces no more than 10 babies (an average of 7-9), which is considered the lower threshold of productivity for domestic pigs. In addition, many owners say that the intensity of lactation in sows leaves much to be desired: in most cases, piglets have to be artificially fed from the first weeks of life. On the other hand, babies are born strong, with competent care, up to 93% of young durocs survive.
Breed is considered early maturity. Average daily gain is from 750 to 950 g, for half a year pigs weigh 100-110 kg (optimal mass for slaughter) with very moderate feed consumption - 3.75 feed units per 1 kg of weight gain.
The output of meat from the carcass is 60-70%, and the thickness of the blubber does not exceed 1.8 cm. Meat of properly fattened duroks is characterized by the highest consumer qualities (the so-called “marble” pork). That is why today the breed is widely distributed and ranks second in the world in terms of the number of livestock in farms engaged in commodity production.
Peculiarities of keeping animals
For owners of private farms, the characteristics of Duroc breed pigs, related to the specifics of their behavior, are especially important. These animals are very calm, even slightly phlegmatic. They peacefully get along with each other, obey the owner, easily tolerate stressful situations and changes in conditions of detention. Feeding pigs of this breed is not difficult, since they are not inclined to pick or pick food.
American red pigs are quite unpretentious, but the room in which they live should be warm and dry. Besides, it is necessary to air the pigsty often. The fact that these animals are resistant to most diseases of pigs, but often suffer from a cold, with no treatment, passing into atrophic rhinitis. Therefore, the freshness of air and the absence of drafts in the room in this case are of paramount importance. Like other "meat" breeds, these pigs need daily walking from spring to autumn frosts. The best room for their maintenance is a pigsty with the possibility of free access to the yard, overgrown with grass. In the semi-bent mode, the animals practically do not get sick, gain weight well and form muscle mass in accordance with breed standards.
In food Duroks unpretentious. Their diet should be dominated by juicy food (vegetables, potatoes, green mass), as well as food with a high protein content (legumes, oilcake, dairy products, fish, meat and kitchen waste). Excess grain and feed usually leads to an increase in the subcutaneous fat layer and the deterioration of meat quality.
Advantages and disadvantages
The undoubted advantages of animals are their resistance to stress, precociousness, unpretentiousness in food, as well as fairly moderate costs for fattening and the highest quality meat.
However, when choosing this breed, the host should take into account the most significant disadvantages pigs:
- a small number of babies in one litter. It is believed that breeding dyurok with the purpose of selling purebred piglets cost-effective only for large farmers. For the owner of one or two pigs, the sale of young stock is unprofitable - it not only does not make a profit, but does not even reimburse the costs of year-round maintenance of sows. When breeding in a farm, the best option may be keeping an adult female for the purpose of further fattening of the offspring,
- low milkiness of sows. Newborn piglets require increased attention and constant feeding. Otherwise, they grow poorly, get sick and later move on to “adult” food, which negatively affects the quality of meat,
- propensity for colds. Pigsty must be very carefully protected from moisture and drafts. A sick piglet must not only be treated, but also separated from its fellows in order to avoid the spread of infection,
- the need to organize walkingthat maybe not at every yard.
To acquire piglets Duroc for the purpose of breeding is worth exclusively in specialized farms, ready to submit the relevant documents to the buyer.
Private sellers usually implement the offspring of hybrid sows, which are externally consistent with the characteristics of the breed and are much more profitable for their owners because of their high productivity. Buying such babies makes sense if you are not going to breed purebred pigs, but rather plan to do fattening for meat, since crossbreed duroks (for example, with landraces or other breeds) are perfect for this and more convenient to keep.
Irina, 55 years old, Moscow region
Several years ago I decided to keep a sow and bought a small pig Duroc, tempted by the information about the calm disposition and unpretentiousness of the breed. As for the nature of the animal, everything turned out to be true: the pig was surprisingly peaceful and not at all capricious. Walking from March to October I organized for her. Pig did not hurt, grew well. But it was not possible to find a purebred boar for it (they are practically not kept at private farmsteads). Had to do boar Landrace. There were no problems with mating or childbirth. 7 piglets were born, large and beautiful. And then the difficulties began: the uterus had so little milk that the babies had to be lured literally from the week of age. With the frequency of feeding 7-8 times a day, this is a very big burden. In addition, it turned out that the sale of young stock is unprofitable: economically, it only makes sense when the farrowing of the pieces is 12 or more. In general, I suffered so three farrows, and refused to give this pig. Replaced it with a cross, and I do not regret. Pigs get more and less worries. True, the quality of meat during fattening is noticeably lower, but without any problems.
Evgeniy, 48 years old, Samara region
Piglets of this breed grow and fatten well (it is only important to ensure that they do not catch a cold). In half a year weigh more than 100 kg. Lean meat of excellent quality, sold "in the air." Low feeds. True, I have suitable conditions for keeping: a pigsty is warm, with access to grass walking. All my juicy food: I grow potatoes, carrots, beets, pumpkins with zucchini. In such a situation, buying pigs for fattening is still profitable. But to keep the sow of this breed quite unprofitable: a purebred boar you will not find it, and even a few offspring. To get young stock for sale, it is better to have a hybrid pig (a mixture with some kind of "multiple" and relatively trouble-free breed).
Andrew, 34, Khmelnitsky
Good meat breed with fast rates of growth and high conversion. Boars grow up to 450 kg. Excellent as a terminal for the final three-breed hybrid crossing, when the F1 pig lies Duroc. It turns out very successful offspring with high meat qualities.
The following video features tell about the pedigree features, breeding experience and keeping of Duroc pigs:
She graduated from MGRI. Ordzhonikidze. The main specialty is a mining engineer-geophysicist, which means a person with an analytical mindset and diverse interests. I have my own house in the village (respectively, the experience of gardening, gardening, mushroom farming, as well as fussing with pets and poultry). Freelancer, in terms of their responsibilities perfectionist and "bore". Amateur hand made, the creator of exclusive jewelry made of stones and beads. A passionate admirer of the printed word and a reverent observer of everything that lives and breathes.
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