As noted above, the distinctive feature of the swordtail is a fin in the form of a sword, which only males can boast. Their color is very different: they are red, orange, black and yellow. Sometimes the color of the calf of a fish may differ from the fins. But as a rule, mainly male can attract with its brightness and unusual beauty. The female on its background fades, although it is larger in size. Quite a frequent case is the transformation of the female swordtail in the male. She has a tail in the form of a sword and changes behavior: she begins to care for females, but it is barren. The reasons for this joke of nature are still not clear.
Types of Sword
There are a huge number of species of these fish, which vary in color and in the form of fins:
- Green Swordsman. This variety has an olive-brown color and thin red stripes along the body, and the sword has a colored border. In natural habitat there is only this species, the other species are obtained by crossing with other fish.
- Citric. It differs from the green swordtail only in color. Breeding of this species is a rather problematic process, since the offspring do not always retain parental signs.
- Bulgarian white. It is an albino, but the maintenance and breeding of the Sword of this species is a simpler occupation, unlike the lemon ones.
- Red. This species was obtained by crossing a green swordtail with a red petillia.
- The black. Hybrid green Swordsman and black plagia. It is a rather rare species, because of the excess pigment, these fish often get sick and die.
- Calico. It differs from other types of tricolor coloring. As a rule, he has black and red spots on his main white background.
- Rainbow. On the gray-green torso there is an orange tint, and reddish stripes run along the body.
- Brindle. This look is red with black specks, and his sword is always black.
- Mountain. It has a cream shade, and on its sides there are zigzag stripes of light tones.
Habitat in nature
Homeland of these fish - Central America. Natural habitats for them are water bodies of such countries as Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras. Unlike aquarium and breeding species, the original swordtail is much paler.
In nature, these fish can be found in various reservoirs - they are suitable for both fast rivers and still fresh waters. It is preferable for them to be in shallow and abundantly overgrown places with rich vegetation necessary for feeding the Sword. The main food of fish in these conditions are various algae, insects and detritus. In the wild, swordtails differ in size from aquariums. The length of the male, excluding the sword, is about ten centimeters, and the females - thirteen.
The most common types of swordtails in nature are:
Maintenance and care
Despite the fact that these fish are peaceful and unpretentious, breeding and keeping of swordtails in an aquarium with other relatives of a smaller size is undesirable. This is due to the fact that larger fish will terrorize small ones. In addition, you should not add to the aquarium to the swordtails of sedentary neighbors. As a rule, males of swordtails are quite cocky, so there is a chance that they will be able to damage the fins of other fish.
Sometimes problematic maintenance of the Sword in one aquarium. As a rule, males are not very friendly towards each other. In pursuit of leadership, two cocky males will fight all the time. The optimal composition of swordtails in the aquarium is as follows: three females and one male. But it is also possible that there are three or more males in the aquarium. Thus, the attention of the swordtail will not be directed to a specific opponent, in this regard, the degree of conflict can be significantly reduced.
Features of the content in the aquarium
It should be noted that the aquarium fish Swordsman is not too complicated in its maintenance and care. For children, an aquarium with these fish will be a good gift. But still there are certain nuances that are worth considering.
Due to the fact that fish love to group in the upper layers of water, the composition and color of the soil do not have a special meaning. It can be sand, gravel, coral chips. But it is worth considering that the growth and the general condition of the plants depend on the quality of the soil, but vegetation is crucial for the swordmen. They need plants for shelter, so you should choose several types at once. The following options are perfect:
- Vallisneria. It is quite a popular plant that does not require special care. There are three types: dwarf, giant and spiral. Their length can be up to two meters. This plant is recommended to plant in the corners of the aquarium.
- Elodea - it grows in rivers, swamps, ponds and lakes in North America. Recall that this is where you can meet the wild Sword. This plant is used for decorative purposes and does not require special care.
- Hornpaw is unpretentious and common plant, which also serves as a filter for the aquarium. It helps to enrich the water with oxygen, as well as remove nitrates from it. This plant does not need to be planted in the ground, as it does not have roots. It can float in the water column, but if desired, it is recommended to fix it with a stone or snag.
- Lemna - This plant is used for decoration of the aquarium, and for feeding fish. As a rule, it floats on the surface of the aquarium, which gives the fish a sense of security. Lemna is great for shelter during spawning, as well as used as food, which contains a large amount of nutrients.
And this is not the whole list of plants that are perfect for keeping swordtails. But it is worth considering the factor of compatibility of fish and plants in a particular habitat. For example, swordtails require water with a pH of 7-8 and a hardness of 8-25 ° dH.
It is also important to monitor the absence of changes in temperature, acidity and hardness of water, so as not to cause stress among the inhabitants of the aquarium. For the maintenance and breeding of the sword, it is necessary to maintain the pH value at a stable level. To keep the water clean, it is necessary to partially change it once a week. You can replace approximately one third of the total volume. In addition, aquarium filtration is required. For the swordsmen it is enough to acquire one internal filter. It is also worth thinking about aeration in the event that the aquarium is full of people. As mentioned earlier, the content of these fish is picky, so they feel good in both fresh and brackish water.
For the maintenance of swordtails at home, it is desirable to purchase a spacious elongated aquarium. Its length should be at least thirty centimeters, and each fish should have about three liters of water.
Proper illumination in the aquarium will help to create plants that tend to float on the surface of the water. Such green plantings will help create diffused light and will also provide shelter for fry during the breeding season. It is worth noting that it is common for swordtail males to periodically jump out of the water. Therefore, to avoid this kind of situations, the aquarium should be covered with glass. There are so many different accessories for the aquarium, which will please not only you, but also your underwater inhabitants. Located on the bottom of the original trinkets in the form of ships and antique amphorae will be an additional refuge for the fish.
Aquarium fish swordtails in the care and maintenance, though unpretentious, but nevertheless demanding on food. Sword bearers should be fed both live and frozen food, and one should not forget about dry flakes. Plant foods should be high in fiber. Given that swordtails in the wild habitat prefer fragile algae, it is possible to purchase for them in specialized stores flakes with a plant component. In addition, experts recommend diversifying the menu with lean meat, dried bread, chicken egg yolk, as well as boiled squids and fish. The following categories of fodder will be suitable for feeding the swordsmen: vegetable, dry, live (tubule, daphnia, bloodworm, Artemia, Cyclops). Vegetable food can be made independently of lettuce, spinach, nettle or algae. But the most important thing is that the plants you have collected are young. Before chopping it is necessary to pour boiling water over them.
Young swordfish in the care and maintenance of more finicky. They should be fed not only with special dry food, but also offered to eat microworms, shredded tubers, live dust (the smallest microorganisms). Also, experts recommend adding egg yolk and spirulina to fry. Such additives will help accelerate the growth of fish and improve their color.
In the care and maintenance of the Sword, as we found out earlier, are not too whimsical. But what if in addition to these fish in the aquarium there are other species? Swordtails can feel quite comfortable with the following types of fish:
- Pecilia Is a close relative of the Sword. There are cases when these species interbreed with each other, while bringing beautiful offspring.
- Guppy They belong to the same family as the Sword. As a rule, these two species are similar to each other. According to experts, the percentage of mortality in an aquarium will decrease if only two of these species are left.
- Mollies Originally from the waters of Central America, as well as the swordtails. There is the possibility of crossing these species, which is considered quite successful selection.
- Gourami. It is an excellent neighbor for the Sword bearer, as they are close relatives. The fish of these species have similar temperaments and requirements for conditions of detention.
Who can be dangerous in a tank?
Swordtails do not get along with representatives of the carp family. These include koi carps, goldfish, barbs, danios. The fact is that the above fish are predators, so it will be easy for them to destroy the sword bearer.
Also, do not combine the Sword with snails and shrimp, unless you want to please them with a delicacy. These active fish cleverly know how to get snails from the shell. It is worth noting that the swordtails are aggressively disposed towards crustaceans and small fish. Therefore, adding them to the "swords", you thereby shorten their lifespan.
Many sources indicate that the scalar can become good neighbors for the Sword. But in fact this is a controversial issue. Undoubtedly, the angelfish have a calm disposition, but compatibility with them is quite controversial. This experiment should be carried out only in a spacious aquarium with a variety of different shelters.
With cichlids, as well as with scalars, swordtails have partial compatibility. But it is worth considering that these fish are much larger. Therefore, it is highly likely that they can eat the Sword. In addition, these species have a different diet.
It is worth noting that the swordtails in general are peace-loving. It is believed that young fish are quieter than those that are older. It is also believed that the cause of the aggression is the lack of light for them.
Many aquarists know that the swordtails fish are not too whimsical in their care and maintenance. But still these fish are just as susceptible to disease as any other creature.
In aquarium fish diseases are divided into:
- infectious caused by various microorganisms can be transmitted between individuals,
- Invasive - appear due to unicellular and multicellular parasites,
- non-infectious, which are caused by large parasites or the wrong conditions.
Therefore, when acquiring swordtails, the first thing is to inspect them for signs of disease. Experts advise as a preventive measure, before launching a novice into the general aquarium, to hold it for about twenty minutes in salted water. The solution is made at the rate of one tablespoon of salt per liter of water. This procedure will help rid the sword bearer of all kinds of external microbes and protect other fish.
But as a rule, this species of fish is not particularly susceptible to various diseases. The most common cause of disease becomes infected and poor-quality food. Therefore, in order to avoid contamination, purchase food for fish only from trusted vendors. If you notice a sick fish, you should immediately deposit it in a separate container so as not to infect the rest.
Propagation of the Sword
In order for your fish to be healthy and bring offspring, you need to know some of the secrets of caring for them. Novice aquarists should be aware of the breeding and maintenance of the Sword. Sexual maturity in these fish occurs in favorable conditions after about three months. First of all, it is important to observe the temperature regime, and to ensure the safety of fry, you should use a separate tank or a special separator that can be installed inside the aquarium.
If you want to keep as many offspring as possible, then advance the female to a separate place in advance. Otherwise, it is likely that the fry will eat their own relatives.
Experts advise for the breeding of the Swordsmen to create the following specific conditions:
- The optimum temperature for breeding is slightly higher than usual - from 28 to 30 degrees.
- Change water as often as possible.
The optimal breeding medium is pure warm water with a high oxygen content. Adding different plants will only benefit. You can also affect the future floor of the fish with the help of water temperature. If the temperature of the water in the aquarium exceeds 30 degrees, there will be more males, and if it is about 25 degrees, more females will be born.
For the selection of beautiful fish is to choose the right parents. Experts advise to select Swordsmen for breeding on the following grounds: it is better to take a male for eight months, and a female should be no less than ten months. It is better to choose small fish with a rounded belly.
Choice of aquarium for children
The quadrangular vessel, which consists of four glass walls embedded in iron frames with an iron bottom, is most convenient for an aquarium. The best putty for glass insertion into an aquarium is considered to be a mixture of Portland cement with an oil varnish, digested with the addition of a small amount of rosin.
The aquarium can serve as a simple round jar with a wide neck, but it is best to buy a special aquarium at the store. The optimum length is 40 cm, width is 25 cm, height is 27 cm. For keeping large fish such as perch or pike, a larger aquarium is required - 50 × 40 × 40 cm.
On top of the aquarium is covered with glass or gauze, as many fish have the ability to jump. Glass aquarium should always be thoroughly washed.
Planting plants: what plants can be in the aquarium
A new aquarium is filled with water several times until the smell of paint and drying oil disappears. After that, in the aquarium it is necessary to create conditions for fish and plants that are close to natural. A layer of turf soil mixed with peat is placed on the bottom, and sand and thoroughly washed round pebbles are poured on top. The better washed sand and pebbles, the longer the water will be clean and bright. To make the aquarium look like an overgrown reservoir, you need to plant the plants. They are necessary for fish life. Plants absorb carbon dioxide and release the oxygen that fish breathe.
Plants can be planted in the soil of the aquarium or put in pots. Before planting, rinse the plants thoroughly to remove dirt, mucus, and dying leaves. In a small aquarium, plants should be placed along the side walls, in a large one - at the glass facing the window. It is not recommended to place an aquarium with plants in bright sunlight.
We indicate a few cold-water plants, which can be used for landing in the aquarium.
Kubyshka - the plant is well-known to everyone; it has two types of leaves: floating, oval-shaped, leathery, dark green, and underwater, larger, wavy, soft, light green.
Elodea - one of the ordinary plants of our stagnant waters, has long thin stems, seated with oblong bright green leaves, located in thick bunches.
Water moss, fountain water - underwater plant, found almost in all streams. If the moss will not fall into the water, it is tied to a pebble and placed on the bottom. The moss, growing, serves as an excellent refuge for caviar and fry.
You can recommend and warm-water plants.
Ludwig - marsh plant, but grows well and under water. Светло-зелёные круглые листья его размещаются на стебле парами довольно далеко друг от друга. На ярком свету листья принимают красноватый оттенок.
Изоэтис — имеет вид кустика из тонких зеленых нитей. Требует хорошего освещения.
Марсилия — подводное болотное растение, посаженное на дно аквариума, даёт много корневищ и при благоприятном развитии листа поднимается выше поверхности воды.
Как наполнить аквариум водой?
Закончив посадку растений, можно наполнять аквариум водой. Pour the water gently with a thin stream, trying not to wash out the soil. Send a jet to the stone or saucer, placed on the bottom, then the sand and plants will not be damaged. It is best to use a rubber tube when filling the aquarium with water.
A bucket of water is placed above the aquarium. The rubber tube is filled with water, and both ends are clamped by hand, at the same time one end is lowered into the aquarium, the other into the bucket, fingers are unclenched and water flows into the aquarium. As soon as one third of it is filled, the saucer is removed and the rubber tube is directed so that the water goes along the glass from the inside.
An aquarium is considered to be filled with water when its level does not reach the edges by 4–5 cm. Water can also be drained through a hose. Now the aquarium is placed above the bucket.
What water to fill the aquarium?
In the freshly filled aquarium fish can not be released. It is necessary for the water to stand for 2–3 days, and chlorine tap water especially needs it. In the future, you need to monitor the water temperature in a water thermometer. Coldwater fish need a temperature of plus 195 * C, warm-water — plus 22 — plus 24 * C. Water for warm-water fish has to be heated with a reflector with a 25 to 50 candle light bulb installed on the sides or bottom.
Over time, green plaque appears on the walls of the aquarium. To destroy it, small snails are allowed into the aquarium (preferably coils) or scurf can be cleaned with a toothbrush, gauze and a razor.
If the fish begins to choke, it means that there is not enough oxygen in the water. In such cases, wash the water from the aquarium completely, wash the sand and the walls of the aquarium, and then fill it with water that has stood for 2–3 days open.
Sometimes need increase the amount of oxygen in the water. A stone is placed on a plate floating on the surface of the aquarium and a stream of water is directed at it. Falling on a solid body, it breaks up into small splashes and, passing through atmospheric air, is enriched with oxygen. You can also pump air into the aquarium with a bicycle pump.
Fish for home aquarium
Filling the aquarium with plants and water, you can let him fish. For a home aquarium, small fish are best suited. a length of no more than 5–6 cm. Of cold water you can let crucian, carp, loach, perch, sticklefish, goldfish and its varieties. These fish are the inhabitants of our ponds, lakes, rivers, so they are easy to catch themselves. Catch fish and transfer to the aquarium with a net or sakom (a circle with a frequent net).
Crucian in a home aquarium: content
Crucians live in almost any river, pond, even in swamp pools. They are unpretentious and hardy. Crucians are of two types: silver brownish-gray in color with a metallic shade and gold with a bronze-golden color. In an aquarium, crucians feel great both in summer and in winter.
No less common fish of our lakes and ponds is carp. The farm body, and especially the number of cashier scales, is not the same: in scaly carp, the whole body is covered with scales, in the mirror - along the sides and middle of the body, rows of large scales stretch, and bare carp is completely devoid of scales. A characteristic feature of all carps is the antennae, which serve as organs of touch. In an aquarium, carps are mobile, swimming merrily among plants and near glasses.
Fish loach in aquarium
In rivers, swamps and ponds with a silt-bottom there are loaches. Their body is elongated, resembling a snake, the back is yellow-brown with black speckles, the belly is orange-red, on the sides there are three black stripes, passing to the tail in a row of black-brown specks. The mouth is turned downwards and surrounded by antennae. Viun has the ability to squeak. He lives well in an aquarium, but he is often restless and muddies the water. Observations show that it is especially troubling before the rain, obviously, the loach is very sensitive to atmospheric pressure.
The content of the perch in the aquarium
All bury known perch. They are found in lakes and rivers. The body of the perch is compressed from the sides and covered with shiny scales. In the adult perch, the back is dark green, the sides are yellowish, the ventral and tail fins are bright red, the pectoral is yellow, the largest dorsal is gray and has a black spot at the end.
Throughout the body are dark gray cross stripes and make it variegated. Perch is a predator, in nature it feeds on small fish. For the aquarium, it is recommended to catch small perch. When keeping perch in an aquarium, water temperature is of particular importance. The best temperature + 8 * C. With the increase of its perch becomes sluggish, often rises to the surface of the water, grabs the air from the atmosphere.
Fish stickleback: care
It is interesting to observe in the aquarium a very mobile game fish with a sticky three-needle. Her body is oblong, instead of scales covered with flexible transverse bony plates. On the back are three spikes. The back of the stickleback is gray-green, its sides and abdomen are silvery. During the mating season, the male strongly changes its color: his chest, abdomen and sides become fiery red, orange or pink.
Sticklebacks very carefully treat their offspring. Before spawning, the male arranges a nest at the bottom, in the deepening of the sand, carpets it with Richie, floss, and water moss. The socket has the form of a coupling with two holes. In one of them, the female enters to throw caviar, the other goes.
After the fertilization of the spawn, the male is continuously at the nest opening and with the smooth movements of the pectoral fins it allows fresh water to penetrate into it. When the fry appear, the male shows new care: he feeds them and protects them. And this continues until the fry can live independently.
Goldfish in the home aquarium
Many people know a golden fish, but do not even imagine its history. The goldfish was brought to Europe from China more than 200 years ago. It came from an ordinary crucian through artificial selection and crossing of the most bright in color golden carp. Currently, the goldfish lives and breeds in the ponds of southern and middle Europe.
The content in the aquarium unpretentious. From the golden fish, by artificial selection, the tail cap, comet, telescope, and shubunkin are derived.
The telescope has large bulging eyes that are protected from the outside by a transparent shell in the form of a cap and resemble a telescope.
The veiltail differs from other fish in a double tail fin, which is longer than the body and resembles a transparent thin veil.
Shubunkin is characterized by a short, wide, strongly swollen body with spots scattered on it.
The comet has a long egg-shaped body, the tail fin is single, enlarged, resembling a veil tail.
Conditions for the care of goldfish and its varieties are the same.
Viviparous fish include: platies, swordtails, molines, guppies. They are unpretentious to the conditions of detention, feed, easily reproduce. When you get the appropriate experience, you can start breeding and other aquarium fish.
An aquarium for viviparous fish needs a small (10 liters) water temperature of 20–22 degrees. Fish give birth to live fry throughout the year. They feed fish with cyclops, daphnia, dry food. (The fry, being born, immediately begin to eat the ciliates, and then gradually move to Cyclops and Daphnia).
Plant the bottom of the aquarium densely with aquatic plants, floating plants (duckweed) on the surface of the water. But in the aquarium there should be enough space for the fish to swim freely.
For viviparous fish, all the same, rectangular aquariums of “school type” are better. Such aquariums can be found in pet stores. But, on the other hand, round aquariums are more beautiful and you can put floating and flowering aquatic plants in them. So everything depends primarily on the taste of an amateur.
Swordtails and Macropods: Content and Breeding
Of the warm-water fish for the aquarium, swordtails and macropods are recommended - very beautiful in coloring.
Swordtails - small viviparous fishes. The main color is light green with a red longitudinal stripe in the middle of the body. The male is smaller than the female; it is brighter colored; the lower part of the caudal fin is extended in a long process, due to which the fish got its name. In the female, this fin is ordinary, wide.
Swordtails are quite shy: just hit the aquarium, and they begin to spin, sensitive to changing water, so you need to handle them carefully. The best water temperature for them is plus 22 - plus 24 ° C. You should cover the aquarium with the swordtails with glass or gauze, as they have the ability to jump out.
Macropods are beautiful and bright. The main color is greyish-green. On it are wide red and blue transverse stripes. In warm water and during spawning, the color of macro-breeds becomes even brighter. In the normal state, the macropods are calm, while the spawning males are very pugnacious. For the breeding of macropoods, the water temperature should be plus 24 — plus 28 ° C.
Before spawning, the male proceeds to build a nest. It has the form of a frothy hat, fastened with pieces of floating plants. At the end of spawning, the female must be removed. After 50–55 hours, macropods appear in the larval state from the eggs, and the male carefully cares for them.
Food for fish in the home aquarium
Let's get acquainted now with fodder for fishes. It is best to give live food to fish: bloodworm (mosquito larva), daphnia, cyclops (crustaceans living in ponds, ponds and puddles), ciliate and all sorts of worms.
You can feed the fish and semolina. A spoonful of cereal is taken, poured into a glass, filled with boiling water, stirred quickly for one minute, then hot water was drained and cold water was poured. Change of cold water with stirring is done 2-3 times, after which the feed is considered ready.
It is good to feed exotic fish with dry daphnia with eggshell and vitamin D. A teaspoon of crushed eggshell and 3–4 drops of vitamin D are taken into a glass of daphnia powdered in fine powder. The mixture is once again pounded and given to fish.
It is better to feed coldwater fish 6–7 cm long with a large moth, small warm-water fish 3–5 cm long with a small moth. The larvae of fish that have just come out of caviar should not be fed for 3-4 days, as they feed on their own yolk bladder. After 4 days, you can give the smallest feed, called "dust". It consists of the smallest aquatic animals. After 10–15 days, as the fry grows, cyclops, daphnids, bloodworms, and enchitreus can be given gradually. When feeding fish with enkhitreus, the water in the aquarium does not get dirty and it remains alive for a long time in the water, which makes it a convenient food.
Large fish (perch, carp and crucian carp) can be fed with raw meat.
Neon tetra is a wonderful pet for an aquarium that can be settled in a tropical pond. Suitable for beginners - aquarists - she has a calm disposition and unpretentious content requirements. Will stand out against the background of green aquarium plants. Neon tetras should be kept in aquariums with a volume of 50-100 liters (for 5-8 fish). In the first days of the settlement will perfectly fit into the underwater ecosystem.
Viviparsing species with a peaceful nature
Small aquarium fishes, males are smaller than females, the length of aquarium species is 4-5 cm. Peace-loving creatures do not touch their neighbors. However, large and predatory fish can offend them. You can not keep with aquarium sharks, sword, giant gourami, pangasius. It is also not recommended to settle in with them barbs and crescents, who like to tear off the fins to beautiful fish.
Excellent survival with neons, rasborami, cardinals, speckled catfish, tarakatuma. It should be settled in one tank a small flock of 5 fish, in such numbers they will be comfortable and safe. At such a number of fish enough 20-50-liter aquarium.
Barbs (Sumatran, fiery, dark-haired ruby, and tiger) are widespread among this type of aquarium pet. They prefer live food and grow to about 6 centimeters. They are quite unpretentious, but they should be purchased in pairs. These smallest aquarium pets can not be settled with relatives of voilev forms because barbs are able to nibble their fins.
See how live barbs look like.
The presence of the smallest aquarium fish - danio rerio or danio inle will be spectacular. These most active and very playful small schooling fish prefer live or dry food, and their size reaches 3 - 5 centimeters. Excessive mobility of waterfowl, unfortunately, is dangerous for them. Often, danios jump out of their pool, so only closed aquariums are suitable for growing them.
Talking about the smallest fish for breeding, it is impossible not to mention the well-known neon. These smallest inhabitants of indoor ponds are famous for their amazing color, but rather neon luminous strip, which runs through the whole body. Like all small fish, neons are schooling, so it is worth to settle them in groups of 10 pieces.
Look at the neon tank.
Whatever schooling fish you choose, it is very important to understand that their attractive colorful appearance and cheerfulness depend on you completely. It should be borne in mind that the minimum allowable amount of water for each instance can not be less than 3 liters. Too many water dwellers will transform your source of inspiration and positive into a kind of “communal apartment” and will not in the best way affect their behavior. Maintaining an optimal temperature, a weekly water change of 20 percent, the presence of an aquarium filter, aeration, and the right food - these simple procedures will help you enjoy the contemplation of the brilliance of bright colors in the aquarium.
And here's another great selection of nano fish - look:
Top 10 fish to start with
Deciding what kind of fish to start first in your tank can be sudden, and it can be thought out. Unfortunately, novice aquarists are often guided by the very first impulse, completely unaware of the fish. And then, instead of joy and pleasure, they get headaches and problems. You need to choose the fish wisely, because their life and your comfort depend on your choice. Before you go to the store or to the market, study all the available information about the fish that you liked.
What kind of fish is not worth buying for beginners, we reviewed here. And the top 10 unusual fish here.
And in order to make it easier for you to navigate, we have compiled a list of the best aquarium fish for beginners and briefly described them. All of them are distinguished by unpretentiousness, tolerance to conditions in an aquarium, peaceful nature, livableness and modest size. We hope that it will help make your choice easier!
Danio rerio is a small (up to 5-6 cm), elegant fish. For its small size, peaceful disposition and unpretentiousness, it has earned great popularity in aquarium.
Since this is a schooling fish, it is better to keep at least 5-6 individuals. The aquarium can be planted with plants, but it is important that the danios have free space for swimming at the surface, as this is a very mobile fish. If you are going to have a veil form, do not plant them with fish that can tear off fins, for example, with a Sumatran barbus. The aquarium should be closed, as danios can jump out of the water.
Omnivorous, they eat all kinds of food - branded, live, frozen. It is better to feed them with flakes, as they pick up food from the surface of the water and they don’t collect them for a long time without sinking. It is very easy to breed danios, for once the female lays from 200 to 500 eggs.
Fish belong to the same genus - labyrinth. These fish live in water that is poor in oxygen and adapted to this by learning how to breathe oxygen from the surface. You will see how they rise to her, to take another sip of air. Small, peaceful, males are very brightly colored, and their ventral fins have turned into long processes. You can feed any feed, including floating. Only give a moth with care and a little, it is poorly digested.
After the publication of the article, readers corrected me. The essence - liliaus can be difficult for beginners (he is just slightly flamy and jealous of females). I agree, and add that there is another wonderful fish of the same kind - gourami. There are many types, but for beginners a good choice would be marble gourami. Very hardy, peaceful, of unusual shape and color. It is generally similar to lyalius, but larger and less demanding. So you can stop at this gorgeous fish, and start up a little later.
Peaceful, small fish, the males of which have a very bright color, for which they got their name. This is a schooling fish, so keep a cherry barb is better from 5 pieces. But you will notice that he keeps loosely, gathering in a pack only in case of fright. The size of the cherry barb is small, the color of the males is bright red and very noticeable, the requirements for the content are low. This is a good fish to mention on our list.
A pair of cherry barbs
The name of the aquarium fish photo catalog video species.
NAMES OF AQUARIUM FISHES.
Goldfish appeared almost more than a thousand years ago, the first color variations of the Chinese goldfish. От них-то и ведет свою родословную золотая рыбка со всеми ее многочисленными видами. Аквариум для золотых рыбок должен быть большим, с грунтом из крупной гальки или гравия.
ЗОЛОТАЯ РЫБКА Название аквариумных рыбок
Прекрасные рыбки «в душе» остались карасями и так же, как и караси, роются в грунте, взмучивают воду и выкапывают растения. Приходится иметь в аквариуме мощные фильтры и высаживать растения с крепкой корневой системой или в горшочках. Длина тела до 22 см. Тело округлое, с длинными вуалевыми плавниками. Окраска оранжевая, красная, черная или пятнистая. By long-term selection of aquarists of the Ancient East, it was possible to bring out a huge number of beautiful species. golden fish. Among them: telescopes, veils, celestial eye, or astrologer, Shubunkin and others. They differ from each other in body shape, fins, color, and have long lost their resemblance to carp.
Name aquarium fish-COMET
A rather small fish that can live in aquariums from 30 liters. Classic color - brown. Often these small catfishes are confused with larger counterparts - pterigoplichtami. In general, a very hardworking fish and well clean growth.
Name aquarium fish - ANCISTRUS
HEMBRICK - one of the most popular aquarium fish. In nature, it is found in the waters of Honduras, Central America, Guatemala and Mexico. Viviparous fish. Males from females are distinguished by the presence of a process in the form of a sword, hence the name. It has an interesting feature, in the absence of males, the female can change the sex and grow a “sword”. They are also known for eating algae and snails.
HEMBERS -Name of aquarium fish
Contents: 24 - 26 ° С, dH 8 - 25 °, pH 7 - 8
Very cute and smart catfish corridor. We would compare them with the Pomeranian Spitz in the dog world. The bottom small fish, which does not require special conditions, feeds on what it can find at the bottom. As a rule, they are 2-10 centimeters long. You do not know who to plant in the aquarium - buy a corridor.
CORRIDOR -Name of aquarium fish
This type of bots is the most popular among aquarists. Most likely due to the fact that clowns look very impressive, as seen in the photo. Feature of the fish - thorns, which are under the eyes. These spikes can be advanced when the fish are in danger. Can live up to 20 years.
BOTTION CLOWN—Name of aquarium fish
Perhaps one of the most spectacular types of barbs - for this and is considered one of the most popular of its kind. Keep them necessary in the pack, which makes the fish even more spectacular. Size in the aquarium - up to 4-5 centimeters.
BARBUS—Name of aquarium fish
SIAMSKAYA VODOROSLEED - peace-loving and very active fish. The best helper in the fight against algae. Inhabits the waters of Thailand and the Malaysian Peninsula. In nature, it grows up to 16 cm, much less in captivity. Life expectancy in an aquarium can be 10 years. It eats algae of almost all types and even “Vietnamese”. Content: 24 - 26 ° С, dH 4 - 20 °, pH 6.5 - 7
VODOROSLEED -Name of aquarium fish
DISKUS - the most interesting and beautiful fish, representative of the Cichlid family. The birthplace of this fish is South America. Discussions are calm, peaceful and a little shy. They live in the middle layers of the water, badly get on with scalars and highly active fish. Keep should be a group of 6 or more individuals. Very demanding on water temperature. If the temperature is below 27 ° C, the discus is sick, refuse to eat and die. Content: 27 - 33 ° С, dH up to 12 °, pH 5 - 6
DISKUS—Name of aquarium fish
GUPPI - the most unpretentious fish, ideal for novice aquarists. Habitat - North part of South America and Barbados and Trinidad. The male has a luxurious tail with a bright and beautiful pattern. The female is twice the size of the male and not so bright. This fish is viviparous. The tank should be closed. Keep them better in the species aquarium, as active neighbors can damage their voile tails. Guppies are omnivores. Content: 20 - 26 ° С, dH up to 25 °, pH 6.5 - 8.5
GUPPI—Name of aquarium fish
Shark Barbus (bala)
Shark ball or barb is a fish, which was so named as a result of similarity with sharks (this can be seen from the photo of an aquarium fish next to the description). These fish are large, can grow up to 30-40 centimeters, so they should be kept together with other large barbs in the amount of 150 liters.
SHARK BALA—Name of aquarium fish
COCK - betta fish In nature, it is found in Southeast Asia. The only drawback is that males are very aggressive towards each other. Can grow up to 5 cm in length. Surprisingly, this fish breathes atmospheric air, due to a special labyrinth organ. The content of this fish does not require special knowledge. It is desirable to have an aquarium from 3 liters. Variety in feed is welcome. Content: 25 - 28 ° С, dH 5 - 15 °, pH 6 - 8
COCK -Name of aquarium fish
GURAMI - peace-loving and beautiful fish. It belongs to the Labyrinth family. They are found in the waters of the large islands of Indonesia, the Malacca Peninsula, and southern Vietnam. They get along with any neighbors, grow up to 10 cm. It lives mainly in the upper and middle layers of water. Maximum active in the daytime. Recommended for beginner aquarists. It is necessary to keep in the aquarium at least 100 liters with live plants and bright light. Content: 24 - 26 ° С, dH 8 - 10 °, pH 6.5 - 7
GURAMI—Name of aquarium fish
Small fish up to 5 centimeters. It is not difficult to recognize because of the color - a black body with longitudinal white stripes. Like all danios, nimble fish that never sits still.
DANIO—Name of aquarium fish
Telescopes come in gold and black. In size, as a rule, they are not particularly large, up to 10-12 cm, so they can live in aquariums from 60 liters. The fish is spectacular and unusual, suitable for those who love everything original.
TELESCOPE-Name of aquarium fish
There are black, orange, yellow, and mestizos. The form is a cross between a guppy and a swordtail. The fish is larger than the above described relatives, so it requires aquariums from 40 liters.
Mollensia—Name of aquarium fish
Pecillia is the personification of the whole genus - the petsiliev. They can be of different colors, from bright orange, to variegated with black patches. Fish can grow to 5-6 centimeters.
PECILIA-Name of aquarium fish
A good fish that does not like encroachment on its territory. Though beautiful, it requires proper attitude. It is better not to plant them with their own kind, in the aquarium there is enough female and male of this species, they can get along with neons, guppies and other small species.
MACROPOD—Name of aquarium fish
NEON - mobile, schooling, peace-loving and very shy fish. Rhod from the basin of the river Rio Negru. In an aquarium it grows up to 3.5 cm, life expectancy up to 5 years. Keep should flock in an amount of 10 individuals. It is not worthwhile to push them into large fish, since neon can easily become their prey. Keeps in the lower and upper layers. The size of the aquarium is selected at the rate of 15 - 20 liters per pair. Feed: small bloodworm, dry flocculent. Content: 22 - 26 ° С, dH up to 8 °, pH 5 - 6.5
NEON-Name of aquarium fish
CALERY - angel fish. It is found in South America in the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers. This fish has been known to aquarists for many years. She is able to decorate with her presence absolutely any aquarium. This calm and gregarious fish with a life expectancy of 10 years. Keep it should be a group of 4 - 6 individuals. A large and hungry angelfish can eat a small fish, such as neon. And such a fish as a barbus can easily pinch its fins and antennae. Prefers live food. Contents: 24 - 27 ° С, dH 6 - 15 °, pH 6.5 - 7.5
SCALARIAN—Name of aquarium fish
Tetra fishes like when there are a lot of living plants in an aquarium, and therefore oxygen. The body of the fish is slightly oblate, the dominant colors are red, black and silver.
TETRA—Name of aquarium fish
Ternetia is also called black tetra. Classic color - black and silver, in black vertical stripes. The fish is quite popular, so finding it in your city is not difficult.
TERNESIA—Name of aquarium fish
The size of the fish is different, but in general they do not grow more than 8-10 centimeters. There are smaller species. All the fish are beautiful, have a silver color, with different shades. Schooling fish and more calmly live in a group.
Rainbows—Name of aquarium fish
ASTRONOTUS - large, calm and a little shy fish. Occurs in the Amazon River Basins. In the aquarium can grow up to 25 cm, the life expectancy can be more than 10 years. Little neighbors can eat. The aquarium is selected at the rate of 100 liters per individual. Sharp scenery should not be, as the astronotus in a panic can hurt yourself. Aquarium must be closed. Feed should be live food. Content: 23 - 26 ° С, dH up to 35 °, pH 6.5 - 8.5
ASTROTON -Name of aquarium fish
BLACK KNIFE - bottom and night fish. It inhabits overgrown parts of the Amazon River. It has an interesting body structure. Can move in any direction. In an aquarium it grows up to 40 cm. During the daytime it mostly hides. It is better to keep alone, as skirmishes can occur between large individuals. An aquarium of 200 l with snags, live plants and a large number of stone shelters will be suitable for maintenance. It feeds on live food. Content: 20 - 25 ° С, dH 4 - 18 °, pH 6 - 7.5
FISH KNIFE -Name of aquarium fish
Types of aquarium fish
The role of the aquarium in the apartment is interesting: a piece of the water element, placed in the interior of the city dweller’s home, is an excellent element of decor, as well as a means of relaxation after a busy day full of stress. Aquarium fish, embodied in your apartment in miniature, will bring you much joy. But when starting an aquarium, it is important to understand what types of aquarium fish will live in it and how.
Leafing through the catalog, delving into the photo and the names of aquarium fish, first of all, you should decide on the purpose of the upcoming purchase: do you want to engage in breeding or start an aquarium of aesthetic motives?
Breeding takes a lot of time and effort, as certain species of aquarium fish require special conditions for reproduction. You also need to find out under what conditions this or that type of aquarium fish will acquire the desired external parameters (the appearance and temperature of water, lighting, and the nature of food can significantly influence the appearance).
Creating an "underwater world" with an aesthetic goal is a somewhat different task from selection. Here you are primarily in the help of catalogs, in which various types of aquarium fish in pictures are presented. However, here, studying photos and descriptions of aquarium fish, you should choose the inhabitants of the aquarium, which require similar conditions of detention and are not part of each other's food chain. Failure to follow these principles will lead to disease and death of fish.
Many years of work of aquarists and breeders have led to the fact that all the names of aquarium fish can not be mentioned even in the volume brochure. Therefore, below we provide a table that includes a brief description of the most common individuals.
Residents for a small aquarium
And so, you read my article on the launch of a nano-aquarium, or you just wanted to start your own little water world for a long time and now you are thinking about who to settle there.
Quite a lot of options)
All the inhabitants of the underwater world can be divided into vertebrates, invertebrates and mollusks.
Vertebrates include various types of fish. To invertebrates - shrimps, crabs and crayfish. To mollusks - snails.
You can choose one of these kingdoms (for example, make a shrimp maker), or you can combine two or even all three.
The traditional is an aquarium populated by fish. Only here in a small aquarium you will not plant everybody, you will have to choose small schooling fish or one or two medium ones.
Possible options for colonization of the FISH Aquarium:
Very famous and common fish. Males are very beautiful, have luxurious fan fins. Females are less elegant, but also very brightly colored. Breeders are constantly working on breeding new colors cockerels.
They are satisfied with small amounts of water (but, you see, keeping the fish in an aquarium of less than 5 liters is both cruel and ugly). Water temperature - ideally 26 degrees. The cockerel breathes atmospheric air, swallowing it from the surface. Therefore, care must be taken that the air in the room is not too cool. You can cover the aquarium cover, but leave a few inches from the surface of the water.
Male males are very pugnacious, so it’s best to keep them alone or in families (1 male and 3-4 females).
The body length of an adult cockerel is about 6 cm.
Also known Russian fish. Neons prefer to live in flocks, so it is better to settle them in groups of 5 individuals.
The water temperature is 22-25 degrees (ideally), at higher temperatures, the lifetimes of these fish are reduced. In principle, neons are unpretentious, like soft water and an abundance of plants. Prone to obesity, so they should be fed very moderately.
Adult neon can reach a length of 4 cm.
3. Danio rerio:
As a rule, these small fish are always recommended for beginners. Moving, fun and unpretentious danios feel best in flocks. They can live in the temperature range of 15-30 degrees and be content with 1 liter of water per 1 fish (that is, even in a five-liter aquarium, you can run a group of 5 zebrafish). Easily spawn in an aquarium.
There are several color forms of this fish.
Body length up to 5 cm (but more often 3-4).
Probably, it is from this fish that aquarism begins for most people. It was the guppies living in three-liter banks that became frequent inhabitants of Soviet (and then Russian) apartments. They are loved by millions for their unpretentiousness (they can live even in the most extreme conditions), beauty (thanks to the many unique colors, everyone can find "the fish of their dreams" =)) and fertility (you can buy just one female, and in a month she will give birth to you 20 fry).
Viviparous guppies, i.e. they do not spawn, but give birth to live fry. They eat absolutely everything. Water temperatures are undemanding.
At first I liked them very much, but now they multiplied uncontrollably. It even annoys me that every week I find at least 20 newborn fry in the aquarium.
The males are guppies slender, with a bright body and a luxurious tail. Samochki larger, thicker, gray and inconspicuous. But there are quite beautiful purebred females.
Breeders are constantly working on new breeds of guppy.
Dimensions: male - 3-4 cm, female - up to 6 cm.
(last 2 pics are female)
5. Guppy Endler:
In fact, the same guppy. But Endler's guppy is a wild form that breeders did not manage to work on. Such fish are found in Venezuela. easily interbreed with simple guppies and produce very cute hybrids)
Endler's guppies are smaller than ordinary guppies: males reach a length of 2-3 cm. Look great in small aquariums with a dark background!
The so-called "speckled catfish". In fact, the corridors are very many species, just speckled - the most famous of them.
The corridors love the company, buy 3-5 at once. These harmless catfish do not exceed 5 cm in length, some species (such as the corridor panda) do not grow more than 3 cm at all.
Unpretentious, can live without aeration. The soil should be without sharp stones so that the fish will not hurt their delicate antennae. The optimum temperature of the content - 24-26 degrees.
Water volume: at least 3-5 liters for 1 fish.
7. Corridor Pygmy:
View of the corridors, which is worth to say separately.
Pygmies are small schooling fishes, seemingly greyish and inconspicuous, but very cute and interesting in behavior. They feel good only in a flock, they like clean, oxygenated water.
Unlike other corridors, they do not sit only in the bottom layer of water, but prefer to “flit” all over the aquarium, like a flock of birds.
Prefers neutral water, rather cool (18-21 °). For 1 fish requires 3 liters of water. The fish are small, 3-4 cm, quite mobile. They love the abundance of plants, omnivores.
9. Micro disassembly:
An ideal fish for a nano-aquarium. Body length rarely exceeds 2 cm. Water temperature is 22-28 degrees, unpretentious to the composition of the water, 1 fish requires less than 1 liter of water. Unfortunately, micro-assemblies are now rarely available, and aquarists have been waiting for these fish to be delivered to stores for months.
10. Norman Blue-Eye:
Cute schooling fish that grow up to 3-4 cm. Their eyes glow brightly with neon light, which gives the aquarium a kind of dynamics and charm.
Peaceful schooling fish, water temperature 20-25 degrees. I live at a higher temperature, very active and playful.
And so, we looked at fish that would be happy even in a small aquarium of 10-30 liters.
Approximate settlement options:
10 liter aquarium:
ONLY ONE OF THE PROPOSED OPTIONS!
• 5-7 Guppy Endler,
• 5 Norman blue-eyed
• 7 micro-sampling + 5 danio-rerio,
• 3 Endler guppies + 5 danios-rerio,
• 3 neon + 3 guppies.
• Family of cockerels (1 male and 3 females),
• 1 cock + 3 corridors,
• 10-15 guppies or Endler's guppies,
• 10-15 Norman blue-eyed
• 7 pygmy corridors,
• 5 guppies + 5 neons,
• 15 Danio-rerio + 15 microassembly,
• 10 guppies + 3 corridors,
• 7 neons + 3 corridors.
Here the possibilities are even greater) For example, such fish may be settled, which I did not tell about here. A pair of macropods, a couple of honey gouras, a pair of pelvicahromis or apistograms.
The remaining combinations - we look at 10 liters and multiply the number of fish by 3.
Naturally, it is better to run less fish than planned. Перенаселение очень опасно для таких маленьких объемов. В любом случае, должны быть обеспечены фильтрация, аэрация и еженедельная подмена воды на 20-30 %.
Сейчас в моду входят креветочники – аквариумы, заселенные пресноводными креветками.
Креветки неприхотливы, симпатичны и очень интересны.
1. Вишневая креветка (черри):
Small (up to 3 cm) red shrimp. Extremely unpretentious. It breeds well in an aquarium.
2. Amano Shrimp (Japanese Pond):
More than a cherry (up to 6 cm). Gray, perfectly fights with algal fouling. In an aquarium where shrimps live, the plants are always clean and well maintained.
In captivity do not breed.
3. Shrimp Crystal:
Small (2 cm), dear, rather demanding to water, but very beautiful shrimp.
4. Shrimp Cardinal:
Very beautiful and very rare shrimp. Considered difficult to maintain.
5. Yellow shrimp:
Unpretentious small shrimp bright yellow. If it is undernourished, it can begin to spoil the plants.
If you want to keep only shrimp (without fish), then you can plant a rather large flock in a small volume. For example, in 10 liters 20-25 shrimp-cherries will feel great.
Shrimps do not touch the fish, but some fish are not averse to eat shrimp. Therefore, the ideal neighbors for shrimp will be small fish, such as the Endler guppies, microassemblies, neons, corridors and Norman blue-eyes.
The calculation is approximately as follows:
20 liters: 10 shrimp-cherries + 5-7 guppy Endler (or other small fish).
Shellfish in an aquarium:
Some snails are also quite cute and even useful. They will be excellent neighbors for your fish or shrimp.
Cute striped snail that feeds. other snails. It helps to get rid of the invasion of pond snails and coils that spoil the plants. For lack of "live food" eats the remnants of fish food. It breeds well in an aquarium.
Beautiful and useful snail. Helps to clear plaque from walls and plants. It lays its eggs, but the whites do not appear in fresh water.
The most favorite snail, very often found in aquariums.
Unfortunately, some types of ampoulyaries spoil the plants. And there is a lot of dirt from them.
I tried to introduce you to creatures that will feel great in a small (10-30 l) aquarium. Aquarium with small nimble fish or business-like shrimp will greatly decorate your apartment or office. With proper and timely care, he will long please you.
About how to run the aquarium, I wrote in the article "The underwater world on your desk."
I repeat once again simple rules that will help you to always maintain your aquarium in good condition:
1. DO NOT HURRY! The launch of the aquarium should last at least 2 weeks (from the water up to the launch of the fish).
2. Down with artificiality! Plants, soil and decorations in the aquarium should be NATURAL. No plastic!
3. The filter should work around the clock !.
4. Water changes should be done once a week, at 20-30%. Never change all the water at once! Never wash the scenery with chemistry!
5. Feed the fish a little! One day a week - unloading.
6. If after you install the filter, there was a dregs - do not rush to change the water! All is well, the appearance of turbidity suggests that a balance has begun to be established. After a couple of days the water will be clean.
7. Do not overdo it with fish! Less is more.
8. Remember: an aquarium is a complex biological system. Do not climb there once again with your hands, do not make chemistry or other drugs.
9. Fish - also alive. And you are responsible for her life.
There is nothing difficult in aquarism. Learn to be patient, do not neglect the advice, do not forget to devote half an hour a week to your underwater world - and he will thank you. Coming home, you will enjoy the lush green plants and frolicking fish.
Successes to all who decided to start an aquarium!
Next time I will try to tell you something else interesting from the world of aquarism)
Where do neon aquarists come from?
The taming of miniature beauties happened 80 years ago, when during a water hunt in the Amazonian jungle, a French naturalist discovered miniature shiny fish in his catch and brought several specimens to his homeland.
Auguste Rabo, the very French naturalist who first discovered neons in the Amazon, made a fortune by importing and selling all new specimens of exotic fish. Over time, the habitats of neons were discovered, and a little later, after many unsuccessful experiments, they learned to breed in captivity.
What are neons and how to distinguish them?
In nature, a neon schooling fish neon lives in clean, soft water of water bodies rich in vegetation. In the home aquarium of these active pets should be kept a flock of ten individuals, because they need a society of fish of their own species, with which the moving aquarium inhabitants have fun, swimming mainly in the thickness of the aquarium.
There are different in color neons - blue, red, black, blue. The blue variety is distinguished by a blue stripe, which passes to the tail in a purple or green color.
A distinctive feature of red fish is the presence of a bright red color in the lower part of their body.
Representatives of the blue variety of exotic pets do not have red tones on their bodies at all.
And for black ones there is a narrow blue stripe on top and a wide black stripe goes along the bottom of the body.
Neon fish: care
Neon pet aquariums do not differ in the complexity of care, and to overcome this simple science by the forces of the most unsophisticated aquarist. The most comfortable temperature for fish is from 18 to 23 ° C. A higher temperature indicator of aquarium water provokes accelerated aging of the pet's body, which may cause it to die without producing offspring.
The diet of neons should be varied, with a partial entry of dry live food and:
- small varieties of daphnia,
- finished dry food,
- gruel, consisting of lettuce leaves, duckweed and spinach leaves.
It should be borne in mind that fish obesity inhibits their reproduction, and therefore, feeding should not be frequent. It is enough once a day with one fasting day a week.
Neon fish: content
Moving neons are very shy, which causes them to keep a flock, and this gives a decorative aquarium. A thirty-liter tank with abundant vegetation is quite suitable for neon housing. If the reservoir is aerated, then 1.5 liters of volume is enough for one individual; without air blowing, one pet should have at least 3 liters of aquarium volume.
Planting aquatic plants optimally placed in the back, as well as the side walls of the tank. However, you need to know that free space for movement of neons is also necessary.
Neon fish: breeding
These inhabitants of the domestic reservoir become sexually mature by their performance of 7-12 months. For spawning and trouble-free breeding of fish (the number of pairs depends on the size of the spawning grounds) is deposited in a separate container of 10 liters with soft water. Its stiffness should be up to 2º dH. To achieve this indicator, distilled water is used. Spawning occurs fairly quickly - during the night or during the day.
When adults appear at the bottom of the calf, they are deposited back into the aquarium, and the water in the breeding ground is cast to a level of 10 cm, and after five days the container with small neons can be lit. Larvae become independent by this time, begin to swim and feed.
In the general aquarium, a new generation can be released at the age of one and a half months.
If you follow all the above rules for the maintenance and care of aquarium neon (providing a varied diet, timely cleaning of the reservoir and changing water, the optimal choice of neighbors in the aquarium) your pets will live a long time, delighting you with a bright exotic color.