Stonefish is the ugliest and most poisonous creature hiding at the bottom of the oceans. For a very extravagant appearance, it is often called a wart. This is a small fish in length rarely exceeds 20 cm. Its whole body is covered with growths in the form of bumps and warts. On the head studded with outgrowths there is a huge mouth and small eyes. The body without scales has a brown-brown color with light spots and stripes. During the year, the wart changes its skin several times. On its dorsal fin twelve very hard venomous spines are concentrated. Since fish-stone spends most of its life at the bottom, slowly crawling along it, its pectoral fins have acquired a wide base. Poisonous ducts and
Not only in spinal thorns. They also focus on anal and thoracic
Wartholes are most often found off the coasts of the tropical seas of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They lead a quiet and very sedentary lifestyle. They live in shallow waters in coral reefs, hiding between the overgrown mud and small rocks. They also love lava piles. Being a successful predator is very important for this fish. Stone or sand - the best shelter for her. She is able to lie in wait for hours and wait for a gaping scattered prey. Buried in the ground, the wart often leaves the back outside. If you look at it from above, it will resemble cobblestone overgrown with algae. That is why it is often compared to stone.
Despite the lazy lifestyle, stone-fish is extremely irritable. At the slightest hint of a threat, she immediately raises thorny spikes on the dorsal
fin After all, it is at their base is poison. These needles are so strong that even shoes cannot protect against them. If you step on the fish or touch
before her, she instantly thrusts them into human flesh. For a person, the poison of a wart is very dangerous. Most often, unexpected encounters with this fish end in death. But even if the person is lucky - he will survive, then almost certainly he will remain disabled for life. Poison stone-fish - tetrodotoxin - the most dangerous among all known toxins, which are endowed with the inhabitants of the deep sea. After entering the blood vessels of the body, it destroys red blood cells and infects the central nervous system. Often Rtva does not even have time to realize what happened. Pain shock is so strong that a person just loses consciousness. If he is not provided with highly qualified medical assistance in time, then death may occur in five hours.
Different nations fish-stone has many names. The warthog genus includes seven species, and they are all found in the Red Sea. The most common is considered to be the species Synanceia verrucosa. It is the largest representative of warts. In length, it can reach 40 cm, and weighs about 2.5 kg. The diet of his food is small fish and crustaceans, which he swallows with his huge mouth along with water. Smaller species can be found in the popular fish markets of Pacific countries. There they are very refined and delicious delicacy.
Appearance and Description
The average length of most adult warts range from 35 to 50 cm.. The main color of the fish-stone body varies from mottled greenish shades to a relatively saturated brown color, which makes it possible for a deadly marine inhabitant to easily hide among numerous tropical reefs.
Specific features of such fish are rather large head, small eyes and a small mouth directed upwards. On the head there are numerous ridges and bumps. Pectoral fins have a very wide and pronounced oblique base. All twelve thick spines on the dorsal fin of the fish-stone, as well as any other species of fish from the genus Warthog, have poisonous glands.
It is interesting! Unusual are the eyes of a fish-stone, which, if necessary, can not only completely hide in the head, as if drawing into it, but also go out to the maximum.
Area and distribution
The wart is especially widespread in the southern tropical zone, as well as in shallow waters in the Pacific and Indian Ocean.
A large number of stone-fish is found in waters from the Red Sea and to the area of the Great Barrier Reefs near Queensland. The main distribution area also includes the waters of Indonesia, the water zone around the Philippines, and the waters around the islands of Fiji and Samoa.
It is interesting! It should be noted that the wart is the most common species of the Skorpen family, therefore such poisonous fish can be found on the popular beaches of Sharm el-Sheikh, Hugard and Yeshub
The main place of life of the wart are coral reefs, stones darkened by algae, bottom mud or sand. Warthog is a sedentary fish, which, due to its external features, prefers to stay in shallow water, near the coastline, near coral reefs or lava accumulations.
Almost all the time fish-stone spends in the prone position, burrowing in the bottom of the soil or masking under the reef stones, abundantly covered with mud. Such a position of a marine inhabitant is not only his way of life, but also a way of effective hunting. As soon as the wart notices an object suitable for food, it almost instantly pounces on him. During the year, the stone fish is able to change its skin several times.
In the case of a fish submerged in the soil, only the surface of the head and the back area are visible on which water debris and grains of sand sticks massively; therefore, it is almost impossible to notice such a marine inhabitant not only in the water, but also on land, where the fish often find themselves during large ebb tides.
Nutrition and Diet
Quite small fish, as well as mollusks and shrimps, which often do not notice a disguised predator, as a rule, become a victim of a poisonous sea wart, and therefore approach its mouth at too dangerous a distance. Food is swallowed by fish with water. Due to the voracity and unsightly appearance, stone-fish was nicknamed by the Australian aborigines "wart vampire."
Warthogs in recent years quite often contain in home aquariums, but successful attempts at captive breeding are unknown today.
In its natural habitat, the stone fish leads a very secretive way of life and is perfectly camouflaged, therefore, very little is known about the process of reproduction of the offspring of such aquatic inhabitants, and such information cannot be considered completely reliable.
The danger of poison fish-stone
A wart can last almost a day even in an anhydrous environment; therefore, well-disguised as surrounding landscape objects, stone-fish often causes a person to be injured. It is all about the presence on the back of a number of thorns that emit very toxic substances. When a poison enters the skin, a person has severe pain, which is often accompanied by symptoms such as shock, paralysis, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure and tissue death.
Even a minor irritation provokes the wart to the rise of the spines of the dorsal fin.. Very sharp and strong enough spikes can easily pierce through even the shoes of a person who accidentally stepped on such a fish. Deep penetration of thorns and untimely assistance can cause a fatal outcome.
Important! Especially dangerous is the ingress of poison directly into the blood. The toxin is represented by a protein mixture, including hemolytic stonustoxin, neurotoxin and cardioactive cardioleptin.
First aid for such an injury is the imposition of a strong tightening bandage or hemostatic harness just above the wound. To relieve pain and burning, applying hot compresses and treating wounds with pharmaceutical anesthetics is used.
However, qualified medical assistance should be provided to the injured as quickly as possible, since severe nerve atrophy of the muscular tissues can occur with local nerve damage.
Despite the relatively average size and absolutely unattractive appearance, the deadly fish-stone is quite actively used in cooking. Exotic warts meat dishes have long become very popular and in demand in Japan and China. Oriental cooks cook from such sushi fish, which are called “Okoze”.
How can stone fish be recognized?
The head of this creature is huge, it is irregularly shaped and has large depressions on all sides.
Adult fish-stones grow up to 40 centimeters in length. But researchers came across specimens whose body length reached half a meter.
On the seabed, this fish can not be seen.
The skin of the fish-stone is soft and completely covered with warty protrusions. Skin color is in this underwater inhabitant from bright red to dark brown. But on the body there are shades of white, yellow and gray tones.
Very interesting arranged in the fish-stone eyes. They can be completely drawn into the head, as well as squeezed out as much as possible, as if getting out.
The fins on the chest are equipped with solid rays, they help the fish to quickly move across the seabed. In addition, sensing the danger, stone fish, with the help of these rays, is buried in the ground.
Warthog - one of the most poisonous fish.
On the back there are also thorns, this is the very poisonous outgrowths that can be stepped on and pricked. By special grooves in these spinal thorns poisonous liquid flows, which, in case of danger, is used by fish-stone as a deadly weapon.
Where does the wart fish live
This bottom dweller is common everywhere, except for the Arctic and Atlantic oceans. It can be found off the coast of the African continent, in the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean. There is a stone fish in the Red Sea, near the Seychelles, off the coast of Tanzania, Kenya and Somalia.
The “prick” of a stone fish can be fatal for humans.
What is dangerous poison stone fish for humans
In the event that a person who has stepped on the sharp poisonous thorn of this fish fails to seek medical help in a timely manner, he may die. Imagine how poisonous this sea fish is!
In Japan and China, this fish is eaten.
You can learn that you stepped on the needle of a fish-stone, by strong pain. There may even be a paralysis. And if the poison immediately falls into a large artery, then death may occur after 2 - 3 hours.
Very popular today resorts of Thailand and Egypt are literally teeming with these fish, so you should be very careful!