All sorts of bee diseases are the actual problem of any beekeeper. Unfortunately, most of them have not yet been studied. At the same time, the symptoms of many bee diseases are not characterized by bright severity, and it is rather difficult to determine them with the naked eye. And this, in turn, can lead to the loss of dozens of families due to the impossibility of making a diagnosis at an early stage.
The most common diseases of bees and their treatment
To date, breeders deduced a huge number of undemanding and hardy breeds of these insects. Many of them can be bred, including in Russia. By all sorts of infections, all modern bee species, fortunately, are quite resistant. However, some diseases, unfortunately, can still occur in apiaries, and quite often.
The most common answer to the question of what bees are sick in apiaries are:
American and European foulbrood,
All these diseases are quite dangerous and can significantly reduce the productivity of families. Treatment of bees for varroa, foulbroods, nosema and other diseases should be started immediately after the discovery of their first symptoms. It can be produced using industrial products or folk remedies.
Causes of varroa infection
Hundreds of books have already been written about this dangerous and frequent disease. It is called Varroa destructor mite, parasitizing on working bees, drones, larvae and pupae. In our country, this disease was first registered in 1964 and is by far the most common in apiaries.
Varroatosis occurs when healthy individuals come into contact with patients. In most cases, this becomes possible when honey is thieved by bees from other apiaries, when hives are placed too closely, when insects visit the same melliferous plants.
This disease manifests itself, unfortunately, not immediately. Its first signs can be seen only a year or two after infection. The main symptoms of varroatosis are:
the appearance of ugly individuals in the family
defeat of part of open brood (decomposing larvae),
the presence of a large number of dead larvae on the flight board.
A visual inspection of insects can easily detect the tick itself.
How to save an apiary from Varroa destructor
Treatment of bees for varroatosis is a rather complicated procedure. Some popular methods in this case is usually not enough. The pronounced therapeutic effect in this disease is mainly given only by special industrial preparations. When varrota-infected families are found in an apiary, beekeepers most often use products of two types:
On the basis of amitraz, such effective medicines as Aqua-Flo, Bipin-T and Apimaks are made. For bees, the instructions for using all of these tools are pretty simple. The effect they have is very good. Such drugs as Api-San, Varropol, Fumisan are made with the use of fluvalinate.
In addition to special preparations, formic acid is also often used to treat bees for varroatosis. This tool process the top of the frame. When formic acid evaporates, it kills ticks even in bee broods.
Drug "Bipin-T": instructions for use
This remedy is used for bees varroa most often. Apply it in spring or autumn in the absence of brood in families. For treatment, 1 ml of the drug is diluted in 2 liters of warm water. The result is a milky liquid. This solution is drawn into a syringe and watered at the rate of 10 ml per street. After 7 days, the procedure is repeated. For the best effect, it is desirable to carry out such processing twice - once after the end of the honey collection, the second time - before setting up the families for the winter.
"Bipin-T", the instructions for use of which are thus simple, are not used for hives from less than 3-4 streets.
Means "Apimaks": how to apply
Of course, Bipin-T is not the only medicine popular with beekeepers. Prophylaxis and treatment of varroatosis and other diseases (for example, Nosema, Ascosferosis, Gniltsov) - this is what is also often used against the drug "Apimaks." For bees, the instructions for its use are as follows:
0.1 l of balsam should be mixed with 10 liters of sugar solution (50%),
The resulting mixture should be put in special feeders and put them in the hive.
American and European foulbrood: causes of infection
These are also very common bee diseases. Both their treatment and prevention are carried out according to certain technologies, which every beekeeper is obliged to know. The causative agent of American foulbrood is the bacterium Bacillus larvae, European - Melissococcus plutonius. The spores of the first pathogen can remain active for many years. In the dead larvae, they, for example, remain alive for 30 years. The causative agent of the European foulbrood dies faster. So, on the clothes of a beekeeper, he can live no more than 95 days. Adult insects are not affected by both these types of bacteria. Only larvae fall ill with American and European rot.
The main causes of infection are:
the transfer of spores by small insects,
fertilizing infected honey,
work in the hive with dirty hands.
Signs of illness
The main symptoms of American and European rottenness are:
the presence of a large number of dead larvae in honeycombs,
the presence of an unpleasant viscous mixture at the bottom of the cells
darkening of the wax caps and the appearance of holes in them.
The rotten diseases of bees (and their treatment and prophylaxis - procedures are responsible) can be diagnosed including by changing the color of the integuments of the larvae.
It is impossible to get rid of stabs with the help of only medication drugs. The fact is that spores of pathogens do not destroy chemical agents. Therefore, only disinfection of hives in combination with medicines helps to effectively overcome these diseases of bees. Both their treatment and prevention, among other things, should include the following activities:
the creation of conditions that prevent sporulation,
treatment of hives by means of destroying disputes.
As medicines in the treatment of bee colon families from foulbroods, commonly used are:
All these products can be used as a suspension in a sugar syrup, powder or a conventional solution.
Disinfection of hives infected with rottenness is done with formaldehyde (4 or 10%). In this case, the metal parts are processed by flaming. After visiting the apiary, the beekeeper should steal the clothes for 30 minutes. The same methods are usually carried out and the prevention of rotting.
Causes of Hose Infection with Nosema
This disease is most common in those apiaries that are not carefully looked after. Nosema is caused by bees, the treatment of which is easier to carry out than foulbroods or, for example, varroatosis, the bacterium Nosema apis. It lives and breeds mainly in the litter of sick bees. Causes of infection with hive Nosema are usually:
high humidity inside the hive,
shortage of bee bread in spring
Also, this disease in bees can be provoked by rainy and windy weather in summer and sudden changes in temperature in winter.
Signs of Nosema
The latent form of this disease has no pronounced symptoms. In this case, the family usually just weakens a little and in it more often it is necessary to replace the uterus. But in most cases in the apiaries there is still an acute form of Nosema. Bees in this case:
lose the ability to fly
in a panic run through the hive
start to eat a lot,
Some time after the appearance of these signs, the insects die.
To combat this disease in the apiary:
the bees are given top dressing in the form of sugar dough with antibiotics mixed in with it,
they renew the population by planting hives in young queens.
All these procedures in quite a short time allow you to save the family from such a dangerous disease as Nozematosis bees. Its treatment is most effective when using the antibiotic Fumagillin-B.
Causes of Ascosferosis Infection
This disease causes the fungus Ascosphaera apis in the hive. It strikes at most the larvae of drones between the ages of 3 and 4 days. Infection occurs through the outer integument. Larvae with fungus sprouted on their body lose elasticity, die and dry. To provoke this fungal disease can:
prolonged cooling at high humidity.
How is ascospheresis treated
The hive infested with Ascosphaera apis is usually assisted by powdered insects with powdered preparation Nystatin. You can buy it by visiting almost any beekeeping store. Also a good remedy for this disease is the yarrow herb (powder scattered in the streets).
How to place an apiary correctly
The most common diseases of bees and their symptoms, as well as their treatment - this is something with which we have understood all the details. However, of course, it is better to try not to allow the infection to the apiary at all, than to try to eradicate it. To protect the bees from diseases can, in particular, and choosing the right place under the hives. It is necessary to establish families first of all near to medosbor, not containing any toxic chemicals or other substances harmful to insects.
The radius of the pasechnaya territory is usually equal to 2-3 km. This area, in addition to the rich honey collection, should be characterized by the absence of possible foci of disease:
This procedure is carried out most often in the autumn, after the end of the flight. Disinfect all metal and wooden equipment, including the hives themselves. Previously, all items to be processed, wipe with liquor. The latter is prepared by boiling a solution of ash (1 part for 2 parts of water). To prevent infectious diseases in the apiary, you can also visit a beekeeping shop and purchase a solution of formalin (1%) or iodine monochloride (1%). After rinsing, the hives are transferred to a concrete pad. Here they are dried, and then proceed with the actual treatment with a pathogen-killing agent.
Disinfection of hives, metal and wooden equipment is usually carried out with a mixture of hydrogen peroxide (10%) and formic acid (0.5%). Make treatment with this tool twice, with a break of 1 hour. Prepared solution carefully sprayed inventory and hives. After 4 hours, all treated items are washed with water.
In addition, in order to prevent the spread of contagious diseases in the apiary in the autumn, it is necessary to carry out disinfection and the soils under those hives in which sick bees were seen in the summer. In this case, bleach is used (38%) at the rate of 5 kg per 1 square meter. The ground treated with this tool should be dug to a depth of 5 cm.
Instead of conclusion
Thus, we have found out what are the most common diseases of bees. Both their treatment and prevention must be carried out according to certain technologies. Eradicate the infection in the hive, usually with the help of both antibiotics and thorough disinfection. Can be used to combat bee diseases and folk remedies. However, to use such techniques is mainly only as an addition to the treatment of much more effective industrial preparations.
This is another disease that is caused by malicious ticks. Parasites infect the respiratory tract of insects, while due to the smooth growth of the disease, it is immediately difficult to determine the illness or its signs.
The first manifestations of the disease can be noted during the spring cleaning flight, in this case, the entrance to the lake can find a lot of insects with unnaturally folded wings. These individuals can only crawl, and not able to take off. The spread of the disease contributes to the lack of periodic care for the apiary and high humidity, and the greatest danger lies in the acquired in untested place or stray insects.
In order for the apiary not to suffer from this disease of bees, it is necessary to resort to methods of treatment during the first signs of the disease with acarapidosis. For what vigorously activate mass departures of bees. This can be done only by setting the hives in the south side. As a result, the family will get rid of the sick and old individuals. In this abundant feeding will lead to the emergence of young bees before wintering. Do not forget about drugs. From akarapidoza effective use of Api-Max and folbeksa based on coniferous extract.
The spread of varroatosis can lead to insects easy prey and for other secondary infections. One of this scourge, which is accompanied by an attack of ticks, is ascosphere, caused by disease-causing fungi. Cool rainy weather and high air humidity, when pathogens multiply and dissipate most actively, can contribute to the appearance of the disease and a sign of the bee's disease.
You can cope with the diseaseOnly strictly following the following recommendations of professional beekeepers:
- insects and dead brood are burned,
- insects are transferred to clean hives, during a strong infection, by waxing all the frames with signs of disease,
- bees are offered syrup as top dressing, clean water and healthy food,
- instead of old queens, healthy and young are planted to prevent the spread of the disease, they arrange a season without brood,
- families need to be reduced, and the weak, on the contrary, you need to try to strengthen strong brood and young,
- hives are cleaned and warmed.
Used for the treatment such effective means as unisan and askosan. In addition to these compounds, the drug Api-Max is used, taking into account the instructions an effective tool during the attack of ticks and allowing to cope with infections that are caused by other species of parasites. Prophylactic agent based on natural plant extracts is also useful as a preventive measure. In this case, it must be added to a lump in the spring, right after the flight.
If the destruction of the frames and bees infected with ascospheose, the sorting and processing of the hives is done, then you need to disinfect, wash and clean the working clothes and beekeeper's inventory.
Rotten and other infectious diseases
The list of infectious diseases of bees does not end with the above described diseases. Bees and their broods on apiaries become infected aspergillosis, die from viral paralysis and paratyphoid fever. In the latter cases, insects lose their ability to move. Without proper prevention and treatment, families become weak and may disappear completely.
Serious quarantine diseases include several existing species of foulbrood that infect brood. Distinguished American and European type of passage of the disease. But in both situations, microscopic bacteria can maintain their activity in the soil, the inventory, and the equipment that is infected in the apiary for an incredibly long time. The disease gets into the brood with food, taken together with insects inseminated with honeycombs, during contact with infected insects, through the use of dirty feeders and drinkers.
External symptoms of this insect disease are expressed in the variegated color of the broodand in the final stages of their death, turning into a gray-brown rotting mass with a corresponding odor.
When you confirm the presence of a certain type of rottener, the apiary should be declared a quarantine zone. The territory closes on an area of up to 20 kilometers. Insects are transferred to healthy hives. They are offered syrup or dough with one of the effective means for bees. The infected brood must be destroyed, the framework must be melted on technical wax.
In the role of preventive measures this dangerous disease is proposed to disinfect the hive, to clean the framework, as well as all the equipment used, to make regular inspections of families. And the bees need to offer only healthy and high-quality food, to drink only clean water to drink.
An example of effective drugs to combat various diseases can already be considered above api max. This drug combines all the medicinal properties of coniferous extract, as well as extracts of plants such as echinacea, garlic, wormwood, eucalyptus and pepper.
Trying not to use chemicals, many beekeepers begin to resort to using natural remedies, for example, infusion of celandine. This plant has proven its effectiveness with respect to all types of varroatosis, foulbrood, ascospherosis and nozematosis. Medical treatment with celandine is done according to need, and for prophylactic purposes, the hive, frames with broods and insects are processed in the spring and 2 times in the middle of summer.
Excellent antibacterial and antiviral protection is the drug lozeval. Это отечественное средство, которое эффективно относительно таких опасных возбудителей заболеваний пчел, как:
- гнильцы американского и европейского типа,
- филаментовироз, который обездвиживает рабочих насекомых,
- saccine brood that threatens the mass death of larvae,
- paralysis of bees, detected during the maintenance of hives in an unbecoming form, accompanied by the appearance of individuals with undeveloped wings and the mass death of bees,
- paratyphoid and other diseases whose symptom is severe diarrhea.
Taking into account the instructions for use Lozeval can be used as a preventive and therapeutic drug that enhances the immunity of bees.
Features of non-communicable diseases of bees and their signs
The apiary cannot fully exist if the bees do not provide for it with the necessary conditions. Violation of the rules for the maintenance of these insects will entail both the weakening of families and the development of initially non-infectious and then infectious diseases.
The causes of non-infectious bees are:
- inadequate control over the number of picks, the state of frames and hives,
- non-compliance with the rules of hygiene,
- unsuitable for consumption and dirty water, unhealthy food,
- lack of bribe during the absence of additional feedings,
- poor heat insulation of hives or, on the contrary, their steaming,
- collection in areas that are treated with pesticides or other chemicals.
Among the most common defeats by insects that are caused by external causes, can be identified nectar and pollen toxicosis. These diseases of bees are caused by the fact that the collection in the territory comes from dangerous plants. At the same time, bees with signs of poisoning are quite restless, they have convulsions, and at the difficult stage of the passage of the disease and death. Without the help of the beekeeper, all families can be seriously injured. Cultures poisonous for honey insects are destroyed, additional plants are planted, and if it is impossible to do this, then the hives will need to be transported to another territory.
To bee colonies, toxicoses, which are caused by pads and chemicals, are dangerous. In this case, you need to take all measures to protect insects from sources of danger and improve the diet. As a method for treating a disease, bees are offered clean water and sugar syrup.
Beginner beekeepers are often anxious if the uterus starts laying unfertilized eggs. This condition is not a sign of the disease, but only means that drone need to appear in the hive. It is through parthenogenesis in bees that begin the formation of males, which can later fertilize the uterus. But in certain cases, it is still necessary to guard. When the uterus fills the cells with drone eggs, which are intended for working individuals, this may indicate the need for its replacement.
That is, in order to fully develop beekeeping, we must not forget that the bees' diseases and their treatment must necessarily be timely. But it is best to organize all the conditions in order to pests and diseases, could not affect the condition of the brood, the family of bees and did not lead to significant costs.
Treatment of bees in the spring after wintering
The main damage to beekeeping is brought by diseases and pests of bees. In addition, there are insect enemies that interfere with the bee family to grow productively. For example, from contagious diseases can die not only individuals or families, but the whole apiary. An infected family is developing poorly, makes little reserves for the winter and does not generate income. That is why to ensure productivity you need to know how to properly resist diseases and fight pests.
Microorganisms are constantly in the soil, water and air, which can only be examined under a microscope. Despite the fact that some of them are useful, the majority are still disease-causing, and harm not only humans, but also the animal world, including bees.
Note: From the point of view of beekeeping, pathogens of such a small size are of particular danger that they cannot be seen even through an ordinary microscope. Such microorganisms penetrate even the thinnest filters. They are called filterable viruses.
These include mesh bag brood (Figure 1), a contagious disease of bee brood that can destroy all young stock in a short time. The fact is that a pathogenic microorganism, once in favorable conditions, multiplies very quickly and causes full infection of the brood within 24 hours.
The danger of germs pathogens also lies in the fact that even after recovery, infected individuals remain carriers of the disease, and continue to secrete microbes into the environment with waste products.
Figure 1. Manifestations of saccate brood
It is important that recovery directly depends on the strength of the body's defenses. If families are kept in the right conditions, at optimum temperature and humidity, their organisms will quickly defeat the pathogen.
Pathogens after they enter the body begin to release toxins that stimulate the immune system. Antitoxins secreted in the process of the body's struggle with the disease remain in it after recovery. Thanks to this, a person, an animal or an insect acquires immunity, preventing re-infection.
Unfortunately, not always immunity is maintained throughout life. More often, it exists only a few months. In the animal world, there is the concept of innate immunity, thanks to which individuals of one species do not suffer from contagious diseases of another (for example, horses cannot have swine fever).
In modern veterinary medicine, the creation of artificial immunity with the help of vaccines or vaccinations is practiced, which can significantly reduce production losses.
Treatment of bees for Nosema in spring
Nosema is a dangerous disease that affects all types of insects: queens, working individuals and drones (Figure 2). Its causative agent is the nozema, which penetrates the body of the insect and begins to poison it with the products of its vital activity.
Treatment in the spring after hibernation from Nosema is a key step in insect care, because without therapy and prevention, the whole family can not only die in a short time, but also infect other families in the apiary.
Before you begin treatment for Nosema in the spring, you should understand the causes that cause this pathology.
Since the parasite is a pathogen in the digestive tract, the main cause of infection is low-quality food. If there are spores of nozem in honey, perge or water, all members of the same bee colony will quickly become infected. In addition, the beekeeper himself can spread the pathology if he uses infected equipment for work. The incubation period is only 3-4 days, after which the active development of the disease begins. That is why you need to learn to identify quickly determine the signs of the disease and start treatment on time.
The main symptom of Nosema is severe diarrhea. The selection can be from light yellow to dark brown. They are very abundant and have a watery consistency.
Figure 2. Signs of Nosema
In addition, in sick individuals, the abdomen is greatly enlarged, and the wings begin to tremble. If the uterus is infected, it produces fewer eggs and feeds rasplod worse. In addition, the activity of working individuals decreases: they rarely fly out of the hive, collect less nectar and produce less honey.
The death of the whole family occurs approximately 2 months after infection. If during this period the insects were located in a wintery, the characteristic odor will spread in the room, and traces of excrement will be clearly visible on the walls of the hive.
Nosema, treatment: video
Curing nomatosis is quite difficult. First, it is necessary to give insects the opportunity to make the first cleansing flight. Secondly, it is necessary to quickly replace dirty hives with new ones and relocate families to clean houses (Figure 3).
Also change all queens in infected families, clean the infected food and water. All dirty houses and equipment are treated with a blowtorch and washed with soapy water or disinfectant. The frames are also disinfected, and the insects are given an antibiotic (Nozematsid, Fumagilin, Enteroseptol, etc.).
Since the treatment of Nosema is associated with a whole range of activities, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with the video, which shows in detail all the steps in this process.
Nosema disease: treatment of folk remedies
In the past, when modern medicine did not exist, folk remedies were used to treat Nosema.
Among the most effective folk methods of dealing with the disease are:
- Tincture of wormwood (from the stems of the plant) is prepared as follows: crushed stems fall asleep in a bottle to half, pour vodka and insist for three days. After that, add two tablespoons of sugar syrup to each liter of liquid.
- Celandine infusion is also considered an effective remedy for Nosema. To make it, 50 grams of herbs are soaked in boiling water and a glass of sugar syrup per liter of liquid is added.
To process the frames and hives, you can use the usual ash, which is sprinkled with the inner space of the hive and the frame. Honeycombs and equipment can be disinfected with a one percent solution of potassium permanganate or peroxide. The equipment is simply immersed in a liquid for half an hour and dried in the sun.
Spring tick treatment for bees
Spring prevention and treatment of bees for diseases necessarily include treatment against Varroa mite. The treatment is carried out annually in spring, and in some cases repeated in the fall.
This stage of care must be complied with without fail, since the spread of ticks not only greatly reduces productivity, but also can cause a quick death of the whole family.
Ticks are one of the most common pests of bees. They settle on the body of insects and feed on their vital juices (Figure 4). Particularly active pests are distributed during wintering, so in the spring it is necessary to inspect all bee colonies for the presence of pests.
Figure 4. Signs and treatment of tick-borne lesions
Establishing whether there are ticks on bees is simple enough. For this, about 20 bees are collected from each honeycomb in a jar so that there is no uterus among them. The jar is filled with water and shaken so that the insects fall to the bottom. Next, put the jar in a pot of water and begin to warm up. When the temperature of the liquid reaches 50 degrees, the mites (if any) will fall off the bees and fall to the bottom. After that, you need to catch the bees with a skimmer, drain the water and calculate how many ticks are left. Based on the number of pests and determine how intense should be protective measures. If there are many ticks, they immediately begin treatment, and if there are only a few of them, it can be confined to prevention.
Such a procedure must be carried out in each frame and in each hive in order to accurately determine the degree of infection with ticks.
It is possible to determine that ticks appeared on bees by the activity of insects. In the event of infection, they become less productive, less likely to fly out of the hive and collect less nectar.
Note: It is better to carry out the treatment against the tick in early spring, when insects have not yet made the first cleansing flight, and there is not enough honey in the comb.
The use of acids and special chemicals is considered the most popular treatment method. For example, for treatment with acids, a two percent solution of oxalic acid is used, which is mixed with sugar syrup and fed to insects. Oxalic acid can be replaced by formic.
In early spring, you can use a thermal method of dealing with ticks. To do this, the bees are collected in special cassettes with holes and placed in a bath or sauna with warming up to 50 degrees. It is at this temperature that the mites fall off, and the bees themselves do not suffer. However, this method is not very popular due to high labor costs.
Among the chemical agents are widely used drugs based on Amitraz (Bipin, Metak, Tactics). Preparations dissolve and feed insects. However, when using chemicals, be aware that they are toxic to bees, and weak individuals may die after processing. It is much more effective to constantly monitor the condition of the brood and the family and, if necessary, remove infected cells.
Diarrhea in bees in spring: treatment
Diarrhea is one of the most common diseases in bees. Particularly often, beekeepers notice liquid excrements in the spring when they are preparing to remove hives from a winter house.
The most common cause of spring diarrhea is the overcrowding of the intestinal tract of insects with fecal masses. In this case, the diarrhea is eliminated by the first cleaning fly. But in some cases, the causes of diarrhea can be more serious and require careful treatment.
In the past, spring was believed to cause diarrhea due to the high content of pollen in honeycombs, and beekeepers fed families with sugar syrup. It has now been proven that eating pollen does not cause diarrhea, but it can be provoked by dead (unripe) honey, especially if it is fermented.
Figure 5. Manifestations of diarrhea in insects
In addition, liquid excrements may occur with increased moisture content in the feed and condensation on the walls of the hive. If at the same time it is too hot in the wintergrow and the bees drink a lot, diarrhea cannot be avoided.
Diarrhea can also occur in the winter if the insects have not been provided with optimal conditions. For example, if rain or birds knock on the hive cover, insects will behave restlessly and, accordingly, eat a lot. That is why it is important to properly prepare families for the winter, equip for them a quiet and comfortable omshanik and stock up a sufficient amount of high-quality honey.
If the bees have diarrhea, their stools become watery and become light yellow in color. In some cases, fecal masses become dark, almost black (Figure 5). The abdomen is enlarged, and the insects themselves become lethargic.
Treatment of diarrhea in the spring can not be imagined without prevention. First, there must be good ventilation in the hives so that moisture and condensate do not accumulate inside. Secondly, for the winter, families need to be provided with enough frames with high-quality honey and perga. Thirdly, families are sent for wintering only with a young healthy uterus, as the old one can die during the winter.
If the diarrhea is still started, you need to remove all the old frames with honey and replace them with better food, as well as adjust the humidity level and temperature in the wagon. As a rule, if these recommendations were followed, diarrhea completely disappears after the first cleaning fly.
Spring prevention from diseases
Preventive measures are aimed at preventing infection and the spread of disease. At the apiary, you must follow certain hygienic rules and take measures to prevent diseases:
- Buy new individuals need only in prosperous farms,
- Used equipment and inventory must be disinfected before use,
- For dressing it is better not to use third-party honey,
- You only need to work in a clean dressing gown, wash your hands as often as possible and disinfect small inventory,
- Frames with honeycombs are strictly forbidden to move from hives with diseased to healthy,
- Beekeeping products need to be protected from theft by insects and placed in a place completely inaccessible to bees,
- After winter, families should be transferred only to pre-cleaned and disinfected hives.
When you keep an apiary, you should always be prepared for the fact that one or several families will fall ill. In this case, it is better to stock up additional honey extractor and use it to pump honey only from infected hives. If you can not buy it, you can use one honey extractor, carefully disinfecting it after each use. Water after disinfection needs to be poured into the pit and sprinkled with a layer of earth. Honey obtained from diseased individuals cannot be mixed with products from healthy insects.
Note: Families in which rot has appeared also give honey. But it can be eaten only with the onset of winter. It is impossible to use it for feeding insects, although such honey is not dangerous for humans.
One of the important stages of maintaining health is quarantine. If a rotten or acarapidosis was discovered in the apiary, it is closed, and families and queens cannot be transported or sold. According to veterinary rules, such a quarantine is lifted only after a year, subject to full recovery.
In some cases, if a rottenness was discovered in the apiary, the sick family is transported to a temporary place. It should be located not less than 4 km from the main apiary. In the new place spend all therapeutic activities. Sometimes the reverse procedure is also practiced: healthy families are transported to a temporary place, and sick insects are left in the apiary.
Disinfection is an important measure to preserve the health of bee colonies. During this procedure, all equipment, inventory and the entire territory of the apiary is disinfected.
There are several types of disinfection:
- Профилактическая (предупредительная) проводится для защиты пасеки от заражения. Как правило, ее проводят весной, во время очистки ульев и гнезд.
- Текущая дезинфекция проводится на пасеках, зараженных гнильцом. Ее делают ежедневно, до и после работы с насекомыми. Обрабатывается весь, даже самый мелкий, инвентарь, который касался или мог коснуться зараженных насекомых и гнезд.
- The final (general) affects the entire territory of the apiary after the elimination of the disease, or its isolated part, if the healthy families were protected from the sick.
Depending on the type of equipment and the material from which it is made, several disinfection methods are used (Figure 6):
- Mechanical - cleaning, washing and scraping inventory. But it should be borne in mind that ordinary water is not able to kill germs, so mechanical disinfection is often used in combination with other types,
- Physical - inventory is exposed to high temperatures,
- Chemical - special chemicals are used for cleaning.
Calcination is considered the best means of physical disinfection: burning a blowtorch of previously cleaned wood or metal equipment with fire. If there is no blowtorch, you can also burn the hives on a regular fire. To do this, dig a hole in the ground to the size of a beehive, make a fire in it, and when it burns out, keep a hive above the embers (bottom up).
For chemical disinfection use the following tools and solutions (Figure 7):
- Lye: it is made from wood ash (pine, oak, birch) and water. At 10 liters of liquid you need to take 2 kg of ash and boil, constantly stirring, for two hours. The mixture should be infused, after which it is filtered, and the resulting liquid is diluted with hot water in a ratio of 1: 4. To enhance the effect of the liquor, it is better to dilute it with lime water (2 liters of freshly slaked lime per 10 liters of water), settled and filtered through a cloth. Lye must be prepared immediately before use, because the tool, which stood for some time, does not possess the desired properties.
- Bleach: you can buy it at the pharmacy. For disinfection, 50 g of powder in 1 liter of water must be diluted, using only wooden utensils. The resulting mixture can be used for washing hives and inventory, as well as for disinfecting the soil.
- Formalin: it is used mainly for disinfection of frames with honeycombs infected with rotten. To do this, you need to make a wooden box without gaps, put frames in it and fill it with a solution (1 part of 40% formalin per 9 parts of water) and tightly close it. After 8 hours, the frames are removed, thoroughly cleaned and washed from the remnants of the solution and hung in fresh air to dry. Instead of soaking, you can simply treat the framework with undiluted formalin from a spray bottle. Since formalin is a toxic substance that irritates the mucous membrane and can even cause vomiting, it is imperative to use a gas mask when working.
- Chinosol is used to disinfect store and nest sushi in the fight against European foulbrood. For insects, only a 2% solution of quinosol is suitable, which is also poured into a box, laid there sushi and held for 10 minutes. After that, dry it is necessary to rinse off the remnants of the funds. Chinosol is best kept in a glass or aluminum dish in a dark place. Then its properties are preserved for a year.
As a disinfectant, you can use linen soda (for example, for boiling overalls), freshly extinguished lime (for whitewashing the walls in the winte), and sulfur dioxide (used to fumigate the wintry and spare comb to combat the wax moth). Hands and small metal equipment can be disinfected with undiluted denatured alcohol. More useful information on disinfecting hives and frames - in the video.
The spread of diseases is explained by the peculiarities of the organism and the vital activity of insects. The work inside the hive (cleaning cells combs, feeding brood, transfer of honey, etc.) bees perform mouth. Therefore, if one of the cells was infected with pathogenic microbes, they will definitely enter the body. In the future, an adult individual can transmit the pathogen to the brood during feeding. Figure 8 shows a diagram of the structure of the body of the bee.
In addition, there are infectious diseases of adults, which can enter the body of an insect not only through the mouth, but also through the respiratory tract.
Figure 8. The structure of the body of the bee
Thief-bees or wandering bees can spread the disease from one family to another. A beekeeper himself can perform a similar function if he often rearranges the frame with food or brood from one hive to another. Also, diseases can spread between apiaries, mainly during the purchase of used hives or care products.
The main contagious disease of the brood is rottenness. It is characterized by the gradual transformation of dead larvae into a putrid mass, which clogs the honeycomb and causes infection of the entire hive. Blight can be of several types:
European and American. The first affects mostly open brood, and the American - printed. When an American foulman appears, the cell caps bend inward and ragged holes appear on them. At the site of the lesion, a sticky, sticky mass forms, and the dead larva acquires a brown color (Figure 9).
Figure 9. American brood foulbrood
European foulbrood more often appears in spring or early summer, and it is impossible to determine its presence as a honeycomb (Figure 10). Since foulbrood affects open larvae, the disease can be diagnosed by their behavior: they constantly randomly move and die in different positions. A characteristic feature of the European foulbrood is a sharp unpleasant smell (sour paste or vinegar). At the initial stage, the disease is difficult to notice, since the larvae die in different places of the honeycomb, insects clean them, and the uterus again lay eggs on the affected areas. As a result, motley, and not continuous brood, is formed, which is the main symptom of the family disease.
Note: To determine the type of disease, you need to send part of the affected honeycomb to the laboratory. At the same time, it cannot be wrapped in paper, but should be transported in wooden boxes so that the honeycomb is not covered with mold.
It is interesting that the distributors of foulbrood are adults, which themselves are not susceptible to this disease. Clearing the cells from dead larvae, microbial pathogens enter the bees' mouth, and after that - to healthy larvae during feeding.
To prevent the spread of the disease, you need to follow certain rules.:
- Buy new individuals only in healthy and proven farms,
- All used equipment purchased for the apiary should be thoroughly cleaned and disinfected.
- Insects can not be fed third-party honey, as this can lead to infection,
- Work only in clean clothes, wash hands thoroughly and disinfect all small inventory,
- Do not rearrange the honeycomb from infected hives to healthy,
- Keep all apicultural products out of the reach of insects,
- Each hive must be carefully insulated, and bee families should be provided with sufficient quality fodder.
In order to cure families infected with European rot, you need to distill the bees and use a special medication norsulfazolnatrium. In parallel, the conditions for keeping and feeding insects should be improved. The medicine does not kill rottenness, but it slows down the process of their reproduction. Improved conditions increase the insects' immunity and make them more resistant to diseases. However, with a strong infection, when rottenness has spread over many cells, one application of the drug may be small. In this case, the family needs to be relocated to a new clean hive, change the queens and undergo a course of treatment.
To combat the American foulbrood, they use only the haul method, supplementing it with the replacement of the uterus and top dressing with medical syrup.
Other infectious diseases of brood include (Figure 11):
- Sackcloth is a disease of adult larvae, which, as a rule, die in sealed cells. It is possible to determine the disease by perforated cell caps. Mesh brood pathogen is a filterable virus that penetrates into the hive with contaminated feed. As a rule, the disease spreads in the spring or early summer, when there is still frost. The provoking factor may be unsatisfactory feeding. The dead larvae resemble a gondola in shape and look like a bag with liquid inside. For prevention, it is necessary to warm the hive well, to feed the bees with high-quality feed. For treatment, the uterus is placed in a cell for several days and fed with sugar syrup without the addition of drugs. Quarantine is obligatory imposed on the apiary.
- Calcareous broodAs a rule, it spreads to the larvae of drones, and far less often affects the larvae of females and working individuals. The causative agent is a fungus that can remain viable for 10 years. Damaged larvae dry out and become covered with mold. As a rule, calcareous brood does not require special treatment, as it does not spread and is self-cured by the family. To accelerate recovery, the family is fed with sugar syrup, and with a strong spread of the disease - they are distilled into new hives.
- Stone brood can affect not only pupae and larvae, but also adults. The causative agent of stone brood is widely distributed in nature, and enters the hive with nectar and pollen. The disease can be determined by the characteristic yellow or green mold covering the honeycombs and the corpses of dead bees. A provoking factor in the development of the disease is increased humidity in hives or winter roads. As a rule, insects are cured on their own, but care must be taken that the hives are located in a dry place. Affected cells are removed from the hive, and in severe cases, the whole family is moved to a new location.
It is important that when working with sick families, especially when detecting stone brood, it is necessary to cover the respiratory tract, as the fungus is the causative agent that can damage the mucous membrane of the mouth, nose, or even the cornea of the human eye.
The list of infectious diseases of adult bees is more extensive and includes the following diseases:
This is a dangerous disease that can lead to the death of the whole family, and if the distribution had to be in winter, then the whole apiary. In addition, Nosema disease greatly reduces the productivity of insects (Figure 12).
The causative agent of the disease is a parasite that can exist only on the mucous membrane covering the intestines of a living bee. Outside this environment, the parasite exists only in the form of spores. Infection occurs through eating contaminated food. When it enters the intestine, the spore bursts, and the parasite penetrates the intestinal mucosa and begins to multiply. Sick individuals, while in the hive, defecate and infect the rest of the family.
Note: Under the influence of sunlight, spores die within a day. Of particular danger is infection of the uterus, as it defecates only in the hive. A huge fault in the infection lies on the beekeeper himself, since non-compliance with hygienic standards leads to the rapid spread of the disease. Sick bees quickly weaken, fall on their side and die.
To combat the disease, first of all, families should be provided with normal wintering conditions. It should not be damp and cold, and for feeding you need to use only high-quality feed. In addition, you need to additionally insulate the nests in the fall and spring, and choose the queens from only the healthiest and most productive families. In the winter you need to send more young bees than old ones.
Figure 12. Symptoms of Nosema in the Family
Patients with Nozematoz family are relocated to other hives, and honeycombs and all their inventory are disinfected with a solution of lye. If the family is very weak, it should be strengthened with healthy brood or change the uterus.
The causative agent of the disease is a tick that lives and multiplies in the anterior trachea (Figure 13). The parasite not only clogs the respiratory tract, but also feeds on the insect juices, which gradually leads to the exhaustion and death of the insect. Infection occurs from one individual to another, since the parasite simply creeps onto a new individual. At the same time, brood, honeycombs and hive are not infected. In one apiary, the spread of the tick is provoked by swarming, and between farms - by the uncontrolled sale of bees and queen bees.
A tick multiplies when the hives are wet and hives are found in swampy and wet lowlands.
Note: To establish the presence of acarapidosis, dead bees should be sent for analysis, and when the diagnosis is confirmed, a quarantine is imposed on the apiary. The treatment is subjected not only to the infected family, but also all the families in the apiary.
To combat acarapidosis, nitrobenzene vapor is used. The liquid is applied to the frame, covered with a cloth, and placed over the nest, tightly closing the hive. Every four days, the frame must be re-wetted. The duration of treatment is three weeks. It is important that no more than 80 drops of liquid should be used for treatment, since an increased dosage can kill brood.
Figure 13. Contagious diseases of adults: a - acarapidosis, b - paratyphoid fever, c - bees affected with special-septicemia
Methyl salicylate and ethyl salicylate are less dangerous and harmful to humans and bees, which are also applied to woolen fabric and laid over frames with honeycombs.
The disease affects the malpighian vessels of adults. The causative agent of the disease is a cyst of amoeba, which enters the body with food and water. Amoebas multiply rapidly, clog up blood vessels and deplete an individual. When the reproduction of the amoeba reaches such limits that they no longer have enough nutrients of the carrier’s organism, they again turn into cysts and are expelled with feces, infecting everything around.
Preventive and curative measures completely coincide with Nosema.
It is provoked by bacteria that reside in stagnant reservoirs and enter the hive with the water delivered. If the family is strong, the infection will not occur, but in weak families a surge of the disease is observed in late winter and spring. Infected individuals quickly weaken and die. To cope with the disease, the infected family must be fed with sugar syrup with Novarsenol. For prevention, you need to keep families warm and fully feed them.
The disease causes a general blood infection and is triggered by a bacillus that enters the body through the respiratory system. The danger of the disease is that the death of adults begins within a few hours after the first symptoms appear. At the initial stage, insects slow down their movements, and later become numb and die. Septicemia can occur at any time of the year, but dampness and cold are provoking factors. To prevent contamination, the hives should be placed in dry places, and a container of clean water should be put inside regularly.
The disease is caused by the larvae of the motley and ordinary T-shirts (the beetle, which does not fly and by itself does not harm the bees). The larvae climb between the segments of the abdomen and cause insect anxiety. The larvae feed on hemolymph and gradually deplete the body. After the death of the bee, the larvae crawl to a new individual. For the treatment using conventional naphthalene or fumigate the hives with tobacco smoke.
A bee louse is called a braula. It depletes the body of working bees and queens, reducing productivity and egg production. To eliminate the disease, you need to pour a little naphthalene on the paper, and put the sheet in the hive. The smell of naphthalene is detrimental to lice, and they crumble to the bottom of the hive. The paper needs to be removed and burned, and the procedure is repeated after 10 days. You can also use fumigation with tobacco smoke, which causes the death of lice.
These are diseases provoked by the larvae of flies (cenotaine and hunchback). The larvae of these insects penetrate the chitinous skeleton of a bee and destroy its musculature. Flies multiply very quickly and cause massive death of bees. In this case, all families in the apiary can be destroyed.
DDT powder is used to kill flies. The larvae of the fly-hunchbacks penetrate into the larvae of bees and destroy them. After that, the fly larva turns into a pupa, and then into an adult, and the process repeats. Unfortunately, no treatment was developed against this parasite, so the only method of protection is to thoroughly clean the hives and destroy the garbage.
Diseases of brood bees are divided into infectious and non-contagious. The latter include (Figure 14):
In the spring, when the uterus begins to lay eggs after winter, some of them may die due to spring frosts. This happens if the bees do not cover the extreme frames and their lower parts. Beginner beekeepers often mistaken for a stray breed. Но у этих заболеваний есть существенное различие: при застуживании в сотах находятся сплошные участки погибших личинок, тогда как при гнильце они рассредоточены по всей рамке.Кроме того, мертвые личинки не загнивают и лишь немного меняют цвет (сначала он серый, потом становится бурым и черным).
Рисунок 14. Незаразные болезни расплода: 1 - застуженный расплод, 2 - замерший расплод в сотах, 3 - личинки замершего расплода
Для профилактики застуживания расплода весной пчел лучше содержать в тесных ульях, хорошо утеплять гнезда и снабжать насекомых качественными кормами в достаточном количестве.
Болезнь провоцирует гибель куколок и личинок на разных стадиях развития. As a rule, a similar pathology is observed in weak families and when feeding the family with low-quality food. If signs of frozen brood were found, the uterus should be replaced in the family and conditions for feeding and keeping the bees should be improved.
Like the brood, the diseases of adults are divided into infectious and non-infectious. Non-communicable diseases include (Figure 15):
It appears only during wintering, when the rectum of insects overflows with feces. The main danger of the disease is that the bees begin to soil the nest, thus violating the conditions of stay in the winter.
Physiologically, bees do not defecate in winter, but accumulate food debris in the intestine until spring. If high-quality products are used in the winter for feeding, the intestines are not overloaded and diarrhea does not appear.
Figure 15. Non-contagious diseases of adult bees: 1 - diarrhea, 2 and 3 - symptoms of poisoning
Diarrhea can be caused by feeding honeydew honey with large amounts of non-digestible substances, consumption of sugared honey remaining in the comb, and feeding with liquid honey, which can ferment and cause frustration. In addition, diarrhea can provoke an early onset of cold weather in the fall, when the bees simply do not have time to make the last flight and defecate before winter. In addition, diarrhea causes disturbances in wintering conditions: sudden temperature changes, death of the uterus, the appearance of rodents or other pests in the hive.
This disease is possible if adults and larvae consume pollen and nectar of poisonous plants, as well as when collecting nectar from plants treated with toxic chemicals. There are several types of poisoning:
- May disease (pollen toxicosis) affects the nurse bees. It usually occurs in the spring when insects can feed on pollen from poisonous plants. A sharp cooling is provoking, but with the onset of stable heat, the disease passes. It is very simple to distinguish the May disease: the bees are restless, they run outside the hive and their abdomen swells. If not to take measures, insects can die. To eliminate the disease, it is necessary to put clean water in the hive, feed the bees with liquid sugar syrup and remove the infected honeycombs from the hives.
- Nectar poisoning (nectra toxicosis) occurs in summer in bee-gatherers who can collect pollen and nectar from poisonous plants. As a rule, manifestations of the disease cease with the beginning of a bribe, therefore, for prevention, it is necessary to provide insects with a continuous bribe. And when the characteristic symptoms of poisoning occur, use liquid sugar syrup as feed.
- Honeydew poisoning (honeydew toxicosis) can begin in summer and winter. As a rule, bees die outside the hive (in summer), but dead individuals can also be found inside. In winter, pademia causes insect diarrhea. To prevent poisoning, remove all honeydew frames from the nests.
- Poisoning with chemical poisons (chemical toxicosis) adversely affects the vital activity of bee-gatherers, and sometimes of the larvae fed with pollen collected from poisoned plants. In this case, the family is greatly weakened, and insects are dying en masse. For prophylaxis, bees need to be transported at least 5 km from the poisoned area, and if this is not possible, the family will be transferred to a winter house for at least a week. If the poisoning has already begun, honeycombs with toxic pollen are removed, and the family is fed with sugar syrup.
Insects and birds that harm the bees themselves and steal bee products can completely ruin the apiary. For example, birds are considered to be one of the most common bee enemies: the golden bee-eater, the shrike and the bee-eater. They eat bees and in a short time can destroy the whole family. To prevent this, the birds need to be scared away or simply to destroy their nests (Figure 16).
Figure 16. Birds-enemies of bees: 1 - golden bee-eater, 2 - shrike, 3 - bee-eater
Among insects, the main enemy of bees is the philanthropist or bee wolf (Figure 17). This is the wasp, whose length can reach 1.5 cm, and the color of the insect is bright yellow. A female philanthropist kills bees in flight, feeds on honey squeezed out of a goiter, and the bee's corpse itself uses it to feed the larvae.
The philanthropists set up nests in the ground, therefore, in order to control them, it is necessary to detect nests in time and treat them with DDT powder. The bee carcasses are used for feeding larvae and hornets (large wasps, up to 3 cm long). Hornets can penetrate into the hives, hunting for honey.
You can destroy the hornets with the help of special traps: hanging bottles, one third filled with vinegar. The smell of vinegar attracts insects, and they just die in the liquid.
Pests of bees, there are many. Some of them damage wax buildings.and (Figure 18):
- The wax moth lays the larvae in the hive. Caterpillars hatch from them, which quickly destroy honeycombs. Bees cannot cope with moths on their own, so the beekeeper needs to monitor the cleanliness of the hive and clean the larvae in time. In addition, the wax raw materials can not be stored for a long time without processing. If the caterpillars have already appeared, you can simply shake them out of the hive, lightly tapping the honeycomb. For prevention, you can periodically carry out fumigation with sulfur.
- Mice in the summer can not harm the bee colony, but in winter they make their way inside and destroy the honeycomb and food reserves. To fight with mice, you need to lay out poison baits and mousetraps.
There are also pests, honey thieves. These include forest ants, which attack bees and take away honey from them, therefore, when detecting ant heaps in an apiary, they need to be destroyed, and sprinkle earth with superphosphate. The butterfly "dead head", penetrating the hive, drinks a lot of honey, so the bead should be barred.
Separately, there are pests perga (Figure 18). For example, the purveyor mole eats only this product, and not only in storage facilities, but also in hives with weak families. A means of disposal is fumigation comb combustible sulfur.
Figure 18. Wax moth and dead head butterfly with larva
Flour and home mites multiply in perge and pollute it, making it unsuitable for home use. Ham kozheed lays on the honeycomb larvae that eat perga. To destroy these pests need to be fumigated sulfur. The video below contains a lot of useful information about the diseases and pests of bees.
Preparation for bees Apimaks
Apimax can be called a universal drug, because it is used for the treatment and prevention of many diseases of bees. In fact, it is a feed additive in the form of a balm, which is used as a prophylactic against ticks, Nosema and fungi.
Apimax is usually diluted with sugar syrup (in equal proportions) and fed to bees through empty honeycombs or special feeders.
Ecopol: medicine for bees
Ecopol is one of the most effective remedies for varroatosis. The drug is produced in the form of special plates that are attached to the inner space of the hive and the nested frames. Plants with a high content of essential oils (thyme, wormwood, coriander, peppermint), which are part of the preparation, not only successfully fight ticks, but also prevent their occurrence in the future.
Figure 19. The most popular medicine for bees.
The main advantage of Ecopol in comparison with other drugs against ticks is that it is an absolutely organic substance that does not cause the death of insects.
Lozeval is a broad-spectrum drug that has an antiviral effect and stimulates the immune system. It can be used to treat infected bees or to be placed inside the hive to prevent the virus.
After the drugs get into the cells of the bee's body, an antiviral effect is triggered. As a rule, the tool is used by spraying the walls of the hive and combs. In the future, the procedure is repeated three times with an interval of two days. During this period, you can completely destroy the causative agent of viral infection.
Features of non-communicable bee diseases
- Beekeeping can not fully exist, if you do not follow all the rules regarding the provision of normal living conditions for insects - properly and promptly feed, maintain and breed. It is because of this that non-communicable diseases arise.
- Bees can not fully exist if they are not fed with honey, perga, do not give water.
- It must be remembered that spring is a period of active development of the brood, so you need as much liquid as possible. When honey comes to harvest, water is no longer needed because it is contained in floral nectar. If there is not enough water, disease occurs.
- Cold nests lead to non-communicable diseases.
- The diagnosis of bee diseases is very important in this case, with the help of which it is possible to distinguish non-communicable and infectious diseases of bees.
This disease occurs when the insect during the collection of pollen is poisoned by it, most often this happens after the insect has pollinated aconite, high bog, wild rosemary, hellebore, they feed on pollen for the full development of brood, energy that they need for honeycomb structure. .
The table "Features of the course and treatment of pollen toxicosis" presents the symptoms that are characteristic for him, methods of treatment and prevention of the disease.
Table "Features of the course and treatment of pollen toxicosis"
- Bees are getting restless.
- The abdomen thickens.
- Insects suffer from cramps.
- Not die in the hive.
Nectar toxicosis occurs when taking nectar from a poisonous plant. Dangerous for bees are such plants as - saffron, tobacco, tulip, cornflower, euphorbia, wolf berries, broom, ledum, etc. Insects are poisoned because these plants contain essential oils, alkaloids, andromethoxin. Such honey can even lead to poisoning of a person. After the toxin enters the intestinal area, it begins to be absorbed through hemolymph, because of this, the poisoning is acute, the insect has a drunken state. If a small amount of such nectar has been collected, the bee may recover after some time. The table "Signs and methods of dealing with nectar toxicosis" is described in more detail.
Table "Signs and methods of dealing with nectar toxicosis"
- Insects start crawling around the hive or die there,
- At first the insect is overexcited, then, on the contrary, it loses its strength,
- Body and limbs are moving weakly,
- After dissection, it can be seen that the rectum contains toxic light yellow liquid,
- Symptomatology depends on the type of plant, for example, after henbane insects become angry, then mass death. When eucalyptus poisoning, they can not fly.
- It is necessary to get rid of the poisoned honey,
- Injured insects need to be fed with sugar syrup,
- Beekeeping should ensure that there are no poisonous plants near, if it is necessary to sow honey plants.
It occurs when a bee family is poisoned by food, which beekeepers use for medicinal purposes. Because of this, adult bees live much less. Such drugs as biomitsin, tetracycline, streptomycin, fumagillin are dangerous for insects, at first they do not eat, then they can die from exhaustion. In this case, it is very important to use the medicine only after medical recommendations, in no case should you exceed the dosage.
Alimentary dystrophy or fasting
Is a disorder of the metabolic process, due to the fact that they do not have enough food, it does not contain enough nutrients. This leads to the death of insects and their brood. In this case, you need to pay attention to the young insects, which are small in size, also have wings and belly undeveloped to the end. From such brood immediately get rid of, throw it from the nest. Allocate protein, carbohydrate dystrophy.
Beekeeping must take all preventive measures, which can be found in the table "Causes and prevention of alimentary dystrophy."
Table "Causes and prevention of alimentary dystrophy"
- The extinction of the brood is provoked:
- Severe hypothermia
- Genetic defects of the uterus, when the brood is born frozen,
- If the bees do not care for him,
- In case of overheating of the bee family.
Thus, non-communicable diseases and their treatment depends on hygienic rules, adherence to feeding regimen, and care for bee colonies. Prevention of diseases of bees is very important to save the apiary.
Occurs when insects are exposed to high temperatures, high humidity, and the bees behave excitedly. This happens if the hives are poorly ventilated, the bees are transported in polyethylene, heat chamber. Almost the whole family can die, she suffers from oxygen deficiency. In the table you can get acquainted with the symptoms and prevention of this disease.
Table "characteristic steaming"
- insects are very excited, they do not have enough air, they are in a panic,
- the nest has a high temperature and humidity
- wax softens, becomes fragile,
- honeycombs can break off, first with brood, honey, then others,
- insects first become wet, then turn black and die, honey and high humidity block their spiracles,
- insects make a lot of noise.
- ? it is important to immediately open and release the bees,
- spoiled honeycombs, dead insects, honey that has spilled out, need to be removed,
- transportation must be safe.
- provide a spacious place to protect the hive from the sun.
The disease occurs due to the fact that insects feed on the pad or honey of the padev species. In this case, the bees have problems with the digestive system, intestines, so they do not survive and die. In the summer, due to the disease, the larvae, hard-working bees can die, winter is dangerous for the whole family. Toxic is willow and oak pad. To protect against this disease, you need to check the honey, if it does not contain honeydew, it is very important to get rid of this product in time. If there are no plants to bribe in a certain period, you must plant them.
Please note that the diseases and pests of bees can significantly harm the apiary, destroy it in significant quantities.
It is an infectious fungal disease that affects working representatives and broods. The larvae is covered with a touch of brown-green or black. Pupae may harden. After the death of insects, the growth of the fungus in the neck area is noticeable.
It is typical for adults, at the same time the insect loses its strength first, moves slowly, then it can fall and begin to tremble with its wings, after the bee paralysis affects, it dies. Small bees suffer from severe diarrhea.
A disease that affects the nervous system of insects, while all organs are paralyzed. You can infect them through perga, nursing bees. May have a chronic and acute form. Bee colonies are gradually dying out, some remain alive, but they are weak and at risk of paralysis again. Therefore, it is important to immediately get rid of the nest in which the bees are sick; it is impossible to use the same cells for different families. Dead insects should be burned, for the preventive purposes of this dangerous disease., it is necessary to feed the bees with sugar syrup also to be treated with tetracycline and biomitsin.
It affects hard-working bees and is the cause of their death. In this case, the insect first behaves inadequately, strongly excited, and then it cannot fully move. Dead bee can scatter into small pieces.
You can get acquainted with the causes, signs and methods of treatment in detail using the table "Characteristics of septicemia".
Table "Characteristics of septicemia"
Disease caused by fungus ascofera, affects the drone larvae and bees of 4-5 days of age.
With the disease mummified brood corpses appearThey look like fragments of chalk or lime. Mature insects are not infected with this disease, but are its carriers.
Medicines are used for the treatment, as well as feeding with syrup with the addition of 10 ml of 5% iodine per liter of liquid.
For preventive measures:
- keep the hive on the sun,
- remove affected cells,
- do not give downloaded honey,
- spend disinfection with 10% hydrogen peroxide and formic acid,
- burn melted honeycombs and mor.
Infectious disease of larvae and mature beeswhich leads to drying out and death. The fungus of this disease is entered into the hive by bees with pollen.
With the defeat of the virus, the lost brood shrivels and hardens. The color fades and changes to yellow, becoming covered with black and white bloom. Initially, insects are excited, after - lose strength, and the abdomen hardens.
In the treatment using drugs, remove all the sea and treat the hive with 10% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5% boric acid. Bees give lure.
For prophylaxis insects are kept in dry hives provided with adequate food. Землю под ульями перекапывают с известью, обрабатывая 4% раствором формальдегида. Все роботы проводятся вечером, в спокойную погоду.
Серьезное заражение пчелиных семей рядом бактерий. Одна из которых — альвея. Заболевание передается от заразившихся пчел к здоровым.
При поражении микробами, в первую очередь страдает желудок. This can be identified by drawing attention to the bee's excrement. They are made fetid and semi-fluid.
Infection of bees with bacteria Alway
Sick bees are fed with a special medical food.. This requires an aqueous composition containing 100 thousand units of biomycin or 0.2 g of chloramphenicol. It is necessary to combine 40-50 ml of solution with a liter of heated syrup. Feed give 3-4 times a day. After 5 days you should take a break.
For prophylaxis I process the hive with 10% hydrogen peroxide and boric acid. All the pestilence and peeled frames burn.
An infectious disease that infects mature bees. The infection spreads over a couple of hours., which leads to the death of insects.
Infected bees are first excited, then wither, move slowly, and then freeze. When a bee is compressed, it crumbles.
Treatment of septicymia bees are relocated to treated dry hives, frames with unprintable honey are removed. Boxes are insulated. Bees are fed 1: 1 medicinal syrup of sugar and water.
Before the start of the season, the hives must be treated with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide.
Infectious disease of open and printed brood. The source of the disease are already infected bees. After infection, the insects become lethargic, and then die.
Treatment produce, combining with the distillation of families. For food use sherbet mixed with different antibiotics, 2-3 times a day.
Infected cells are disposed of, and the hive disinfected.
Infectious diseases and treatment methods
Contagious diseases are transmitted by transfer from various apiaries of infected tools and boxes, as well as the purchase of infected queens.
Contagious quarantine disease caused by Varroa Jacobson tick.
In winter, infected bees are restless and need a lot of complementary foods. You can see the pest using white paper, which showered pests.
Methods of treatment for varroatosis:
- chemical - this is the processing of bee families with special preparations,
- thermal method recommended in the autumn after the release of brood.
Prevention of varroatosis:
- protivarvaroznye held processing in early spring, after the exhibition hives into place,
- evening processing families against varroatosis.
Disease in which bee colonies are affected by lice. Louse is a pest for bees and broods. She lives on their body, especially on the body of the uterus, while greatly disturbing them.
Tobacco smoke is used for treatment.. Lice from the body of the uterus should be eliminated using tobacco smoke, and it is recommended to put 6-10 g of naphthalene on top of the frame on top of the night and cover the bottom with white paper. In the morning all the lice will be visible.
For prophylaxis Hives are processed annually before the exhibition.
Disease of bee colonies, caused by a unicellular pest - nozomem. The path of infection - alimentary. Insects have diarrhea and mass death during the wintering period.
Treatment carried out with the help of 20.0 g of fumagillin diluted in 25 liters of warm sugar syrup. The course of treatment is 3 weeks.
For the prevention of Nosema strong families are selected for wintering, with lots of young stock. Drugs are prohibited, as top dressing is poorly implemented and the drug loses its properties.
Amebiasis of bees
Invasive disease resulting from parasitic amoeba Malpighamoeba mellifica. Parasites enter the bee's organism with the help of food or water.
On examination, the bees become lethargic, have diarrhea and increased mortality.
Treatment carried out with the help of 20.0 g of fumagillin diluted in 25 liters of warm sugar syrup. The course of treatment is 3 weeks.
For the prevention of Nosema strong families are selected for wintering, with lots of young stock. Drugs are prohibited, as top dressing is poorly implemented and the drug loses its properties.