What does a bird of thrush look like, where does it live and what does it feed on?
If you ask children about birds leaving our lands in winter, you will often hear about thrushes, as the most common nomadic birds in our country.
Let's take a closer look at these birds:
- find out what a thrush looks like
- where dwells
- what feeds on
- how it multiplies
- what value has in nature.
Thrush is a member of the family of blackbirds, which is part of the passerine group. There are about 60 species on the planet, about 20 species can be found in Russian forests.
Most often in the mixed and deciduous forests of our country are found: thrush singing, thrush fieldfare, blackbird, belobrovik, maelhead. Less often, one can see a white-eyed, red-throated thrush, Siberian, olive, and red-thrushes.
Thrushes are small birds, 18-28 cm long. They have a strong yellow beak, slender, thin body and strong legs, as well as a noticeable, rather long tail.
Wingspan can reach 35-40 centimeters. The plumage can be as dense as that of a blackbird, or loose, like a mountain ash or a mantle. Weight ranges from 40 to 100 grams. The nature of the birds is very restless, having gotten together in flocks, they behave very noisily and vociferously.
In the spring, the blackbirds build spacious and very reliable nests. They like to use moss, lichens, dry grass, and twigs as materials for construction. Strengthen the home with clay, warming inside with down and feathers.
Place the nests in the trees or in the midst of shrubs, no higher than 5-6 meters from the ground. Blackbirds can build nests on old stumps, in tall grass on the ground.
Females lay about 6 eggs, there may be two clutches a year. Eggs are bright speckled, blue or greenish-brown. The first egg laying in late April - early May, the second in late June - early July. The female incubates the clutch for about 2 weeks.
When offspring appears, both parents try to feed the chicks, flying out of the nest about 200 times a day in search of insects, larvae, and berries.
At the age of 12-15 days, the chicks try to fly out of the parental nest, but they cannot yet feed themselves, at this time most of the young individuals die.
The diet of thrushes depends on the season of the year. In winter, these are mainly seeds, fruits and berries of plants, and if there is enough food in the cold season, the thrushes may not fly away to warm lands, but remain for the winter.
In summer and autumn, noisy flocks of thrushes from the forests roam closer to our gardens and orchards, berry plantations, they can destroy the entire crop of berry crops (strawberries, cherries, cherries, honeysuckle).
With pleasure they eat insect larvae, snails, earthworms. For gardeners, blackbirds are footburns considered to be the main feathered pests, and no effective ways to combat this have been found.
A singing song is not inferior to a nightingale with its vocal abilities. Many lovers of bird trills prefer singing thrushes, sometimes they are kept in cages in captivity.
This small bird has a brown plumage, the belly is reddish-yellow with dark spots. Distributed in the forests of the Caucasus, Siberia, central Russia.
These birds winter in Eastern Europe, Asia, North Africa.
They arrange their nests on the edges of the forest, in young groves. In the city limits, parks and squares are chosen away from people and transport. Thrush can be enjoyed from late April to late autumn. In the diet choose insects, earthworms, larvae. In the summer they love to feast on wild berries.
Common ground thrush
The blackbird is the most numerous species in the territory of our country. It occurs almost everywhere, except in northern latitudes. Possesses inexpressive singing.
It is slightly larger than a starling, has mottled feathers on the back and a long tail in black, the belly is almost white with a yellowish tinge on the sides.
The peculiarity of public velves is that they prefer to live in large groups, but build nests at a sufficient distance from each other. But to raid the gardens and orchards like large noisy flocks, destroying the entire crop.
In large groups, they prefer to protect their nests from predators, creating a loud noise and alarm, attacking enemies. Females alone lay eggs, feed themselves, males participate only in feeding the offspring, and guarding the colony.
Blackbird is another species of the Blackbird family, distinguished by its singing abilities and unusual appearance.
Males have black plumage, around the eyes - yellow edging. The beak is powerful, yellow. The paws are gray.
Females have a variegated plumage.
Blackbird is one of the songbirds. Especially male vocalists in the period of courtship, in the spring, and at the time of the appearance of offspring, the thrushes become more melodic and gentle.
Unlike other species of blackbirds, blacks do not like to congregate in flocks, lead a solitary lifestyle, settle their nests away from their relatives. Mostly blackbirds fly to warm lands for the winter, except for those that live in the Kaliningrad region and in the North Caucasus.
The role in nature and importance for humans of these birds is ambiguous. On the one hand, thrushes are violent pests, destroying the harvest of berries and fruits. However, during the feeding of offspring, they destroy a huge number of insects, maintaining the balance of organisms in nature.
See photos of thrushes and listen to singing thrush.
What does a bird of thrush look like? Description and photo
Thrushes are birds of small and medium size. The length of their body varies from 13.5 to 30 cm (according to some sources up to 33 cm), weight - from 21 to 175 g, wingspan - from 20 to 50 cm.
The smallest member of the family is a gray-faced short-billed thrush (Latin. Catharus gracilirostris). The length of his body is 13.5 - 16 cm, weight - 21 g. The largest is a large thrush (Latin. Turdus fuscater), it reaches 28-30 cm in length (according to some data is 33 cm) and weighs 128-175 g.
Left big thrush (Latin Turdus fuscater), author of the photo: Calderonfrancisco, CC BY-SA 4.0, right gray-mouthed short-billed thrush (Latin Catharus gracilirostris), author of the photo: Francesco Veronesi from Italy, CC BY-SA 2.0
The head of the birds is small, with large, round eyes of black color. The size of the thrushes' eyes indicates that their ancestors were predominantly nocturnal animals.
Many species have a naked ring around their eyes that differs in color from the rest of the head. It is white, reddish, yellow. Sometimes under the eyes there is a pattern in the form of bright crescents.
Author photo: Asavaa, CC BY-SA 3.0
The beak of birds is thin, short or rather long, but always strong. The ridge of the mandible is somewhat convex, and the nostrils are open.
In some species, the bristles above the eyes are reminiscent of eyebrows and brushes in the corners of the mouth.
Author photo: Arjan Haverkamp, CC BY 2.0
Author photo: Bernie, Public domain
The body of thrushes is slender or stocky, with short or medium in length, slightly pointed or rounded wings. The lower part of the wings, as a rule, differs in color from the upper. The small size of the wings is the result of the fact that most birds fly a little and most often feed in the lower tier of the forest. At roaming thrushes, the wings are bigger and sharper.
The fastest member of the family is the thrush-mountainfare, the maximum speed of which is 70 km / h.
Wandering thrush. Author photo: William H. Majoros, CC BY-SA 3.0
The tail has a different length and shape. It can be fan-shaped, rounded and pointed. Thrushes often sit, having lowered wings and shaking a tail - it is characteristic feature of birds of the given family.
Thrushes in most cases have strong and rather long or medium-length legs. The rear toe of the foot is shorter than the middle one, and the flaps on the bobbin have merged into a solid plate. In hermit thrushes the legs are short and weak. All kinds of family move on the ground by jumping.
American thrush. Author photo: Matt Reinbold from Bismarck, ND, USA, CC BY-SA 2.0
The coloring of birds is varied and varies from solid and inconspicuous (brown, gray, brown or variegated) to bright and contrasting. Sometimes metallic, red, silver-blue, blue, green, red, lilac, olive shades are present in the plumage color.
Often, blackbirds have a black or white feather. Some species have a mantle, cap (crown), or collar that is different in color from the rest of the body.
Song thrush. Author photo: Zeynel Cebeci, CC BY-SA 4.0
Green Kohoa. Author photo: Umeshsrinivasan, CC BY-SA 3.0
Orangehead Thrush. Author photo: JJ Harrison ([email protected]), CC BY-SA 3.0
The legs and beak of birds can be painted pink, yellow, slate gray, blackish or brown.
The lower body is also contrasted in color from the upper. The tail and wing feathers are often edged in white.
Andean hermit thrush. Author photo: Luis Fernando Serna Agudelo, CC BY-SA 4.0
Sexual dimorphism in color varies from practically absent in modestly colored species to pronounced. Occasionally, differences between males and females are manifested in the size of the body and wings. During the breeding season, many blackbirds have white spots on their backs and black spots on the ventral side.
The nesting outfit of small species is not similar to the outfit of first-years and old thrushes. A scaly, more rarely a drop-like diffuse pattern is usually developed all over the body of the young: the middle of the feather is light, the edges are dark. The general background color is greyish or ocher, with brighter tones appearing on the tail and uppertail. The nesting outfit of large blackbirds looks more like an outfit of adults.
Author photo: Bardrock, CC BY-SA 3.0
Among the blackbirds are albinos (with red eyes) and leukists (with normal eye color). Especially often white birds can be seen in cities and villages, since there the effect of stabilizing selection is minimized, and predators rarely catch the individual in color.
Thrushes - one of the best singers among birds. The beauty of singing, they can compete with the nightingales. The males of many species have complex beautiful vocals. In their song you can hear the sounds of a flute, a bell, a violin. The singing of the thrush is one-and multi-complex, with more than 60 tribes. The best singers of the family are black and songbirds.
The language of thrushes consists not only of songs. It also contains callsigns and warning cries.
Blackbird Leukist. Author photo: Franco Visintainer, CC BY-SA 3.0
Where does the thrush live?
Thrushes live around the world, with the exception of the polar regions of the Earth. Some members of the family are endemic, they are found only in certain places: for example, Sumatran Kohoa (Latin). Cochoa beccarii) lives only on the islands of Indonesia, and the gray earth thrush (lat. Geokichla cinerea) is an endemic to the Philippines. Representatives of the genus of real thrushes are cosmopolitans who live in all parts of the world, except Antarctica.
About 20 species of thrushes live in Russia. Most often there are singing, rowan, black, belobrovik and slovyab. Less often you can see white-toed, red-toed, olive and Siberian. These thrushes winter in the south of Europe and Ukraine, in Ciscaucasia and Asia Minor. Fly back in late March.
There are thrushes in all natural areas: from arctic to tropical deserts, from taiga to equatorial forests. Birds nesting in temperate latitudes most often fly away for the winter. But with a rich harvest of berries and seeds, they remain to winter. Species inhabiting the tropics are mostly sedentary, less likely migrating birds.
Thrushes prefer to settle in forests or thickets of shrubs. Less often they settle in steppes, on rocks, along river banks and on cliffs. They live in mountain forests up to a height of 5,000 meters. Most thrushes are cautious and secretive animals. But there are those who have ceased to fear a person and settled next to people. For example, mountain ash, black and wandering thrushes settle in parks, gardens, flower gardens.
Mountain ash on a tree. Author photo: xulescu_g, CC BY-SA 2.0
Types of thrushes: photo and description
Below is a description of some of the most common species of thrushes.
- Blackbird (lat.Turdus merula)
A bird that looks like a starling. It is one of the largest species in the family, its body length is 25-26 cm, wing length is 15 cm, the average weight of individuals is 100 g, the maximum is 125 g. The males are exclusively black with brown legs, yellow beak and rim around the eyes. Females and juveniles with dark brown top, white throat and orange spotted belly. The beak of the female is dull, the ring around the eyes does not stand out. Difference starling from thrush easy to see. The starling has plumage with overflows; it is monotonous in the male thrush.
Blackbird lives in Central, Small and Southeast Asia, in Europe, Russia, North Africa. Delivered to New Zealand and Australia. In the evening and morning, you can hear his melodic singing, resembling the sound of a flute. Alarm and call double: "chak-chak." Blackbirds often make sounds similar to clucking, cicking, shouting and crackling.
Male. Author photo: Zeynel Cebeci, CC BY-SA 4.0
Female. Author photo: Walter Geck, CC BY-SA 4.0
- Song thrush (lat.Turdus philomelos)
The bird is 21–25 cm in size, weighing 11–12 g, its wings are up to 11–12 cm long. Both males and females with a plain olive-brown top, yellow-orange sides and chest, with a white throat and abdomen. The abdominal part of the body is variegated. Beak and legs with a yellow tint. The thrush is famous for its voice, in which the trills and whistles differ in a special size and pauses of a certain length. Figuratively, singing song thrush is conveyed by the words: “Philip Philip, come and come, drink tea, drink sugar and sugar”.
Thrush is common in the forest and forest-steppe zones of Eurasia; there are plots of bird nesting in the forest-tundra and wooded areas of the steppe. It winters in the Mediterranean, in the north of Africa, in Asia Minor. It was introduced to the south of Australia and to New Zealand, where the settled lives.
Author photo: Zeynel Cebeci, CC BY-SA 4.0
- Mountain ash, or common thrush (lat.Turdus pilaris)
This is one of the largest representatives of the family, its body length is 25-29 cm, wing length - 15 cm, average weight - 105 g, maximum - 130 g, wingspan - 40-46 cm. Flight of fieldfare is direct and swift. Representatives of different sexes do not differ in appearance. Mountain ash looks very attractive, the top of their body is contrasting: cap, neck, waist and nadhvoste light gray, back and wings are brown, and the tail is black. The chest and throat are orange with black horizontal spots, the undertail and the belly are white. The inside of the wing is gray-white. The beak is yellow with a dark edge. Field chicks are duller but motley, differing from other species in the black tail.
The ashberry almost constantly makes different sounds, the voice of this thrush is like a crackling, cackling, creaking or screeching. His song is a quiet, squeaky-lisping twitter. Father's singing gives a signal to the offspring that it is time to leave the nest, other males report that the territory is “reserved”, and predators warn that the bird can stand up for itself. Mountain ash breeds and dwell most of their lives in Europe and Siberia (from Scotland and France to Yakutia), often wintering there, especially when mountain ash produces high yields. They rarely fly to wintering grounds in the Middle East, North Africa, the Mediterranean, the Caucasus, Central Asia and Kashmir.
Author photo: Frankie Fouganthin, CC BY-SA 4.0
Photo by: Hangsna, CC BY-SA 4.0
- Taraba, or mist, or big gray thrush (outdated) (lat.Turdus viscivorus)
The bird is about the size of a pigeon, the average body length is 27 cm, the maximum is about 30 cm, the wing length is 15 cm, and weight is up to 150 g. It is an olive-gray thrush with a cream shade on top and a white belly covered in black pestrina. The underside of the wing is white. Sexual dimorphism is not pronounced.
The cries of thrush slyaba are similar to the sound combination "Crr". Singing consists of short flute whistles repeated after pauses.
The bird breeds in the mixed forests of Siberia, Europe, India, Central and Eastern Asia, in the Caucasus and in North-West Africa. Winters in the Caucasus, the Crimea, Western Europe, North-West Africa, in Western Asia.
Author photo: Alun Williams333, CC BY-SA 4.0
- Belobrovik (lat.Turdus iliacus)
Bird having other Russian names: whitebird, beaverbird, nut thrush. It is slightly smaller than a singing man, shorter-tailing, body length is 20-24 cm, wingspan is 33-34 cm, thrush weighs 50-75 g. Males and females are similar, they have a brown back and brown spots on the white abdomen. The most striking distinguishing features are the cream-white stripe above the eye, the red sides and the front field of the underside of the wing.
Whitebird thrush eggs are bluish-green with small reddish-brown spots. The blackbird feeds all its chicks at the same time, bringing several worms in its beak and distributing them between the young.
Whitebird sings very beautifully. He publishes short sonorous trills, distinguished by their individuality and dependent on the geographical location of populations. More often they are transmitted by sound combinations: “fi-ta-fi”, “chiv-chiv-turly” or “try-ryu-ryu”.
It nests in the northern regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland in the south to northern Scotland, to the east through Scandinavia, in the Baltic States, northern Poland and Belarus, in Russia to approximately 165 °. D. to the Chukotka Autonomous Region. In recent years, it has expanded its range, living in Eastern Europe, where it nests in northern Ukraine and southern Greenland. The Belobroviki are migratory blackbirds that winter in Western, Central and Southern Europe, North-West Africa and South-West Asia east to Northern Iran.
Author photo: Andreas Trepte, CC BY-SA 2.5
- Wandering thrush (lat.Turdus migratorius)
Длина тела – 23-28 см, размах крыльев – 31-41 см, вес самцов – 72-94 г, вес самок – 59-91 г. Длина его крыла равна 11,5-14,5 см. Цвет головы странствующего дрозда варьирует от угольно-черного до серого, с белым кольцом вокруг глаз и белым горлом с черными прожилками. The chest and abdomen are red-red, the undertail and the underside of the wing are white. Top gray or olive-gray. The female is painted in dimmer tones. Beak of birds is bright yellow, legs are brown or brownish. The song is two- and three-syllable, whistling, with a ringing at the end.
Wandering thrush is widespread in North and Central America (USA, Bahamas and Bermuda Islands, Canada, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico, St. Pierre and Miquelon). It is absent only on the islands of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, on the shores of the Hudson Bay and on the coasts of the west of Mexico. In August, the thrushes migrate from north to south. Very rarely fly into Western Europe, Greenland, Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico and Belize.
Male. Author photo: Kristof vt, CC BY-SA 3.0
Female. Photo by: PookieFugglestein, CC0
- Yellow-nosed short-throated thrush (lat.Catharusaurantiirostris)
It is found in Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Panama, Mexico, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry, wet lowland, mountain and heavily degraded forests.
This is a small species of drozdov with a body length of 14 to 17 cm and a mass of 21-32 g. It has a bright orange beak, a ring of the same color around the eyes and legs. In the north of the range of birds, there is a brown back and upper part of the head (cap), white breast and belly. Southern populations of yellow-throated short-throated blackbirds have gray sides and breasts. Their song is relatively poor and not musical.
Author photo: Nigel Voaden from UK, CC BY-SA 2.0
- Motley earth thrush (lat.Zoothera dauma)
A large representative of the family with a body length of 27 to 30 cm, weighing 100-150 g and a wingspan of 44-48 cm. There is no sexual dimorphism in coloring. In summer, the back of the thrush is golden-olive-yellow with black feather endings forming a scaly pattern. Chin and throat usually have no blemishes. The anterior part of the abdomen, including the chest and sides, is white with a yellowish tinge or golden-ocher, but in both cases with black tips of the feathers. Legs are yellowish-brown, brownish beak, yellowing at the base.
The blackbird nests in wet coniferous taiga, mainly in East Asia and Siberia. The northern races of the thrush are mostly migratory, flying away to Southeast Asia for the winter. Rarely flies to Western Europe.
Author photo: Chun-Chieh Liao, Public domain
- Siberian Thrush, or Siberian earth thrush (lat.Geokichla sibiricaearlierZoothera sibirica)
The average body length of a bird is 20 cm, its weight is 60-72 g. Relatively short-tailed thrush, characterized by sharp sexual dimorphism. The plumage of adult males of dark gray-blue color, from afar looks black. The belly of males has a white pattern. Above the bird's eyes are wide white "eyebrows", the outer edge of the tail is white. The females are olive brown in color on top and yellowish-white with reddish transverse mottled bottom. The female has an eyebrow and a strip on the chin of a beige shade. The underside of the wings in both sexes is black with double white stripes.
The cries of anxiety and calls of the thrush are like crackling, chattering, chirping. Whistling song, with a bell at the end, one or two syllable.
Siberian blackbirds from the Yenisei to the southern Kuriles and Sakhalin are common, also nest in Manchuria, Japan and other countries of Southeast Asia (China, India, Indonesia, North Korea, the Republic of Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam). Hibernate in Southeast Asia.
Author photo: Ken from Yao, Japan, CC BY-SA 2.0
- Blue Sialia (lat.Sialia currucoides)
Has a body length of 16-20 cm and weight up to 30 g. The back of the male is dark blue, the throat and abdomen are blue. Females are dimmer, with a gray or white belly, with blue stripes on the wings, tail and upper body.
The trill of a bird is sonorous, thin, a man can be heard as “chur-chur”.
In the summer, Sialia lives in alpine meadows and forests at an altitude of 1,500 meters above sea level in western North America. In winter, blue sialia migrate to the plains of this continent or to Mexico.
Male. Author photo: Elaine R. Wilson - NaturesPicsOnline, CC BY-SA 2.5
Female. Photo by: Allan & Elaine Wilson, CC BY-SA 3.0
- Beloshenikovythrush(lat. Turdus albocinctus)
The length of the bird's body is 26-28 cm, weight - 96-105 g. The male is black with a wide white collar: from the chin to the middle of the chest and from the lower part of the nape to the back. The legs, beak and ring around the eyes are salmon.
He lives in Bhutan, China, Nepal, India, and is found in Bangladesh and Myanmar. In the Himalayas, it lives at an altitude of 2250-4300 m in subtropical and tropical highland forests.
Author photo: Dibyendu Ash, CC BY-SA 3.0
Enemies of thrushes
In nature, thrushes have many enemies, among which are birds of other families. Birds eggs and chicks are especially vulnerable. Ravens like ravens, jays, woodpeckers, hawks, owls like to ravage nests of thrushes. Squirrels, martens, hedgehogs, cats and other animals also love to feast on eggs and chicks. Snakes are dangerous for them. Adults of blackbirds are caught by birds of prey: peregrine falcons, hoblocks, etc.
Blackbirds bravely and to the limit of their capabilities protect the nest and chicks. Males shout warn female and neighbors about the danger. Colonial thrushes, such as the mountain raven, are fighting off the raiders together. At first they scare off potential enemies with a loud cry and flapping of their wings. But this does not always help. In the extreme case, they have an original way of protection: the birds throw their enemies at their feet, gluing feathers of raiding birds. Often the blackbirds help defenseless neighbors, finches and flycatchers, to drive away squirrels from nests.
Author photo: Dario Sanches, CC BY-SA 2.0
The value of thrushes in nature, the benefits and harm to humans
During the ripening of fruits of apple, cherry, chokeberry, strawberries, strawberries, red and black currants, grapes, thrushes ruin gardens. Therefore, the relationship with man in birds "strained". But since the thrushes bring significant benefits to nature, feeding on insects and other invertebrates, man has never had the task to destroy them completely.
In the garden and cottage areas have to deal with blackbirds. In the war for the harvest only regulated shooting of birds helps, since no methods of repelling birds do not bring stable results. You can fight off the invasion of mountainbirds during the harvest of berries with the help of a bird scarer. This device, with an interval making the sounds of predators: falcons, hawks. He helps to get rid of the feathered group of capture. But it can be started only for a short time, since the thrushes are intelligent birds and quickly get used to the “empty” sounds.
Do they eat thrush meat?
Species such as mountain ash, slyaba, black, belobrovik and graybird belong to the traditional game birds. In autumn and winter, when they switch to eating mainly berries, their meat is especially valued in gastronomy. Then begins the hunt for thrushes. Aksakov S.T. in the book “Notes of a rifle hunter in the Orenburg province” in the chapter “On the taste of meat of snipe breeds” he writes: “... they (snipe) are cooked unprovoked, an honor that no other game, except thrushes, honors because of respect for berry food ...”.
Back in ancient Rome, the fat thrush was famous for its excellent taste. Gourmet dishes were made from it. For graybirds paid fabulous sums.
Author photo: Romate, CC BY-SA 3.0
The content of thrushes in the home
Many thrushes who sing beautifully, catch and keep in captivity. But most often, as a pet, they keep songbirds and blackbirds. Representatives of these species are distinguished by the beauty and versatility of vocals.
Fieldfare shy and long accustomed to captivity. In addition, it is great for keeping in a cage, and his song is not of particular interest - it is a set of music squeaks and minor music. But he is very handsome in appearance and of little importance in content. He gets used to a man for a long time, but he does it better than other thrushes.
Deryaba size similar to daw. When kept at home, he needs a spacious aviary and a considerable amount of food. The minimum size of the cage for him is 45x35x50cm.
It is easiest to catch a thrush in the spring, at this time of the year, the male pevun will not be confused with the female. The catcher notices the chosen place, since the thrushes are constantly on their site. In the litter where the bird feeds, a person sets up a trap with a bait. This may be a beam-samolov or spider web. The thrush of the fieldfare can be caught with the help of semolina. The easiest way is to take flyouts, which still do not know how to fly. But they will have to feed up boiled eggs, low-fat cottage cheese, etc., with difficulty teaching them to take food not from the beak of their parents.
For keeping a thrush at home, you need a spacious cage of wood or bamboo, with a height of 40 cm, a length of 70 cm, and a width of 30 cm. To avoid injury to the bird, the ceiling of the cage is made soft. The cage is settled with perches at different levels, with a pull-out trough, a feeding trough and a tray, a house and a bath for bathing. House need thrushes because the birds sometimes love to be alone. And since they are clean, love to swim and do it every day, they need a bath. The water after bathing is changed immediately, so that the thrush does not drink dirty liquid. With poor nutrition, lack of light and the inability to swim at the thrush, hairy balms can appear.
In the warm time of the day, the cell is exposed to the open air, shading it from the scorching sun. In general, the thrush sings less often. To listen to his singing, the birds are provided with individual apartments.
Author photo: Matt Reinbold from Bismarck, ND, USA, CC BY-SA 2.0
What to feed thrush at home?
The house thrush needs a diverse feed: both vegetable and animal. You can feed a bird in captivity:
- raw or boiled meat
- other insects and their larvae,
- snails and slugs,
- sliced fruit
- bread crumbs
- fed with lettuce and nettle.
In the spring and summer, the thrush provide more animal food; in the fall and winter, half of the diet consists of vegetable food. In captivity thrushes rarely breed and almost do not become tame.
Thrushes have small body sizes, which vary in length from 18 to 28 cm. The span of their thin wings is 35-40 cm. But the weight category of birds is completely different and depends on the species. Some birds can barely reach 40 g in body weight, while others can hang even 100 g. Eyes are planted on the sides of the head, so when searching for food they have to tilt their heads to one side. Drozd can be distinguished from other winged on the characteristic external features.
They have a very short gray or yellow beak with open nostrils and an inconspicuous plumage, which is common to many birds of the passerine group. Some species have a gray color with a catchy speck, and some are born with pure black plumage. The wings have a rounded shape with short feathers on it. The rectangular tail is formed by 12 tail feathers. The legs are short, but rather strong, with accreta at the end of the horny plates.
Character and way of life
The nature of the bird is not simple, very often restless. In any stressful situation, the feathered person makes a panic. For example, having beaten off from the pack, begins to scream nervously with small amplitudes and stops. A thrush is a migratory bird that takes a very long time to winter. Sometimes people do not notice its absence or presence, as the bird does everything almost imperceptibly and silently.
Movement of birds on the ground in search of food occurs skipping with significant pauses after several. They return to their former place of comfort during a warm period of time in flocks or alone. When the harvest year, the birds are in no hurry to winter, and may even stay to spend the winter at the place of their summer residence.
Important! Scientists attribute the single flight to the fact that some members of the pack may lose their course and fall behind the leader. Such a situation does not frighten the birds, and they continue to fly to their intended destination on their own.
Blackbirds live in nests, which are built in the spring mainly on stumps and trees. In some cases, they prefer to settle directly on the ground, but only if there are no predators in their habitat.
How many thrushes live
Depending on where you live and the amount of food, thrushes can have different lifespans.. In captivity and with good care, they live long enough, about 17 years. In the conditions of wildlife and, also under successful conditions in their places of residence, they also live to be 17 years old. And in an unfavorable environment, with insufficient food around and the presence of many enemies, the birds may not even live to 10 years.
You can get to know the forestry handsome in a deep and thin voice that is somewhat similar to the singing of a nightingale. Ptah can be recognized by its characteristic plumage:
- brown back,
- there are small dark specks on the white or slightly yellowish abdomen.
The most favorite habitat in summer is Central Russia, Siberia and the Caucasus. In the winter, they prefer to move to the forests of Asia, Eastern Europe and North Africa.
It is interesting! Singing song thrush can be heard from late April to late autumn. Birds end up their vocal activity when they start gathering in flocks to fly south.
The field activity of the fieldfare is no different. His motifs are quite quiet and inconspicuous to the human ear. It is the most common species throughout Russia, with the exception of its northern latitudes. The size of the fieldfare is comparable to the starling. Appearance quite expressive and catchy.
On the back it has colorful feathers, on the belly - white, with yellowish tint on the sides.. They prefer to live in large flocks, and build nests at a considerable distance from each other. Mountain ash is a hooligan bird. Having gathered in a flock, these birds can destroy the whole plantation of the harvest of gardeners.
Belobrovik is an inhabitant of North America and Asia. These birds are quite resistant to the cold season, so they can start nesting quite early (from April they begin to hatch eggs). This species differs from its relatives by the following external data:
- back brownish green color
- auburn sides,
- a gray-white abdomen, which is covered with numerous patches of light and dark color,
- on the tips of the wings there is a rim of red feathers,
- above the eyes one can see the characteristic white eyebrow.
The voice of the white-handled can be heard from the middle of summer. His songs are short, but with noticeable notes of chirping and trilling.
It dwells mainly in Central Europe and is the largest representative of the family of thrush. It prefers to settle in gardens, groves, coniferous forests, parks and shrubs. The main diet consists of mistletoe, rowan, thorns and yew berries. Adorable treats are earthworms, fruit pulp and small insects that live in the soil.
Daraba can be recognized by its white abdomen with small spots all around its perimeter and white wings along their lower base. In this case, the back has a grayish-brown tide, and the tail of the shank is rather elongated.
This is the smallest member of the squad of blackbirds. Another name for this species is the white-throated thrush. Settles in mixed, sometimes coniferous forests located on the slopes of the hills. The bird's plumage has a pretty catchy color. In males, feathers are brighter than females. On the head and shoulders of the male there is always a blue-blue color of feathers, white flecks are visible on the wings.
On the throat of the forest thrush there is a small white spot, thanks to which the bird was called white-throated. The chest and neck are colored bright red and the lower part of the abdomen is light red. Singing forest handsome also deserves attention. His songs are often sad, but there are also with solemn notes with colorful flute whistles.
Prefers to settle in dense thickets of India and Southeast Asia. Males are distinguished by black plumage, chestnut belly and white outer tail. Females have a grayer shade. The beak of this species is completely black, and its legs are bright pink.
Unlike its fellow shama, the thrush does not like to eat berries and fruits, but prefers a more high-calorie diet consisting of beetles, worms, cockroaches, grasshoppers, dragonflies, and butterflies.
The bird is ideally suited for its content in cages or in cages, as it quickly becomes accustomed to the conditions of its habitat and human presence. It is preferred to have to listen to amazing and reverent singing, which in its performance is very diverse.
The male can be recognized by its characteristic gray-bluish back, light belly and brown paws. In females, an olive-brown hue of the abdomen with reddish sides predominates. The throat is abundantly covered with mottled spots. These representatives prefer to settle in areas of South Asia from Pakistan to Nepal. Seasonal migrations of these birds stretch to the shores of Central Europe.
They prefer to settle throughout the gardens and parks of North America. Recently, these representatives began to actively settle in individual European countries. The back, head, tail and wings are black or gray-dark in color, and the chest and abdomen are highlighted in red-orange shades. The throat and eyes have white spots. Favorite delicacy are various types of butterflies, beetles and ants. In the season of ripening berries prefer to eat cherries, cherries, sumac, blackberries and raspberries.
Семейство мелких и среднего размера певчих птиц распространены как в восточном, так и в западном полушарии. Дрозды могут населять разные уголки планеты в зависимости от предпочтений отдельных видов. Большую роль в выборе места своего обитания играет фактор прокормления. The richer the terrain on fruit and berry fruits, the more birds settle in such places.
Diet of blackbirds
Depending on the season, birds can eat different foods.. In winter, their diet consists of fruits, berries and plant seeds. In summer, they prefer to pile up near the garden plots in search of food. In lean years can completely devastate human berry plantations, such as honeysuckle, cherry, strawberry and cherry.
It is interesting! The most favorite delicacy is food with saturated proteins, therefore birds with special pleasure eat beetles, earthworms, various insects and even snails.
The impudent crows who destroy the birds' nests and steal their eggs become the frequent enemies of thrushes. The number of enemies can also include woodpeckers, squirrels, jays, owls and hawks. Of course, man is no small threat to the life of birds.
It is interesting! Thrushes are excellent neighbors of such defenseless bird species as finches and flycatchers. These species especially settle closer to the thrushes' nests, as the latter help to drive away ill-wishers in the neighboring area in their places of residence.
Population and species status
The total number of populations of thrushes in the nesting area and the energy consumed by them changed in proportion to the seasonal abundance of resources. The division of resources has become possible with the adaptability of one species to use any available resources for an extended period of time, and the willingness of others to endure a temporary lack of food.
In general, thrushes can not be attributed to the endangered species, since their reproduction is quite active, and the early mortality rate is quite low.
Features and habitat of the cuckoo
In the biological genus of the cuckoo, almost all representatives are nested parasites. They are distributed across the globe - in the Eastern Hemisphere, in the greatest diversity in tropical Asia. They also live in Australia, America, Africa, on the islands of the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The only place where these birds do not exist is Antarctica.
On the territory of the post-Soviet space, the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is most common.
Habitats of some species of cuckoo:
- Crested cuckoo - south of Europe, Asia and Africa,
- billed cuckoo - Guinea and Mozambique,
- fantail bristly cuckoo - Australia and Tasmania,
- drongovy cuckoo - tropical Asia and the Philippines,
- giant cuckoo - Australia, New Guinea, Lesser Sunda Islands,
- peacock cuckoo - South America,
- four-winged cuckoo - Mexico, Bolivia, Argentina,
- larvae cuckoos - Florida, Central America, West Indies and South America.
The sizes of different types of cuckoos are excellent, but they all have a graceful body, a long tail and strong paws. They most often inhabit forests, but some species prefer a more open area.
The large family of cuckoo has 140 species. They are different in appearance, habits and food preferences, but most are nested parasites.
There are several subfamilies of cuckoos:
- running around
- larvae and others
Common cuckoo belongs to the subfamily of real cuckoos.
Brief description of the form:
- Externally, the bird is similar to a small hawk, but this similarity is only superficial. Her head shape, plumage details and character of flight resemble a sparrowhawner, but the tail is longer and sloping at the edges in the form of a wedge.
- Body size is slightly larger than that of a pigeon.
- Toes on the paws are directed, like in parrots and owls - two forward and two back.
- The color is gray on top, the belly is white with transverse dark stripes, the females can be gray or red.
The cuckoo eats insects.
Other cuckoos also love insects, but, in addition, they eat other foods:
- small lizards, snakes and rodents (plantain cuckoo),
- grasshoppers and praying mantis (tolbukov cuckoo),
- soft fruits of woody plants, eucalyptus seeds, eggs and nestlings of small birds (giant cuckoo).
When an ordinary cuckoo lays an egg in someone else's nest, it most often eats one of those already there. For her, this is an excellent source of protein, replenishing the spent forces.
The benefits and harm of the forest bird
The benefit of the cuckoo is that it protects the forest from insect pests. The cuckoo is very gluttonous and gladly destroys even shaggy caterpillars that other birds do not eat. Most birds do not know how to digest these insects.
The common cuckoo protects the forest from marching silkworms. After such a “dessert”, the inner surface of the bird's stomach is studded with rigid bristles of caterpillars. From time to time, it gets rid of these bristles, throwing them away with part of the gastric mucosa.
Harm brings nesting parasitism birds. A cuckoo almost always kills all the eggs in the nest where it is born.
There are very rare exceptions when a cuckoo is brought up with his foster brothers and sisters.
Cuckoo's strange habits
Plantain Cuckoo lives in North America. Interesting facts about her strange habits and lifestyle are surprising.
Cuckoo-plantain almost does not fly, but it is rapidly running at a speed of 32 km / h. And she is also famous for hibernating for the night, lowering body temperature to ambient temperature. She is so fast that she can catch hummingbirds on the fly, her diet includes lizards, insects, mice. The most amazing thing is that the bird successfully hunts rattlesnakes. This cuckoo builds a nest on its own and incubates chicks, but the methods of raising young offspring are rather strange. She eats those babies who hatched too weak.
Wavy parrot - description, appearance and characteristics.
Rarely grow more than 20 cm and weighing 40 g. The tail is long with stepped feathers, wings from 9 to 10.5 cm only for flight. The limbs are hooked and very tenacious, consist of 4 fingers (2 fingers look in front, and 2 back) with long claws. The plumage is of a different color with black stripes that look like waves, and the head is often of a different shade. It is clearly visible on the two purple spots and small black. The beak is quite strong, with a curved end to the bottom, with its help the bird can split solid food. It also serves perfectly for self-defense.
Types of wavy parrots, photos and colors and description
The wavy parrot belongs to the parrot family. The main criterion for their variety is color.
In nature, there are only green, emerald green. In general, other shades of birds, received after breeding. There are 9 main types, but there is also a separation associated with the pattern or its absence.
Greens - the main color is green, the breast, sides, tummy and head have different shades. Yellow forehead and cheeks.
Blue - beautiful, dark color goes with a combination with white. Wings - dark blue with a bright black pattern. The breast is of a lighter shade and on the background of the main body white color of the head, with thin waves, stands out brightly.
Blue - gentle and at the same time bright color. The wings and tummy are the same color, and the head has pure white with black eyes that look like a motley pattern.
Yellow –Pure color, usually without black pattern. But the feathers at the end of the wings go from yellow to white, as well as on the tail. The eyes are red.
Yellow green - more vivid representatives of parrot. Grudkasvetlo green, sides and inside of the tail in the same color. The wings and head are lemon-colored with black waves. The eyes are black surrounded by a halo.
White - this type of bird is an albino, it was bred by chance and such a gene can appear in any parrot. It has a pure white color, pale red eyes, gray legs and the only bright spot becomes a yellow beak. This bird is especially beautiful.
Spangle - this species of parrot was bred in Australia in 1974. It has a white-gray tint, weakly pronounced waves. It is worth noting that the pattern is turned upside down and looks more like lace, giving a more airy look to the plumage.
Purple - differ from the Blue and Blue only a shade in which violet prevails. The main feature is the tail, having a blue-green plumage.
Rainbow colored - the most unusual representatives of their species! Delightful color that smoothly turns into all shades of blue. At the same time, it has soft yellow cheeks and forehead, and the pattern is blurred and dark gray.
Gray - many consider gray to be dirty, but not in this case. Gray wavy parrots have a noble ashen shade, white front part and pronounced black waves on the plumage.
The black –This species was bred by scientists in Germany and named so because of the dark gray color, which looks more like black. A special feature was the drawing. The waves were not standard black, but white. All this, combined with a snow-white head, makes the appearance of a parrot unusual.
White Wing - also refers to the blue shade parrots, with one difference. His back and wings are white, but there are blurry and not bright waves.
Harlequin - known as the "Danish feathered parrot". Differs in its half color. If the rainbow parrot color transition was soft, then harlequin is more pronounced and divided. For example, yellow breast and blue belly, but the pattern is often spotted.
These are the main types of budgies that can occur. How to choose a boy or a girl?
Where do wavy parrots live in nature
Wavy parrots live in the wild. Many consider them only to be poultry; artificially bred new breeds can be attributed to such, but the natural green wavy parrot lives in nature only in Australia, it will be more accurate to say this is its homeland. They live mostly in packs.
What do wavy parrots eat at home
The main food is plant seeds, both in captivity and in freedom. If you have this cute pet, then in addition to feed, they will gladly eat young shoots and leaves, berries and fruits. It all depends on the season and the need for certain vitamins. After all, for the proper and good development of young individuals need different nutrients.
What should be a wavy parrot cage ? Standard rectangular is a great option. Of course you can buy a small and not expensive, but you should not do that. Your bird should flit from one perch to another, so it will be right if the cage is large and it does not matter wavy parrot or another. Pay attention to the grids, they should not be painted, otherwise the bird will eat the paint. Some craftsmen manage to make cages for a pet with their own hands, but this is extremely expensive, you need to have the skills, and ready is not expensive at all.
What should be in a wavy parrot cage
The main convenience. In the cage, a pallet and solid flooring are required so that the pet can run. You can lead two perches at different levels, you can also have one small swing. We recommend to attach a small mirror. Parrots love to look at themselves and pose.
The cage has two removable feeders. One for water, the second for food.
How to care for wavy parrots at home
The process requires daily repetition and no matter the female or male:
- New cage needs to be dipped in boiling water for disinfection.
- Clean the pan and wash the bottom itself every day, otherwise parasites may appear. But once a week to wash the cage completely.
- Let fly as often as possible. If it does not work every day, then once a week is necessary.
- Place the cage in a well-lit place. We advise you to cover the cage with a dark cloth so that the parrot will get used to fall asleep at nightfall.
Temperature for content
The temperature for wavy parrots in the room should not be below 22 degrees, still wavy parrots prefer a warm climate, do not forget where they come from.
It is advisable to arrange water treatments. Put the bathing room inside the cage or on the table and it will start splashing and splashing in the water. And her pleasure and the joy of observation.
How to feed a wavy parrot at home
For them, special food is sold that contains seeds of various plants. Feeding birds, in addition to food, can be the following products: vegetables (carrots, cabbage, beets, cucumbers), fruits (apples, pears, peaches), berries (strawberries, raspberries). It is also great to eat greens - dandelion leaves, plantain and clover. Sometimes it is necessary to add foods containing calcium to the diet, an eggshell is perfect.
Feed 2 times a day, based on age. For young birds, not more than 20g, and for an adult 50g. Pour filtered water at room temperature and change it every day.
Shed at wavy parrot
This process takes place in parrots twice a year. It is connected firstly with the growth of the organism, and secondly with the change of the season. In winter, an additional layer of fluff appears, and closer to the summer, the bird drops it. Approximately molt lasts about a month and all this time you need to remove fallen feathers.
How to teach talking wavy parrot
This process is not complicated, but rather long. Budgies love to listen to human speech and mimic some sounds.
No matter a boy or girl, start with him at the age of 5 months. When talking to a parrot, look directly at him, repeat the same word without changing intonation. This is usually a nickname. When you achieve the result, try to learn the words with hissing and growling sounds, he says them better. The main thing in training, your patience, and you can teach a wavy parrot to speak.
How to tame a wavy parrot to the hands
After acquiring a pet, you should let the bird settle in a new place so that it gets used to your species. At first, open the cage and gently insert your hand. Be patient and hold her for a while. Repeat every day and you will notice how it sits on your arm, and then carefully pull it out with the parrot. You can also pour food into your hand and push it into the cage, teach it to eat like that.
Wavy parrot disease
The first signs of the disease are: sluggish movements, drowsiness, refusal to eat.
- Knemidokoptoz - A disease caused by scabies. The main sites of injury are the beak, legs, and anus. Such mites get to the parrot through poor-quality food, poorly processed toys or with sprigs of plants from the street. To identify this disease can be on the characteristic yellow growths on the beak, peeling of the paws and constant itching of the bird. For treatment in veterinary pharmacies sell a wide range of drugs, and you should carefully treat the cell with a special solution.
- Fluffy eats - Another parasite that causes severe bird discomfort. If you notice severe irritability, constant loss of feathers and frequent scratching, then check its plumage. You have noticed small black worms about 2 mm long, then immediately take up treatment. Such parasites are difficult to withdraw, so consult your doctor ornithologist. Constantly wash the cage and change the feed.
- Goiter inflammation - A serious disease that can lead to the death of a parrot. Caused by an infection of bacterial or viral origin. The bird often belches food, has noticeably lost weight and against the background of this markedly enlarged breast. For such a case, special antibiotics are prescribed, which should be dripped into the bird right into its beak.