In the article I will talk about parvoviral enteritis in dogs. I will list the risk groups and how they can be transmitted. Consider the causes of the disease and clinical symptoms. I'll tell you about the diagnosis and how to treat the infection, as well as about caring for a sick dog. I will consider whether the disease is dangerous for people. I will list the methods of prevention and vaccination.
Parvovirus enteritis is an intestinal viral disease that causes the pathogen of the genus parvovirosis. Common infectious disease among dogs. Which pets are most susceptible and how is the treatment?
Risk group and ways of transmission
Disease prone to young puppies and dogs up to two years. Outbreaks of parvovirus enteritis are most common in the fall and spring.
Electron micrograph of viral particles in a blood sample
Infection occurs from contact with a sick dog, food from one bowl, water. Viruses are found in urine and feces, common bedding and toys. A pet can pick up a disease from a person, for example, he brought it on the sole of a shoe from the street.
Causes of Parvovirus Disease
The most basic reason is contact with sick animals or places, objects where the virus has remained. The peculiarity of the disease is that sick pets are able to excrete the virus for two, three weeks and even after recovery for some time.
There is no pedigree predisposition, any dog can get sick, the most dangerous period in young puppies.
The main source of the infectious agent is feces of infected dogs.
Clinical symptoms and signs of infection
Insidiousness of the disease is that the symptoms are diverse, and sometimes vice versa, absent, making it difficult to identify the virus in a timely manner. To determine the diagnosis, you must very carefully monitor the status and changes in health.
- apathy. Pet sluggish and tired, refuses to walk and play,
- body temperature above 39 degrees. This is the most dangerous symptom, it happens, most often, before death,
- when stroking the dog arches an unnatural back and does not allow to touch the abdominal cavity,
- after the incubation period, vomiting occurs with undigested food and gray mucus,
- diarrhea. Feces of a pressed or green hue, later red,
- lymph nodes are inflamed.
This leads to dehydration and within a couple of days the pet may die.
For any signs you can not hesitate, you should immediately deliver the dog to the veterinary clinic
Diagnosis of parvovirus enteritis
To determine the exact diagnosis, the veterinarian conducts the following activities:
- Analysis of feces using the method of polymese chain reaction.
- Detection of pathogenic agent antigens - DSA.
- Identification of the pathogen - RGTA.
- The study of feces using electron microscopy.
- When the death of the animal is histology.
This method is the most reliable.
Treatment of enteritis in dogs
At the first sign, you need to call a veterinarian and carry out the following actions:
- keep the dog quiet, do not give water and food,
- do not do enemas on your own, without a doctor's recommendation,
- You can give your pet some petroleum jelly, it envelops the walls of the stomach and stops the absorption of toxic substances.
The treatment takes place in several stages. First you need to carry out infusion procedures: fill the deficit of moisture and its loss. To do this, put droppers with a special solution.
Then antibacterial agents are used. Experts recommend administering drugs bypassing the digestive tract, so as not to provoke the destruction of the gastric mucosa and sepsis.
First of all, the dog needs emergency medical care.
The dog is given drugs that neutralize endotoxic substances, they are used during antibiotic therapy, to speed up the result and so that the dog's condition does not worsen. The drugs are administered using a dropper and diluted with nat. solution.
Pet give antiemetic drugs. Their use should be carefully monitored so as not to cause hypotension.
Before you start a dog, issue a home first aid kit. In the case of this disease, it is useful.
- syringes with different volume and replaceable needles,
- analgesics, antispasmodics - for example, no-shpa, onalgin and others. Best in the form of ampoules,
- medications to support the work of the heart - cordiamine, sulfocamphocain.
Care for a sick dog
The sick pet, first of all, needs to provide rest.
The second important point is nutrition:
- Hunger is needed for a couple of days. Do not give food and water. Drinking can be given in a day when vomiting stops.
- Food begins to be given in small portions and in a mushy state.
- First, rice, oatmeal or chicken broth is injected. If the dog refuses, you can enter with a syringe.
- To restore immunity, you need carbohydrates, gradually give lean fish.
- Allowed dairy products without sugar.
If you plan to feed your pet ready-made food, then purchase from a special treatment line. It is best to consult with a veterinarian before use.
Drugs are diluted with saline and injected with a dropper for half an hour or an hour.
Prevention and Vaccination
To prevent the disease, control the puppy, they are especially vulnerable to the virus. Keep your pet at home or in your barrier and do not allow contact with street dogs. Watch the food and very carefully enter the meat in the diet, it is better to give boiled and not fat.
Parvovirus enteritis is a serious disease, if it is not detected in time, the dog may die. Carefully monitor your pet's health and any changes to prevent illness or start therapy on time.
Parvovirus enteritis in dogs treated
Due to the presence of different forms of the disease, parvovirus enteritis It is treated individually by the method of an integrated approach. The main component of treatment is the use of immune sera. In addition, therapy includes:
- Reception of preparations for the general activation of immunity,
- The introduction of saline to compensate for dehydration,
- Taking medicines that promote detoxification,
- The use of stimulants and multivitamins for the normalization of metabolic processes.
When the first signs of the disease appear in puppies or adults, it is important to isolate the dogs in a separate room. First of all, treatment should be directed to eliminate the cause. For this purpose, polyvalent hyperimmune sera are used for the treatment of parvovirus enteritis, adenoviral infections and plague in dogs. In addition, it is worth using a polyvalent immunoglobulin in moderate doses.
Such measures should be taken in the first 3 days after infection, since after this period the virus spreads to the tissue level, and irreversible changes occur in the animal's body.
Implications for Dog Health
Without timely diagnosis and provision of qualified assistance in the dog's body, irreversible metabolic disturbances develop, leading to death 2-5 days after infection.
In the case of proper treatment, the probability of recovery increases significantly, however, the animal loses weight greatly in the process of the disease, acquires inflammation of the small and thick intestine, cardiovascular diseases and pulmonary edema.
For active and passive immunization of dogs living in the home or in kennels, monospecific vaccines or serums are used. For prophylaxis parvovirus enteritis It is important to maintain appropriate animal health and sanitary conditions of animals, as well as regular holding of zootechnical and organizational measures:
- Balanced and regular meals,
- Compliance with the conditions of quarantine and transportation of animals,
- Disinfection of premises
- Rational use of physical abilities of dogs.
Ways of infection
Infection with this virus is carried out:
- The fecal-oral route through specialized feed and water,
- The contact method in the process of licking or sniffing sick animals healthy, or as a result of their contact with various environmental objects.
The standard incubation period for the development of the disease lasts from 5 to 10 days in adults, in puppies up to 2 months it will burn to 3 days.
Risks for people
The virus does not pose any danger to human health, which has been repeatedly proved by serious scientific research. However, people can become mechanical carriers of infection: after contact with a sick individual, a person can transport the virus to a healthy animal or to a dog’s habitat.
Parvoviral enteritis in puppies
Parvoviral enteritis in puppies
Enteritis most characteristic of puppies aged from 2 weeks to 4 months who are born to a mother without vaccination. In such cases, the cardiac form of the disease manifests itself, which develops suddenly, quickly and is accompanied by a strong defeat of the myocardium.
Animals refuse food and water, they are not able to get breast milk. Weakness is accompanied by shortness of breath, which provokes heart failure. Infected puppies die in a state of collapse a day after infection.
Other diseases in the article "Infectious diseases"
What is parvovirus enteritis?
Highly contagious (contagious), acute acute severe viral disease, characterized by high animal mortality, are brief characteristics of parvoviral enteritis. Enteritis of dogs of the second type, the most common in our country and the United States, has the following synonymous names: infectious enteritis, parvovirus infection, canine parvovirus.
Penetrating into the body of an animal, the virus attacks cells of the gastrointestinal tract, as a rule, the mucous membranes, immune blood cells (neutrophils and lymphocytes), which naturally causes a weakening of the immune system. More often, parvoviral enteritis in dogs is observed in young animals - puppies from six to twenty weeks old, as well as in elderly individuals. It is in these age groups that the weakest immunity to this dangerous virus is.
Parvovirus enteritis is often complicated by the heart form. Even after complete cure, the animal may have the effects of parvovirus enteritis. They may remain until the end of the dog's life, as a result of the development of acute inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis).
Parvovirus enteritis of carnivores is not transmitted to humans, and people are not carriers of the virus.
Characteristics of parvovirus enteritis
Although the nature of this dog virus has not yet been precisely studied, there is an assumption that it came from panleukopenia, the feline virus. It is a single-stranded DNA virus that does not have a shell, resistant to most disinfectants, and to a wide range of pH and temperature.
The virus, ability to infection keeps at room temperature in the room for at least sixty days. Outdoors, when it is protected from direct sunlight and drying, it is completely viable for years.
Types of enteritis
Veterinarians-virologists today distinguish two types of parvovirus enteritis, which can affect dogs:
- CPV 1 - the first type.
- CPV 2 is of the second type.
CPV2 causes the most serious course of the disease and it affects not only domestic dogs, but also wild canines. Parvovirus enteritis in dogs of the second type can have the following varieties:
2a and 2b are antigenic models that have quite a lot of similarities not only among themselves, but also with the classic CPV-2. Option 2c has a unique pattern of antigenicity, which significantly distinguishes it from other types. However, any parvovirus enteritis in dogs has similar symptoms.
Differences in model 2c have for a long time led virologists to believe that in this case, vaccination of dogs is not effective. However, recent studies have shown that the current vaccine against canine parvovirus enteritis based on the 2b virus provides the necessary level of protection against 2c.
What breeds of dogs are most susceptible to enteritis?
It is necessary to repeat that puppies are particularly vulnerable to this virus from six weeks to six months who were not vaccinated at all or if the vaccination process was carried out in violation of the deadlines. For puppy's health, vaccination of the mother is of great, and sometimes crucial, importance. The following breeds are most susceptible to parvovirus infection:
- English Springer Spaniel,
- American Pit Bull Terrier
- German Shepherd,
- American Staffordshire Terrier
- Labrador retriever.
When receiving colostrum, puppies that were born from a timely vaccinated mother are fairly well protected from the dangerous virus in the first few weeks of life. But over time, the susceptibility of a young animal to infection increases as the effect of antibodies obtained with mother’s milk decreases.
Parvoviral enteritis in puppies may develop due to weakening of the immunity caused by stressful phenomena: malnutrition, weaning sisters and brothers from litter, and other adverse factors. From adult animals older than six months, males are more often ill, who have never known bitches. In older dogs older than seven years old, parvovirus is actively developing due to age-related weakening of the immune system.
Parvovirus enteritis: forms and symptoms of the disease
Most often parvovirus enteritis, the symptoms of which are very characteristic, affects the small intestine. The name of the disease itself - “enteritis” is explained as “intestinal inflammation”. In the case we are discussing, it is caused by a parvovirus infection. However, it is possible that the manifestation of a severe heart form of the disease, which is often found in newborn puppies.
The enteric form of enteritis virus of the second type can be transmitted exclusively through oral contact with the feces of an infected dog or with surfaces stained with such excrement. In this form of the disease, it is possible to observe the consistent development of the disease, in which the virus:
- released into the environment with the feces of a sick dog,
- Into the body of a healthy animal dog penetrates the mouth or nasal cavity,
- multiplies and settles in the lymphoid tissue, which is located in the throat of a healthy animal,
- rapidly spreading to the bloodstream, where it attacks the immune blood cells, destroying them,
- gradually penetrates the tissues of the lymph nodes and bone marrow, where it destroys the hematopoietic system,
- destroys the cells of the mucous membrane of the small intestine, the first symptoms of the disease appear in dogs, and after receiving the test results, the veterinarian prescribes treatment,
- severe dehydration and associated with it a violation of the electrolyte composition of the blood,
- protective properties of the mucous membrane are reduced, various microflora penetrates into the blood,
- sepsis caused by exposure to parvovirus, weakened immunity, as well as the development of a secondary infection in an animal, leads to the death of the dog, if not treated in time.
This form of parvovirus is characterized along with intestinal disorders, damage to the activity of the heart muscle. Developed in puppies infected in the womb. Much less often it occurs through feces or milk of a nursing bitch.
The sequence of the pathogenesis of this form of parvovirus enteritis is as follows:
- the virus spreads to the fetus and is concentrated, as a rule, in the tissues of the heart muscle,
- when a baby is born, the virus attacks the immune cells as well as the cells of the intestinal mucosa,
- due to a weakened immunity, secondary infections develop in the body,
- activity of parvovirus and other infections in the heart area, leading to its inflammation - myocarditis, the puppy may die from enteritis due to the development of microscopic necrotic areas on the heart and secondary infection.
Consequences of the disease
In dogs that survived after the second type of enteritis, fibrous tissue grows in the heart muscle, which is a heart disease (acquired), which certainly affects the animal’s later life.
Dog owners need to understand that parvovirus enteritis, the treatment of which should be carried out under strict supervision and control of a veterinarian, has features even after cure. The remains of the virus are stored in the faeces of the animal for up to three weeks. Moreover, the dog can become a carrier of this virus and periodically can release it into the external environment, which is extremely dangerous for healthy animals.
Symptoms of the disease
It is necessary to know that the diagnosis of parvovirus enteritis in dogs, despite the characteristic signs, can be carried out with accuracy only in the veterinary clinic, where there is the necessary equipment. Symptoms of the disease develop in dogs within five to seven days from the time of infection. But sometimes this period can vary from two days to two weeks.
Первые клинические признаки иногда бывают нехарактерными для этого недуга: к примеру, отсутствие аппетита, апатия, лихорадка, с прогрессирующей рвотой и геморрагической диареей в течение сорока восьми часов. Физическое обследование может включать в себя:
- потерю двигательной активности,
- выявление расширенных кишечных петель на УЗИ, которые заполняются жидкостью.
The painful reaction of the animal to palpation of the abdomen requires further examination in order to rule out the complication of intestinal obstruction. In severe cases, parvovirus enteritis may have the following symptoms:
- pale mucous membranes,
- short-term loss of consciousness,
- slow pulse
- low body temperature.
You need to know that this is a very insidious disease - parvovirus enteritis, the treatment of which depends on the age of the animal, its physical condition. In addition, it can sometimes be asymptomatic or subclinical. However, with parvoviral enteritis, in most cases, the following symptoms predominate:
- loss of activity
- loss of appetite, and sometimes a complete rejection of food,
- indomitable vomiting,
- one to three degrees increase in body temperature, and at later stages - its decrease,
- early watery stools with mucus, then with blood.
- severe exhaustion and depression of the animal, often with signs of respiratory, heart failure and bacteremia.
The appearance of at least one or two symptoms and their progression should be a signal to pet owners for an urgent appeal to a veterinary clinic. All the above symptoms do not always manifest themselves only with parvoviral enteritis, however, lost time at the start of treatment can lead to an unfavorable outcome.
Parvovirus enteritis, the treatment of which today is not specific, implies timely vaccination of puppies. True, she does not always guarantee the complete safety of your pet. Time is one of the most significant factors in the success of treating this terrible disease when it detects its first signs: the earlier the virus is detected and the treatment is started, the more favorable the prognosis.
Of considerable importance in the effectiveness of therapy is the age of the animal. Very young or old dogs find it difficult to tolerate aggressive treatments that aim to eradicate the infection. So is it possible to defeat parvovirus enteritis? How to treat an animal if the infection has already occurred? Answering these questions, we want to warn that the treatment of this disease at home, as a rule, does not give a positive effect. Only a qualified veterinarian can diagnose and treat parvovirus enteritis in dogs.
Treatment of the disease is based on complex symptomatic treatment and supporting procedures:
- intravenous drip of classic colloids or crystalloid solutions (type IV)
- antiemetic drug injections,
- administration of (intravenous) antibiotics.
You must use additional tools to help defeat parvovirus enteritis. Treatment should include glucose, vitamins, saline solutions, immunostimulating drugs, etc. The almost complete violation of the processes of absorption in the small intestine in this disease, is forced to carry out treatment based on the assessment of symptoms. Usually, these are intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injections.
Such a complex combination of methods and medicines at home is impossible without certain skills in the owner of the animal. In recent years, veterinarians have used a unique technique for the treatment of enteritis - blood plasma transfusion from an animal that has had a parvovirus infection and has developed an antibody to it. However, to date there are still no results of a deep study of this method of treatment, therefore it is rather difficult to speak with confidence about the effectiveness of its relatively traditional methods of treatment.
After the start of treatment of an infection, dogs are often restricted in taking additional fluid, but only after normalization of the water balance in the blood. In this case, life support is carried out using an easily digestible feed that has a semi-liquid consistency. Antibiotics are administered to the animal and after the first signs of incipient recovery, when the blood picture still shows a low level of white blood cells. This is necessary because the immune system of the four-legged patient is still very weak and the death of the animal can occur at any time due to the development of a secondary infection.
We have already talked about how stable in the external environment the causative agent of this disease, which is characterized by rapid development, extremely dangerous for the symptoms. That is why we talked in such detail about what parvovirus enteritis is, how to treat it, why self-treatment is unacceptable. It is equally important to know whether and how to prevent infectious enteritis in your pet.
Etiotropic therapy (antiviral).
For antiviral therapy, veterinary specialists use sera, immunoglobulins, interferons and interferogens.
- Anti-enterovirus sera (sources of ready-made antibodies against enteroviruses. Always used in combination with vitamins, antibiotics and other treatment-supportive drugs). Dose for dogs up to 5 kg - 2-3 ml, more than 5 kg - 5-6 ml (according to serum instructions according to serum concentration).
- Fosprenil (veterinary antiviral drug). The single dose varies by weight of the dog: 0.1 ml per weight up to 1 kg, 0.25 ml up to 5 kg, 0.5 ml - 5-10 kg, 1 ml - 10-20 kg, 1.5 ml - 20 - 30 kg, 2 ml - over 30 kg. Injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly, through the mouth with the dose doubled, and intravenously with a dose reduction of half. Scheme: 1 day - 4 doses every 6 hours, 2-8 days - 3 doses every 8 hours, 9-11 days - 2 doses every 12 hours, 12-15 days - 1 dose daily.
- Immunofan (Veterinary immunostimulating drug used in the complex for the treatment and prevention of various microbial and viral infections). Maintenance dosage - 1 ml once a week for 1-2 months, therapeutic dose - 1 ml once a day (treatment up to 5 injections, done every other day). Subcutaneously or intramuscularly.
- Cycloferon (mild immunostimulating drug, increases the recovery of cells of the affected mucous membranes - an option for veterinary medicine): the dose varies from the dog's weight: up to 1 kg - 0.8 ml / kg, up to 2 kg - 0.4 ml / kg, up to 5 kg - 0, 2 ml / kg, 6-12 kg - 0.15 ml / kg, up to 25 kg - 0.12 ml / kg, 26-40 kg - 0.10 ml / kg, over 40 kg - 0.08 ml / kg . Injected intravenously, subcutaneously and intramuscularly for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 days. In the acute course of the disease it is better to do with globulins, serums and interferons.
This therapy is aimed at removing the sick dog from the state of dehydration. In this state, the use of any drugs is considered completely ineffective. Rehydration solutions restore the alkaline balance of the blood and contain the necessary salt set of elements. Introduced intravenously, spray or drip. Subcutaneous administration is sometimes allowed in small doses. All solutions should be brought to body temperature (38-40 ° C) and injected (dripped) until the dog starts drinking on its own without gagging. After several times a day, it is recommended to pour small doses into the mouth.
- Ringer-Locke solution. Dose 10-20 ml per 1 kg of animal weight.
- Trisol. Dose 7-10% of body weight.
- Rehydration Mix: 200 ml of saline + 20 ml of 40% glucose solution + 4 ml of 5% ascorbine solution. Dose: 30-100 ml / kg of body weight once a day, depending on the overall resistance of the animal.
This is a set of measures aimed at removing toxic products from the body from the processes of viral activity and cellular disintegration of the intestinal mucous membranes. Often combined with hepatoprotective drugs.
- Hemodez (pronounced detoxicant that binds toxins and removes them by the kidneys). Dose: 5-10 ml / kg of body weight 1-2 times per day before signs of general intoxication have passed.
- Syrepar (veterinary drug with a pronounced hepatoprotective and detoxification effect). Dose: 2-4 ml once a day until the signs of intoxication disappear. Slowly intramuscularly or intravenously.
- Hydrolysin (replenishes proteins in the body, removes toxins). Enter subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously in the mixture with saline. Dose: 5-15 ml for 3-5 days.
Aimed at the general maintenance of the body, as well as the elimination of common clinical symptoms that accompany the disease.
- Antiemetic drugs:
- Zeercal. Dose of 0.5-0.7 ml up to 3 times per day. Do not use in small puppies and pregnant bitches. Continuous use should not exceed three times a day for 7 days.
- Cerenia . Dose: 1-2 mg / kg. Enter only subcutaneously.
- Hemostatic agents (when detecting blood in feces or vomiting).
- Vikasol (hemostatic drug that increases blood clotting - a synthetic analogue of vitamin K). Dose: 1-2 mg / kg of body weight once a day for 3-5 days with general medical therapy. Intramuscularly.
- Etamzilat (veterinary haemostatic agent of the capillary direction). Dose: 10-12 mg / kg. Intramuscularly.
- Cardiovascular Support:
- Sulfocamphocain (heart drug, stimulating the work of the heart). Dose: 1-2 ml once a day for a month. Puppies are not prescribed. It is impossible if heart failure is manifested by tachycardia.
- Cordiamin Dose: 0.1 ml / kg intramuscularly or up to 3 drops inside.
- Riboxin (cardiovascular agent that improves nutrition and oxygen supply to the heart muscle). Dose: 5-10 mg / kg every 12 hours for two weeks.
- Antibacterial drugs prescribed for prolonged elevated temperature and suspected adherence of a secondary infection:
- Cefazolin (cephalosporin antibiotic with a wide range of effects). Dose: 5-10 mg / kg, dissolved in water for injection. The interval between injections is 6-8 hours daily for 5-7 days.
- Probiotics for restoring intestinal microflora, prescribed when appetite returns to the animal.
- Bioprotectin (hepatoprotector + probiotic). Dose: 1 caps. for weight up to 5 kg, 2 caps. - 5-10 kg, 4 caps. - more than 10 kg. The course is 23 days. The contents of the capsules admix in food or drink.
- Bactoneotime (probiotic for normalization of digestion). Dose: 1 tablet per 10 kg of body weight of a large dog, ½ tablet for puppies. Crushed, mixed with water and set for half an hour before feeding twice a day.
Some veterinary specialists in the treatment of parvovirus enteritis in dogs use the following treatment regimen:
In severe cases of parvovirus enteritis in a dog, accompanied by severe dehydration, one has to resort to intravenous and subcutaneous injections of electrolyte solutions. For this purpose, saline solutions are used subcutaneously with a jet, and intravenously by drip methods using droppers.
In the treatment of gastroenteritis, veterinary specialists most often use the following solutions: 0.9% sodium chloride solution, Ringer or Ringer-Locke solutions with the addition or separately of 5-40% glucose solutions. Ascorbic acid or vikasol can be added to this solution.
When administered intravenously, along with isotonic solutions, veterinary specialists use hypertonic solutions (5-10%) of sodium and calcium chloride, calcium gluconate. In this case, doses of isotonic solutions, depending on the degree of dehydration of the dog, are 5-100 ml / kg of body weight and subcutaneous - 10-100 ml / kg of body weight.
Subcutaneous injections of large volumes of medicinal substances are most conveniently done in the area of the scapula or withers, preferably at several points. A sick dog is usually injected with 10 to 500ml of liquid. Injections are repeated 2-4 times a day, if necessary, for several days in a row. For parenteral nutrition of sick dogs, veterinary specialists use plasma substitutes that are administered intravenously. Hemodez and hemodez “H” are administered by the drip method at 5–10 ml / kg, polyglukin and reopolyglucin drip up to 100–400 ml per day. The following drugs have a good therapeutic property for gastroenteritis: hydrolysin, which is administered intravenously (100 daily dose), polyamine intravenously (daily dose up to 500 ml), casein hydrolyzate, intravenous drip, etc., and gastroenteritis is effectively prescribed - festal (digest) ), LIF - 52 (gepaliv), panzinorm forte, Essentiale forte, which is prescribed according to the annotation.
For pains in the stomach and intestines, the dog is prescribed painkillers and sedatives - belladonna preparations: belladonna tincture (1-5 drops per reception), belladonna dry extract 0.015-0.02 grams per dose, complex tablets that include the belladonna extract , papaverine hydrochloride, as well as tablets of bécarbon, bellagin, bellastezin (1 tab. 2-3 times a day), besalol, etc. For this purpose, dogs with gastroenteritis are given orally almageline or almagel A and 1-2 teaspoons 4 times a day , gastrofarm on ½- 1 tablet 3 times a day, gastropsepin, squid agin, anastezin, no-silo or 0.5% solution of novocaine (1-2 tablespoons 4-6 times a day) and others. Alcohol has a good soothing and analgesic properties.
After the gastrointestinal tract has been cleared of toxic contents, intestinal cramps and pain have been removed to the treatment regimen. Veterinary experts prescribe various adsorbents - activated carbon, white clay, enterosorbent, polyphepanum, aluminum hydroxide, talc. These preparations are used according to the instructions, knitting - preparations of tannin, bismuth, salvin, oak bark, St. John's wort grass, alder seedlings, chamomile flowers, string, cherry and bilberry fruits, etc., as well as enveloping - decoction of flax seeds, eggs, phospholumgel and other gel preparations. All of the above drugs are used according to the instructions.
To suppress pathogenic microflora in the cavity of the stomach and intestines, various antimicrobial drugs are used, such as: imodium, 1-2 capsules 1-2 times a day, chloramphenicol, ½ -1 tablet 3-4 times a day for a week, baytril 1-2 once a day at the rate of 5 mg per 1kg of live weight, digitized 2 times a day at the rate of 250-500 mg per dog, as well as other antibiotics from the penicillin, cephalosporins, tetracyclines and aminoglycosides groups, which are administered orally or injected as per strictly instructions. Instead of antibiotics, a sulphonamide preparation can be prescribed to a sick dog — Biseptol, Norsulfazole, Sulgin, Sulfadimezin, Sulfadimethoxine, Sulfalen, Sulfatone, Phthalozol, Etazol, etc. The course of treatment with these antimicrobial drugs is usually 5-7 days. Apply these drugs according to the attached instructions. In some cases, instead of antibiotics and sulfa drugs, sick veterinarians prescribe nitrofuran derivatives such as furagin, furadonin, furazolidone or furatsilin. These nitrofuran preparations are given to sick dogs 3-4 times a day at a rate of 0.1-0.2 g for 5-10 days. Veterinary specialists in the treatment of gastroenteritis have noted a good therapeutic effect from the use of Trichopol. Trichopol used at ½ -1tab. 2 times a day. The course of treatment is 10 days.
Simultaneously with antimicrobial preparations, sick dogs are prescribed vitamin preparations in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, pills and solutions (vitamins for dogs).
In parvovirus gastroenteritis, immunomodulating drugs are used: gamma and immunoglobulins, thymalin and timogen, interferon and cycloferon, comedone and decaris, anandin and dibazol, lactoglobulin, etc. according to the annotation.
To prevent and relieve allergic reactions to medicinal substances, antihistamines are prescribed: 10% solution of gluconate, calcium chloride 1-5 ml per injection, diphenhydramine orally or parenterally 2-3 times a day, tavegil inside or intramuscularly, suprastin, pipolfen, diazoline , fenkarol, treksil, Kistin, etc. according to the instruction.
With vomiting, sick dogs use antiemetic drugs - atropine, aloperidol. A sick dog is prescribed dietary feeding.
Prevention and control measures. The general prevention of parvovirus enteritis, as well as other infectious diseases, consists in not importing dogs from safe places of parvovirus enteritis into safe settlements of dogs. Delivery of dogs is carried out according to the veterinary - accompanying documents form number 1-ve, and 4-ve.
All imported dogs must be kept in quarantine for 30 days.
When organizing exhibitions, competitions and other events, dogs are allowed only with the presence of veterinary-accompanying documents (Form No. 1 -vet, 4-branch), where it must be stated that the dog is clinically healthy and vaccinated against parvovirus enteritis.
Dog owners must strictly follow the rules of feeding and keeping animals. Regularly carry out preventive disinfection of premises, items of care and equipment. For disinfection used 2-3% solutions of sodium hydroxide or formaldehyde. For preventive purposes, it is necessary to vaccinate dogs against parvovirus enteritis in a timely manner. To date, this is the most effective way to prevent severe disease.
Domestic industry produces vaccines that should be used in strict accordance with the instructions. The most common: "Multikan-4" - includes prophylactic properties not only against parvovirus infection, but also against plague, coronavirus enteritis, adenovirus infection. «Мультикан-6» – кроме перечисленных заболеваний, этот состав включает профилактику лептоспироза.
Если в вашем доме была собака, которая болела вирусной инфекцией, то перед приобретением щенка, тщательно продезинфицируйте всю квартиру, прокварцуйте каждое помещение в течение часа и не приносите в дом щенка в течение месяца. To extend the immune system and protect the puppy from probable infection with a viral infection, he will need a serum against parvovirus enteritis in a month and a half. Serum should be injected for two weeks extending the puppy's immunity for three types of infections: plague, hepatitis and enteritis. This polyvalent serum is obtained from the blood of horses, which were hyperimmunized by canine parvovirus strains, canine plague virus, adenovirus dogs of the second serotype. It is a clear light yellow liquid. Sometimes it has a reddish tint. The tool is recommended for subcutaneous injection.
When establishing the disease on a dysfunctional economy impose restrictions. Under the terms of the restrictions, the isolation of sick dogs and the disinfection of the places where they are kept are carried out with a 1% solution of formaldehyde, sodium hydroxide or chloramine. Organize a full feeding with sufficient content in the diet of vitamins.
Restrictions on a service dog nursery from a dysfunctional kennel are removed 40 days after the last case of recovery and death of the sick dog and the final disinfection.
How does the infection occur?
In most cases, the puppy is infected by an apparently sick animal. (from the canine family) or from the ill. Even if the puppy is cured, it is a danger to other dogs for a long time. The virus is excreted into the environment with feces, urine or milk (in the case of a sick mother). And in the excrement it lasts more than ten days. It is enough for an animal to smell or lick the transfer factor, and it will become infected.
In addition to animals, the virus can also be transmitted by humans. bring the house on the shoe, stroke the sick animal. And how many dogs are infected at exhibitions or competitions? Small puppies can “catch” the infection from their unvaccinated mother.
From the moment the parvovirus puppy enters the body until the first symptoms of enteritis occur, it can take about ten days. This is called the latent / incubation period. During this time, the causative agent is "gaining momentum", it actively propagates, increases its "number" before attacking the body. More often register acute course, chronic enteritis is much less common. Usually, everything happens very quickly. And if you do not provide veterinary care to your pet in time, then death is too likely.
At the very beginning, the symptoms of parvovirus enteritis in a dog are almost imperceptible. Only attentive owners notice how the baby's behavior changes. The most susceptible puppies, which are from two to ten months. Kids become lethargic, the appetite almost completely disappears. Puppy is not up to games. However, not always. Sometimes such cases are recorded when the animal remains cheerful, active and eats well.
The body temperature rises. Normally, a puppy, it ranges from 37.5 to 39 degrees. You should not pay attention to the nose. Many people mistakenly believe that if the nose is cold, then the animal does not have a fever. However, remember yourself at the time of chills. You are cold, you are shaking, the limbs are almost icy, and the temperature is high. Similarly, animals can occur. Therefore, you need to believe only the numbers on the thermometer. If the indicator is above 39, then as soon as possible go to the veterinarian. In any case, the inflammatory process began, which requires immediate relief.
However, parvovirus enteritis in a dog is not always accompanied by an increase in temperature. Often she remains normal until the pet's death. Therefore, it is important to know what other symptoms enteritis in a dog has.