Pecilia is a small fish that is a very popular inhabitant of modern aquariums. Why? Most likely, due to its unpretentiousness, easy breeding, beauty, various colors.
However, not everyone knows that its natural habitat - North and Central America. Especially often it is found in Veracruz in Mexico. In addition, it can be found in the pili in California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, Nevada, Texas, and Hawaii, but it was brought here artificially.
Section 2. The appearance of the fish
Pecilia, the content of which is not only easy, but also quite interesting and informative, is a rather small fish, its length rarely exceeds 3.5–5 cm, and the average life expectancy is within 3–4 years.
Its appearance, as well as its color, is difficult to describe due to the large variety of options. It is safe to say that the female pecelia is not as bright and variegated as the male.
Scientists distinguish many varieties. For example, it is necessary to mention disk specials. It has an unusual, very curved spine and a special body shape. But red petilia is much more mobile than other species.
Section 3. Sexual differences fish
Sex differences in these fish appear more than bright. Females are visually larger, have not so bright color, wider anal fin. In addition, they have a fuller and rounded abdomen.
In males, the anal fin is small and pointed at the end, the body color is beautiful and very bright. They, as a rule, are considered as the present decoration of modern aquariums.
Section 6. How to feed
In nature, the caellia, the reproduction of which occurs regularly and without any problems, mainly feeds on insects and algae. But in the aquarium, they are happy to eat almost any kind of feed.
It is very important to include in their diet specialized nutrition with fiber, for example, flakes with vegetable components or such vegetables as cucumbers, zucchini, spinach. Such plant food contributes to the better functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. But animal feed can be anything, for example, a bloodworm, a tubule, an artemia, a corret will work well.
Section 7. Maintenance and Care Difficulties
Pecilia, the content of which does not require special skills, is excellent for both beginners and professionals.
Like almost all viviparous fish, the partilii are unpretentious and livable. They can be kept in small aquariums, from 40-50 liters. Of course, it is better that the volume was large. Between them, the patsilias do not show aggressiveness (as, for example, swordtails), and they can be contained with a slight predominance of females.
As for the parameters of water, here they are also not too whimsical. The ideal option is medium hard water (15-30 dGH), acidity is desirable within 7.0-8.3, and the optimum water temperature is 22-25С. The main thing is to keep the water clean and fresh; the best option is to partially add a certain portion of water to the weekly, as a rule, not less than 20%.
Filtration and aeration is, of course, desirable, but if the aquarium is not overpopulated, it is quite possible to ignore it.
Section 8. Conditions for compatibility with other inhabitants of the aquarium
Another plus of the platies is that they get along perfectly well in a common aquarium, they don’t touch any other fish at all.
But keep in mind that for the predators themselves they can become easy prey. That is why it is best to place platies with other viviparous, for example, with mollies or swordtails.
Chicken pool on the farm:
Pecilia is a small fish, body length reaches 3.5-5, and life expectancy is about 3-4 years. As for the appearance and color, they can be very different, it’s just impossible to describe everything. We can only mention the disk platillia, a specially derived form with a curved spine and due to this a special shape of the body, it is also called the placium balloon. Actually, there are no differences in the content between the usual petsilia and the balloon. The latter, due to the deformation of the organs and the skeleton, are more capricious.
In nature, the celites feed on insects and algae. And in the aquarium, they are happy to eat all kinds of food. It is important to include in the diet petsyli feed containing fiber, it can be as flakes with vegetable components and scalded vegetables - cucumbers, zucchini, spinach.
In nature, algae make up a large part of the diet, and plant food contributes to the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
As for animal feed, they can be any - bloodworm, tubule, Artemia and coretr perfectly suit.
Maintenance and care
Like almost all viviparous, the partilias are extremely unpretentious and livable. You can keep them in small aquariums, from 40-50 liters, but more is better. Between themselves, they do not show aggressiveness (as opposed to the Swordsmen), and they can be contained with the predominance of females. One male is enough for two or three females.
Water parameters are not too important, medium hard water will be ideal (15 - 30 dGH), acidity is within ph: 7.0-8.3, and water temperature is 22-25 C. up to 20%). Filtration and aeration is desirable, but if the aquarium is not overpopulated, then it can be neglected.
Pitsilii get along great in the general aquarium, do not touch any fish. However, predators can be easy prey. Petsilya get along well with other viviparous: mollies, guppies, swordtails.
In male and female patzilia, the gender difference is quite pronounced. Females are usually larger (palpable), with a fuller and rounded abdomen, and less brightly colored. In males, the anal fin has evolved from gonopodia; it is small and pointed. In female, anal fin is wider.
Male (below) and female
No special preparation for breeding is required, it will happen by itself in the presence of the female and the male. In fact, there is a statement that it is more difficult to stop the multiplication of placium than to begin.
In order for females to get pregnant normally, one male on three females is enough. This number is optimal because it reduces competition between males and gives females the opportunity to rest from them. Viviparous livelihoods, that is, they immediately have a formed fry that can swim. Pregnancy of the female can be determined by the rounded abdomen and the dark spot near the anal fin. Usually, the female pecilia gives birth every 28 days, the number of fry is about 20-40 pieces. Petsilia genera are simple, just drop it off and add plants to the aquarium. At this time, it does not need to be disturbed, it is better to close the front glass with paper.
But keep in mind that they eat their fry, and in order for them to survive you need to plant a lot of plants or immediately plant them in a separate container. Caring for fry is very simple, as it is born quite large and formed. You can feed it with egg yolk, dry food, branded feed for fry. If feeding is abundant and the water is clean, then after three months the chilli become sexually mature.
Pets in living habitat
Several species of fish from the family krabsuboobraznyh are considered partelians. Both aquarists with experience and beginners are engaged in their breeding. They are often confused with mollies, although these aquatic inhabitants are their variety.
The native land of the placium is in areas of Guatemala and southern Mexico, but today you can meet these fish in almost every corner of the planet. Their first breeding began in Europe in 1907, and almost immediately the breed became world-famous. Wild petsiliyu can be found in the lower reaches of the rivers, which flow into the waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Individuals living in nature do not have such a bright color as their “domesticated” brethren.
The main types of aquarium representatives are southern, spotted plazily and the swordtail. Breeders actively crossed platies with swordtails, so their offspring is difficult to identify. Usually, if a fish has an appendage in the form of a sword, then this is the male of the sword, and all the other fish, including the female of the sword, who do not have this feature, are counted in petsiliyam.
The southern high-finaceous plagus was first mentioned in the late 19th century, spotted in 1904, and the green swordtail only in the 1930s. Breeders are interested in these cute fish, and thanks to interspecific crossings, many species of species have appeared. And you can cross almost any representatives of the species.
Often in the work using spotted pestilia. It was she who became the founder of many species with natural color. But the Green Sword was not studied so well, and to meet this fish is a rarity. He attracts the attention of breeders and, having obtained such a fish, they cross it with swordtails and petilias to get aquarium fish with an unusual color.
Description of various species
All partilias are modest-sized fish, long from 3 to 5 cm, in the conditions of the aquarium, they live 3-5 years. As for the appearance and color, then there are many variations - the genus Poecilia includes over 30,000 species, and only aquarium species are over 130.
As already noted, the founding species of the genus is a tricolor (southern), spotted and green swordtail. All other breeds appeared as a result of breeding activities. For example, thanks to the hybridization of all the main species, it was possible to obtain the “black patsili”. But, unfortunately, today the fish of initial breeds are less and less common.
Wild fishes have a modest color - yellow scales with brown specks. But the inhabitants of the aquarium are not modest, and their fiery hue can not fail to attract attention. You can find yellow, orange, golden fish and other equally interesting colors and combinations:
- Pecilia balloon. It is considered one of the most interesting representatives of the species. Its feature is the curved spine, due to which the individual has a short and swollen body. Naturally, such a fish does not occur in nature. But the morphological change in the structure had a negative effect on reproductive functions, and fish-balloons often have various problems.
- Radish pecilia. Already by the name it becomes clear that this is an unusual fish, also artificially trained. It has an unusual posterior fin, painted black. Breeders do not stop on their laurels, so the "family of radishes" is periodically updated with new, original individuals.
- Sailing Velifera. This representative of the genus Petsyli differs in a larger size - the length of the fish is 4-7 cm. And it received its name because of the large fin that looks like a sail.
- Black platilla. It may seem that a fish with such a gloomy color may not be beautiful, but this is absolutely wrong. The black platile is a lively, peaceable inhabitant of the underwater world, possessing luxurious, iridescent scales. Breeders use this property, crossing it with the swordtails.
- Tricolor petilia. There are several color variations: the yellow green yellow color with blue, various combinations of black, orange and yellow shades.
- Red platilla. It differs from other representatives in bright red color, but its fins are in blue tones.
- Disk platilla. This fish is so named because of the disc shape of the body. Often, the males of disc pesili are inferior to females in size, and significantly.
- Pecilia Schwartz. A feature of this fish is a greenish or yellow stripe on the body. Like other petilia, it is an active, non-aggressive aquatic inhabitant.
This is not the whole list, you can find a variety of small fish on sale, which may also turn out to be petillias.
Inhabitants of natural reservoirs eat insects and vegetation. Their aquarium relatives are also unpretentious and can eat almost any kind of food. Owners should take into account that their pets should receive plant foods rich in fiber:
- flakes containing vegetable ingredients
- pieces of scalded vegetables - cucumbers, spinach, zucchini.
Such food makes up the lion's share of the diet of wild insects, it is necessary for the full functioning of the digestive tract of fish. Animal feed is also included in the menu - it can be live or frozen bloodworms, brine shrimp, cornet.
Compatible with other fish
As a rule, these companies have a great company with representatives of related species. In addition, if you populate an aquarium with various species of aquarium, they can create pairs and reproduce offspring with new characteristics that are different from other varieties.
Thanks to this feature, even a novice in the world of the aquarium business can turn into a breeder. True, one should not lose vigilance, otherwise the voracious neighbors will not give life to the original fry. But this property has the opposite, negative side: males can turn from good friends into rivals, and the marriage period will be accompanied by very tough conflicts.
Another nuance is that the patcilia suffers from cannibalism and can eat its own and neighboring offspring. Therefore, you should take care of a separate tank, if the goal is to get and grow a litter of new fish. Basically, these fish coexist well with other small inhabitants, peace-loving and non-conflict.
Do not forget about climate preferences. Pezilyat poplitsy with lovers of warmer or colder water is not worth it, the same applies to hardness and acidity. The owner has a choice, as their little wards get along with many water fellows:
- Catfish Corridor,
- catfish, plecostomy,
- blue, golden, marble gourami,
- barbs - Sumatran and bream-like.
These babies do not make up so well with larger, restless, predatory aquarium dwellers. Acne is also not the best company for them. The following fish are not suitable for living in the same tank with the patsils:
- African and South American cichlids,
- large barbs - arulius, crusades, etc.,
- Koi carps,
If the owner wants to have a well-organized water community, where peace and harmony reign, you should carefully select its inhabitants.
If there are at least two opposite-sex fish in the aquarium, the appearance of fry in most cases occurs without outside interference and additional preparations. Experienced aquarists say that stopping the breeding process of individuals of a given breed is much more difficult than starting. For females to regularly reproduce offspring, it is advisable to have 2-3 females and one male. This will save individuals from competition and forced aggression, and females will be spared from the excessive intrusiveness of gentlemen.
Pecilia is a viviparous fish, therefore a crowd of formed fry is born, able to feed and swim independently. To notice that the female is “in position”, it is possible when her belly is significantly rounded. In addition, she has a dark speck near the anal fin - it looks through the fry eye.
Typically, females give birth every 4 weeks; the litter consists of 20-40 fry. The process of childbirth is simple, the future mummy is desirable to deposit in a separate tank with vegetation. It is necessary to protect the female from external irritants by covering the outer glass with a cloth or sheet of paper. The female itself threatens its offspring and can eat fry, so it is necessary to plant it immediately after the birth, and plant the surface with vegetation that will serve as shelter.
It is easy to care for the young stock, since rather large and well-formed, viable individuals are born. Feed the fry crushed egg yolk, dry food, it is best to get a special diet for kids. If young animals are provided with abundant feeding and clean water, then after 12 weeks they will turn into sexually mature individuals.
Pezily habitat in natural conditions
The genus Poecilia has more than 30 species. These representatives of the order karububyh live in water bodies of South America and Mexico. An ideal place to live is a water area with fresh or brackish water, distinguished by a soil bottom and especially lush vegetation.
Color and appearance of fish living in natural conditions, is very different from the saturated color and spectacular appearance of aquarium relatives. The inhabitants of the marshy rivers have a short dense body, equipped with a powerful fin. Color - yellow with brown spots.
Aquarium pets brightly "fiery" color owe breeders who have worked hard on the representatives of the family.
Appearance and species diversity
Percylia have a diamond shaped body. Длина от 3 до 5 см. Существует несколько видов, отличимых друг от друга по окрасу, крапу, форме плавников и поведенческим характеристикам.
Самые популярные представители рода:
- Красные пецилии. Рыбки имеют ярко-красный окрас. Lower fins are bluish. In order for the “fiery” inhabitants of the aquarium to delight the eye with its bright appearance, live food should be used as the main food components,
- Disk petilia There are several color options. Residents of the aquarium have a peculiar shape, something like a disk. A notable feature is that females are 1.5-2 times larger than males,
- Petilia tricolor. Spectacular representative of the genus. There are several color combinations: greenish-yellow with a blue tint, combinations of orange, yellow and black,
- Black platilla. It looks quite predatory, but peaceful, like all of its relatives. This species is actively crossed with the swordtails. Offspring is valued for its amazing play on black scales,
- Schwarz. A green or yellow body is effectively decorated with a black stripe. Peaceful, active inhabitants of the aquarium.
Bright aquarium inhabitants are classified according to body shape and type of fins:
- Classic Petilia,
- “Radishes” with fins of unusual shape (Schwartz),
- "Cylinders" - fish with a rounded, oblong body,
- Sailing Velife - a resident of the water area, which has an impressive size (4 -7 cm) and a large dorsal fin (resembles a sail).
Aquarium arrangement: highlights
Although the partilias are not capricious fish, but you should not neglect the rules of care for these aquatic inhabitants. Arrangement of an artificial reservoir should be approached thoroughly.
- Percyli like the middle layers of water, so the aquarium should be quite deep. On one individual must be from 0.5 to 2.0 liters of water,
- So that during the games the pet does not accidentally jump out of the water, you should worry in advance about the lid on the aquarium,
- Adhering to the optimal indicators of water (pH 7.7 - 8.1, temperature 23-25 degrees), you can significantly prolong life and avoid diseases of pets,
- Salting water in the artificial water should be very careful. For novice aquarists it is not at all recommended to use salt (only as a forced measure when quarantined),
- "Fiery" inhabitants can do without aeration measures and filtration systems. It is enough to change a quarter of the water in the aquarium once for 6 to 8 days,
- A small lamp or sunshine is suitable for lighting (avoid direct sunlight),
- It is recommended to use dark soil,
- In the aquarium there should be decorative elements that aquatic inhabitants can use as places for shelter,
- Mexican fish love the waters with lots of greenery. They will appreciate the cryptocoryne, echinodorus, elodeyu, ricciu, fragments of horn leaves. The leaves of apponogeton and myriophyllum will look impressive.
Neighborhood and Compatibility Rules
Addressing the issue of compatibility of fish in an aquarium, it is worth saying that the partilli has a very friendly character. They get along with many representatives of the water world.
Ideal neighbors - angel bears, iris, barbs, gourami, guppies, swordtails, danios, tetras, fighters, roosters, koridaras, discus, rasbora. Partial compatibility with mastacebelas, shrimps, eels. It is necessary to avoid the neighborhood with astronotus, cichlids, koi carp, goldfish.
Charming fish from the marshy rivers of Mexico will be not just a spectacular decoration of any aquarium, but also their favorite pets, pleasing a cheerful disposition. All that is required from the owner of these lovely pets is a little attention and respect for the elementary rules of care.