Mucoid conjunctivitis in a plague carnivorous dog.
Plague carnivorous - A highly contagious, systemic, viral disease of dogs, widespread throughout the world.
Plague is more common in young puppies (3 to 6 months) or unvaccinated or immunocompromised adult dogs.
Dog plague is caused by the carnivorous plague virus and is endemic in some countries. Sporadic outbreaks occur worldwide, presumably due to new virulent virus strains.
Dog plague symptoms
Clinically affected dogs are usually young and manifest symptoms associated with intermittent fever, accompanied by serous and catarrhal nasal secretions due to rhinitis, conjunctivitis and anorexia with weight loss and dehydration. There are a number of clinical forms of the plague of carnivores: catarrhal, intestinal, pulmonary, nervous, skin, and mixed.
Neurological signs in dogs suffering from carnivorous plague may be present without other clinical symptoms. In adult dogs, symptoms with progressive tetraparosis, altered mental status and blindness are often present. Optic neuritis can also occur in clinically ill dogs. There may also be signs of acute blindness, ataxia and seizures.
Neurological signs of plague carnivores can develop in various forms of pathology, and in severe cases, seizures are present in the majority of sick dogs. It has been reported that encephalitis and meningitis are common effects of dog plague, but atypical necrotizing encephalitis has also been reported.
The long-term symptoms of carnivorous plague in dogs include odontodystrophy (enamel hypoplasia), supporting feet hyperkeratosis (stiff paw disease) and epithelium of the nasal cavity. In young dogs, after post-temperature infection, dental deposits, partial vomiting and regurgitation, oligodontia, enamel hypoplasia and dentin hypoplasia can be observed.
Chronic encephalitis in dogs infected with carnivorous plague, characterized by ataxia, compulsive movements, such as dizziness or continuous stimulation, nervous excitement, and uncoordinated hypermetry, can be observed in adult dogs with no history of signs associated with damage to the musculoskeletal system. The development of neurological signs in the plague of carnivores is often more progressive. Although some dogs with plague have stained fluorescent antibodies in the brain, an antigen antigen has been detected, dogs with the effects of the plague nerve form are not infectious, and the replication-competent virus has not been isolated.
Thymus atrophy is a consistent post-mortem detection of young puppies infected with plague. Depending on the degree of secondary bacterial infection, bronchopneumonia, gastroenteritis and skin pustules may also be present.
Histologically, the dog plague virus produces necrosis of lymphatic tissues, the development of interstitial pneumonia and cytoplasmic and intranuclear bodies of inclusions in the respiratory tract, urinary and gastrointestinal epithelium. The lesions found in the brain of dogs with neurological complications of plague carnivorous include neuronal degeneration, gliosis, demyelination, perivascular cuffs, refractory leptomeningitis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies predominantly in glial cells.
Treatment of plague in dogs
No method treating dogs with plague carnivores, not specific or uniformly successful. Dogs can fully recover from systemic manifestations, but good medical care is important to them. Due to the highly infectious nature of the virus, many kennels and shelters have a high risk of spreading among uninfected puppies, and euthanasia of dogs sick with plague should be taken into account to minimize further spread of the disease.
Vaccination is necessary to minimize outbreaks, especially in kennels, pet stores and large dog populations.
The dog plague virus is not resistant to disinfectants, but is easily transmitted through aerosols and has a wide range of hosts. Wild carnivores are believed to be reservoirs for new outbreaks of the plague.
- Greene C & Appel M (2006) Chapter 3: Canine distemper. In: Greene C, editor. Infectious Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. St Louis, Missouri: Saunders / Elsevier. pp: 25–41
- Schumaker BA et al. (2012) Canine puppies linked to a high-volume dog breeder. J Vet Diagn Invest Sep 25
- Qiao J et al. (2011) Acta Virol 55 (4): 303-310
- Amude AM et al. (2007) Clinicopathological findings of natural disease. Res Vet Sci 82: 416–422
- Richards TR et al (2011) Optic neuritis caused by canine distemper virus in a Jack Russell terrier. Can Vet J 52 (4): 398-402
- Amude AM et al (2011) Atypical necrotizing encephalitis associated with systemic canine distemper infection in pups. J Vet Sci 12 (4): 409-412
- Bittegeko SB et al (1995) Multiple dental developmental abnormalities following canine distemper infection. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 31 (1): 42-45
- It can be found in the United States of America animal shelter. J Am Vet Med Assoc 240 (9): 1084-1087
- Taguchi M et al (2011), canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs. Can Vet J 52 (9): 983-986
- Cha SY et al (2012) Epidemiology of canine distemper virus in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) from South Korea. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 35 (5): 497-504
Good to know
© VetConsult +, 2016. All rights reserved. The use of any materials posted on the site is permitted provided the link to the resource. When copying or partially using materials from the pages of the site, it is necessary to place a direct hyperlink to search engines located in the subtitle or in the first paragraph of the article.
Plague is a dangerous contagious infectious (viral) disease that occurs in several forms:
- supersharp (lightning fast),
The disease causes a dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract and the nervous system, causes fever, conjunctivitis, profuse diarrhea, acute catarrhal inflammation of the mucous membranes, skin exanthema.
In addition to dogs, the plague of carnivores affects fur-bearing and predatory animals (raccoons, wolves, foxes).
This disease is especially dangerous for puppies and young (from two months to a year) unvaccinated dogs. Also, a weak or unformed immunity plays a negative role, which increases susceptibility to the causative agent of plague.
Veterinary doctors say that most often this disease affects German shepherd dogs, huskies, staff terriers, Chinese crested, bull terriers, Pekingese, lapdogs, pugs and collie. While plague resistance is manifested in terriers and mongrel dogs.
The disease has no seasonality, so the animals get sick at any time.
How does the plague of dogs
The disease is viral. The causative agent is a paramyxovirus of the genus Morbilliviridae. It is directly related to the human measles pathogen and the cattle plague virus. Observations on how the plague in dogs manifests itself have been conducted since the 18th century. But only in 1905, Carre confirmed the disease.
After establishing the viral nature of the disease, it became possible to differentiate the primary manifestations and secondary symptoms, and the treatment of distemper in dogs became much more effective. It turned out that not only dogs, but also other predators (ferrets, foxes, wolves, minks) are sick with plague. Therefore, in the scientific literature, it is called the plague of carnivores.
How are dogs infected with plague carnivorous
Sick animals (dogs or other predators) release the virus into the environment with effusions from the eyes, nose and mouth, as well as feces, urine, and dead skin epithelium.
The virus is very stable. It remains active in sunlight for 14 days, can live on clothing, on the floor or indoors for several days. Therefore, disinfection of the room where the sick or recovering animal is kept is of great importance. As with many other diseases of dogs, the distemper treatment must be accompanied by regular sanitization of the room. It is produced with a 2% caustic soda solution or other potent disinfectant.
Temperatures above 60 degrees can inactivate the virus for 1 minute, so that it is better to boil clothes and tools to comply with the quarantine.
Healthy animals become infected from the sick through food or through the air. You can also get infected from dogs that have already suffered a disease. They continue to be carriers of the virus for another 2-3 months even after the end of treatment for the plague of carnivores.
How does dog plague develop?
After the virus enters the body, the incubation period of the disease begins. It lasts 3-6 days. All this time, the virus multiplies in the tissues of the larynx and bronchial lymph nodes. The virus then spreads with blood and lymph to the bone marrow and spleen, and the first symptoms of the disease appear. The temperature rises, the dog becomes lethargic and may refuse to eat. These plague symptoms in dogs are still non-specific and can be confused with the manifestations of any other disease. Early access to a doctor and proper diagnosis can help you quickly find an effective treatment for the plague of carnivores in a dog.
At this stage, the immune system actively counteracts the virus, producing antibodies. If for some reason (active colostrum immunity or vaccination) the immune system prevails, then recovery may occur. If the virus wins, it spreads further throughout the body. Treatment of dog plague is complicated by specific symptoms. At this stage, respiratory, digestive tissues, urethra and genitalia, skin and nervous system are affected. During this period, all animal secretions become infectious and continue to be up to 8 weeks. The effectiveness of the treatment of dog plague depends on the rate of formation of antibodies in the body of an infected animal and on the effective medical support of immunity. If the dog is sick with plague, the prevention of secondary bacterial infections becomes an important medical task.
Gastrointestinal form of the disease (intestinal plague)
It develops when the virus mucous membrane of the stomach and small intestine. Vomiting, diarrhea (including diarrhea with blood), rapid dehydration are among the most characteristic symptoms. If they occur immediately or with respiratory manifestations, then this is a direct indication of the intestinal plague of dogs, the treatment of which should be started as soon as possible. The prognosis of treatment of intestinal distemper in dogs is cautious.
Respiratory form of the disease (pulmonary plague)
Dog pneumonic plague has symptoms similar to a severe cold. It is characterized by rhinitis (runny nose), difficulty breathing, discharge from the nose. The disease progresses rapidly, the discharge becomes purulent, a crust forms on the nostrils. Then develop bronchopneumonia, followed by cough. Weakened immunity cannot resist numerous secondary pathogens; therefore, infection with various bacteria is also possible: staphylococci, streptococci, bordetella. Pneumonic plague in dogs develops rapidly and quickly passes into a difficult stage. With the development of pneumonia, the prognosis ranges from cautious to unfavorable.
Nervous form of the disease
This form of the disease most often occurs after the attenuation of the respiratory form or at the same time as it. It occurs in meningitis and encephalitis caused by the plague carnivorous virus. It may even be a temporary improvement in condition that lasts for several days or even weeks. Nervous plague in dogs is dangerous because it gives a whole range of diverse manifestations, depending on how much of the nervous system the virus has infected. Mental disorders, manege movements, convulsions, tic, paresis, paralysis, blurred vision, blindness are possible. The prognosis for treating the nervous form of plague in dogs that occurs without fever may well be favorable, but tics can persist throughout the subsequent life of the animal. Severe illness with a sharp rise in temperature and severe symptoms, as a rule, has a negative prognosis.
Manifested in the form of specific skin lesions: bubbles appear on the skin, filled with a clear liquid. There may also be bald spots along the edge of the eyelids and near the corners of the lips. The plague of dogs rarely occurs only as a skin form, in which case the prognosis is favorable. But usually it accompanies the pulmonary or intestinal forms, which helps diagnose the plague of dogs in the case of non-specific intestinal or pulmonary manifestations. If an adequate medical care is not provided to the dog with the skin form of the plague in time, the disease can turn into a nervous form, in this case, life-threatening disorders of the nervous system are likely to occur (tics, etc.)
Discomfort in dogs: symptoms and treatment
The symptomatology of the disease, as we wrote above, depends on which organs and systems are affected by the disease, as well as on the individual characteristics of the immune system, the presence of other pathogens in the body of the animal, and the type of virus itself. All of these factors influence how the plague in dogs appears.
Therefore, the effectiveness of the treatment of distemper in dogs depends on the stage at which the owner of the animal turned into the clinic and in what form the disease proceeds. In general, the treatment of dog chumka comes down to helping the immune system in its fight against the disease and correcting the changes that occur in the body under the influence of the virus.
Unfortunately, dogs often begin treatment of the distemper at a late stage, because at the time of the onset of the primary signs of diarrhea, conjunctivitis, fever and refusal to eat, the owners rarely go to the doctor. However, the combination of these signs should be an alarming signal for the owner.
Symptoms of distemper in dogs, indicating the need for urgent treatment to the doctor for treatment: periodic temperature rise, with an interval of two days to a week, purulent discharge from the nose and / or eyes, refusal to eat for more than a day, accompanied by lethargy, vomiting, diarrhea, cough, not passing more than a day. Especially it is necessary to closely monitor the symptoms and the course of treatment for owners of unvaccinated dogs.
Treatment of dogs for distemper often becomes an unexpected test for owners of very young individuals, whose immunity is not yet sufficiently developed and strengthened by vaccination.
Unfortunately, if the dog is sick with plague, the symptoms of the disease may not be specific. Similar manifestations are observed in a number of diseases. Therefore, the treatment of plague in dogs is best to start with confirmation of the diagnosis. Modern veterinary laboratories for the diagnosis of "plague of carnivorous" use PCR analysis to detect the presence in the dog's secretions of the genetic material of the virus.
The main regimen used to treat plague dogs is supportive and symptomatic treatment. In the early days, activities can be carried out to support the immune system (administration of ready-made antibodies in the form of serum or globulins). Also prescribed antiemetic drugs, drugs that improve breathing and drip for the correction of dehydration. In severe cases with severe symptoms, it is better to treat the plague in dogs in a specially equipped infectious hospital.
What to do if the dog is sick plague
Treatment of dogs for distemper is best done under the supervision and with the support of an experienced specialist. This will make it easier to establish the diagnosis, control the severity of the disease, monitor the dynamics of the disease.
We have already mentioned that treatment of the distemper in a dog often begins too late precisely because of an incorrect diagnosis. For example, the owners note diarrhea and fever and give firming preparations or simply put on a diet. A dog may even get better after the end of the first stage of infection, but this does not mean recovery. As a result of delay, the disease progresses and goes into a difficult stage when it is too late to help. Therefore, a specialist should be contacted at the first warning signs or at least have an idea about the symptoms of distemper in dogs so that treatment can be prescribed on time.
It seems to you that your dog is sick with distemper - what to do first? It is necessary to apply for initial consultation and diagnostics as soon as possible. The animal should be isolated from other pets, twice a day to disinfect the room where it is located.
After visiting a sick dog, you need to change clothes, wash and boil them thoroughly, and wash your hands.
Treatment of distemper in dogs at home requires adherence to a special diet, also prescribed by a doctor.
Prevention of dog distemper
Competent and responsible owners of dogs for the treatment of the distemper dogs, of course, prefer prevention. Fortunately, there is a vaccine for this disease.
The first vaccination is made for babies at the age of 8 weeks, the next one - in 3-4 weeks and then repeated annually throughout the entire life of the animal. If you picked up a dog on the street (or it came to you in some other way, and you do not know anything about its vaccinations), then the dog is better to stand 10 days in quarantine, not walking it outside. This is not easy, but better than asking yourself the question: how to treat a dog that is sick with plague.
If the animal is not quarantined for any reason, an emergency vaccination can be carried out. But, nevertheless, it is better to hold it in a calm mode, after 10 days of observing the animal.
You must understand that vaccination does not protect against the disease by 100%. However, immunity formed as a result of vaccination usually easily overcomes the virus, so that the symptoms of the disease do not appear at all, or appear mild. Even in the rarest of cases when an appeal to a doctor is required, the prognosis for treating distemper in a dog that has been vaccinated is favorable.
© 2017 Veterinary Center “Northern Lights”. All rights reserved.
Which dogs are at risk
In Russia, infectious catarrhal fever (febris catarrhalis infectiosa) first manifested itself in the Crimea (1762), which is why it was called the Crimean disease. In 1905, the French researcher Carré proved the viral nature of the disease accompanied by fever, CNS damage, pneumonia, catarrh of the mucous membranes and skin rash.
Both adult and young dogs can become infected with plague, but the age of 2 to 5 months is considered the most dangerous.. Puppies born from vaccinated bitches or those who have naturally become ill with the plague are almost never sick. Rarely sick and puppies that are in the lactating age: unless the poor maintenance / feeding. Colostral immunity protects the brood for about a couple of weeks after weaning from the maternal breast, and then vaccination is required.
It is interesting! The susceptibility to the virus is determined by the breed. Less resilient are domesticated breeds, including ornamental dogs, the South Russian / German Shepherd Dog and the Siberian Husky. The most resistant terriers and boxers.
In addition, avitaminosis, helminthic invasion, improper food, lack of exercise, wet cold weather and related breeding contribute to the infection.
Such a disease in dogs, like the plague of carnivores, is the result of infection with an RNA virus from the family of paramyxoviruses (Paramyxoviridae). It is resistant to many environmental factors:
- UV radiation
- negative temperature.
At -20 ° C, this virus in the corpses of animals can maintain its activity up to six months. It is also not susceptible to the effects of certain disinfectants, and formalin and bleach kill it only after three hours. In the dried form, the ability to infection retains up to four months, and heating to 100 ° C destroys the virus only after two minutes.
In the external environment, the causative agent of plague carnivorous in dogs appears with feces or secretions of patients who have been ill or infected with the latent form of animal disease.
Incubation period and forms
The incubation period of the disease ranges from two days to three weeks. The only symptom of canine distemper in dogs during this period is lethargy and poor appetite.
By the way the disease is divided into such forms:
- Fulminant - affects unvaccinated puppies at the age of two months. Of the signs - only high temperature. Death occurs within 24 hours.
- Acute - develops quickly, begins with fever and loss of appetite, then convulsions or paralysis appear. On the second or third day, the animal falls into a coma and dies.
- Subacute - the dog is in a fever from two days to two weeks, depression occurs and appetite disappears. Then there are characteristic signs of the disease.
- Chronic - after recovery, the disease periodically progresses.
According to the method of manifestation and, accordingly, the method of treatment in dogs, the plague of carnivores is divided into the following forms:
- hardness - soreness and hyperkeratosis of the pads develop.
In eighty percent of cases, the disease occurs, combining several forms.
The carnivorous plague virus, like a typical paramyxovirus, contains ribonucleic acid and is resistant to many physicochemical factors. At sub-zero temperatures it is able to retain its virulent properties for 5 years
In the organs of dead animals, the virus lives up to six months, in the blood - up to 3 months, in the secretions of the nasal cavity - about 2 months. The virus destroys some physical factors and simple disinfectants:
- sunlight and formalin / phenol solutions (0.1–0.5%) - in a few hours,
- 2% solution of sodium hydroxide - 60 minutes,
- ultraviolet irradiation or 1% solution of lysol - within 30 min,
- heating to 60 ° C in 30 minutes.
When boiling the pathogen dies instantly.
Ways of infection
Wild carnivorous and stray animals are the reservoir of the dog plague virus, and the source of the causative agent are sick and ill dogs, as well as those that are in the incubation period. The virus is excreted from the body by sneezing and coughing (with saliva and nasal / eye discharge), with feces, urine, and particles of dead skin. The dog acts as a virus carrier for up to 2–3 months.
Important! The virus enters the body through the respiratory tract (for example, when sniffing) or through the digestive tract. Not so long ago, the vertical method of infection was also proved, when the plague virus is transmitted to the offspring through the placenta of an infected bitch.
The pathogen settles on the dog litter, muzzles, care items, as well as on the owner's clothes and shoes. With the onset of sexual hunting, the chance to pick up the dog distemper is dramatically increasing. The incidence in the plague of carnivorous is not less than 70-100%, and mortality (depending on the form of the disease) varies in the range of 25-75%.
Symptoms of dog distemper
The virus enters the body, first reaches the regional lymph nodes, then enters the bloodstream and causes fever. Next, the pathogen penetrates into the internal organs and simultaneously affects the central nervous system, leading to serious disruptions of digestion and respiration.
The latent period of the disease (from infection to the initial symptoms) takes from 3 to 21 days. At this time, the dog looks quite healthy, but is able to infect other dogs. Smoothed symptoms make it extremely difficult to diagnose and determine the date of infection with plague.
The first signs of the disease:
- mild depression, lethargy and fatigue,
- redness of the mucous eyes, mouth and nose,
- decrease in appetite
- clear discharge from nose and eyes,
- partial abandonment of games / exercises
- slight diarrhea and vomiting (sometimes).
- ruffled wool.
In some animals, signs are less pronounced, in others - more clearly. At the beginning of all sick dogs there is a fever (39.5–40), which lasts about 3 days.
It is interesting! After 3 days, in the strongest animals, the temperature drops to normal, the disease ends and recovery occurs. In weak dogs, the temperature continues to rise amid a general deterioration in health.
Affections of the nervous system can be observed both in the midst of the disease, and with positive dynamics. Plague carnivorous often atypical or abortive, and is also characterized by an acute, subacute, subacute or chronic course.
Forms of the disease
The degree of brightness of the clinical signs determines the form of the disease, which may be nervous, intestinal, pulmonary, or cutaneous (exanthematic). The development of a particular form of plague depends on the virulence of the pathogen and on the reactivity of the canine organism. One form of the disease easily passes into another. In addition, it is possible the manifestation of the plague of carnivores in a mixed form.
The course and spread of the disease
The virus penetrates mainly through the mucous membrane of the respiratory system, and then enters the lymphatic system of the lungs. Reproduction of the pathogen occurs in immune cells (macrophages, lymphocytes, monocytes) and lymph nodes. For the first ten days, the entire immune system is affected, and complications caused by bacterial and fungal viruses develop.
Further, the spread of the disease continues through the circulatory system and lymph and captures all organs and tissues. Despite global infection, the symptoms appear one at a time or one after another. Seven days later, nerve cells are affected and after three weeks the entire nervous system.
The chronic course of the disease in dogs turns into a nervous form of plague carnivorous, which is characterized by changes in the nature of the animal, the occurrence of paralysis and paresis, as well as epileptic seizures. If treatment is not applied and the disease develops further, the animal will die, caused by extensive paralysis of the nerve centers that control the functions of the heartbeat and respiration.
The course of the disease and its intensity depends largely on the immunity of the dog, its ability to resist distemper and associated diseases.
Symptoms of the plague in animals
The plague arises against the background of other infectious viral diseases in an animal. This may be adenoviroz, coronovirus infection, parvovirus enteritis of dogs.
The plague of carnivores is manifested only by fever, lethargy, apathetic behavior, if animals have a good body resistance to the disease, recovery takes place after three to six months.
The general clinical symptoms of the disease are:
- body temperature rises above forty degrees
- symptoms of intoxication appear - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
- gray-green purulent exudate is secreted from the eyes, ears and sinuses,
- weight decreases and appetite is lost,
- the animal is very thirsty
- there is a cough, runny nose, difficulty breathing,
- there is photophobia, lethargy,
- pads on paws thicken, skin on the nose dries,
- coordination of movements is disturbed, gait changes,
- spasms, paralysis, convulsions, tonic convulsions, epilepsy seizures appear.
If toxins affect the brain, meningoencephalitis develops, causing the dog to die. Plague carnivorous has an unfavorable prognosis also with the defeat of the central nervous system.
The intestinal form is characterized by symptoms of a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and liver - vomiting, hypersalivation, diarrhea. Dogs are temperate, refuse to eat, drink a lot.
The pulmonary form of the disease causes shortness of breath, cough, rhinitis, inflammation of the ears, upper respiratory tract, leads to the occurrence of bronchopneumonia.
The skin form of the plague is considered the easiest. It causes the appearance of small papular-pustular rash in the area of the peritoneum, tail, ears, on the inner surface of the thighs. The pustules first fill with fluid, then with pus and burst, drying out and forming brown hard crusts.
Diagnosis of distemper in dogs
Sometimes there is an atypical stage, which is difficult to diagnose because of the mild symptoms in canine-distemper dogs (and treatment is also difficult) —a slight temperature increase, the dog's changing behavior. Fourteen days later, signs of the nervous form appear, and another month later the animal dies.
In general, the veterinarian diagnoses the disease through regional epizootological data and clinical signs of the disease. To confirm the diagnosis, biochemical and laboratory tests, hematological tests and differential diagnostics are carried out.
The following indicators are being studied to determine the carnivorous plague in dogs:
- neutralization reaction,
- indirect hemagglutination reaction,
- bioassay for susceptibility.
Treatment of distemper in dogs
After receiving the tests and establishing the diagnosis, the veterinarian prescribes an individual treatment regimen aimed at restoring immunity and functioning of the organs, as well as stopping the signs of the main and associated diseases.
The article presents a description and photo of the symptoms of plague carnivores in dogs. Treatment on the first day begins with antibiotics. In parallel, etiotropic, replacement and pathogenetic therapy, physiotherapy, hyperimmune sera are prescribed.
Also, sick animals are prescribed:
- antihistamine, antipyretic drugs (analgin, "Dimedrol"),
- astringents, sedatives, and antivirals (Loperamide, Mydocalm, Aminozin),
- vitamin-mineral complexes to maintain the general condition,
- immunomodulators to correct body resistance,
- sulfonamides and painkillers (Travmatin, Baralgin),
- hepatoprotectors and expectorants,
- anti-inflammatory and topical preparations (Chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, Dexamethasone).
To restore the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, nutrient and water-salt solutions are used, specific diets and enzymes are prescribed. After a course of antibiotics, probiotics (Bifidumbacterin) are given to a pet.
Lightning and super-acute forms give one hundred percent unfavorable prognosis, combined - more often unfavorable, and all others with timely started treatment lead to full recovery and the establishment of lifelong immunity.
General disease prevention
Timely vaccination of dogs against the plague of carnivores will help protect your pet from infection with a dangerous virus. The first vaccination is given to puppies at the age of one and a half months, and then it is carried out annually. The appearance of immunity after vaccination does not occur immediately, but in a month (after revaccination).
In order to see signs of a dangerous disease in time, pet owners should:
- be attentive to pets
- monitor their health,
- systematically carry out hygiene procedures,
- to keep clean,
- feed correctly
- include in the diet of mineral and vitamin preparations,
- during walking, avoid contact with street dogs.
There are two plague vaccines for carnivores in dogs:
- with a weakened virus - protects during the year, but gives complications in the form of fever and edema,
- with a dead pathogen - the effect is less pronounced, but there are no complications, the vaccine is repeated three times a year.
Among domestic vaccines, “Hexacanivac” and “Multikan-6.8” should be noted, and among foreign drugs, the use of “Nobivac”, “Dipentowak”, “Pentodog”, “Kanvaka”, “Hexodog” and “Vanguard” is effective.
Revaccination is desirable to carry out the same drug as the first vaccine, in order to avoid the conflict of strains in the composition of different medicines.
Most often, the reaction to the vaccine in animals does not occur, but there may be mild swelling and tenderness at the injection site, a slight fever.
Before vaccination, the dog must be examined, and after it - to observe the pet.
To alleviate the condition of the dog, the following recommendations should be followed:
- often it is necessary to air the room with sick animals,
- clean up with disinfectants (bleach, Lysol, Creole),
- clean the dog of excreta and excrement
- provide short-term walking without contact with other animals,
- place the animal's stay covered with disposable waterproof diapers, which are systematically changed,
- create a calm atmosphere without bright light,
- maintain a comfortable temperature in the room
- do not feed the pet during the first day,
- provide proper nutrition and vitamins.
After a day of starvation, feeding starts from the broth, then give liquid or viscous porridge with boiled chopped meat. Such a diet will stop vomiting and indigestion.
Milk is not recommended, but after a week in the menu you can add sour milk, acidophilus, cottage cheese. From the second week the dog is transferred to the usual diet with the addition of vitamins ("Vitam").
If antibiotic therapy was carried out, then for ten days after its termination the pet is given enzymes to restore the intestinal microflora.
Before you start a new puppy after the dog's plague died from the virus, you need to destroy all the items that were in its use. After this, it is necessary to establish quarantine for up to six months. Bring in the house is better already vaccinated pet.
We briefly described what are the symptoms and treatment of plague carnivorous in dogs. Photos of sick animals can not cause compassion. This is a very serious disease that often leads to the death of a pet. Therefore, it is the adoption of measures to prevent the disease will help to avoid this terrible disease.
In acute currents, this form of distemper is associated with an increase in temperature (up to 39.5 degrees), which does not decrease for 10–15 days. The skin of the nasolabial mirror becomes dry, and cracks appear on it (not always).
Important! After 1–2 days after the temperature jumps, the eyes of the dog begin to tear down profusely with the formation of sero-mucous membranes, and then purulent secretions: the animal's eyelids stick together, and the eyes close.
Rhinitis begins, in which sero-purulent exudate flows from the nasal cavities, the nostrils stick together, and crusts appear on the nasolabial pocket mirror. Breathing is accompanied by sniffing and coughing occurs, first dry, but subsequently moist. At 2–3 weeks, nervous disorders often join catarrhal disorders, which then become predominant.
If the main impact of the virus fell on the digestive system, the dog suddenly loses its appetite, becomes ill with pharyngitis / tonsillitis and shows signs of a catarrh (usually acute) of the gastrointestinal tract. Катаральное воспаление слизистых ЖКТ проявляется диареей с выходом жидких (серо-желтых, а затем коричневых) фекалий с примесью слизи и крови.
При кишечной форме чумы отмечаются периодические приступы рвоты со слизистым содержимым желтого цвета. If the rectum is affected, where hemorrhagic inflammation has begun, bloody inclusions are found in the feces. Also from the sick dogs comes a disgusting smell.
Diagnosis and treatment
First of all, it is necessary to exclude diseases similar in symptomatology - Aujeszky's disease, salmonellosis, rabies, infectious hepatitis and pasteurellosis.
Next, look at the presence of symptoms such as:
- defeat of the respiratory tract,
- two-wave temperature rise
- catarrh of the mucous membranes of the eyes / nose,
- CNS damage,
- hyperkeratosis of the paw pads,
- disease duration of at least 21 days.
Four of these symptoms suffice to suggest that the dog has carnivorous plague. For the early stage, the following five signs are more common: photophobia, normal temperature with increased appetite or temperature of 39 ° C or more with loss of appetite, cough, symptoms of damage to the nervous system. For two of the five named symptoms, you can suspect plague, and for three - to diagnose.
When plague in dogs, complex therapy with a combination of specific and symptomatic drugs is indicated.
The most effective specific means are:
- avirokan (immunoglobulin dogs against hepatitis, plague, parvovirus and coronavirus enteritis),
- immunoglobulin against plague carnivorous and parvovirus enteritis,
- globulin against enteritis, plague and hepatitis carnivorous.
Polyvalent serum against plague, viral hepatitis and parvovirus enteritis proved somewhat worse. Immunostimulants widely use immunofan, kinoron, comedone, anandin, cycloferon, myxoferon and ribotan.
Important! For inhibition of bacterial (secondary) microflora, antibacterial drugs with prolonged action are prescribed. The course treatment with antibiotics needs to be completed using probiotics, such as bifidumbacterin, lactobacterin, enterobifidine, baktisubtil, and others.
Traditional methods of treatment
Experienced dog lovers, relying on their many years of experience, do not particularly trust veterinarians and often refuse medical treatment, relying on simple means. At the heart of all the potions, thanks to which the dogs were pulled out almost from the next world, are strong spirits. One of the most popular recipes looks like this: twice a day, a sick glass animal is given a half cup of vodka mixed with one raw egg and a teaspoon of honey. The last ingredient is not strictly required. The mixture is injected into the mouth from a syringe or a large syringe (without a needle).
Someone saved his dog from the distemper in a more expensive way, using good brandy (a teaspoon 2 times a day), other owners managed home-made moonshine (a glass in the morning and evening), and someone otpaival dog banal fortified wine.
Another miracle drink based on vodka, which brought the dog back to active life: 2 cloves of ground garlic + 1 homemade egg + vodka (100–120 g). Everything is thoroughly shaken and poured from a spoon or syringe. This is a single dose, which is repeated in the morning and evening.
It is interesting! Some healers combined the incompatible (alcohol and antibiotics), but pulled the dogs out of the clutches of death. Patients received injections of penicillin and twice a day 0.5 cups of vodka, shaken with a pair of raw eggs.
An adult German shepherd (with an intestinal distemper) went on the mend from homemade red wine, as she had vomited at the store. She was drunk with wine for exactly two days, pouring 2 tablespoons in the morning and evening, and after 1–2 hours they gave 1 tablet of noshpy. In addition, the shepherd dog was constantly watered with water (1 tablespoon spoon) throughout the day.
The dog, according to the hostess, woke up vigorously already on the 3rd day, and gradually began to eat liquid soup (though not herself, but with a spoon). For 7 days, the shepherd was also given a pill of noshpy, and she did not need antibiotics. A week later, the dog was healthy. Broths of St. John's wort and chamomile will help to remove accumulated toxins from the body. Not bad and broth motherwort, preventing the development of serious consequences and calming the nervous system.
There is no more reliable way to protect the dog from distemper than timely immunization. Anti-vaccine vaccinations are given to dogs at 12 weeks, 6 and 12 months, and then once a year for up to 6 years. Each vaccination is preceded by a deworming procedure. For specific prophylaxis, live monovalent (VNIIVViM-88, EPM, 668-KF, vaccum) and associated (multican, wangard, hexadog, nobivac) vaccines are taken.
It will also be interesting:
And, of course, it is necessary to strengthen the immunity of the animal, which is impossible without quenching and good nutrition. It is important to keep the dog clean, at least to wash its litter and wash its paws after a walk.
The consequences of distemper dog
The majority of animals that have been plagued for a long time, often until the end of life, traces of the destructive work of the virus in the body remain. It can be:
- loss of sight, smell and hearing
- overgrowth of the pupil and scars on the cornea,
- paresis and paralysis,
- muscle twitching,
- yellowing teeth.
Some pets occasionally have epileptic seizures, the culprit of which also becomes a postponed illness. In dogs that have been ill, life-long immunity is usually formed, but reinfection is still not excluded.