It is impossible to imagine Moscow and its environs without birds. In the bustle of the big city, we often overlook our winged neighbors, and there are a lot of them within the metropolis. Some, such as gray pigeons, sparrows and crows, live next to us all year round, while others, on the contrary, arrive only with the onset of heat. According to ornithologists, the birds of the Moscow region comprise more than 200 species.
Regulars of Moscow courtyards and parks
The most common feathered suburbs of Moscow region, without a doubt, are pigeons. They can be found in the center of the capital, and in any locality in the region. These birds are so accustomed to and adapted to live with a person that in some areas have become almost tame.
Gray crows are not uncommon in residential areas. Few know that these birds, with the advent of cold weather, fly to more suitable habitats. So, near Moscow crows fly to Kharkiv and Kiev regions, in their place flocks arrive from Arkhangelsk and other northern cities. In the spring, many move to the forests, where they build nests and hatch. City crows often equip homes in cemeteries and in old parks.
Let us wait May evening in the sky over the city you can see thousands of black swifts. Their characteristic tweeting is known to each of us since childhood. Swifts are almost always in the air and everything is done on the fly: they drink, eat, mate. On the ground, they are completely helpless - short legs are not designed for walking. Having fallen on a flat surface, the bird cannot fly up independently and may die. Swifts are the fastest among feathered Russia. They can reach speeds of up to 180 km / h.
All of us in small years made feeders from dairy packages and hung up in the nearest park, and then regularly came and poured seeds. For whom were they meant? That's right, for sparrows, blue tits and bullfinches. Within the region you can find 5 types of tits: big, azure, chubby, gonadka, grenadier.
Bullfinches are wintering birds of the Moscow region. However, contrary to popular belief, for the summer they do not fly away, but only move into the nearby forests, preferably in spruce forests, where they lead a secretive lifestyle.
Winter birds of Moscow region
The bird population of green areas around the capital varies by season. Winter birds of the Moscow region are represented by several species of woodpeckers, including red, titmouses, jays, and starlings. Among the dense vegetation, you can see the nuthatch, pika, waxwing, chizhya, tap, korek. An elk wintering and many other birds winter in coniferous forests, the main food for which are seeds.
Climate change has affected birds. For several years, scientists have observed that many Rooks have ceased to fly away to warm lands, and winter in conditions of central Russia. One more newly-born wintering birds of the Moscow region are ducks. These waterfowl remain in urban non-freezing reservoirs, where they are fed by local residents.
Summer inhabitants of the Moscow region forests
In spring and summer, the birds singing does not stop in the forest. In the green zone of the Moscow region one can hear the nightingale, the singing of waxwings, and the sound of magpies.
Everything around is filled with chirping, tweeting and melodic songs. From the beginning of March to mid-summer, the birds near Moscow are mating season. Ornithologists joke that even a crow caws in the spring in a harmonious way.
Birds of prey of Moscow and Moscow region
Among representatives of owls, the gray owl is most common in the metropolitan area. It can be found even in settlements, especially in winter. The predator feeds on small rodents and small birds of the passerine family.
Eared owls in the vicinity of Moscow are also quite a few. She prefers a mixed and coniferous forest, sometimes winters in city parks. Its diet is identical to tawny.
In addition to the above, within the region, one can observe a sparrow sychik, a mountain legged and little owl. But the white owl, bearded and long-tailed tawny occur infrequently.
Krechety, peregrine falcons, white-tailed eagles, golden eagles, in the past lived in the Moscow region forests in sufficient numbers, now is a great rarity.
Spitboats, goshawks, kestrel, winter road - these are common birds of prey near Moscow.
It turns out that there is a place in Moscow where the birds are not only not fed, but also exterminated. This is the very heart of Russia - the Kremlin. Back in 1979, the security service began to fight the crows, who shit on Muscovites and guests of the capital and spoiled the flower beds. They are not for nothing called one of the smartest birds on the planet: for the sake of entertainment, they learned to roll down from the domes of nearby cathedrals, incidentally tearing gold leaf with their claws. For a long time, of course, this could not continue.
A falcon nursery appeared in the Kremlin who quickly resolved the problem of the crow and pigeon presence. During the morning and evening departures, these innate hunters slaughter up to 15 birds. Peregrine falcons, falcons, falcons, goshawks, gyrfalcons - all of them are in the service and receive allowance in the form of white mice, which are ordered by the Ministry of Defense.
Likewise, unwanted birds are struggling in many airports, since a bird caught in the windshield or engine can cause a catastrophe, as was the case with the wild geese on the Hudson.
Interesting facts about Moscow birds
A very rare species of falcons is the Sapsan, which, among other things, is a symbol of Moscow, chose the spire of the Moscow State University as the nesting site. There was no limit to the joy of zoologists, since these birds of the Moscow region did not appear in these places for more than 40 years.
Titmus Moskovka, no matter how paradoxical it may sound, has nothing to do with the Mother See. These birds of Moscow region, the description and photos of which are presented below, owe their name to a non-populated area.
In the blue tit of this species on the upper part of the head and under the beak the plumage has a rich black color, forming a kind of mask. “Maskovka” was the name given to these birds, later the name was transformed.
The number of pigeons in Moscow is estimated at about 50 thousand individuals, while house sparrows in the same territory are 15 times more (750 thousand).
Rare and endangered species
Such a name of the birds of the Moscow region, such as, for example, a clintukh or a snake eagle, to people far from ornithology, seems at least strange. This is not surprising, because they are so rare that only narrow specialists know about them.
The Red Book of the Moscow Region has 68 species of birds. Whooper swans, gray geese, white partridges, black cranes are all on the verge of extinction. Sadly, this list is replenished every year, and only an insignificant part has a tendency to restore the population in the Moscow region.
Causes of declining bird populations
Deforestation, construction of new residential areas and the general deterioration of the environment will inevitably affect the numbers of birds. The birds of the Moscow region are forced either to adapt to changing environmental conditions, or to leave their usual habitats, migrating away from people and their destructive activities.
Every year in the Moscow region there is a decrease in populations of many species, and the task of our society is to prevent further impoverishment of the avifauna of this region.
The white bird is not 100%. Along the edges of the wings are black feathers, and the legs and beak of the feathery are pink-red. The animal weighs about 4 kilograms. The wingspan of a white stork is 180 centimeters. Growth feathered close to 130 centimeters.
Storks knowingly became a symbol of childbirth. Birds of the species are strong in the family. Once rebuilt nest storks are restored from year to year, they are handed down to children and those to their grandchildren. In Germany, recorded the case of use of storks nests during the 381st year.
Golden eagle - The largest bird of the eagle tribe. He can safely be called the king of eagles. This large and strong bird weighs from 3 to 6 kilograms. The wingspan of some individuals reaches three and a half meters. The appearance of the golden eagle is typically eagle, the color is dark brown. When it flies, the white spots on the wings and the same base of the tail are clearly visible. It is very simple to distinguish a young eagle from an old one. Young have a lot of white spots. By the way, the golden eagle has the longest tail of all eagles.
This bird of prey skillfully uses ascending air currents, thanks to them it can soar in the air for hours. At the sight of the prey, the golden eagle swoops sharply at her. The voice of the golden eagle is a typical eagle's cluck, sounds like “k'yek-k'ek-k'ek”.
Golden eagles are widely distributed in Eurasia, Africa, and North and South America. They live in the most diverse terrain, ranging from spacious savannas to mountain steeps. The only place where the golden eagle does not live is the forest.
This bird arranges nests on rocks and on trees, but no closer than 3-4 kilometers one from another, due to the fact that they have very large hunting grounds. The female golden eagle blows 1-2 eggs. But the chicks feed both parents. Moreover, the first two months of food is only male. The female never for a moment leaves the nest and distributes food between the chicks.
Hunting with a golden eagle used to be very popular with different nations. And now even among some peoples, from generation to generation, secrets of the content and training of trapping golden eagles are passed on. All over the world special nurseries are created for the breeding of rare species of birds of prey. Among them in the first place is the king of eagles - the golden eagle.
The reasons for the sharp decrease in the number of eagles are different, but the main - the pursuit and anxiety on nests. When this bird is often disturbed, it can even throw a nest with chicks, not to mention the clutch.
The big bittern is a motley relative of the heron. Wingspan in males up to 70cm, in females wings shorter. Males are larger than females. The color of the males and females is the same.
Bird dense build. The legs are relatively short, the wings are wide, the tail is short. The main color of plumage is yellowish-brown with black and dark brown specks. Belly ocher color with brown transverse pattern. This color of the bird allows it to be camouflaged among the common reed, cattail, dry grass. In the search for a friend, the males scream, pulling the neck forward and upward.
A big bitter active twilight hunter. In flight it resembles a heron, the flight is smooth and quiet. It feeds on fish, frogs, tadpoles, worms.
Inhabits big bittern near water bodies with stagnant or slowly flowing water, with shores overgrown with common cane and other tall grasses.
Appearance: Head, throat, band in the middle of chest and undertail black, wings and tail bluish, back green or bluish-gray, chest and abdomen yellow or white, cheeks and spot on occiput white. Size: Body length - 14-16cm, weight - 19-21g. With a sparrow. Big tit differs from other tit larger size.
Very mobile bird, when searching for food, is hung upside down or down with its back on the ends of branches. Flying undulating, with frequent flaps of wings. Found food presses paw and pecks. In the nesting time, it is held in pairs, for the rest, buoys, usually together with other tits.
Resident and wandering bird. Food - insects and the most diverse food, both vegetable and animal. Predatory instincts are not alien to the big tit: when kept in captivity, a big bird sits in a cage with other birds and often kills them, and eats the brain from a dead bird. Similar cases occur in nature.
In Russia, the largest and most common tit. Nesting area - deciduous and mixed forests on plains and mountains, parks. The location of the nest and its description: in hollows, crevices of buildings and a variety of closed places. The main building material is sprigs, roots, dry grass stalks, moss, lichen.
For centuries, ravens were destroyed throughout Europe, Asia and parts of Africa. Once people believed that they were connected with otherworldly forces. Apparently, this superstition arose because they pecked dead bodies on the gallows. The black plumage of the bird contributed to the spread of prejudice.
In Central Europe, common crows often live in the mountains, live in the foothills of the Alps, in large forests and swamps, for example, in Northern Germany. In recent years, black crows are returning to many parts of Central Europe and colonize the primary nesting sites. The crow is often confused with the black crow, although these are different birds, since both birds have a similar body shape and black plumage. However, the crow, more than a crow, has a massive beak and long, ruffled feathers of the goiter. In flight, the crow can be distinguished by a wedge-shaped tail, a large head and fan-shaped front flapping feathers.
Characteristic features of the crow:
- Beak:big and very strong.
- Goiter feathers:elongated, lanceolate.
- Chicks:parents take care of them together. Chicks leave the nest at the age of 6 weeks. Their plumage is dark brown.
- Nest:built of twigs, earth and moss. Covered inside with wool, dry grass, rags.
- Eggs:the female lays 4-6 eggs. Eggs are bluish-green in color with brown spots, spots, strokes. Hatching begins with the first egg.
- Plumage:black with blue, greenish and purple metallic luster.
- Tail:long, wedge-shaped.
It inhabits Eurasia, preferring coniferous and mixed forests. Body length 45 - 90cm, weight 2 - 6 kg, wingspan 1.4m. Males are more females by a third. The constitution is dense, the head is large, the tail is wide. Most often in our nature, females have a modest color than the representatives of the stronger sex. Wood grouse is also no exception to this fact. It has a brown-red tone of variegated plumage - strips transverse throughout the body in the form of gray, black and red spots.
Lead a sedentary and solitary lifestyle. Only for the winter they gather in small groups and can roam for short distances. But the birds always come back - home. Activity is shown in the morning and evening hours, in the afternoon they sit on the trees. At night, hiding in secluded places. They fly noisy and heavy, make frequent flapping wings. The flight of the bird is low and takes place over short distances. They prefer to settle in forests with moist soil, especially they like swampy places, here they find a lot of food. Eat a variety of: insects and seeds, buds and berries, grass and shoots, leaves. In winter, the main food for them is the needles. And when fierce frosts come, he dives into the snow without hesitation and buries in it. They never use their dope twice to protect themselves from predators. In nature, he has a lot of enemies - wolves, foxes, lynxes, birds of prey, and especially the hunted man.
Rook - a typical bird of an open landscape. In the winter, the rooks are found in thousands - guests from the north and north-east of Europe. During the day, they look for food, flying through fields and meadows and appearing in cities. By evening, the same route, every day at the same time, they return to a joint place to sleep. Such numerous flocks persist from about October to March, and then disappear again. Birds from Central Europe migrate to the west, where rooks usually lead a sedentary or nomadic lifestyle. For some time now, the rooks have adapted to spend the winter in big cities.
Grach's homeland is Europe, more precisely a wide belt from central France, northern Italy, Yugoslavia and Romania to the Gulf of Finland, and most of Asia. Some call these birds ravens, but they are distinguished from ravens by the bright violet-blue glitter of their plumage. In old rooks, whitish naked areas are clearly visible at the base of the beak; in young birds, in the first year of life these places are covered with feathers.
Rook prefers an open landscape of lowlands with fields and meadows, woods, groups of trees along streams. It nests also at the edge of the forest or directly in city parks. Rooks almost always live in colonies of several dozen nests on the same tree, located very close to each other. From March, rooks begin to repair old nests or build new ones from broken twigs, clay, moss, roots and dry grass. Both partners are involved in construction.
Rook - hardy and good flyer. Settling down in the city center, he sets off to feed several kilometers from the nest. Rook eats mainly insects and their larvae, mouse-like rodents. Поедает он, особенно весной, и семена зерновых, овощей, а осенью – кукурузы, и подсолнечника, может повреждать дыни, арбузы, клубни картофеля. Но пользы эта птица приносит во много раз больше, уничтожая огромное число вредителей сельского хозяйства.
Сыч домовой на юге заменяет другие виды сычей. Эта птица предпочитает избегать леса, а в других ландшафтах встречается повсюду, охотно селясь на башнях, чердаках, кладбищах и колокольнях.
The favorite habitats of owls in Russia are the middle and southern strip from Belarus and the Moscow region to the Caucasus. The Asian part of the Russian Federation attracts birds from the Kazakh steppes to Tarbagatai, from where it tends abroad to the south.
The color of the little owl is subject to different changes depending on the range. The European part of the Russian Federation paints the upper side of the body of the bird in dark brown tones with small pale speckles, which are drawn out on the tail and become transverse stripes. The wings of European birds in length can reach up to sixteen centimeters. These owls have yellow beaks and eyes, and their fingers are clad in hard bristles. The house owls of the Caucasus are larger and somewhat lighter than their European counterparts.
The owl is sedentary, mostly nocturnal, only occasionally hunting in the light of the sun. To rest the bird rushes to the quiet hollows or to the crevices of the rocks.
House owls, like owls, mostly feed on voles, young ground squirrels, mice, and much more rarely they are in demand from sweets. The second most popular place among bird food is occupied by various lizards and insects, followed by smaller birds.
The little owl is one of the most useful predators, therefore it needs protection and some kind of help to alleviate the war with rodents from humans. For this purpose, you can use convenient for nesting birds boxes-nest boxes. The grave-eagle, marsh harrier and kites are considered to be the worst enemies of the owl.
Blackbirds - agile, mobile, very intelligent birds, which are also endowed with outstanding singing abilities. These are very sociable birds, although they cannot be called peaceful. They love to gather companies and, although they often start fighting among themselves, they still cannot live without each other. If one thrush issued a draft call, know that the second must have come to the call.
Thrushes fly perfectly, but with strong fear they flounder for a very long time and tumble on the ground before they can fly. The sense organs are developed in thrushes very well. Suffice it to say that the smallest insects are seen from afar. Their hearing is very thin, otherwise they would not be able to sing so beautifully. For the beautiful voice of thrushes is sometimes called "forest nightingales." Thrushes are very brave, if not to say - sassy, mistrustful, cunning and careful. Once a deluded thrush will never fall into the same trap.
Thrushes live only in the woods, and any. They settle in warm tropical forests, and in the groves of the north and even in the bushes of the steppes and savannas. Few species of thrushes are sedentary, most like to travel. It often happens that before arriving in Russia, the blackbirds have already flown around half the globe.
Insects, slugs, worms, and all kinds of berries make up the thrushes. The nests of these birds are made from thin dry twigs, moss, tender roots and stalks. Inside, they are neatly lined with dry leaves of grass. If an enemy approaches the nest, the blackbirds boldly attack the enemy, and if nothing works out of this, then they pretend to be sick and lame, they hardly jump on the ground, deceiving the enemy from the nest.
The bird is small in size, with a graceful body and a long tail. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced: in the male, the lower body is yellow, the back is greenish-olive (the color and pattern of the head vary greatly and are the main criteria for distinguishing numerous subspecies), the female has a brown-reddish (with green!) Shade of the top and whitish bottom.
Migratory species represented by at least 18 subspecies in most parts of Eurasia, North Africa and Alaska. In Europe, absent in Iceland, Ireland and the Arctic zone. It winters in Africa, in the Middle East and in the south of Spain. 20–40 couples nest in Italy at an altitude of up to 1,300 meters above sea level. It also happens on wintering grounds.
The inhabitant of open landscapes inhabits damp and wet areas, such as wetlands (including brackish), wet meadows, tundra, and sometimes dry areas - wheat fields. During spans observed on the banks of rivers and lakes, on pastures.
Otherwise, it is called a robin. The bird is ranked as a family of flycatchers. It is easy to guess that the animal feeds on insects. The bird cannot hunt large game, since it is small itself. The length of the body charge is 14 centimeters. The robin weighs about 20 grams.
Robin is attractive in appearance. Breasts and sides of feathery bluish. The rest of the plumage has an olive tone. The trousers of the birds are white, and the heads and necks are red. This is a bright spot, like a berry. Therefore, Ptah and called robin. She, by the way, sings melodiously and is often contained in cells.
In the suburbs you can see 4 species of woodpeckers - white-backed, green, large and small variegated woodpeckers. All of them are slightly different in appearance, they have in common that they live in mixed and deciduous floodplain forests, parks and forest parks, are nomadic or sedentary.
The white-backed woodpecker is medium in size, weighing about 110 g for males and 105 g for females. The bird has a white lower back, side of the neck, there are white stripes on the wings. But the upper back and neck, tail and wings are black. Creamy forehead, breast white-pink or white-yellow, on the sides black stripes, feathers under the tail pink or red. Males differ from females in that males have a red top and females black.
The woodpecker green is a fairly large representative of its family, the body weight of males and females is from 180 to 250 grams. The back is bright green, the feathers above the tail are golden yellow, the tail is light brown with longitudinal gray stripes, the wings are light brown or light gray. The forehead is black, the strip above the beak is black in females, and black with red strokes in males. The upper part of the head and neck are bright red, the abdomen and chest are white.
Woodpecker motley large - large in size does not differ. Weight from 70 to 100 grams in females and males, respectively. His back, wings, upper parts of the neck and head, his tail and flank are black. The strip from the neck to the beak is also black. Cheeks, breast, throat, forehead, abdomen - white. White stripes and spots are on the shoulders, wings and tail. The feathers under the tail are red, the red transverse band is also on the back of the head, the top of the head is red.
The little spotted woodpecker is really a small bird, weighing only 20-25 grams, like a sparrow. The front of the back, the top of the neck, the tail and the wings are black. Forehead, lower back, cheeks - white. White stripes are on the side steering feathers, and on the wings. The lower body is also white. In the male, the upper part of the head is red, in the female, it is black.
This is a medium-sized duck, up to 47 centimeters long, weighing up to 900 grams, with a 70 centimeter wingspan.
Blacken distinguished in the ability to dive, plunging to 5-6 meters. Most ducks are limited to 3-4. Under water, the crested species lasts about 30 seconds. By the way, the crested duck is named after a brush of black feathers, descending from the head to the neck. The latter is also black, like the back, tail. Against this background, stand white sides and beak.
Common Kingfisher - a small bird with bright plumage: dark blue back and striped, blackish-blue, top of the head combined with bright orange belly. The beak of the kingfisher is straight and long, with a prominent ridge above the beetle. The wings are not long (7-8 cm) and wide, the tail is short. Females are smaller than males.
The bird settles along the banks of rivers, lakes, streams, ponds - reservoirs with clean and quiet running water. For nesting choose steep shores, overgrown with shrubs and trees. Kingfisher feel good in the mountains, can nest at an altitude of 2,000 m
Outside the nesting season, the female and male are kept apart, in pairs they unite only in the mating season. In the middle zone of the European territory of Russia, the nesting period is the second half of April - the beginning of May, when birds return from wintering grounds. A male and a female nest are dug by a beak, the dug out ground is thrown by paws. The hole of a hole, as a rule, is located above water, directly near or at some distance, and is well hidden by branches of a bush or trees.
The common kingfisher feeds mainly on small fish up to 6 cm in size. It also feeds on dragonfly larvae, other aquatic insects and invertebrates. Sometimes they eat earthworms, shrimps, and occasionally even small frogs. Sitting at his observation post, the kingfisher looks out for his prey. When the victim comes into view, the kingfisher rushes into the water, slightly submerges and snatches the fish. With prey in its beak it flies into the hole, and then comes back. The feeding place of a kingfisher may be located at a distance of half a kilometer to a kilometer from the nesting site.
Finch - a small bird of the family of finch, weighing 20-25 g. The habitats of chaffinches are forests, groves, gardens of the European part of Russia, Siberia, the Caucasus. In September and October, the finches fly to warm regions. Their wintering places are Central Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, Kazakhstan, the Caucasus, the Crimea. Such a bird relocation takes place in an orderly manner - they gather in small flocks and gradually fly from place to place.
Birds rarely walk - usually jumping on the ground. Fly fast, undulating. In their diet are caterpillars, beetles, flies, seeds, berries, and buds. Their nest finches settled in mixed forests, pine forests, spruce forests. They prefer to settle where they nested last year. During the nesting period, males are aggressive - they drive their rivals from their territory.
By destroying harmful insects, weed seeds, finches benefit the forest and agriculture. Finches live in captivity for 12 years. Manual do not become. Hard to get used to the new environment. His singing pleased the owners not immediately. Blue chaffinch feather can become a talisman: in the old days such feathers were considered a talisman of family happiness
Oriole - one of the most beautiful birds and one of the best songs of our forests. It should be added that, eating a lot of harmful insects, the oriole brings us great benefits. Of course, you want to find out who is screaming so nasty? It's hard to believe, but the same bird makes beautiful and unpleasant sounds. No wonder the Oriole is called flute and forest cat.
Today, the oriole inhabits Europe to the south of Great Britain and Sweden and even enters South-West Siberia. In addition, she lives in parts of North West Africa and Asia Minor. Its tropical origin is confirmed by the fact that it is a migratory bird, which in our area is a short-term guest. She arrives one of the last, as a rule, in the first days of May. He likes to settle in old parks, gardens, avenues, in thickets with rather tall trees along the banks of streams. But she also lives in deciduous forests, even in light woods, and she avoids dark and dense coniferous forests.
Despite the beautiful plumage, to notice the Oriole in nature is not easy. She is fearful and cautious, keeps all the time in the dense foliage of tall trees, where she builds a nest for herself. The female usually lays 3-5 eggs. Both parents incubate them. About a month later, the chicks are already flying out of the nest.
The main food - insects, which the oriole catches in flight, collects in trees and on the ground. It also feeds on spiders and small snails. And the main thing - it eats such caterpillars, which besides her and the cuckoo are not eaten by other birds. By the end of the summer, the role of plant food is increasing: the oriole pecks the small fruits of trees — cherries, mulberries, pears, and various berries.
The common oriole likes to swim. It is a great pleasure to watch the bright yellow male as he, like a swallow, falls vertically on the water surface. In August, the oriole disappears from nesting sites and flies far to Tropical Africa.
The habitat of the kobchik is wide. This miniature falcon can be found in Europe and the Far East. Winter bird flies to Africa or to the south of Asia. Choosing habitats, the Red-fledged falcon prefers forest-steppe and the outskirts of highlands. Kobchik's height does not scare. These birds can be met at an altitude of 3000 meters above sea level.
Habitat habitat in the west reaches the northern basin of the Lena Vilyui tributary, in the east it reaches the shores of Baikal. A large population of mini falcons lives in Ukraine, Russia and Kazakhstan. Red-footed falcons are seen in North America.
Kobchik is a social bird, which is not typical of falcons.. Alone, these birds do not live, mainly in colonies, rather numerous - up to 100 pairs. But on this the "socialization" of Kobchikov ends. Unlike other birds that live in flocks, cobers are not tied to their relatives and to the nest, although the sense of responsibility for the “spouse” incubating the eggs is developed.
Kobchiki do not make their nests. These mini falcons are not builders. Without bothering with construction works, they prefer to occupy other people's nesting sites. More often it is abandoned rookery or swallow nests, crows, weasels. If there are none, then, as a house for the season, the Red-footed cock can choose a hollow or even a hole.
Kobchik - migratory birds. They arrive late in the nesting place - in May and on the threshold of cold weather, already in August, they return to warm lands for wintering. The late breeding season of the Kobchikov is closely related to the breeding period of the main species of their feeding - locusts and other insects.
The bird is of medium size - weighing from 50 to 100 grams, with long wings and elongated, like a cuckoo's body. The color of the nightjar is gray-brown, variegated, which allows it to mask well among tree branches. The bird is nocturnal, so its eyes are rather large, yellow. Under the eyes there is a well-marked white stripe, at the throat small spots are white in males and reddish in females.
Nesting nightjar in the suburbs and other regions of Eurasia, in the pine forests, for the winter flies to Africa. The nightjar rarely settles in dense and dark forests, loves well-viewed open spaces, clearings and clearings of the forest.
Because of the hidden lifestyle, the bird was called a kozodoy, unfairly accusing it of sucking milk from the udder of goats and cows at night. In fact, the nightjar eats night insects.
Crake or dergach is a small bird of the shepherd's family. Outwardly, it looks a bit like a partridge, but less has a more elongated body and is smaller in size.
It is easy to learn a corncrake by takeoff and flight. This bird rises on a wing reluctantly, preferring to lie low. Flies at a height of 50-100cm for a short distance. The flight is rather slow, clumsy, especially in the autumn, when the bird is stored with a large amount of fat. However, the corncrake is a migratory bird. During the flights, he seems to be transformed and flies high, quickly and over long distances. The flights themselves take place at night. Departure of corncrake begins depending on the area of habitat. In the north, this time falls on the second half of August, and to the south, the corncrake begins to fly off from September, but remains in nesting places until mid-November.
Distributed almost throughout Europe. Quite massively found in Kazakhstan, the Caucasus and Central Asia. However, in some areas it is considered a rare or endangered bird and is protected. The decrease in the number is associated with agricultural human activities and a decrease in the area of territories suitable for the habitat of this bird.
It inhabits grass, grassy marshes, meadows, near which there is a pond and a grain field. Does not like too wet areas. Moves mainly on foot, doing in the high grass trails and tunnels. It feeds on cereals, seeds, insects, larvae, worms, mollusks, small amphibians and fish. Quite often, nests of small birds are ravaged by eating eggs and chicks (brain). Female grouse make its own nests by digging a hole in the dry ground. Inside the fossa is lined with grass, moss. Steam does not form.
can be found in a wide variety of habitats where there is aquatic and coastal vegetation (water bodies, wetlands, swamps, flooded areas, streams, farmland, coasts, bays, city parks and rivers).
Mountain rivers and bare (along the banks) water avoids. It can nest in fresh and brackish waters. It occurs up to 1800 above sea level. Mallard is the largest of the ducks. The paws are short, the three front fingers are webbed. Sexual dimorphism is pronounced. The beak is flat and wide.
The body is wide, long. The size of the ducks varies depending on the range: in the south, the birds are stockier and the beak is smaller in size. Color: male's mating outfit - neck and head are black (with intensely green tint), chest and goiter are brown-brown, white ring at the bottom of the neck, bright olive beak, orange or red paws. The back is gray with mottled. The female is brown-red, belly gray-brown with mottled, beak gray or olive, with bright orange or yellow edges.
On the wings of both sexes there is a purple mirror with a white border. The tail is white, the undertail is black.
Leads both day and nightlife (until August - feeds during the day, during the opening of the hunting season - at dusk). Resting in the places closed from the wind. Behaves cautiously. During feeding, the mallard lowers its head into the water (while the back of the torso rises).
It flies well, the takeoff is heavy, noisy. Flight speed of 20-90 km / h. Может садиться на воду под очень острым углом, что позволяет птицам приводняться на небольших водных поверхностях. Взлет под небольшим углом (без разбега), может взмывать в воздух почти вертикально.
Взрослые утки не ныряют, но если птица ранена, то она может и нырять и плавать под водой. Линька проходит два раза в год, летняя (полная) занимает около двух месяцев, из-за чего 20-30 дней птицы не могут летать. Отлет в теплые края начинается при замерзании мелководья. Отлетают кряквы небольшими стайками. Arrival at nesting sites is quite early - at the beginning of the melting of snow.
Another city dweller that many of us have probably heard about. It has the same size as the thrush, a long tail and pointed wings, the top of the cuckoo may be dark gray or gold, and the lower part is striated. You can distinguish a male by the voice with which he repeatedly publishes “ku-ku, k-ku”. As for the female, her song is rather long and reminds of the “Kli-Kli-Kli-Kli ...” Hearing this, her trill can be mistaken for laughter. Cuckoo - a bird with a talking name.
It does not live long in the Moscow Region, as it is considered migratory and flies for the winter:
- to Tropical and South Africa,
- to Sri Lanka,
- to the Malay Peninsula,
- east to the island of New Guinea.
In our capital, the cuckoo is most often found in mixed, mixed-age forests, man-made landscapes, as well as near forest edges and shrubs, where small songbirds live in large numbers. The cuckoo takes an interest in them because it chooses their nests to throw their eggs.
The bird is small - weighing from 14 to 25 grams. Its tail and wings are long and black, its head is flattened. The back is black on top and white at the tail, the breast is also white.
The migratory bird appears in Moscow region at the beginning of May; it builds nests under the eaves of various buildings - houses, industrial and administrative buildings.
The construction of the nest of wet clay and the earth are engaged in both - the female and the male. Cover the nest with feathers and dry grass. Nests, if people do not destroy them, are saved for several years, so a pair of swallows, once built a nest, can return to it again and again.
Swallows eat flying insects, collecting them on the go. In the winter they fly to Africa or India in late August or early September.
The waterfowl is about the size of a small duck (somewhat smaller than the mallard), of a dark monochromatic color, with a very short tail and large long-footed paws (body length 36–38 cm, body weight 500–1 000 g). The fingers are framed by flat leathery "scallops" that replace the swimming membrane with it.
Landing on the water is quite low (about as in diving ducks), while moving, it shakes its head back and forth like a pigeon walking along the ground. It is found on all sorts of standing or slow-flowing reservoirs (old ladies, ponds, including fish-razvodnye, reservoirs), excluding very small ponds. As a rule, he tries to keep closer to the thickets of surface vegetation, for example, reed, where he dives in danger, diving or running through the water, helping himself with his wings. On dry land, coot with its outlines most of all resembles tailless hen.
The area includes Eurasia, northern Africa, Australia. Widely distributed in the south of the European part of Russia. The usual, sometimes numerous type of flat overgrown reservoirs. Wintering in the south of Russia, in Europe and in the south of Asia.
Muscovite in appearance resembles a big bird, but has a smaller size and a paler plumage of the body. Like the big tits, the head of the tusk is painted black with white cheeks. It turns out a sort of hat or mask.
Actually, according to the researchers, this feature gave the name of a tit - “mascot”, which was later changed into a “trowel”. So black tit has no relation to the Russian capital. It is a very small bird, not larger than 11 cm in size, and weighing 12 grams. According to these indicators, it is comparable to the azure.
Muscovites are widespread in the Eastern hemisphere, including Eurasia, and settle mainly in coniferous forests. But outside the breeding season, these tits often fly from forests to other places, including cities where they live in parks and gardens.
Ration tits depends on the season. During the breeding season it is mainly animal food - insects, spiders, caterpillars. In autumn and winter, birds switch to vegetable food, mainly seeds of coniferous trees, juniper berries.
Only the female decorates the nest. Masonry is usually two per year, the first of which occurs at the end of April or the beginning of May (3–5 eggs), and the second in June (5–9 eggs). Only in North Africa and in Corsica do the trotters rush once a year.
A small, beautiful bird with a scarlet breast and a dark back. Bullfinch weight from 25 to 35 grams in males and females, respectively. On the head there is a black stripe - a cap. The characteristic red plumage is present only in males, in females and young birds the color is gray-brown, and without a black “cap” on the head. Therefore, they are easy to take for sparrows.
In the Moscow region lives in coniferous and mixed forests, feeding on plant seeds. Here he is a resident bird. In the summer, bullfinches live in forests, where there is a lot of food, and it is easy to get lost in a variety of colors and colors, and not to attract attention. In winter, bullfinches stay close to humans and stand out on white snow with their scarlet breasts. Therefore, sometimes it seems that the bullfinch arrives in the Moscow region for the winter from colder places.
Perhaps this bird is the most famous among those found in the city. It stands out among other representatives of the fauna of medium size and contrasting color. Traditionally, the bird of this city of Russia has a black color of the head, throat, nose, where there is also a metallic sheen. The back and belly is dirty gray, and the legs and beak are completely black. During the flight, she does not make sudden movements, making uniform flaps wide wings. These forest birds in the autumn and winter draw attention to themselves, when they flock in whole flocks in the direction of ascending air currents. You can often watch single and group crow games, during which they make sharp turns, falls and take-offs. But in some cases it is possible to observe how the crows arrange games with objects, lifting them in the air and trying to intercept them with their beak and paws.
The black-headed gull is found in Europe more often than other members of the family to which it belongs. This was made possible by the ability of these birds to adapt to different conditions of life. The lake gull, like the silvery gull, has adapted to life near people. It feeds on fish, rodents, frogs and waste.
In flight, these birds are easily distinguished from other species by the black spots behind the eyes (in winter outfit) and the black tips of the wings. Gulls are usually kept in packs. Large groups of these birds can be observed in places of recreation - on islands, rocks, dams, fields or roofs of houses, which often number up to several thousand individuals.
Nowadays, the black-headed gull is more numerous than the black-headed gull, which was previously considered the most common species. “Guests” from Northern and Eastern Europe join the central European population of the common gull in winter. The lake gull is somewhat larger than the pigeon and smaller than its relative, the gray-headed gull. She has a pretty thin, red beak and dark red legs. In the summer, a dark brown "hood" appears on the head of the gulls. These birds around the eyes have a white ring. In winter, the “hood” disappears, and then only dark spots behind the eyes remain. Young birds differ from adults in grayish-brown coloring of a back.
The white-tailed eagle is a large bird of prey of the hawk family, whose body length can reach a meter, and its weight can be from three to seven kilograms. Females grow much larger than males, but in general this bird is the fourth largest predator of Europe.
Most of the massive body of the white-tailed eagle is colored brown, and only the tail is white - it is this feature that became the basis for the name of the species. Eagle inhabits almost the entire territory of the Eurasian continent: from tundra to Japan, and from the north of Scandinavia to Romania. In Central Europe, this bird can be met very rarely, and a significant role was played by man. Part of the individuals, especially the young, spend the winter in Pakistan, China and North Africa.
White-tailed eagle settles most often at water bodies. In Scandinavia and Iceland, he lives on the coast, but can also be found on the banks of rivers and lakes.
The bird tries to build its nest higher from the ground, mainly in trees, sometimes on rocks. It is built from large branches and thoroughly: couples live in it not for a season or two, but for several years. Over time, the building reaches a gigantic size, which sometimes overturns by wind and, breaking the branches of trees, falls to the ground. In this case, the male and female rebuild a new nest.
Since the white-tailed eagle prefers to live near reservoirs, its menu is mainly fish. He hunts by flying over the surface of the reservoir, and as soon as he notices a fish, he rapidly falls down, and may even plunge into the water for a short time in order to dig into prey with his strong claws.
In the papyrus that have come down from the time of Ancient Egypt, it is indicated that the builders of pyramids were fed with quail meat. This is the first mention of a poultry squad of goose-shaped subfamilies of partridge.
Quail, both wild and domesticated, small. Weigh feathered about 100 grams in length equal to 17 centimeters. The color of Ptah is protective, brown-red. Grain quails need to go unnoticed when there is a predator nearby.
Hazel grouse is a small bird of dense build the size of a domestic pigeon. The average weight of the hazel-hen varies from 360 to 440 grams. The bird has gray plumage with red and black transverse stripes. On the grouse's head a barely visible tuft emerges. In flight, the hazel grouse appears gray-smoky, with a distinguished dark line at the tip of the open tail. There are some differences in the color of males and females: the former have a black throat, bordered in a circle with a lighter strip, and in the latter it is variegated and bright. European representatives of hazel grouses are darker and smaller than their Siberian relatives.
Most often hazel grouse can be found on spruce-deciduous and spruce wooded areas, especially if there are valleys of streams, rivers and glades. Also hazel grouse live near the edges of birch-spruce and spruce-alder forests, but clean pine forests are being avoided. In general, hazel grouse lives in almost the entire forest zone of our country, with the exception of forest-steppe, forest-tundra and Kamchatka. The number of hazel grouses in Russia is significant and by the autumn it numbers about 30 million individuals, and in the southern taiga zone it reaches from 12 to 18 birds per 100 hectares of forest land.
This is also a duck, but the smallest in the family. It weighs feathered no more than 500 grams. Teal differs from other ducks by its pointed, narrow wings. This allows the bird to soar vertically. The rest of the ducks rise into the air smoothly. The color of teals is gray-brown. The heads are completely brown with emerald stripes running from the eyes to the neck.
Easily recognizable bird of medium size, with a tuft on his head. As a rule, it is found in groups, sometimes in thousands of flocks. The general tone of plumage is pinkish gray, with a more olive top. On the wings there are multicolored spots and stripes: black, white, yellow, and at the ends of the secondary wing feathers there are red plaques. The tail is short, with a yellow stripe at the end, the tail is chestnut. The throat and the band through the eye are black. There is no sexual dimorphism.
Migratory and nomadic species, characterized by unexpected distant invasions, represented by 3 subspecies in northern Eurasia and North America. The European nesting area generally does not go south beyond 63 ° north latitude. It winters in the south of the range in the central and southern regions of the European continent. In southern and western Europe it appears irregularly during “invasions”, it can linger here and for the winter, mainly in the northern regions.
It nests in taiga forests: coniferous and birch. In winter, she roams widely in search of berry trees, shrubs, flying into gardens, parks and the like.
It nests in scattered colonies, and builds a nest in a tree, preferably larch, not very high above the ground. For the construction of the nest steam uses dry branches, moss and lichen. In May-June, it lays 5–6 gray-blue eggs in a dark speck. The female incubates for 14–15 days. Nestlings become flying on the 14–15th day of life. In a year one laying. The fast straight flight of the waxwing can be compared to the flight of a starling. Produces short trills. The basis of nutrition - the fruits and seeds.
Among herons one of the largest. The length of the bird’s body is 1 meter, its wingspan reaches one and a half. The feathery weighs about 2 kilograms.
The color of the bird casts blue-blue. There are dirty white markings on the abdomen, neck and head. Beak feathered pink. The same color is on the top of the legs. The bottom of the limbs is gray.
This resident of the Moscow region is also familiar to many. It is a prominent representative of the synanthropic species and has an average body size. This bird, represented in large numbers even in the Krasnoyarsk Territory, is a descendant of a wild blue-gray pigeon, therefore it has the same bluish-gray color. Its tail is white, and at the end of the tail there is a wide strip, the black wings adorn two transverse stripes. Synanthropic pigeons can have a different color - dark gray, motley, ash-red and white.
This bird declares its presence by cooing, and, being in the nest, it makes a dull weeping sound. Gray pigeons are presented in the Moscow region in large numbers, and in different areas their numbers are quite high. Starting from the 60s of the XIX century and up to 1918, these birds could be found in most of the settlements of the Moscow region. But in subsequent years, they became less and less, and by the end of 1921 their population was reduced to several dozen pairs.
This bird has an original color and body weight in the range of 120-194 grams. Her wings are short, the tail is long, black-brown. On the shoulders there are bright blue stripes interspersed with black. The head is dark brown or variegated.
In Moscow, this bird is migratory, inhabits mixed forests, parks and forest parks. Nests are built at a height of 1.5 to 5 meters, eggs lay in the period from April to June. In autumn, the jays gather in flocks and go to the wintering place - to Africa. It feeds on plant and animal food - lizards, mice, frogs, and other birds and their eggs.
For most people, the word "nightingale" is associated with the idea of the best songwriter. Nightingale - one of our most popular songbirds. All its feathers are painted in a uniform brown color, which is lighter on the belly and turns into white. Big dark eyes give a special charm to the nightingale.
Eating only insects, the nightingale flies off to warm countries for the winter. In the spring of nightingales arrive at home at a time when trees and shrubs begin to dress leaves. Having returned home, the nightingales look for their old dwellings and begin to sing. The nightingale usually sings both day and night. The night singing of the nightingale produces an incomparably greater impression on the audience. In order to listen to the night concert of this singer, many specially set off for the evening walks in the forest.
Nightingale singing is called beautiful, but not all males deserve such an assessment. There are true vocal masters among them, but very weak performers are found (and quite often). The fact is that high singing skill is not an innate property of males: young birds acquire it only if their fathers or neighbors are able to teach them this.
You can most often come across a southern nightingale at the edge of deciduous or mixed forest, in dense gardens and parks, or on the shore of a reservoir surrounded by dense shrubs. They willingly live in garden bushes and flower beds, where roses and other flowering plants grow.
The nightingale arrives at the nesting sites at night in April-May, with the males first, followed by the females. Males immediately get together in groups and their singing serve as a reliable guide for females. In May or June, nightingales-parents take nests, choosing a place for them on the ground among a dense shrub with a layer of dry leaves or at a fork in the branches, but also above the ground. The material for the perfectly camouflaged nest is dry leaves, grass, vegetable fiber and animal hair.
The largest of the hawks. In length these birds of prey near Moscow reach 70 centimeters. The wingspan is 120. It weighs feathered 1.5 kilograms. Females are larger than males. The color of the representatives of both sexes is the same. The front side of the feathers is brown, and the wrong side is white. Accordingly, in flight the hawk looks bright from the ground. People tamed goshawks for falconry. The bird reaches its prey even in the sky, even in dense thickets on the ground.
Mute swan is a stately beautiful bird with pure white plumage. Long elegant neck, slightly elongated head with a strong orange beak.
At the base of the beak there is a black growth that is larger in males than in females. On short black legs swimming membrane connecting three fingers of a bird.
Their habitat is Asia and Europe. They lodge at reservoirs (lakes, swamps) with dense and numerous vegetation. They feed mainly on plant food, dropping their long necks into the water, looking for tasty nutritious algae. Sometimes they catch insects and their larvae. Является перелётной птицей. На зиму они улетают в Африку или Азию, происходит это в октябре или ноябре. Возвращается в середине весны (апрель) обратно на гнездование.
С воды он взлетает с разбегу. Может развить скорость своего полета до 60 км/ч. Эта птица молчаливая, голос её хрипловатый, может, поэтому предпочитает шипеть. Залюбуешься её царской осанкой, S- образно выгнув шею, не спеша плывет лебедь-шипун по водной глади, да не один а с верным спутником жизни. They create a couple for the rest of their lives, not separating each other for more than one day.
Offspring bring once a year. Their nest is very large; it is built from reed branches in shallow water or on islands in dense reed beds. In laying from 3 to 9 eggs, most often they are 6 - 8 pieces.
Rooks flew away
The basis of the population of urban birds are primarily real synanthropus - species, food sources and nesting sites which depend on the person. At least the last 30 years, the most numerous synanthropic species of Moscow are the mallard, the gray pigeon and the house sparrow. With a very high density, obviously exceeding this figure outside the metropolis, there is a gray crow and black swift. The common starling, the great tit and the white wagtail are quite numerous, which, however, cannot be called real synanthropes.
Female mallard with brood of downy chicks. The most numerous of the water species. Photo: Vladimir Avdeev
In addition to these, in the list of synanthropic species of Moscow in the early 1980s included a city swallow and a daw, and the Great Spotted Woodpecker and Rook showed a clear tendency to become synanthropes. But at the present time, jackdaws are numerous only for wintering, forming clusters at metro stations, markets, and train stations. The number of large variegated woodpecker over the past decades has not changed much. Colonies of urban swallows are becoming less and less. The rooks stopped nesting in the city. The last two rookeries in Kapotnya and Kuntsevo ceased to exist in 2007 and 2008, in 2011 3-5 pairs still nested in the very east of Moscow, in the Ivanovo area. Since then there have been no nests of rooks in the city.
How many birds in Moscow
At the beginning of the XXI century in Moscow within the boundaries of the Moscow Ring Road 245 bird species are noted, of which 125 are nesting. This is a little less than the number of bird species that could be registered in the Moscow region (294 species) over the same period. For comparison: in London - 130 nesting species, in St. Petersburg there are 166, in Voronezh - 128, in Kaliningrad - 116.
Who sings and knocks in the forest parks and yards
Goshawk with prey for chicks. Photo: Vladimir Avdeev
The core of Moscow's avifauna, which remains a fairly green city, is made up of birds of parks, forest parks and urban forests. In general, their species composition is similar to Moscow Region, but there are differences.
Grouse birds have completely disappeared in the city, only the hazel grouse (Elk Island) is registered, and then only twice in 17 years. Of wood waders, only woodcock nests in the city - in 2011, two nesting sites were found in Bratsevo and in the Main Botanical Garden (GBS) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Of the daytime predators, only the goshawk and sparrowhawks can be considered relatively ordinary nesting species of forest areas of Moscow.
The male sparrow found a feather to build a nest. Photo: Ilya Ukolov
The cuckoo is very few, its breeding has been proven in Losiny Ostrov, in the Kuzminsky Forest Park, the Kuskovo Forest Park and in the Bittsevo Forest.
Among the owl's few nesting species is the gray owl, whose nesting is proved or very likely in the Sokolniki Forest Park, in the Ostankino Park, in the Izmailovo Forest, in the Fili-Kuntsevo Forest Park, in the Filevsky Park, in the Kolomenskoye Museum-Preserve, and also in the Neskuchny the garden and the Sparrow Hills.
Chick gray owl. This owl nests annually in the Main Botanical Garden. Photo: Ilya Ukolov
Woodpeckers are better represented in the forest avifauna of the city. The Great Spotted Woodpecker nests in all forest areas of the city, but the density of nesting usually does not exceed 0.5–1 pairs / km 2. Practically with the same density, the small spotted woodpecker is common in nesting, which often nests in residential areas. Rare nesting species of woodpeckers are desirable, white-backed woodpecker and verticecus. Gray and green woodpeckers stopped nesting in Moscow. On the other hand, the Syrian woodpecker common to the south in recent years has been expanding its range and began to meet in the forest parks of the city.
Female white-backed woodpecker, view from the Red Book of the city of Moscow. Photo: Ilya Ukolov
But the main population of green areas of the city are passerines. The most widespread species are the finch (the density of singing males can reach 130 individuals / km 2), great tit and blue tit, warbler-rattle (density of singing males up to 50 wasps / km 2), charging, pied flycatcher, black-headed fly, warbler - spring lad and song thrush.
Black male Thrush current. Photo: Vladimir Avdeev
Relatively large in Moscow are the numbers of the nightingale, garden warbler, garden slavka, lentils, less common are shrike-Zhulan, hawk-like, Slav-mill, common porridge.
Hawk Slavka is the rarest species in our region. Photo: Vasily Vishnevsky
The most common birds in Moscow
Mallard. In recent years, 28–30 thousand mallards spend the winter in Moscow (about 18 thousand wintered in 1985). In some places, birds form clusters of 1,000 or more individuals. The success of their wintering is guaranteed by the non-freezing capital waters and the active feeding of birds by people due to the discharge of warm waters. The number of the breeding population of the mallard grows, each summer from 700 to 900 broods are counted.
Rock Dove. Currently, the density of gray pigeons in residential areas reaches 400–500 individuals / km 2. They feed in landfills and garbage dumps, near outlets and feeding places by people, nesting places - attics, ventilation openings of buildings and other shelters in houses.
Black Swift. It usually nests in cracks under the roofs of buildings, in air vents, potholes in the walls, and stucco architectural decorations (such nests can be seen on the wall of the building of the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University, overlooking the Great Nikitskaya). The average nesting density is 10–15 pairs / km 2, in areas of old buildings it reaches 50–70 pairs / km 2.
White Wagtail It occurs and nests everywhere, on central streets, in industrial zones and residential quarters, however, it does not reach such high numbers as true synanthropic species (population density less than 10 pairs / km 2).
Common starling. It nests mainly in natural hollows in parks. The density of nests in residential areas is lower (less than 10 pairs / km 2), but in non-nesting time starlings are abundant everywhere. In the spring, migrant groups are found on lawns throughout the city. In the autumn of the Leningrad and Yaroslavl stations, thousands of starlings are holding up in the autumn. A small number remains in Moscow for the winter.
Hoodie. It inhabits almost the entire city. The accumulations of these large omnivorous birds are confined to even the smallest areas of greenery, which has a negative impact on the success of nesting openly nesting species - not only small passerines, but also, for example, mallards. In the past few years, there has been a tendency for the number of crows in the city to decrease.
Great tit This species can not be called truly synanthropic, but big tits are increasingly mastering the city and adapt to its conditions. In winter, they stay at the feeders hung around the city. Great tits inventive with the device nests in the holes of lampposts, vertical metal pipes, etc.
House Sparrow. In the late 1980s, the density of house sparrows in residential areas was 1–6 thousand individuals / km 2, in 2006–2011, the maximum density did not exceed 500 centimeters / km 2. In the last 3-5 years, the number of sparrows has decreased so much that it became noticeable not only to ornithologists. Sparrows feed on grass seeds, while chicks feed on insects. In Moscow, herbaceous lawns were almost universally destroyed (replaced by artificial, mowed-up lawns), as a result of which the food supply of the species disappears - seeds and insects (ants, caterpillars, locusts, etc.).
Birds of Moscow reservoirs
The condition of urban water bodies in Moscow is generally unfavorable for birds. Both the Moscow River and most of its tributaries have either been cleaned, straightened and lined, or serve as Muscovites' picnics. Only small ponds and a few small rivers remained, the banks and floodplains of which have not yet been landscaped.
Here, chomga, tufted duck nest, moorhen, black-and-white gulls, common tern and very rarely - a top, a teal whistle, a teal-snake, a broad-nosed calf, a coot, and a sandpiper carrier.
Chomga or Grebe. It nests in Tsaritsyno, where in 2018 more than 40 broods were found. Photo: Vladimir Avdeev
Of the passerine birds, whose distribution is associated with riparian vegetation, a significant number of mosquitoes nest in Moscow in the swamp warbler and, more rarely, the river cricket, and the yellow-headed wagtail, Remez and reed bunting are rare or solitary nesting species. In recent years, the swallow has ceased to nest in Moscow - the shoreline, the badger, the reed warbler, and the dukes.
Chomgi nest, or great toadstool. Photo: Vasily Vishnevsky
They do not nest in Moscow, but can be recorded both during the spring and autumn migration, and at wintering 102 species, 19 species belong to the group of migrants - these are birds that over the past decade have been recorded in Moscow in isolated cases and at the same time are migratory and for the Moscow region as a whole. For example, curly pelican, sea and Mediterranean gulls, Lurik, Little Turtle Dove, mountainhorse, European finch, hurricus.
Birds that left Moscow
Since the beginning of the century, 16 species have stopped nesting in the city. Nine of them (hazel grouse, herbalist, morodunka, small gull, common pigeon, ringed dove, gray-headed woodpecker, crested tit, yurok) did not meet at all in the nesting period, and for the rest only single summer meetings are known (swamp owl, little owl, hoopoe, meadow horse, green woodpecker, gray duck).
The list of species inhabiting wastelands and meadows preserved in some places is small. There are few such landscapes in Moscow. Common here is only gray glory.
On Krylatsky hills, in the area of Kapotnya and in the Brateev floodplain, broods of the gray partridge were greeted. Breeding nibble is proven only in the Mnevnikovskaya floodplain of the Moscow River, at the Rowing Canal and on the experimental fields of the Moscow Agricultural Academy.
Nestling whitebird thrush. This is rare for Moscow nesting species. Photo: Vladimir Avdeev
The field lark breeds only in those places where relatively large open grassy wastelands have been preserved - on the Tushino airfield, on the Khodynsky field (which is now being built up) and on the Krylatsky hills.
The yellow wagtail and meadow chase are wider and more numerous. In nesting areas, the density of the yellow wagtail is 1–2 wasps / km 2 (maximum up to 5 wasps / km 2), and the meadowstage is also 1–2 wasps / km 2 with a maximum density of 6–7 wasps / km 2 on Krylatsky hills.
Sparrow owl - the smallest owl. It hunts small rodents and birds. Photo: Vladimir Avdeev
Birds of wastelands
The bird population of the industrial zone is diverse - from forest to riparian species, each one finds suitable conditions for nesting here. On the roofs of the factory buildings, where fairly large puddles last for a long time and even grass grows, gulls and little plots nest. The Redstart-Chernushka finds in the industrial zones the optimal combination of stone buildings and open areas with a poor grass stand, resembling the conditions of mountain landscapes. The barn swallow nests under the roofs of hangars and other buildings, outside the industrial zone in Moscow is much smaller. Kamenka, field sparrow, greenfinch, goldfinch are common here. Waterfowl and near-water birds are attracted to reservoirs of industrial zones, which are not subject to “improvement” by the city services and are not visited by people.
Crossbill eats seeds of coniferous trees. It nests at the end of winter or at the very beginning of spring. Photo: Vladimir Avdeev
Birdwatching is a new passion for Muscovites
In comparison with Europe, there are few bird lovers, but gradually it is becoming more and more. Since 1999, professional ornithologists and amateurs of the Moscow region have been united under the program “Birds of Moscow and Moscow Region” at the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University. As a result, over the past years, three series of editions of the program have appeared: annual reviews on the birds of Moscow and the region, Proceedings of the program, and Moskovka magazine. The growth in the number and high activity of the program participants allowed in 2006 to initiate the creation of the Atlas of Birds of Moscow, which was published in 2014.
Birds of offices and the Kremlin
No matter how interesting for the ornithologist are the elements of the natural landscapes found on the territory of the city, Moscow is mostly built up.
Massive bird species - gray pigeons, house sparrows and black swifts - nest directly on buildings and are capable of foraging in residential areas. The white wagtail, the starling and the rare gray flycatcher and the common redstart are less associated with buildings when nests are located. Great tit and blue tit, the abundance of which is high in urban areas, are increasingly used for the construction of nests holes in lampposts, pipes, etc.
Long-tailed tit is a relatively rare species for Moscow, and finding a nest is a great success. Photo: Ilya Ukolov
On tall buildings nests are also placed and few or rare views of the city - ogar, kestrel, city swallow, jackdaw, raven, redneck-nib, and a peregrine falcon nesting, obviously, so far only in three places in Moscow - on the main building of Moscow State University. MV Lomonosov and high-rise buildings on the Kotelnicheskaya Embankment and Smolenskaya Square.
Gelna is the largest woodpecker. Hollow hollows out usually in thick aspens. Photo: Vasily Vishnevsky
Flying species can be found in any part of the city: the corncrake on the Arbat, the woodcock on the Prospekt Mira or in the courtyard of the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University, the gray cranes over the Sparrow Hills, the badger and Varakushka in Alexander Garden near the Kremlin.
The composition and number of birds in the center of the city and on the periphery differ, in the center the area of islands of greenery and the size of each of them is smaller. But in the Kremlin and the Alexander Garden, the diversity and number of birds is quite high. More than 60 species are registered here.
Among the birds of the Moscow region can be found many small birds, incredibly bright colors - blue, yellow, pink, orange. Sometimes on one individual you can see several bright colors or interesting details. For example, the pink starling has a pink breast and a head with a tuft. The pink starlings are migratory birds, conducting only the warm season in the Moscow region.
Unlike the pink starlings, bullfinch - wintering in the middle lane. They can often be seen in the winter, when they settle closer to people in search of food. In the summer, they live in coniferous and mixed forests, where there is enough food for them. These little birds have a black head, black and gray wings and a bright scarlet breast.
Another migratory bird is the oriole. Despite its small size, this bird is easy to see thanks to its bright plumage. Females are distinguished by a yellow-green color of the upper body, and their abdomen is yellow-white, on which there are longitudinal stripes of brown tint. The body of the males is yellow, and the wings are black.
This is not the entire list of birds that live in the Moscow region. Despite the proximity of the metropolis, birds do not leave this territory, and migratory birds return here every year. The variety of birds inhabiting the Moscow region makes parks and forests of this area attractive, and also brings a special atmosphere to the daily life of Muscovites and residents of the Moscow region.