Plants and animals of arctic deserts


The Arctic is a region located around the North Pole. There are polar days and nights, the winter is very cold, and the summer temperature does not rise above zero degrees. But for many creatures, such extreme conditions are only a plus. What animals live in the Arctic. We offer you descriptions and photographs of the most interesting animals of the Arctic.

Arctic predatory mammals

Most predatory animals in the Arctic are ferocious hunters with a good appetite who can attack livestock and even humans. The number of individuals in the predator population of the Arctic depends primarily on the number of lemmings, which are the main “delicacy” for Arctic foxes, wolverines, polar wolves, and in some cases reindeer.

1. Polar bear

The largest member of the Bear family, listed in the Red Book of the World in 1953, is not found anywhere else except in the Arctic. For life, he needs divorce drift ice, polynyas or the edge of ice fields and seals — his favorite food.

The closest polar bear habitat to the pole has a latitude of 88 ° 15 '. Some polar bear males reach three meters in height and tons of weight. But with such impressive size and seeming slowness, polar bears are extremely mobile and hardy animals.

Polar bears are excellent swimmers, overcoming up to 80 km in icy waters, this is helped by the membrane on their pads. Polar bears easily travel about 40 km per day, coping with complex ice hummocks and deep snow. The fur of a polar bear retains heat so well that it is not even detected by aerial infrared shooting.

2. Wolverine

A large representative of the family Kunih, a fierce predator and an extremely voracious animal. For the ability of this animal to attack livestock and even people, it is also called the Demon of the North. Wolverine weights range from 9 to 30 kg, and in appearance they look more like badgers or bears.

Unlike other members of the Kunih family, the wolverine migrates within its individual section, while in constant search for food. The animal easily climbs trees due to its sharp claws and powerful paws. He makes sounds similar to the yelping of dogs, has excellent hearing, sight and smell.

Wolverine is omnivorous, it can, like eating food debris for other predators, and it can even hunt quite large animals on its own, and it eats plants and berries, nuts. It is so brave and angry animal that even the owner of the Arctic, the Polar Bear tries to pass him by.

3. Polar Wolf

This subspecies of the wolf lives throughout the tundra and the Arctic. It usually feeds on small animals - polar hares and lemming, but musk ox and reindeer also form part of its diet. In the harsh conditions of the polar nights and long cold periods, he adapted to feeding on any food.

Polar wolves can only survive in the pack. In the conditions of the Arctic deserts, where there is no place for ambush, they have to resort to another — a social tactic of hunting, often waiting patiently for victims to commit an oversight and weaken their defenses.

4. Arctic fox, or polar fox

A polar or arctic fox is a predatory animal, the only member of the Arctic fox genus. In contrast to the common fox, it has a shortened muzzle, small rounded ears, paws, covered with hard wool and a squat body. Depending on the season, fox fur can be white, blue, brown, dark gray, light coffee or sand. On this basis, there are 10 subspecies of animals that live in different territories.

Not farther than half a kilometer from the water, the arctic fox digs complex holes with numerous entrances. But in the winter he often has to do with a den in the snow. He eats everything, his diet includes both plants and animals. But the basis of its nutrition are birds and lemmings.

1. Reindeer

The animals evolve the sooner, the more complex the conditions of their existence. Reindeer are so different from other members of the Olenev family that it becomes immediately clear that everything is in order with difficulties. Caribou (as they are called in North America) are not only survival champions, but also the youngest members of the family. They appeared only about two million years ago.

Flat and wide, pointed at the edges of the hooves of reindeer turn animals into all-terrain vehicles. With ease they travel in the snow, swamp and ice. The same hooves, used instead of flippers, help deer to swim perfectly and overcome not only large rivers such as the Yenisei, but also sea straits. Their wool has a special structure, its hairs expand towards the end and create a heat-insulating air layer. Even the upper lip and the tip of their nose are covered with delicate soft hair.

Reindeer eat a variety of food - in the summer it is succulent plants, in the winter - lichens, shrubs. To compensate for the lack of trace elements, they gnaw their own dumped antlers, eat algae and seashells thrown at the shore. An important reason for their survival is the herd life.

A rare powerful ungulate, the same age as a mammoth, having a thick undercoat that is warmer than a lamb several times. Their long thick hair hangs down almost to the ground and closes the animal, leaving only the hooves, horns, nose and lips. The winter oxen survive the cold weather without migrating; they are easily tolerated by severe frosts, but die in the presence of high snow cover, especially with an ice crust from above.

Pinniped Arctic Mammals

Nostrils of considerable size give them the opportunity to breathe in so much air in order to stay under water for up to 10 minutes. Their forelimbs are transformed into flippers, and the food they serve are marine inhabitants - mollusks, krill, fish, and crustaceans. Imagine the most common pinnipeds of the Arctic.

The only modern member of the Morzhov family is easily distinguished thanks to its massive tusks. In size among the pinnipeds, it takes the second place after the Elephant Sea, but the ranges of these animals do not overlap. Walruses live in herds and bravely protect each other from enemies.

Have a more extensive distribution, live on the shores of the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. They are very good swimmers, although they cannot be met far from the shore. Seals do not freeze in cold water due to the thick layer of subcutaneous fat and waterproof fur.

3. Seal

Seals together with Sea lions belong to the family of eared seals. When moving, the cats rely on all the limbs, and their eyes have a dark outline. In summer, the Northern Fur Seal lives in the north of the Pacific Ocean, and with the arrival of autumn, it migrates to the south.

4. Northern elephant seal

It should be noted here that elephant seals are divided into northern (inhabiting the Arctic) and southern (inhabiting the Antarctic). Sea elephants got their name because of the impressive size and nose of old males resembling the trunk. They live on the Arctic coast of North America and even to the south. Adult males reach a mass of 3.5 tons.

Arctic Marine Mammals

No mammal can be compared in its ability to survive in the harsh conditions of the Arctic with cetaceans such as beluga whale, narwhal and bowhead whale. They do not have the dorsal fin present in the remaining cetaceans. There are about 10 species of marine mammals in the Arctic - whales (fin whales, blue, humpback and sperm whales) and dolphins (killer whales). Let's talk about the most popular ones.

They are distinguished by the presence of only two upper teeth, of which the left one in males develops into a tusk up to 3 meters long and weighing up to 10 kg. With this tusk, the males break the ice, making polynyas, it also serves to attract females and many other purposes.

This is a species of toothed whales from the Narvalov family. White whales also need atmospheric oxygen and risk suffocating when exposed to strong ice for a long time. They feed on fish and make a variety of sounds.

3. Greenland whale

It is the only representative of baleen whales, living all its life within the cold waters of the Northern Hemisphere. In the spring they migrate to the north, and in the fall they sail a little further south, avoiding the ice. They feed on plankton.

4. Orca (killer whale)

The orca is the largest predatory dolphin. Its color is contrasting - black and white with distinctive white spots above the eyes. Another original feature of killer whales is the high crescent dorsal fin. Different populations of these predators specialize in a certain food. Some killer whales prefer herring and migrate after their shoals, others hunt pinnipeds. They have no rivals and are top of the food chain.

Arctic Rodents

It is impossible to overestimate the importance of lemmings for the existence of animals of the Arctic desert. They feed on almost all of the above land animals. And polar owls do not even make nests, if the population of lemmings is not in the best condition.

Arctic Book Animals

Currently, some Arctic animals are endangered. Natural and human-induced changes in the climatic conditions of the Arctic pose a significant threat to the animal world. The list of animals in the Arctic, which are listed in the Red Book, includes the following representatives of the Arctic belt.

  • Polar bear.
  • Greenland whale.
  • Narwhal.
  • Reindeer.
  • Atlantic and Laptev walruses.

The musk ox is also a rare animal species. His ancestors lived on Earth in the time of the mammoths.

In June 2009, by order of the Russian government, the Russian Arctic National Park was created, the main task of which is to preserve and study the representatives of the flora and fauna of the Arctic, who are on the verge of extinction.

Arctic animals do not live at the very North Pole, it is impossible to live there. They are more common in the southern Arctic Ocean, on the coast of the continents and on the islands.

Arctic Desert: Location, Climate and Soil

The arctic climate involves a long harsh winter and short cold summer no transitional seasons and with frosty weathering. In the summer, the air temperature barely reaches 0 ° C, it often rains with snow, the sky is covered with gray clouds, and the formation of dense fogs is caused by strong evaporation of ocean water. Such a harsh climate is formed both due to the critically low temperature of high latitudes and due to the reflection of heat from the surface of ice and snow. For this reason, the animals inhabiting the zone of the Arctic deserts are fundamentally different from the representatives of the fauna living in continental latitudes - they are much easier to adapt to survive in such harsh climatic conditions.

Glacier-free Arctic space literally shrouded in permafrostTherefore, the process of soil formation is at the initial stage of development and is carried out in the lean layer, which is also characterized by the accumulation of manganese and iron oxides. Characteristic iron-manganese films are formed on the fragments of various rocks, which determine the color of the polar-desert soil, while saline soils are formed on coastal areas.

Large stones and boulders in the Arctic are practically not observed, but here there are small flat stones, sand and, of course, the famous ball nodules of sandstone and silicon, in particular, spherulites.

Vegetation of the Arctic desert

The main difference between the Arctic and the tundra lies in the fact that in the tundra there is the possibility of existence for a wide range of living creatures that can feed on its gifts, and in the Arctic desert it is simply impossible to do so. It is for this reason that there are no indigenous people in the islands of the Arctic few flora and fauna.

The territory of the Arctic desert is devoid of shrubs and trees, there are only isolated from each other and small areas with lichens and mosses of rocks, as well as various algae of stony ground. These small islands of vegetation resemble an oasis among endless expanses of snow and ice. The only representatives of herbaceous vegetation are sedge and grasses, and flowering plants - stone-sawing, polar poppy, alpine foxtail, buttercup, grains, bluegrass and arctic pike.

Wildlife of the Arctic desert

The terrestrial fauna of the northern edge is relatively poor due to very poor vegetation. Perhaps the only representatives of the animal world of ice deserts are birds and some mammals.

Among the most common birds:

  • tundra partridges,
  • crows,
  • white owls,
  • seagulls
  • eaves,
  • eider,
  • dead ends
  • scrappers,
  • burgomasters,
  • terns,
  • kairas

In addition to the permanent inhabitants of the Arctic skies, migratory birds also appear here. When the north, the day, and the air temperature becomes higher, the Arctic arrive feathered of taiga, tundra and continental widths, therefore in the Arctic Ocean periodically appear black goose, Temminck white geese, Pacific Golden Plover, Plovers, Upland buzzards and Dunlins . With the onset of cold seasons, the above-mentioned bird species return to the warm edges of more southern latitudes.

Among the animals can be distinguished following representatives:

  • reindeer
  • lemmings,
  • White bears,
  • hares,
  • seals,
  • walruses
  • arctic wolves,
  • Arctic foxes
  • musk oxen
  • beluga whales
  • narwhals.

The main symbol of the Arctic has long been considered polar bears, leading a semi-aquatic lifestyle, although the most diverse and numerous inhabitants of the harsh desert are seabirds, which nest in the summer on cold rocky shores, thus forming a "bird market".

Adaptation of animals to the arctic climate

All of the above animals forced to adapt to life in such harsh conditions, so they have unique adaptive features. Of course, the key problem of the Arctic region is the possibility of maintaining the thermal regime. To survive in such a harsh environment, it is with this task that animals must successfully cope. For example, arctic foxes and polar bears save themselves from frost thanks to warm and thick fur, loose feathers help feathery, and for seals their fatty layer is the salutary.

Additional salvation of the animal world from the arctic harsh climate due to the characteristic color, acquired directly to the onset of the winter period. However, not all representatives of the fauna, depending on the season, can change the color given to them by nature, for example, polar bears remain owners of snow-white fur throughout all seasons. The natural pigmentation of predators also has advantages - it allows them to successfully hunt and feed the whole family.

Animals and Birds of the Arctic Deserts

Extremely slow recovery of vegetation. The fauna is mainly marine: walrus, sealsummer is bird markets. The terrestrial fauna is poor: Arctic fox, polar bear, lemming.

The Arctic is divided into two zones: the ice zone and the zone of the Arctic deserts. The ice zone is the seas Arctic Ocean along with the islands. And the zone of the Arctic deserts occupies insignificant patches of stony land, which are freed for a short time from the snow on the islands and on the mainland (it is only a narrow border adjoins the outskirts tundra in the north of the peninsula Taimyr).


Of the order of cetaceans living in the Arctic, narwhal is of undoubted interest.

He is obliged to be so popular with his long horn, which sticks out right from his mouth. This horn reaches a length of 3 meters, and its weight is 10 kg. It is nothing more than an ordinary tooth that has grown to such huge size. This tooth does not deliver any inconvenience to a mammal, but why it is needed - there is no definite answer, although there are many different assumptions.

The Greenland whale is a relative of narwhal.

But its size is many times larger, and instead of a tooth in its mouth there is a whalebone and a huge tongue. It is his tongue that he licks plankton stuck in the plates of the whalebone.

This huge animal is absolutely harmless, in the northern waters it has lived for thousands of years.

Belukha or polar dolphin also represents this company.

This is a large animal - its weight reaches 2 tons, and its length is 6 meters. The white whale loves to eat fish - the polar dolphin itself never refuses to try the killer whale. It rightfully occupies one of the first places among the strongest and largest marine predators.

In the arctic waters she is a frequent visitor. Not only beluga whales, but also walruses, seals and seals die from its sharp teeth.

Arctic animals would lose a lot if there was no such predator among them as a fox.

Thanks to its beautiful fur, this animal is known far beyond the cold region. He is known both in Africa, and in Australia, and in Brazil - after all, women wear Arctic Fox coats in all corners of the world. Arctic fox is a very small beast. Его вес едва дотягивает до 5 кг, а высота в холке не бывает больше 30см.

Но этот малыш очень вынослив и быстр. К тому же он любит путешествовать. Его можно встретить практически во всех уголках Арктики. Он часто сопровождает белого медведя, благоразумно держась от мощного хищника на почтительном расстоянии.

Этот маленький грызун, немного обогнавший по размерам мышь, имеет для животного мира Арктики огромное значение.

Almost all animals feed on them, and the polar owl population directly depends on its population. In those years when the lemming is small, the bird of prey does not nest at all. The arctic fox also loses interest in travel if the number of small rodents increases dramatically.

Birds of the Arctic Deserts

Birds are the most numerous inhabitants of the severe northern edge.

The pink gull is a fragile creature, with a weight of 250 grams and a body length of 35 cm, feels confident enough and freely spends severe winters in the tundra, or above the sea surface, which is covered with drifting ice floes. Often joins the meal of larger predators.

Kaira is a black and white bird nesting on high cliffs and spending the winter in the ice without experiencing much discomfort.

Common Gaga is a northern duck, which can easily dive in icy water to depths of up to 20 meters.

The most ferocious and largest among birds is the polar owl. A ruthless predator with beautiful yellow eyes, snow-white plumage hunts other birds, rodents, and sometimes even young larger animals, such as foxes.

Common Seal

The common seal lives in the eastern and western parts of the Arctic Ocean.

In the east it is the Bering Sea, the Chukchi Sea and the Beaufort Sea. In the west, the Barents Sea and the southern coastal waters of Greenland. He comes across in other seas of the Arctic, but in small quantities. It also inhabits the northern coastal waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and is also a permanent resident of the Baltic Sea.

In appearance, seals from different regions differ little. Is that the animals living in the east or Pacific seals, slightly larger than their western (Atlantic) counterparts. In total there are 500 thousand heads today.

The body length of an ordinary seal varies between 1.85 m and a weight of 160 kg. Males are somewhat larger than females, for the rest they are practically the same.

A characteristic feature of these animals are V-shaped nostrils. By him you can immediately recognize this beast, regardless of the color of the skin. Color is different. It contains brown, gray and red tones. Mostly reddish-gray wool color prevails. On it, throughout the body, small brown or black spots are scattered, resembling oblong smears.

On the back there are patterns of black and brown spots. Quite often, seals have black spots on the face, head, and tail. Cubs are born the same color as their parents. White fur in the first weeks of life, like some other species, they do not have.

The common seal feeds on fish. Its menu includes smelt, Arctic cod, navaga, capelin, herring.

He does not disdain invertebrates. This animal lives in coastal waters, ignoring long journeys. At the end of summer and in autumn it lies on spit and shallows subject to tides.

Avoids open spaces and wide shores. Good swims, dives.

In the order of cetaceans, there are a huge number of different types of mammals. The most notable among them are narwhals.

They are obliged to be so popular with their long horn or tusk, which sticks out right from the mouth and reaches a length of 3 meters. This tusk consists of bone tissue, but on a par with hardness is extremely flexible. In fact, it is nothing but one of the two upper teeth, pierced the upper lip and crawled out.

Such a tusk weighs 10 kg.

Narwhal is a rather large animal.

In length, some representatives of this species reach 5 meters. The usual length ranges from 4 meters. The weight of the male is one and a half tons. Females weigh from 900 kg to tons. For some reason, this mammal has no dorsal fin.

Only side fins and powerful tail are available. The head of the narwhal is round, with a prominent frontal bump on it.

The mouth is low and very small. The belly of a mammal is a light color. The back and head is much darker.

The entire upper body is covered with grayish-brown spots of various sizes, making the back and head even darker. The eyes are small, deeply recessed, with actively circulating intraocular fluid. That is, they are fully adapted to the harsh arctic conditions, and besides, they are also endowed with sharp eyesight.

They feed on narwhals mainly in shellfish and crustaceans.

Fish are also included in their diet. The same cod, flounder, halibut and goby are an integral part of the menu of these animals. When hunting for bottom fish, the male often uses his tusk. He scares them the victim, forcing her to rise from the bottom.

The arctic fox or polar fox belongs to the species of arctic foxes of the dog family, is a predator. Its habitat is very extensive.

He lives in the polar tundra of Eurasia and North America, in Greenland and Spitsbergen. Accustomed to the New Earth, Northern Earth and Franz Joseph Land. The islands of the Northern Canadian Archipelago are also its original patrimony. It lives on many other islands of the Arctic Ocean. In winter, he migrates in search of a better share both to the north and to the south. It can be found among the Arctic ice, invariably following the polar bear, and in the lower reaches of the Amur, and in the harsh Baikal taiga.

It travels thousands of kilometers and can get to Alaska from Taimyr in a few months.

The fox cannot boast of large size. The length of his body varies from 50 to 75 cm. Fluffy tail is 25-30 cm long. Height at withers reaches 30 cm, weight does not exceed 10 kg.

In the main mass, males, in fertile, satisfying times, weigh 5-6 kg. Females are more graceful - their weight is 500 grams less. This beast has the soles of its paws securely covered with hair.

The prudent nature did this so that the animal would not freeze them. Ears are also covered with thick fur and very small. This does not interfere with the arctic fox to hear perfectly. He also has an excellent sense of smell, but his vision, like that of all canines, is no different. Muzzle shortened, body squat. If you want to give a voice, then the polar fox yelps.

Maybe growl to scare the enemy.

With the onset of cold weather in the tundra becomes hungry. Fluffy predator is forced to leave their homes. Part of Arctic foxes rushes north into the Arctic ice zone. The animals are attached to the polar bears and follow them relentlessly. Those are great hunters.

They catch seals, narwhal, beluga. Eating the skin and fat of their victims, the meat is left to the arctic fox. Another part of the polar foxes is moving south. They reach the taiga places. There is a lot of food there, in contrast to the bare tundra, but there are also many large predators that represent a real threat to the small beast.

Wolves, foxes, wolverines destroy foxes. Those who manage to survive spring back to the tundra.

Animals of the Arctic deserts of Russia

They return to their labyrinths, and the seasonal life cycle repeats.

A small animal wrapped in colorful fur from the family of rodents of the Polevka subfamily is called lemming.

Its habitat zone extends to tundra areas of Eurasia and North America. This animal also inhabits the islands of the Arctic Ocean. It can be found on almost the entire coastal area of ​​the Arctic from the White Sea to the Bering Sea. He is a native inhabitant of the New Earth, the Northern Earth, the Novosibirsk Islands and the Wrangel Island. This baby lives almost everywhere where there is at least some vegetation. It has several types - they are all perfectly adapted to the harsh polar conditions.

Lemming coat color is variegated, monochrome gray or gray-brown.

In some species, fur in winter gets a lighter color. In the hoofed lemming, the skin becomes white. The animal almost completely merges with the snow cover. The length of the rodent's body ranges from 10 to 15 cm. The mass is about 50-70 grams. It has short legs, its tail is no longer than 2 cm, and its tiny ears are completely hidden in fur.

Mostly lemmings are solitary, but some species are combined into small groups.

They live in burrows, in the winter they settle down under the snow. Feed on plant foods. Their diet contains sedge, moss, leaves and young shoots of willow and birch. The rodent also consumes cloudberries, blueberries and other berries. In nourishing years rapidly multiplies. In times of hunger, there is a massive departure of this animal from their homes. Lemmings creep into more satisfying edges one by one. At rivers and straits accumulate in huge flocks.

Rodent swims very well, so water barriers overcomes successfully. But in any case, many animals die from the teeth and claws of land and aquatic predators.

Pink seagull

The pink gull belongs to the genus of gulls of the gull family.

This little beautiful and fragile bird lives in the harsh areas of the Arctic. She chooses nesting places in the lower reaches of the cold northern rivers.

It builds nests on the islands and shores of these full-flowing streams flowing into the Arctic Ocean.

Indigirka, Kolyma, Yana, Anadyr - these are the rivers that are her home. She loves Lake Taimyr, as well as the adjacent tundra. It is the tundra and forest tundra, in the summer, that are its habitat. Like the pink gull and Greenland, especially the west coast. In winter, the baby moves to the sea. It can be seen both in the Norwegian Sea and in the Bering Sea.

This graceful bird travels almost all ice-free Arctic waters.

The body length of a pink gull does not exceed 35 cm. The mass is 250 grams. The back of the bird and the top of the wings have a gray-gray color. The head is pale pink - almost white, the chest is pinkish, the beak is black and the legs are red.

The neck, in the summer, is covered by a narrow black stripe. In winter, it disappears. The tail has a tapered appearance. The pink gull swims beautifully in river water.

In the seas, she prefers to sit on the ice: sea bathing does not entice her because of the low temperature of the water.

During the nesting period, a pink gull feeds on insects and small mollusks along the banks of northern rivers.

At sea, the bird eats fish and crustaceans. Sometimes it flies to the dwellings of people in order to profit by them near food. Itself also becomes the object of hunting. The same foxes eat the eggs of these birds, and the reindeer do not refuse them. The man also puts a hand to it. People exterminate adult gulls because of the beautiful and original color. Of the dead birds, craftsmen make stuffed animals that cost good money, which in no way can serve as an excuse for such activities.

Kayra belongs to the genus of birds of the whole family.

She is a native resident of the polar region. All its business activity takes place at the edge of the drifting ice. Near them she hunts, and nests on inaccessible rocks, which are very close to the endless ice field. The bird lives on the shores of Greenland, New Earth, Iceland. Her home is Svalbard and Franz Josef Land.

In the east, its life zone is limited to the Aleutian Islands and Kodiak Island off the southern coast of Alaska. She densely settled almost the entire northern coast of Eurasia, which indicates its large number. Today, there are more than 3 million of these birds, which is actually quite a lot, but at the same time the figure for the huge Arctic is not very significant.

The bird is of medium size.

The length of her body varies from 40 to 50 cm. Weight lies in the range from 800 grams to one and a half kilograms. The wings in relation to the body are small.

The bird is therefore difficult to take off. To rise from the water into the air, she needs to run at least 10 meters along the water surface. But it is convenient for her to begin her flight from high cliffs. It rushes down, spreading its wings, and soaring above the ground smoothly turns into flight. In its plumage, the murre is a classic style. The upper part of her body is black, the lower part is white. The beak is also black, but the neck changes color depending on the time of year.

In winter, it is snow-white, and in the warm season it turns black. There are two types of the iris: thin-billed and thick-billed.

They hunt only under water.

Dive to a depth of 15-20 meters. In this water column fish. There is cairo capelin, cod, cod, likes herring, gerbil. In addition to fish, sea worms, shrimps, crabs get into her stomach. During the long polar day, the bird eats at least 300 grams of various marine life.

It is noteworthy that about 200 grams of the waste product goes back through the intestines. It contains a lot of organic matter that serves as a nutritious food for the same fish and shellfish. The latter actively multiply and again fall into the stomach of the bird.

This once again proves that nature is very rational and practical.

Polar owl

The polar owl or the white owl, as it is also called, belongs to the genus of eagle owls of the order sovoobraznyh. This is a large bird whose habitat extends to the polar tundra of Eurasia and North America, as well as the islands of the Arctic Ocean.

This bird lives in Greenland, on the New Earth, on the Northern Earth. She is constantly seen on the New Siberian Islands and on Wrangel Island. It lives in Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Jan Mayen Island, Alaska and the Bering Sea Islands.

Present on the islands of Kolguyev and Vaigach, that is, practically, it populates the entire Arctic, not losing even the most remote and small land areas from its zone of attention.

The polar owl has a rather large body. Its length, in males, is 55-65 cm, the females are larger. They reach a length of 70 cm. The weight of males ranges from 2-2.5 kg - the representatives of the weaker sex are heavier.

Sometimes females have a mass of 3.2 kg, more often their weight corresponds to 3 kg. The wingspan reaches 165 cm. The bird has a round head and bright yellow eyes. Ears are very small - they are almost invisible. The beak is painted black. At the same time, it is almost completely covered with feathers. Only his tip is visible. The legs are covered with long feathers, very much like wool.

The claws are black as the beak.

The polar owl is clearly exposed to open spaces. The bird always hunts from the ground, settling on an elevated place. She surveys the neighborhood, looks out for prey, and when she sees a rodent, she flaps her wings heavily, flies up to him and grabs the doomed victim with her sharp claws.

Small wildlife swallows whole. Large prey is torn to pieces and eats. Wool and bones belches in the form of small lumps. A polar owl eats at least 4 rodents per day in order to get enough of it. Prefers to hunt in the early morning or evening hours.

Atlantic walrus

The walrus is one of the largest representatives of the Arctic fauna. The mass of the animal exceeds 1000 kg, the body length reaches almost 4 meters. The expressive part of a mammal are two protruding canines, whose length can reach 40 cm.

Unfortunately, the exact size of the population is not known. Counting is carried out only according to expert estimates on some parts of the range and rookeries. However, according to the available statistics, the statistics are not encouraging - a sharp reduction in the subspecies is observed.

Several plagues affect the survival of the Atlantic walrus. As a result of oil production, not only seawater, the bottom and the coastal zone are polluted, but also ice - the main resting and breeding place of mammals. The second problem - the melting of the ice as a result of global warming.

Suffering from active poaching. Narwhal negatively transfers the effects of the spill of petrochemical products to the environment, which cause irritation of the mucous eyes, skin and reduce swimming ability, the subcutaneous fat layer loses its thermostatic properties.