Every owner wants his dog to be well-educated and fulfill a specific set of commands. To achieve a positive result, experts advise starting with a four-legged friend as early as possible, preferably from puppyhood. How to start training a puppy, how much time to spend and how often to conduct classes - read all this in the article.
When to start training
If a dog has turned 1-1.5 years old, then she has acquired certain habits, unfortunately, not always useful. It will be more difficult for an adult dog with whom they have never been engaged to get used to discipline, to understand what is required of him. At the same time, the puppy learns, playfully, very quickly mastering new skills, does not contradict the owner. All these arguments speak in favor of starting to train the dog as soon as possible.
Basic rules for raising a puppy
Before you say, where to start training a puppy, you should learn these rules:
- You can start training only if the dog is healthy, cheerful and cheerful. You should not try to teach the teams a sick or tired four-legged friend.
- After the puppy has got into the house, it is necessary to give him time to adapt in the new environment, get used to the new food, love his master. Experts say that five days to adapt the puppy is enough.
- Before you begin to train your puppy, you must accustom him to the collar and leash.
- Occupation should be held in a game form, as with a child, its duration at a time should not exceed 40-60 minutes, otherwise the baby will get tired and stop to obey, become sluggish or capricious.
- The main motive for a puppy is praise and treat, so it is advisable not to feed him too tightly before training.
- Choose only one team for a particular action and do not change it. If the puppy has learned the command "To me!", He will not understand your call "Come here!".
Another important point - the result of education depends on the breed of dog. For example, the training of a sheepdog puppy, St. Bernard, Rottweiler, Boxer, Dachshund, Poodle will be successful. Training small breeds is always more difficult, because the nervous system of small dogs is weaker, they are more prone to stress, get tired more quickly.
How to start puppy training
Start for all the same - the puppy should be accustomed to the nickname and collar with a leash.
The dog very quickly gets used to the nickname. To do this, do not need special exercises. It is enough just every time addressing the pet to clearly pronounce his nickname, to repeat it during the game, feeding, caress. It is important that the puppy has positive associations with its name, so at an early age, berating the dog, avoid pronouncing its name.
As a rule, the puppy gets used to the collar with a leash easily and painlessly. On the 5-6th day after the baby got into your house, just put a collar on your puppy. Depending on the character and temperament, he may not notice it at all, and may try to remove or chew. Distract the kid with a bright object, treat or game. Remove the collar just before bedtime. After that, we can assume that the first day of training ended successfully. On the second day, put the collar on again, you can already attach the leash and even take it out for a walk.
The main thing is to keep the collar soft, not to rub the neck of the baby, and the leash should be long enough for the puppy to walk with pleasure and be able to freely explore the world around it.
How to start training a puppy, you already know - training to the nickname and collar with a leash. What to learn next? Since the dog is still in childhood, it will not understand difficult commands, and lengthy training will be tedious and will leave a negative impression. Therefore, you can count on such commands:
- the first block is a place to me, fu,
- the second block is to sit, side by side, lie down, stand,
- third block - aport, fas.
Each block is given about 3-4 months depending on the intelligence and psyche of the dog. That is, the program performs a young dog about one and a half years. If training at home allowed the puppy to master this basic level, then we can say that the owner coped perfectly well.
Often, the owners ask the question: "Is it possible for the dog to sleep with the owner in the same bed?" Not! Even little dogs should know their place. It’s not just hygiene or safety, but also that the dog must understand order and discipline.
To teach a dog to the place is easy. To do this, on the first day, when you bring the puppy into the house, and he will get acquainted with the territory, take the baby to his bed and calmly say “place” several times. Always, when you see that the puppy is already resting to rest, take him in your arms and carry him to his bed, saying in a calm tone "place."
You can not accustom the puppy to the place, putting a treat on his bed, because he will take it as a signal to action and will carry there the food from the bowl.
The lesson is considered learned when the kid with the command "Place!" runs where it should be.
This command is most commonly used in daily life. Whenever a puppy runs to you at will, or when you call him to eat or play, clearly say "To me!". When the four-legged friend runs up, be sure to praise, pat gently on the withers, with a major intonation, say "Well done!", "Good dog!".
And if the puppy played or capricious and did not run up? Do not scold him! Just go to the dog, hold it for croup and, pulling to yourself, repeat the command. Then praise, encourage delicacy.
The lesson is learned if the puppy resorts on the first call of the owner.
It seems that everything is logical: the kid picked up something on the street or nibbles your slippers, you come up to him, firmly say "Foo!" and select what is forbidden, you can even gently click the delinquent head. Such tactics are correct. But many people make a typical mistake: the puppy picked up some nasty stuff and joyfully brought it to its owner, and the one with a cry of "Foo!" selected prey and even scolded. So you can not do! You can never punish the baby when he runs up to you. The puppy develops a negative reflex: it approaches the owner, and they scold him. The dog will not understand what is to blame, but will think that the beloved owner does not want to see her.
The same mistake can be seen when the puppy makes a puddle during the day, and in the evening he will be poked into her nose and scolded. Absolutely illiterate behavior! The dog does not know how to build a causal relationship, like a man. The result of this behavior will only be that the puppy will be afraid of the arrival of the host home.
After the first commands are learned, executed immediately and in random order, you can continue the course of training and move on to the second, more complex block.
Puppy to teach this team is easier than an adult dog. The most common technique: to call a four-legged friend, show him a treat and, holding him in front of a dog muzzle, slowly lift up. As the puppy will lift its head, it will sit down, while you can gently push the palm on the back of the dog, as if helping her to sit down. At the same time, when the baby sits on its hind legs, say "Sit!" and treat yummy.
A team is learned when a dog sits down on a team and stands in that position for as long as its owner considers it necessary. It is better not to overdo it with an aging puppy, otherwise it will get tired and will be harmful.
Training team "Nearby!" - One of the most difficult lessons for both the puppy and the owner. You will need to teach the dog to go on the left side of the line, not running ahead and not lagging behind. You need to start a lesson at the very end of an active walk. When the four-legged friend frolics, take a leash in the left hand, and a treat in the right hand at the level of the muzzle. Go forward so that the puppy runs for the treat, all the time repeating "Near!". After a few meters, stop, give the baby a lint, praise him. Do a few reps. Studying this team can take a week or more.
The process of working out is like learning the Sit! Command. You should take something tasty in your right hand and keep the treat at the level of the dog's muzzle. Then slowly lower down to the ground, while gently pressing on the puppy's shoulder blades. When he lies down, hold him for a few seconds, repeating "Lie down!", And then encourage him with a delicacy.
In order for your pet to learn to perform this command, you need to bring a treat or favorite toy to his face with his right hand, and with his left to hold his stomach in such a way as to prevent the dog from sitting down or lying down. At the same time all the time to say "Stand!". It will be useful with the help of a treat under this command to make the puppy stand from a recumbent or sitting position.
Having taught the dog fundamental skills, you can be sure that in the future it will be easy to give not only the commands of the third block, but also special service ones. To teach this dog to a novice dog breeder will help the dog training school.
How to interest a dog?
First of all, the owner should sincerely enjoy the workouts. Then the dog will feel that its owner is happy, and with great diligence to carry out commands. Do not “turn on” the leader without urgent need (aggression, direct or veiled).
That it was interesting to the pet, apply one of methods of encouragement - a praise by game, food and / or attention. As a rule, the training of small breeds of dogs at home is excellent, if the owner emotionally and joyfully praises the pet, securing the result with a tasty piece. Although any dog will not refuse from the delicacy, it is impossible to overfeed (a tiny piece, only to indicate the correctness of actions). The game as a promotion works well with active breeds (hunters, servants).
For the first time, give your pet a tip. For example, before training, you can wear a belt bag with a treat, which the dog only sees during the training process and never again. Or get out of the "cache" favorite toy that the dog will associate with the training and the subsequent game. When the pet has learned the commands well, it will be possible to do without special hints.
How to praise a dog?
A dog will connect delicacy and encouragement by affection (voice, stroking) with the correct behavior, only if the promotion occurs at the time of the execution of the command. The main mistake is to praise with a delay, during which the pet has performed some action not related to the team. For example, the team “To me” is practiced: the dog should get a treat on the way as soon as it is at the feet of the owner. Wrong - the dog came up and sat down (or turned at the feet). In this case, the pet may associate the promotion with its last action (spun at the feet, sat down, leaned its front paws on the feet of the owner, licked his palm, etc.).
When working out some skills, it is impossible to praise the dog immediately. In such cases, use the clicker - a small snapping keychain. First, the dog is trained to click (click - gave a tasty, click - gave a tasty, without any commands). Favorite quickly connects a click and good emotions. Now the crack will be enough for the dog to understand that it is acting correctly.
How to train a dog at home?
If you plan to start practicing with a puppy, then the best age for mastering the basics is 4 months. Success depends on the following factors:
1. Motivation. In order for the dog to be included in the process of training with pleasure, it is necessary to interest her in this. Therefore, each correct execution of a team should be rewarded with a delicacy, praise and stroking.
Timing - it is important to give encouragement in the form of treats or compliment with praise - only after the team is fully executed, but at the same time AT ONCE. If you delay with the treat - the dog will not associate it with the action performed, the effect of fixing the command will not work. If the dog does not complete the command to the end and receives a reward before this point, it will also not learn to execute the commands correctly.
Negative motivation or negative reinforcement, is used only to prevent undesirable (incorrect or even dangerous) behavior of the dog. However, if the dog fulfilled the command, even if not immediately, being distracted during the process or after several repetitions, but nevertheless fulfilled to the end - many people scold the dog, which cannot be done in any way. For example, if you gave the command "To me!", The dog persisted for a long time, but after 5 minutes it still came up - you can't blame the dog, otherwise it will understand it as stopping undesirable behavior and will stop coming up at all. You will achieve the opposite effect, which will be difficult to correct.
2. The readiness of the animal to work. In order for classes to be productive, the following factors must be considered:
- the puppy should experience light hunger. This will make him try to win the treat and actively complete the tasks. In a well-fed pet, the motivation is much lower, besides, after eating, you cannot load a puppy, because active games, running and jumping can cause intestines to turn,
- before class, you must take a walk with your pet so that he goes to the toilet. Natural urges distract dogs from the process of training.
3. Favorable weather conditions. If the weather is too hot, you should transfer the dog training to the early morning when there is no scorching sun. Otherwise, the animal will become lethargic, it will be difficult for him to concentrate on the fulfillment of the tasks assigned to him. Also, do not engage with a pet in the rain, because he will be distracted by an abundance of new odors.
4. External stimuli. They need to be introduced gradually, as the command is learned. The first dog training is best done in a quiet place away from people, roads, walking places of other animals, so that the pet does not distract anything. For starters, you can try to give commands at home.
5. The mood of the host. During dog training it is necessary to have a calm and benevolent tone, even if the animal does not work over and over again. Your negative reaction may discourage your pet from pursuing further. The more you get mad at him during the execution of a command, the more confused he becomes. Reconsider your methodology, perhaps it is you who are making a mistake in something that causes him to act incorrectly. For example, when teaching the command to “lie down”, inexperienced trainers hold a piece of treats away from the dog’s muzzle, which causes them to crawl towards him.
Which teams are useful to learn at home?
If you intend to pass the standards for early and next, then all the necessary information about the rules for testing can be found on the website of the RKF (Russian Kinologichesky Federation).
If you teach dog training just to make the animal manageable and easier to live in society (walk the streets quietly, so that it reacts adequately to all external stimuli, etc.), then the following commands should be taught :
These teams are easy to learn - you can train yourself, successfully teaching them a dog. But under no circumstances do not try to master the course ZKS with your pet. His study should take place only under the guidance of a professional canine and after the date of the early launch. Otherwise, you can damage the dog's psyche with such trainings, making it cowardly or overly aggressive. Only a specialist can correctly “put” the animal on the sleeve, teach how to react to the swing, etc. Those who neglect these rules and conduct similar training at home, more often then put the pet to sleep, because it becomes dangerous, and behavior can not be controlled. No self-respecting dog handler will not undertake the training of dogs ZKS without first completing the course of early childhood education. This is comparable to giving a five-year-old child a charged automat.
Basics of puppy education
If you do not know how to train your puppy at home, read the following information:
1. Preparing the family and himself for the appearance of a pet.
The basis of proper puppy education is discipline. Therefore, it is necessary to explain to children and other family members that, for example, taking a puppy to bed is not permissible (except for the first night).
2. Basic rules for pet.
It is necessary to establish certain rules for the puppy, and they must take effect from the very first day the pet stays in the house.
3. Reward for the animal.
A dog cannot be trained, without a certain reward. That is why, it is necessary to choose a delicacy that will appeal to a pet.
4. Master food is a taboo for a dog.
In no case, do not feed the puppy off the table. Otherwise he will get used to it.
5. Praise for the pet.
For each team learned, a puppy should be praised and cheered. After the tender words, the baby will try harder.
Дрессировка питомца – это не только обучение его командам. Дрессировка – это полное воспитание щенка и привитие ему тех или иных навыков.
1. Как приучить щенка ходить в туалет?
Чтобы собака научилась справлять свои нужды на улице, необходимо приложить немало усилий.
- Щенок до 12 недель, не умеет сдерживаться. Therefore, if he went to the toilet in the house, you should not focus on this attention and scold the pet too much.
- The “1 hour per month” rule is the basic rule for taking care of a puppy. The rule says that a puppy can endure as many hours as he months.
- Feeding schedule To pet went to the toilet at the same time, it is necessary to draw up a schedule of feeding a puppy. After all, as you know, the dog goes to the toilet immediately after eating.
- Take your pet out regularly. After all, the dog must get used to any weather and fresh air.
- After each "correct" trip to the toilet - praise your pet. When the puppy realizes that he needs to meet his needs on the street, constantly praise him.
- Drive the puppy to the same place. When the puppy goes to the toilet on the street, then this place will be associated with the toilet.
2. How to wean a puppy biting?
Gentle biting of a little puppy, can not be compared with the bite of an adult dog. That is why, the pet should be weaned to bite even in puppy age.
- If the puppy has bitten you - say out loud "OY". This sound will scare away the baby and the next time the puppy will not bite you.
- Wean the puppy to bite your legs. It's very easy to do this - for the first time, carry a pet toy with you. Every time a puppy attacks your legs, throw a toy to him. Over time, the puppy will stop biting.
- Wean the puppy to gnaw the wrong things. Every time a pet gnaws furniture or shoes, lightly scold it.
3. Training pet obedience.
Every puppy should obey its master, and obedience should be instilled from childhood.
- Teach your pet the Sit team, because this is the most necessary command for a dog. Put the leash on the puppy and take the pet's favorite treat. Hold the treat near the animal's nose, and slowly lift the leash up. The puppy will reach for a treat and will automatically assume a sitting posture. As soon as he sits down, say “Sit” and give the treat to your pet. Train your puppy until he learns the command.
- Teach your pet the "Lie" team. This team learns when the puppy is already able to sit. When the pet takes a sitting posture, pull the leash down, parallel, lowering the treat. When the pet will lie down, say "Lie down" and give the treat to the puppy.
- Teach your puppy to the team “Ko me”, because this is another very important team. Order the puppy to lie down or sit down, then, move a few steps away from him, kneel down and beckon the pet with your favorite toy. Also, you can slam on the knees or call the baby by name, but in no case pull the leash. When the puppy comes to you, say "To me", and thank the baby.
- Teach your puppy the command "Stand", because each dog must remain in place, at the request of the owner. For this team, land a puppy, then, saying “Stand,” stretch your arm. The puppy will rise, and will look at you. Then, slowly move back, if the pet follows you, then say “No! Not!". The puppy will understand that he is doing something wrong. When the baby remains in place, give him a treat and praise him.
Give the puppy upbringing as much time as possible, because in the future it will be a great success for you.
Education is the basis of training
Are you thinking about how to train a dog? First of all, the animal must be raised. In this case, little things do not happen. Do not let your pet sleep in your bed - it will get used very quickly and start to drive you. If you are sitting at the dinner table and the dog is spinning around, do not throw the pieces. The animal must have its own food.
Teach to eat portions at a time, for this, remove the bowl immediately after the end of the meal. If the dog has not finished the next time, put a smaller portion (of course, taking into account the characteristics of the breed).
The owner of the dog must understand the difference between education and training. To educate is to teach a pet the most important rules of behavior, to build relationships with it according to the principle of hierarchy. In the absence of proper upbringing, the dog will be uncontrollable. How to train dogs? This is to train to perform the necessary actions after a certain command.
Go to the training
When contact with the pet is established, you can start learning the first teams. At first, try not to raise your voice, otherwise the dog will not perceive a calm intonation.
Before training dogs, they need to be trained to know their own nicknames. When choosing a name, remember that the best is short and sonorous, which includes the sound "p". In the next step, teach the dog to eat only at home and in no case take food from outsiders on the street. In addition, the dog must master the collar, muzzle, leash - mandatory attributes for any walk.
Exercises in the fresh air should be started only after walking the dog, when she has a rest and will play with other animals. Intuition will help you in each individual case.
Theory or practice?
Many owners of dogs are trying to learn how to train a dog, from books or the Internet. But, as a rule, literature provides only general information about the behavior of animals and the characteristics of each breed. In reality, it is impossible to train a dog from books. The practical part includes the development of skills of movement and coordination, and this applies to both the pet and its owner.
At the same time, you should be aware that most of the colorful illustrated foreign publications, especially American ones, are not suitable for work in Russian conditions. Methods of training in the United States are completely different.
How to train a dog? The whole process of training consists of teaching the dog to understand the commands and ensure the right motivation, that is, the dog must not only understand what the owner wants from it, but also strive to fulfill its command, and for this it needs an incentive that needs to be skillfully selected.
Whip or gingerbread?
At the initial stage, the dog should receive a treat for the executed command. Training should be based on the emotions of the animal: if it is happy to play and execute your teams, receiving rewards, the process of training will be easy and enjoyable for both parties. Seeing your encouragement and getting tidbits, the dog will easily and willingly obey commands.
If you build a system of remembering commands on negative emotions, it will be very difficult to return the trust of the animal. The biggest mistake of novice trainers is an attempt to exert violence (physical or psychological). If you scream at the dog and moreover beat it, the result will be exactly the opposite of what was expected. It will either become nervous and aggressive, or downtrodden, which also does not need you.
At the same time, the dog can not be too soft. Do not let her indulge, play during training. Friendliness should be in moderation. Say a command only once. If the dog gets used to react only after ten repetitions, be sure that you will never achieve the immediate execution of the command.
Try to command a voice of moderate severity, praise - more emotionally. Do not be afraid to call the dog a good girl and stress once again how well she worked.
The commands "no" and "fu" should sound a little stricter. The dog must understand that the owner is unhappy with its actions.
The most important thing in training is systematic repetition. Each exercise is necessary for fixing to repeat several times. But do not be overly zealous in this matter, give the animal a breather.
Of course, you need to take into account the peculiarities of the breed. If you have a large dog, such as a German shepherd, it will not be easy for a physically unprepared person to cope with it. The owner himself must be strong and durable. For training such dogs are sometimes hired by professionals, but it is much better when the dog gets used to obey only the owner.
Ways of training
Now let's talk about specific ways. How and where to train a dog is best? Most often there are three options - self-training of the animal on the training platform, individual lessons with a dog handler (including at home), training with overexposure without the presence of the owner.
The last point looks very tempting and theoretically eliminates the owner from the hassle - you give the dog, pay money, get a trained disciplined animal. But in practice, things are not so simple. Do not forget that the dog is a living being, not a computer that can be configured to work. With the owner it is connected by personal relationships, which are an important part of the success of the training process.
Thus, the presence of the owner in the classroom is almost always necessary - to monitor the formation of skills in the dog and independently adjust the process. One way or another, you still have to spend your time and energy on training.
Training at the site
Consider how this happens on a special training platform. Here dogs are trained independently under the supervision and guidance of a professional canine for a reasonable fee. The advantage is the low cost of classes and the possibility of passing the exam with the dog to get a diploma (if you need it) on the usual site.
The disadvantage of this method is the effect of the site. A dog only performs commands where it has been trained. Another disadvantage is the inability to solve the individual problems of your pet.
Training with an instructor
For those who want more, it is recommended to work with a professional canine individually. The advantage is a shorter period of study. Attention instructor will belong only to you and your dog.
Even home dog training with a dog handler is possible, which will allow you to save time on transporting your pet to the place of training. You can choose a convenient time for yourself. There is no playground effect, the dog is trained to respond to commands in any setting.
The downside is the relatively high price of such training and sometimes the impossibility of finding a good canine.
Choosing a specialist
How to choose a dog handler? If a person offering his services, had previously served in the army or the police, and now he is trying to organize dog training courses or simply to work for hire, then this is not the best option. As a rule, only one dog was at his disposal during the service. These people are often not able to take into account the peculiarities of different breeds, such a specialist can easily spoil another dog (especially a puppy).
If the dog handler is not related to the army and the police, ask what breeds he specializes in. It is desirable that the trainer could find the approach to a dog of any breed. The most difficult of them are spitz, wolfhounds, shar pei, and also decorative dogs. Specialist in these breeds is not easy to find. If there is one, it means that he is able to cope with a representative of almost any breed.
It is highly desirable that a professional trainer be trained and received a license at the courses of the Russian Cynological Federation. In the absence of such a diploma, it is worth considering.
About the methods of training
The closest attention should be paid to the methods of working with the dog. As a rule, there are three professional ones - food motivation (reward in the form of delicacy), play (throwing of a favorite toy) and mechanical-defensive method using hard methods.
A very gross mistake is to use only one of the three methods. Separately, the carrot and the carrot will not give the result, it is required to combine them. In addition, a professional should be able to explain to you, as a host, the basics of training. Thus, trust your pet only to the competent specialist.
How to train a dog with teams?
If the dog does not have to participate in exhibitions, there is no need to train a huge number of teams. The elementary of them, any dog must know and be able to perform.
By the command "near" the animal must understand that at the moment it is forbidden to jump or play and should be kept near the owner. A similar team - "to me." In this case, the dog should not only run up to you, but also keep close to you until you release him.
The command "Fu" means "do not touch", "you can not." It is used not only in the case of attempts to sniff and grab food or garbage on the street, but also a possible harassment of strangers.
Useful reflexes must be developed from puppyhood. Here the most successful will be the tactics of the game and imitation. Conditional stimuli, which are referred to as signal stimuli, are common commands in all clubs of the service dog breeding.
The conditioned reflex to any team is first reinforced by mechanical action with a hand or a leash, then the execution is encouraged with a tasty piece. To the dog sought to get a treat, should be trained before feeding.
We organize classes
How to train dogs for a walk? The duration of each lesson should not be more than two hours. While old skills are not fixed, new ones should not be started. It is necessary to use breaks for rest and dog walking. It is important to be able to properly use the long and short leads, then you should proceed to the control stage without a lead.
For successful training, the owner must stock up with a set of necessary equipment - ordinary and strict collars, short and long leashes, a muzzle, various items that the dog will bring, a bag for all this, a bag for food.
With you need to have pieces of sausage or any other food. On the site for sports training, special sleeves, training suits, starting pistols and other devices are usually used. There, as a rule, an obstacle course is equipped. To practice with a dog, you definitely need special clothes, comfortable and durable.
Do not allow your dog to lick your face, and also wash your hands well with soap and water after each training. At the initial stage, the place to practice should be chosen away from the roads and crowds.
How old are dogs? Will you train an adult dog? A dog can be trained in almost any age, including over eight years old, but the learning process of an adult animal will take a little longer. Before you train an adult dog, let it get comfortable. She can assimilate movement-related commands for a little longer.
What do teams mean
At the command "to me" the dog should approach the owner on the right side and allow the leash to be attached to the collar. "Near" is an order to be near the owner's left foot when walking or on the spot. "Walk" can command the dog, lowered from the leash, in the absence of outsiders.
The command "face" gives the exit of aggression and indicates the object of impact. "Fu" is the opposite of many others, it cancels any actions, including aggressive ones. At the command of "aport," the pet must bring a tossed object (stick or ball). It is very important to teach her a hunting dog, which will have to carry the game.
At the command "sit" or "lie" the animal must, respectively, sit down or lie down on its seat or on the ground. In this case, all orders are supported by an appropriate gesture of the right hand.
Do not forget that the dog is a descendant of wolves that are adapted to life in the pack. For successful training, she must recognize your family as her pack, and you, her master, as the leader.