Incubation of duck eggs


According to experienced poultry farmers, it is easiest to incubate chicken eggs. In ducks, they are somewhat larger, and the shell itself is stronger. In addition, ducklings need to "hatch" longer (26-28 days). Using an incubator, attention should be paid to:

  • temperature conditions
  • humidity,
  • Do not overheat.

The eggs themselves before incubation must undergo a qualitative selection.

Duck eggs from chickens differ thicker and porous shell greenish. The main thing to consider before incubation is their freshness. It is advisable to take eggs no older than 7 days.

When choosing, you need to look at:

  • The size. Very large and small - will not work. The optimum weight is 75-95 grams.
  • Form. A healthy chick can only appear from a round and even egg.
  • No defects and cracks.
  • The purity of the shell. Preferably completely without dirt and litter.

Unsuitable for these parameters eggs are laid to the side.

Storage rules before incubation

Selected eggs are best kept at a temperature of 10-12 ° C. Refrigerator for these purposes will not work. It is best to use special trays. The level of humidity during storage can vary from 70 to 80%.

From eggs that are stored for longer than a week, the chicks hatch weak, or do not hatch at all. This is especially true of the mulard. From indoutok they can be stored for 15 days.

Table of dependence of egg storage and the percentage of hatching chicks:

These are average indicators for these types. At home, the numbers may be different.

Incubation machine

An egg incubator is a machine that supports the necessary parameters for breeding. For effective "incubation", the following settings are adjusted in the car:

  • ventilation,
  • gas exchange,
  • humidity,
  • temperature.

Proper setting of parameters allows you to automate the process of incubation, and the output to have healthy young animals in full.


There is a huge selection of incubators for breeding poultry chicks on the market. All models, from simple ones to innovative ones, have in their configuration:

  • Trays for eggs. It is in them that the machine “incubates” chicks.
  • Humidifier.
  • The device for heating the air, and maintain the required temperature.
  • Ventilation system.
  • Signaling It should report overheating.
  • The mechanism for turning trays.
In more advanced models, the trays lean 45 °, first one way, then the other. In another case - the eggs rolls the so-called "pusher". In order to avoid injury to the embryo, the first option is preferred.

Parameters of humidity and temperature

The level of humidity and temperature during incubation is also the key to successful hatching. Unlike chicken eggs, ducks for a long time need a high level of humidity and elevated temperature. Especially in the first period of "hatching." In the middle of the term, the temperature and humidity decrease a little. Toward the end, the temperature is made even less, and the humidity is set to "maximum".

Table of humidity and temperature:

In the final stages of incubation, high temperatures become life-threatening embryos.

How to lay eggs?

In the incubator itself, duck eggs need to lay out with a blunt end down. No need to stack them on each other, it will reduce the number of chicks raised.

It is desirable during storage of eggs, turn them periodically. But wash before bookmarking is not recommended.

Steps laying eggs in an incubator is as follows:

  1. The machine is installed and heated to a temperature of 38 ° C.
  2. In the lower part of the incubator is placed a tray with water.
  3. First, lay out large eggs, after 4 hours, medium, after another 4 hours - small ones.
  4. It is best to lay out horizontally, so ducklings hatch better, although they take up more space.

If done according to the instructions, the chicks will appear on the 26-28 day.

Development of duck eggs

Duck embryo goes through several stages of development. They are divided into 4 stages:

  1. The first stage. From 1 to 7 days, internal organs form in the embryo, and the heart begins to beat. High temperature is important here.
  2. The second stage lasts from 8 to 18 days. At this stage, the skeleton is formed. The ventilation in the incubator should work intensively.
  3. The third stage is the 18-26th days. The growth of the chick in the egg. There should reduce the humidity to 60%.
  4. The fourth stage is the appearance of chicks.

Duck shells are strong enough to help ducklings peck at them, in the last period they increase humidity and increase ventilation intensity.


It is possible to learn how the embryo develops, when ovoscoping (x-raying) of eggs. However, experienced farmers do not recommend this procedure without the need. Especially shine eggs every day. Ovoskopirovaniya optimally carried out in three stages:

  1. On the 4-5 day. During this period, fertilized eggs can be distinguished from unfertilized ones, as well as to detect already dead embryos (“blood rings”).
  2. On the 7-14 day of incubation. Here you can distinguish between healthy and lagging embryos, as well as remove dead embryos from the incubator. Including "frozen" eggs, which are not visible blood vessels.
  3. The last screening is done before hatching ducklings. During it, it is clear that healthy chicks occupy the whole egg. At this stage, you can find "gasps", chicks, which developed normally, but for some reason died.

If a large number of diseased or dead embryos are detected during translucence, you need to look for the cause (look at the humidity, ventilation, temperature in the incubation machine).

Shelf life and hatchability

With prolonged storage of eggs, the percentage of hatchability is significantly reduced. Let's look at the effect of egg storage on incubation.

Period of storage of eggs for incubation (days)

Duck eggs do not collect more than seven days. Subsequent storage will reduce the hatchability percentage.

Incubation of duck eggs at home begins only after the required specimens have been selected. Usually, before laying, each egg shines through on the ovoscope. During this procedure, specimens with microcracks, uneven shell thickness, with dark spots inside, with spilled yolk are detected. Such samples are removed.

Ideally, the egg for incubation should look like this:

  • The location of the yolk should be strictly in the center. However, eggs are allowed to incubate with small deviations.
  • Protein must be transparent, without dark spots.
  • The airbag should be located at or near the blunt end. It should not be large.

After ovescoping, you can start laying in the incubation of duck eggs.

Egg laying in the incubator

To get a strong, healthy ducklings, you need to lay eggs. This is done with a sharp end down, at a slight inclination. Musk duck eggs are arranged horizontally. The period of incubation of duck eggs depends on the breed of bird - from 23 to 28 days.

It will tell you how to perform the incubation mode, the table. Incubation of duck eggs is carried out with a gradual decrease in temperature and changes in humidity levels throughout the entire period.

Turning eggs (once a day)

In the morning and in the evening for 15 minutes

In different equipment incubation of duck eggs proceeds differently. Incubation mode (table above) shows the optimum temperatures for various device models.


In the process of breeding ducklings, evaporation of moisture from the egg through the pores in the shell occurs. The closer the withdrawal period, the more moisture leaves. To prevent the embryo from dying, it is necessary to reduce the moisture loss inside the egg. This is usually done by spraying. During this procedure, cooling and humidification occurs. Spraying is done with warm water from a spray bottle. This procedure is necessary to preserve moisture during the incubation of duck eggs. The incubation mode table does not reflect the need for spraying. This is due to the fact that in some devices it is possible to raise the level of humidity to 95% and carry out proper cooling (industrial incubators designed for laying thousands of eggs). In them cooling is performed in automatic mode.

For spraying eggs at home apply warm clean water. You can use a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Spraying is performed twice a day - in the morning and in the evening during airing.

Basic incubation rules

To achieve maximum output, you must follow the rules of incubation of duck eggs:

  • Properly collect and store eggs.
  • Observe the incubation mode.
  • Properly conduct cooling eggs.
  • Keep the equipment clean.

To get a good brood, you must follow the incubation schedule for duck eggs and follow the process throughout the entire hatching period.

Incubation of different breeds of ducks

Incubation of duck eggs, spike and other species of ducks proceeds in different ways. This is due to the size of the eggs, the difference in the thickness of the shell, the characteristics of the breed. For example, duck-runners can be displayed without spraying. They have a rather large percentage of hatchability. Mulardians have a lower hatchability percentage. A more accurate determination of what percentage will be displayed will be provided by a table that shows the dependence of the brood on the shelf life of the eggs.

Eggs shelf life (days)

Indelique hatch on day 28. Peking duck appears on day 26 or so. The fastest runners are displayed - on the 24th day. Muscovy ducks hatch only for 35 days.

Incubation of duck eggs in the Cinderella incubator and in other models of such equipment proceeds almost equally. The difference is only in the regulation of temperature. It must be selected for each model individually. It is best to determine the temperature by heating the eggs themselves. To do this, place a thermometer on the surface of the egg and monitor its readings. This method will help to know exactly how many degrees the temperature should be on the sensors. All data is recommended to record.

Incubation stages

When breeding ducks at home, take into account the stage of incubation. The first starts from the moment the egg fertilizes. To do this, the farm kept drake. Usually poultry farmers form families consisting of one drake and four ducks.

At the first stage, the process of selecting eggs for incubation and their laying in the cabinet takes place. From the first day of incubation, the second stage begins. At this time, the embryo forms the internal organs, the heart begins to beat. By the way, when ovescoping, the cardiovascular system is clearly visible. If you look closely, it is noticeable how the heart beats. During this period it is necessary to ensure good warming of the eggs.

The third stage begins on the eighth day of incubation. During this period, a chick begins to form in the chicks. At this time, a lot of oxygen must enter the cabinet. Usually, starting from the eighth day, additional air vents are opened in the incubator.

From the eighteenth day begins the fourth stage. It is enhanced heat exchange inside the egg. At this time, it is necessary to monitor the temperature of the eggs, as it can reach 41 degrees. To avoid overheating, the temperature in the cabinet is reduced, continuing to maintain control over the temperature on the surface of the eggs.

The last stage is the conclusion. In some duck breeds, the shell is very thick. To soften it, it is necessary to reduce the temperature in the cabinet and increase the humidity level. In such conditions it will be easier for ducklings to sneak around and pick from the shell.

Duck egg incubation errors

Incubating duck eggs is not easy, as it may seem at first glance. Beginners may encounter a variety of problems during incubation. To get healthy, strong offspring, you must thoroughly approach not only the process of breeding ducklings, but also to feeding, as well as the maintenance of the breeding herd:

  • In the breeding herd should be a drake. For breeding select individuals that are not affected by negative factors. If a duck appeared in the tribe with any deficiency, with poor health, then it is rejected.
  • Eggs for incubation are collected from February to April. All that is collected later for breeding ducklings are not used.
  • With improper feeding of captured individuals, offspring hatch with various deformities, pathologies of internal organs.
  • Overheating, overcooling and underheating of musk eggs leads to the rapid death of embryos.
  • During incubation, it is necessary to monitor the level of humidity. At high humidity ducklings die in the amniotic fluid, not having time to slip.

Other problems may also arise during the incubation process. Some of them are described in the table below.

Collection and storage of duck eggs for incubator

A high percentage of live chick output will only be subject to the rules for collecting and storing eggs, as well as on how carefully the owner of the house keeps the house clean.

In order to avoid mold, parasites and other infections, the litter in the nests is changed every day. It is more convenient to do this in the evening, and from early morning to start collecting duck eggs for the incubator. If a fresh egg gets on the surface inseminated by bacteria, in a humid warm medium all the pathogenic, destructive for future chicks, the flora will penetrate through the pores in the shell.

In the warm season, when the eggs are not threatened with hypothermia and the death of embryos, they are collected every hour. But the colder it is on the street and in the house, the more often the poultry farmer must inspect the nests of hens.

Immediately after harvesting, the eggs are not washed and in no case are cleaned by mechanical methods that can damage the integrity of the shell, but are dipped in an antiseptic solution. Until a sufficient number of eggs have been harvested, they are placed on the trays with a pointed end down, vertically or slightly tilted.

Storage of duck eggs for incubation in an incubator is possible only at a temperature of 10–15 ° C and a humidity of 75–80% for no longer than 8 days, otherwise the percentage of hatching will significantly decrease, and the nestlings obtained will be weak.

Selection of duck eggs for incubation

The incubator should get only selected eggs, which can be determined by the correct form, the absence of any growths or nodules on the shell. A duck egg should be approximately the same size, flat and clean.

To reinforce the correctness of the choice helps to see through. During this procedure, it is easy to detect microscopic cracks, irregularities in the shell, discard unfertilized, old or otherwise unviable eggs, for example, with dark spots of mold inside or with spilled yolk.

For those who are worthy of falling into the incubator of duck eggs at home, you can see that:

  • the yolk is strictly centered,
  • the protein does not contain extraneous inclusions and is completely transparent during translucence,
  • the air chamber inside the egg is small and located exactly below or at the blunt top.

Incubation of a duck egg at home

The duck eggs in the incubator are laid out with a pointed end down with a slight inclination. If the musk-breed ducks are to be hatched, then their egg is placed on the tray horizontally. This will ensure the early development of the embryo and a greater percentage of withdrawal.

In the incubator, where the rotation of the trays is envisaged, it is better to pre-fix the eggs in the containers.

All measures necessary to produce duck eggs in an incubator at home are shown in the table. It is easy to notice that the temperature gradually decreases over the entire period of incubation, while humidity, on the contrary, increases.

This is explained by the fact that as the embryo develops in the middle of the cycle, the egg itself begins to give off heat to the atmosphere. In addition to maintaining the optimum temperature for duck eggs, the incubator monitors the level of humidity.

The closer the time of chicks chicks, the greater the evaporation of moisture, penetrating through the pores of the shell out. The uncontrolled process threatens the death of the embryo, and you can prevent it and cool the eggs with the help of regular spraying.

For irrigation use pure water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate, which is sprayed from the fifth day of incubation twice a day during ventilation.

  • From 1st to 14th day - 37.5–38.0 ° C,
  • From the 14th to the 21st day - 38.0–38.5 ° C,
  • From the 21st to the 26th day - 38.5–39.0 ° C.

On an ongoing basis until the transfer to the outlet trays, the eggs are constantly turned over. This should be done from 4 to 12 times a day, depending on the design of the incubator and the incubation period.

In order to control the condition of the eggs in the incubator for hatching of ducklings, at home on the 8th, 13th and 25th day they are subjected to translucency. Eggs, inside of which there are no signs of development, or if there are all symptoms of spoilage, are removed.

If musk duck eggs are loaded into the incubator, the poultry farmer needs to know that it will take a little longer to incubate. Usually ducklings in an incubator appear after 33–36 days.

The table shows the entire cycle of care from egg laying until the musing duck chicks.

Conclusion ducklings in the incubator at home

At the first sign of nakleva duck eggs transferred to the lead trays. Here they are laid out horizontally. The first chicks appear on the 26th day, the last often go to the beginning of the 28th day.

When ducks are started in the incubator at home, just like when putting goslings, it is important to ensure good ventilation and compliance with the temperature regime. Появившихся птенцов переносят в сухие вентилируемые помещения с температурой порядка 20–24 °C. Здесь утятам предстоит обсохнуть.After completion of the hatching, the bird is sorted and rejected if necessary.

The weight of a duckling suitable for further maintenance and rearing depends on the size of the egg, most often it ranges from 55–70 grams. At the age of one day, the ducklings from the incubator stand well on their feet, are mobile, have excellent appetite and are covered with even quality down. On examination, attention is paid to the cleanliness of the eyes and beak, a no longer and successfully healed umbilical cord and a dense, non-hanging belly.

Incubation of duck eggs at home: the rules and features

The simplest devices in which young ducks can be bred include the Model Mouth and IPH-5. These devices have some features.

This is the simplest model that allows you to simultaneously display 32-36 ducklings. The incubator is a foam housing with a removable tray inside. In the lower part there are light bulbs for heating. A stable level of humidity is provided by special baths with water. Air flow is provided naturally through the holes at the top and bottom of the case. The photo and structure of the “Hatching” incubator is shown in Figure 1.

Note: The only drawback of this device is the need to carry out a manual turn every hour for uniform heating. This model can be successfully used for breeding of young stock (under the right conditions of operation, the number of breeding ducks is kept at the level of 80-85 percent). Figure 1. Photo and layout of the “Mouthless” incubator: 1 - ventilation holes, 2 - removable heater cover, 3 - ventilation flaps, 4 - quick-release leash for connecting the rotation mechanism, 5 - control unit, 6 - plug, 7 - removable cover, 8 - parallel rods for separator, 9 - transverse rods for separator, 10 - bath with water, 11 - tray, 12 - heater (light bulbs), 13 - incubation eggs

It is important to maintain the correct temperature inside the chamber, since an elevated temperature condition causes deformities in the embryo. In addition, the incubation of duck eggs has its own characteristics in comparison with chicken. Since they are fatter, they need four times more oxygen at the end of the hatch. Therefore, after 15 days in the chamber, they must be sprayed with water once a day.

Note: To incubate musk duck eggs, they should be placed horizontally and also sprayed with water.

The modernized model is the “Hen-1” Incubator, which allows you to simultaneously place up to 50 duck eggs. Heating is carried out using a special spiral, the air flow is provided by the fan, and the rotation is carried out automatically. In addition, there is a more roomy incubator "Hatch-2".

This is a simple device for home farms, which is very easy to use and allows you to independently replenish the number of ducks. It is a camera with a door in the front for easy maintenance (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Appearance and internal structure of the IPH-5 incubator (Figure 1-3) and IPH-10 models (Figure 4)

Inside the chamber there is a tray, a swivel device, heaters, a fan, water baths to maintain humidity and a temperature sensor.

Modifications of this model are IPH-10 (capacity is twice as much) and IPH-15 (allows you to simultaneously place up to 120 duck eggs). Practical recommendations for incubating duck eggs are given in the video.

Incubation rules

Incubation of duck eggs at home is carried out according to certain rules that guarantee the successful breeding of young. In addition to the correct selection of the device and strict adherence to the regime of elimination, it is necessary to follow some other rules (Figure 3):

  • Coup carried out at least 6 times a day. With natural incubation, the duck turns the eggs independently several times a day to warm the embryos evenly. When using an incubator for breeding, it must be done manually or with the help of automation systems.
  • Before laying Eggs need to be moved to the premises and hold the day at a temperature of +25 degrees. After that, hold a bookmark, laying them sideways. If necessary, they can be temporarily fixed with a metal grid.
  • Strict adherence to temperature and humidity conditions ensure successful and timely breeding ducklings. In addition, it is necessary to provide high-quality ventilation of the inside of the incubator.
Figure 3. The rules of artificial breeding ducklings

In order to successfully breed young animals, it is better to buy modern models of incubators equipped with automatic systems for maintaining temperature and humidity.

Incubation of duck eggs: modes and table

Incubation mode is displayed in a special table. In general, the process of breeding young animals is divided into several stages:

  • At the initial stage It is important to maintain a stable temperature and moisture inside the eggs, therefore the temperature inside the chamber at this time is significantly higher,
  • Mid cycle temperature and humidity levels are reduced, and ventilation is increased, so that the embryos do not overheat and die,
  • At the final stage, immediately before hatching ducklings, temperatures are further reduced, while increasing humidity and ventilation.
Figure 4. Table with breeding regimes

It is important to constantly monitor the temperature, since this indicator directly affects the efficient breeding of healthy young animals. At the initial stage, a high temperature provokes active development of the embryo, whereas at the final stage it can cause the death of chicks.

The full table with the necessary data is shown in Figure 4. Guided by this information, you will be able to maintain an optimal mode for successfully breeding chicks.

Selection of eggs intended for incubation

The correct choice of duck eggs - the key to successful breeding. First of all, they are evaluated by external signs. They should not be chipped, cracked, stained or rough. In addition, they must have a standard oval shape and weight. Too large or small specimens of irregular shape are not suitable for incubation (Figure 5).

Note: It is impossible to keep eggs in the refrigerator, as too low a temperature will cause the death of the embryo. For this purpose it is better to use trays or boxes made of plywood, which are left in a room with good ventilation and stored at a temperature of +12 degrees. Figure 5. Inspection and selection of raw materials

In the process of storing the eggs preferably several times a day to turn. It is also not recommended to stack them on top of each other in order not to damage the embryos.

How long can you store duck eggs for incubation

In addition to the correct selection of eggs for incubation, an important role is played by their shelf life. They must be fresh. Otherwise, it will be almost impossible to get healthy young animals.

The optimal shelf life is considered 7 weeks. During this time, the embryos do not have time to die, and after the laying, they develop evenly.

Stages of embryo development

The duck embryo goes through several stages of development, therefore for each stage it is necessary to strictly follow certain rules. If the regime is violated, the fetus may die, or the hatched duckling will be weak and sick.

The main stages of embryo development include (Figure 6):

  • First week after laying it is characterized by the fact that the embryo forms internal organs and the heart begins to beat. During this period, it is especially important to maintain a high temperature (38 degrees).
  • In the second stage formed the skeleton of a bird. During this period, the temperature is slightly reduced, but at the same time they provide sufficient ventilation for normal gas exchange.
  • Third stage starts on the 18th day after the bookmark. The temperature remains the same, and the humidity drops to 60%.
  • Last stage - This is a direct conclusion of ducklings. Since the eggshell is very durable, it can be difficult for chicks to break through. To facilitate the process, slightly increase the humidity and ventilation of the incubator. This softens the shell and prevents injury to ducklings in the process of hatching.

If the incubation was carried out according to the rules, the chicks will appear from the eggs laid. An exception may be cases when the check for damage was not carried out carefully enough.

How long does the incubation of duck eggs

The incubation period is 26-28 days. A longer period means that the laying and breeding of young animals was carried out with violations.

Figure 6. Embryo Stages

Especially strongly affected by the duration of the process failure in temperature and ventilation. That is why it is recommended for households to buy incubators with automatic rotation, ventilation and a temperature and humidity control sensor.

Incubation period for duck eggs in an incubator

Incubation of ducklings is divided into periods depending on the temperature and humidity conditions and ventilation.

In the first period, during the formation of internal organs, it is important to maintain high humidity and temperature. In the future, these figures gradually reduce and provide fresh air inside the chamber.

An increase in humidity and temperature is possible only during the final period, when daily ducklings need to break through the shell and find themselves in a warm environment.

The most common mistakes during incubation

Even a small error associated with the incubation regime can adversely affect the quantity and health of the young.

The main errors are overheating, insufficient turns, and too low humidity levels. Rotate duck need at least 6 times a day. It is also not recommended to independently raise the temperature. It is much more effective to follow a special table, in which the required temperature is accurately displayed at a certain stage of elimination.

Low humidity, as well as too high a temperature, can provoke overheating of the embryo. As a result, the duckling will die, regardless of the stage of its development.

How to collect duck eggs for incubation

Duck eggs are not recommended to be collected in advance. The optimal shelf life to bookmarks is only 7 days, so they should be collected exclusively during this period.

In addition, it is necessary to select only the best specimens. If they are of irregular shape or size, with cracks, spots or roughness on the shell, then they can not be used for breeding. To be sure of the quality, all eggs must be seen through the ovoscope to the bookmark.

When is it best to incubate duck eggs

The process of incubation is almost always seasonal and depends on what time of year. Duck eggs begin to lay in early February in order to get young stock by the beginning of the warm period. If the need for ducklings is higher than the productivity of the incubator, then the tab is carried out several times.

But it is worth remembering that the most powerful ducklings are obtained from the first bookmarks. This is due to the fact that the duck, over time, gives less and less nutrients.

Getting hatching eggs

There are two main ways:

The first is an acquisition in a specialized breeding farm. The offer of duck hatching eggs is significantly less than that of chickens, but by purchasing the incubation material, you can be confident in its quality and compliance with the necessary requirements.

The second way is to get hatching duck eggs from your own farm. In this case, to obtain material of the required quality is much more difficult. To begin with, it is advisable to select the "producers" correctly.

Breeding ducks and drakes are prepared in advance. The drake must be the same age as the duck or 1.5 months older.

It is necessary to take care in advance to exclude closely related crossbreeding, ordering ducks and drake in different farms. Acquire one drake for 6–8 ducks. Be sure that the individuals of the parent herd must be healthy. It is advisable to calculate so that the period of puberty (28 weeks) at the drake and ducks comes a week or two before the start of laying in the incubator.

It is also possible to obtain material for incubation from adult ducks. To do this, they are sent to a forced molt - for three days the bird is left in the dark without water and feed. After that, restore the normal mode. The process of duck molting is launched and naturally twice a year in summer and winter, it lasts 55–60 days. In the process of molting, the duck renews the feather cover, restores strength and nutrients for the new period of egg production.

Hatching duck eggs can weigh from 65 to 75 g, and musk ducks can weigh more than 85 g.

It is worth noting that the baby meat is a good hen and can effectively sit and hatch the ducklings on their own, therefore, in the presence of a baby hen, the feasibility of incubating the eggs will be well thought out.

Selection and storage of duck eggs for incubation

Unlike chicken, duck eggs are larger in size, the surface of the shell is rough and has a greenish tint. Duck eggs with damaged shells, irregularly shaped, small in size and heavily polluted are not suitable for incubation. Wash eggs before laying and storage is not allowed. The selected material should be enlightened with the help of an ovoscope. A small air bag should be located at the blunt end of the egg. And such signs as: darkening, turbidity, the presence of small cracks, spilled yolk, the yolk not in the center indicate that such an egg also does not fit, but the duck that laid it should be given more attention and if necessary discarded.

After collecting the eggs should be treated with a special disinfectant and moved to storage in the tray, can be placed only upward blunt end. Store eggs for incubation should be subject to temperature and humidity conditions, providing good ventilation.

Tab. 1 Storage conditions for hatching duck eggs